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EMPHASIS 2

You can make a presentation more persuasive by using simple intensifiers to emphasize your points. LESSON ON INTENSIFIERS Definition: Intensifier is a word, especially an adjective or an adverb that makes the meaning of another word stronger. For example: 'so' or 'very' ADVERBS Definition: Adverb is a word that adds more information about place, time, manner, cause or degree to a verb, an adjective, a phrase or another adverb. There are many kinds of adverbs such as adverbs of frequency, adverbs of manner, adverbs of location, adverbs of time,... However, in order to make a persuasive presentation by emphasis, we usually use adverbs of degree. How to use adverbs of degree exactly and effectively? Usage: - Adverbs of degree usually modify verbs. - Some adverbs of degree can modify adjectives, other adverbs or clauses. 1. We use adverbs of degree to modify verbs. They make the verb stronger or weaker. I totally disagree. I can nearly swim. 2. Some adverbs can come in front of a main verb, after a main verb, or after the object if there is one. badly completely seriously totally greatly strongly

Mr Brooke strongly criticized the Bank of England. I disagree completely with John Taylor. That argument doesn't convince me totally. Some adverbs are mostly used in front of the verb. almost largely nearly really quite He almost crashed into a lorry. Note that really is used at the beginning of a clause to express surprise, and at the end of a clause as an adverb of manner. Really, I didn't know that! He wanted it really, but he was too shy to ask. A lot and very much come after the main verb if there is no object, or after the object. She helped a lot. We liked him very much. Very much can come after the subject and in front of verbs like want, prefer, and enjoy. I very much wanted to take it with me.

3. Some adverbs of degree go in front of adjectives or other adverbs and modify them.

awfully extremely fairly pretty quite rather really very ...a fairly large office, with filing space. Note that we can use rather before or after a or an followed by an adjective and a noun. Seaford is rather a pleasant town. He told me a rather long and complicated story. When quite means fairly, you put it in front of a or an followed by an adjective and a noun. My father gave me quite a large sum of money. However, when quite means extremely, you can put it after a. You can say a quite enormous sum. 4. We use some adverbs of degree to modify clauses and prepositional phrases. entirely just largely mainly partly simply Are you saying that simply because I am here? I don't think it's worth going just for a day. 5. We use so and such to emphasize a quality that someone or something has. So can be followed by an adjective, an adverb, or a noun group beginning with many, much, few, or little. John is so interesting to talk to. Science is changing so rapidly. I want to do so many different things. Such is followed by a singular noun group with a, or a plural noun group. There was such a noise we couldn't hear. They said such nasty things about you. WARNING: So is never followed by a singular noun group with a or a plural noun group. 6. We use too when you mean more than is necessary or more than is good. We can use too before adjectives and adverbs, and before many, much, few, or little. The prices in that shop are too high. I've been paying too much tax. We use enough after adjectives and adverbs. I waited until my daughter was old enough to read. He didn't work quickly enough.

Note that enough is also a determiner. We've got enough money to buy that car now. 7. We use emphasizing adverbs to modify adjectives such as astonishing, furious, and wonderful, which express extreme qualities. absolutely completely entirely perfectly purely quite really simply totally utterly I think he's absolutely wonderful.

Adverbs of degree
Absolutely Almost Barely Completely Considerably Decidedly Deeply Enormously Enough

Meanings
Used to emphasize that something is completely true Not quite Just; certainly not more than ( a particular amount, age, time, etc.) In every way possible Much; a lot Definitely and in an obvious way Very much Very much

Example
You are absolutely right I like almost of them Barely 50% of the population voted Completely different Interest rate on bank loans have increased considerably in recent years Amy was looking decidedly worried about the marketing project

Enormously rich/ powerful

Used before plural of uncountable nouns We don't have enough money to invest in that project to mean "as many or as much as somebody needs or wants" In every way possible; completely To the same degree; in a same or in similar way In equal parts, amounts, etc The system needs to be updated entirely The findings of the survey apply equally to adults and children The profit was divided equally among every shareholders

Entirely Equally Ant. Unequally Even

Used to emphasize something We are doing extremely well now. But how can we do even unexpected or surprising better? Used when you are comparing things, to make the comparison stronger To a very high degree To some extent but not very Very much; to a great degree Extremely important/complicated I know the company fairly well but I wouldn't say I know everything about it There are far more opportunities for young people than there used to be T has been a success far beyond their expectations We are fully aware of the dangers The inflation affects fully 30% of the economy

Extremely Fairly Far

Fully

Completely Used to emphasize an amount: the whole of, as much as

Adverbs of degree
Greatly Hardly

Meanings
Very much Almost no; almost not Used to suggest that something is unlikely or unreasonable

Example
A greatly increased risk There is hardly any money left We hardly know about that company You can hardly expect they do it for free

Highly Incredibly Intensely

Very Highly competitive/ critical/ successful At or to a high standard, level or amount A highly paid job Extremely Very great, very strong You are just in time Inflation fell just over 4 percent The manager is largely responsible for the team's victory Zaire, the least economically developed of the four countries, had a literacy rate at 34% The company's revenue has increased incredibly

Just Exactly Just after/before/under,etc. By a small amount something Largely Least Less Mainly Most Much Nearly Overwhelmingly Partly Perfectly Positively Mostly or mainly Smallest in size, amount, degree, etc. used with uncountable nouns to mean "a smaller amount of" More than anything else; chiefly, primarily The largest in number or amount Used with uncountable nouns to mean "a large amount of" Almost, not completely Very great or very strong To some extent, not completely Completely In a perfect way Used to emphasize the truth of a statement, especially when this is surprising or when it contrast with a previous statement Almost; very nearly Only, completely To some degree To the greatest possible degree

The population almost doubles in summer, mainly because of the jazz festival She has the most money of all of them I've got far too much to do I don't have much money with me I have worked here foe nearly two years There figures were overwhelmingly greater than the corresponding figures of $160 in Peru and $130 Zaire He was partly responsible for the accident You know perfectly well what I mean The plan has worked out perfectly Some diets may be positively dangerous

Practically Purely Quite Rather

The storage was practically empty There is practically no difference between the two options She took the job purely for the money Quite big/good Quite amazing/perfect

To some degree or fairly, often when you Is was a rather difficult question are expressing slight criticism, The instructions are rather complicated disappointment or surprise

Really Roughly Scarcely Approximately but not exactly Only just; almost not Sales are up by roughly 10% I can scarcely believe it There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm

Adverbs of degree
Seriously Simply So Somewhat Strongly Thoroughly Too Totally Utterly Very Virtually Well

Meanings
Very, extremely Absolutely To such a great degree Very, extremely To some extent

Example
They are seriously rich That is simply not true!

The situation has changed somewhat since the business plan was altered He was strong opposed to the idea of selling online

Very much, completely

A thoroughly professional performance

Used to say that something is more than He is too young to go on his own is good, necessary, possible, etc = completely Used to emphasized how complete something is In a high degree I totally agree with him She utterly failed to convince them The customers wanted the very good quality

Almost or very nearly, so that any slight This year's results are virtually the same as last year's difference is not importance To a great extent or degree The castle is well worth a visit

ADJECTIVES We can also use some adjectives as intensifiers to modify nouns. Here are some common adjectives which the speaker usually use to emphasize their points: Whole Dramatic Significant Entire Along with those words, comparative and superlative adjectives are popular in making emphasis too. Ex: This company invested the greatest amount of money in the selling online project.