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S li Seals

Split S l

Type 37FS and Type 3710

© 2003 John Crane EAA 654


Type 37FS Split Seal

655
Type 37 FS Split Seal

656
Type 37 FS Split Seal

657
Type 37 FS Split Seal

658
Type 37FS Split Seal

659
Type 37 FS Split Seal
„ Radial shaft movement
3.0 mm TIR
„ Shaft runout
0.5 mm TIR
„ Stuffing box waviness
0.7 mm TIR
„ Axial end play to
1.5 mm TIR
„ Squareness of stuffing
box face to shaft
2.5 mm TIR
660
Type 37FS Split Seal

661
Type 37FS Split Seal

662
Type 37FS Split Seal

663
Type 37FS Split Seal

664
Type 37FS Split Seal

665
Type 37FS Split Seal

Type 37FS Type 37FSB


Pressure: 5.5 bar g Pressure: 14.0 bar g
Temperature: 8282°°C .
S
Speed:
d 1800 rpm
Axial Run
Run--out: Up to 2.5 mm
666
Type 73 Inflatable Seal

667
Type 37FS Split Seal

668
Type 37FS Split Seal

669
Type 37 FS Split Seal

670
Type
yp 3710

Fully Split Seal


671
Type 3710 Cross Section View

External
finger
fi
springs

Pressure: Vacuum to 13.7


13 7 bar g Temperature: 120°°C
120
Speed: Up to 3600 rpm Axial run-
run-out: ±0.4 mm
672
Features

„ Pre--installed elastomers and gaskets


Pre g

„ Hydraulically balanced

„ Seal faces have positive drives

„ Retaining rings simplify installation

„ No measuring or centring required.

673
Performance Capabilities
p
Temperature: 121
121°°C max.
Pressure:
Carbon vs Sealide-
Sealide-C vacuum to 13.7 bar g
Sealide--C vs Sealide
Sealide Sealide--C vacuum to 6.9 bar g
‘vacuum’ = 635 mm (25”) Hg
(86% of full vacuum)
Sh ft S
Shaft Speed:
d 3600 RPM up to
t 2.5”
2 5” / 62 mm
1800 RPM above 2.5”/62 mm
to 5
5.25
25” / 130 mm
Radial Runout: 0.13 mm TIR
Axial Movement: 0.38 mm TIR

674
Materials of Construction
„ Metallurgy: 316 Stainless Steel
Finger
Fi Spring
S i is i 17-
17-7 pH
H SS

„ Seal Faces: Carbon vs Sealide


Sealide--C
Sealide--C vs Sealide
Sealide Sealide--C

„ Elastomers: Viton
Ethylene Propylene

675
Seal Failure
Analysis
Observation

© 2003 John Crane EAA 676


Seal Failure - Observation
„ Good observation is very important

„ Here is a test
Ê There are no visual tricks

Ê You have only 15 seconds

Ê Do NOT mark the paper

„ Count the number of F’s


F’s in the sentence

„ Ready?
y

677
Seal Failure - Observation

So, how many F’s were there?

678
Seal Failure
Analysis
A brief overview

© 2003 John Crane EAA 679


What is a failed seal?

680
Leakage - Newtonian Fluids
Diameter (mm)
100 Speed (rpm)

80

60

40

30

20

.
Pressure (bar g) L e a k a g e ( m l/h )

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0.01 0.1 1 10 100


Balanced Seal Unbalanced Seal
681
Acceptable Leakage Rates
„ Varies depending on application
Ê E i
Environmental
t l considerations/legislation
id ti /l i l ti

Incrreasin
Ê High hazard or pollution risk
Ê Process contamination

ng leakkage
Ê Minimum levels of cleanliness
Ê Economic considerations
Ê Exceeding removal capacity
Ê Exceeding supply capacity

682
Seal Failure Analysis
Normal Operational Life of the Seal

First Few
Hours

Time
.
683
Seal Life - MTBF
Survey of large UK refinery

40
of Seals

30
e (%) Percentage o

Number of Seals = 3757


Period : 1988 - 1991
20

10
Failure

0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 >24000
I t ll d Lif
Installed Life (H
(Hours)) .
Ref: P Connor - 1992

684
Seal Failure Analysis

What are the main causes of Seal Failure?

If we knew the answer,,


could we reduce the number of failures?

685
Seal Failure Analysis
Institute of Global
Mech. Eng. Chemical Co
Seal selection & design
Design Pump selection, design 28% 15%
& suction circuitry.
Installation, alignment,
bearing & pump condition
Maintenance 24% 20%
Seal fitting & installation
tolerances
Process upsets, off-duty
operating, priming,
Operation mal-operation. 48% 65%
Seall flushing,
S fl hi cooling,
li
quenching.
686
Seal Failure Analysis

„ Static Gaskets / O-
O-Rings

„ Tertiary
T ti Seal
S l

„ Secondary Seal

„ Primary Seal

687
Static Gasket / O-
O-Ring Leakage
EFFECT POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
Leaks immediately 1) Not Fitted!! Install new,
new check parts list
list.
Worsens with increase
in pressure. 2) Damaged on Installation Check Installation, assembly
(mechanical damage) procedure. Consider using a
temporary adhesive to hold in
position.
3) Incorrect / insufficient Check Installation, 2 point
loading (gasket) location, etc.
Check gasket areas and design
of location groove / bolting load.
Leakage initially zero, 1) Chemical Attack Check duty conditions.
but gradually worsens Select alternative material.
with time
2) Thermal Damage Check duty temperatures.
Increase cooling.
Select alternative material.
3) Over-aged
Over aged o-rings
o rings Check supply date &
stock rotation.

688
Tertiary Seal Leakage
EFFECT POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
Leaks immediately 1) Damaged on Installation Check Installation
Installation, assembly
Worsens with increase (mechanical damage) procedure. Check for correct
in pressure. lead-on/chamfer, surface quality.
Use adequate & correct lubricant.
2) Damaged on start-up
start up due Check seat housing dimensions.
dimensions
to seat rotation. Consider pinning/clamping seat.
(mechanical damage) Investigate cause of friction loss.
Leakage initially zero, 1) Chemical Attack Check duty & correct lubricant used
b tg
but gradually
ad all worsens
o sens S l
Select alternative
l i material
i l (may
(
with time involve change of seat design).

2) Thermal Damage Check duty temperatures.


Increase cooling to seal.
seal
Ensure cooling on whilst pump is
stationary.
Check for obstructed cooling lines
Check for dry running.
Should
h ld balanced
b l d seall be
b used?
d
Consider alternative material.

689
Secondary Seal Leakage
EFFECT POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
LLeaks
k immediately
i di t l 1) Damaged on Installation Check Installation
Installation, assembly
Worsens with increase (mechanical damage) procedure. Check for correct
in pressure. lead-on/chamfer, surface quality.
Use adequate & correct lubricant.
Leakage initially zero
zero, 1) Chemical Attack Check duty & correct lubricant used
but gradually worsens Select alternative material (may
with time involve change of seat design).

2)) Thermal Damage


g Check dutyy temperatures.
p
Increase cooling to seal.
Ensure cooling on whilst pump is
stationary.
Check for obstructed cooling lines
Check fo
for d
dry running.
nning
Should balanced seal be used?
Consider alternative material.
3) Mechanical Damage Check shaft alignment & s/box face
(wear) squareness.
Ensure seal positively driven.

690
Primary Seal Leakage

SYMPTOM POSSIBLE CAUSE


Seall spits and
S d sputters Fluid
l d film
f l vaporising.
(Face Popping)
Seal drips steadily. Faces not flat
C b face
Carbon f blistered
bli t d
Thermal distortion
Spring failure
Erosion / Corrosion of drive mechanism.
Stuffing box face and/or seat not square.
Seal squeals. Inadequate lubrication.
Carbon dust accumulation. Inadequate lubrication.
Fluid film evaporating.
Short seal life. Abrasive fluid.
S l running
Seal i too hot.
h
Incorrectly aligned equipment.
691
Seal Failure Analysis

Review John Crane Seal Leakage Booklet.

Analyses Reasons for Primary Seal Failure.

692
Seal Failure Analysis

693
Seal Failure
„ Collect full details of ACTUAL operating
conditions
„ Check dimensions (fitting/chemical/wear)
„ Were there any
Ê operational problems?
Ê unusual occurrences?
„ Note all visual evidence
Ê bad points
Ê good
d points.
i t
694
Information to Collect
• Modus Operandi of • Failure Initiated or Following
Equipment (Including Start / Process Change.
Stop Sequences). • Failure Related to Operational
• Maintenance Arrangements. Change.
• Vibration
Vib ti Signature.
Si t • Start
St t / St
Stop Hi
History
t andd
• Prior to Start-
Start-Up Failure. Operation.
• Cartridge Pressure Test. • DE / NDE Bias.
• Dynamic Failure. (< 1hr) • MTBF (Consistent or
• Operating Hours? Irregular).
• Sudden Failure or Progressive • Comparable Duty with
Leakage Increase.
Increase Different History.
• Anything Unusual?.

695
Root Cause Failure Analysis
How Can This Happen?
How Can This Happen?
How Can This Happen?
How Can This Happen?
How Can This Happen?
How Can This Happen?

How Can This Happen?

Result! Root Cause found.


Take remedial action.
696
The Solution

Experience Experience

User User
Operator Root Cause Maintenance
Failure Analysis
How Can This Happen?

Seal Vendor
Common
Information
Sources
Experience

697
Seal Failure Analysis
SEAL FAILURE ANALYSIS GUIDE J ohn A B l aber / FA I LURE 1 . X LS

Date of Issue: 20/08/ 97

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAILURE


VISUAL ABRASION POOR CONTAM - CORR- FLUID POOR THERM AL INCORRECT INSTALLATION M AL-ALIGNM ENT M AL-OPERATION POOR SYSTEM FAULTS

EXAMINATION LUBRI- INATION OSION EROSION CONTROL Assembly Fitting Size Equipm'nt Pipework Flow Pressure Speed VENTING Cleaning/ Vibrat ion

CATION Cooling Heat ing Treat ment


Good Condition X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6
Burnt X8 X9 X9 X10 X11 X11 X12 X9
M Chipped X13 X14/X67 X31/46/67 X14 X15 X15/X67 X16/X67 X65 X67
A Decomposed X17 X17 X18 X17
T Eccentric Track X19 X4 X5 X20 X21 X65 X22
E Etched X17 X17 X17
R Flaked X23 X12
I Fretted X24/31/55 X25/X55 X25 X10/X31 X19 X4/X25 X5 X20 X12/X34 X65 X22 X55 X26
A Galled X27 X10 X28 X28
L Grooved X13/X63 X12/23/55 X55 X29 X34 X11/X41 X6/X16 X22 X55
Incomplete Track X44 X44 X44
Leached X30 X30 X30
L Matted X31 X30 X30 X32 X33 X33 X65 X7 X30 X26
O Pitted X55 X17/X55 X17 X22 X64/X14 X34/X43 X22 X17
S Polished X35 X29 X36 X34
S Scored/Scuffed X37 X27 X29 X40 X14 X12
Shredded X66
Wasted Aw ay X17 X17 X17
Wide Track X38 X19 X4/X39 X4/X5 X65 X22
Bent X40 X11 X41 X11 X42 X42 X40
Blistered (Face) X43/X55 X43/X55 X43 X44 X45 X43 X43
Bruised X15 X15
N Changed Shape/Section X17 X17 X46/X61 X61/X67 X67 X42 X67
O Clogged X14 X47
Cracked X48 X49 X11 X11 X42 X20 X50 X65 X20
M Crazed (Full Track) X8/X55 X55 X51/X62 X62 X11 X11 X52 X12/X34 X22
A Crazed ((Partial Track)) X8 X69 X11 X11/X44 X44/X52 X34 X22
T Dented X11 X11 X50
E Dirty X53 X14 X54 X54 X53
R Discoloured X56 X56 X57 X56
I Distorted X40 X11 X38/X41 X11/X44 X42 X42 X40
A Extruded X49 X58 X59 X49
L Fractured X48 X49 X41 X11 X3 X52 X50 X65
Hardened X8/X55 X55 X46
L Jammed X60 X14 X38
O Ruptured X49 X11 X50
S Shrunk X17 X17 X61 X61 X17
S Softened X17 X17 X18 X17
Split/Torn X8 X38 X15 X50/X66
Sw ollen X17 X17 X24 X24 X17
Tacky/Waxy X17 X17 X14 X17

.
698
Seal Failure Analysis
'X' TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF 'X' 'X' TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF 'X'
X1 Differential expansio n between static and ro tating elements causing separatio n at seal interface. X43 RECOGNITION: Surface blisters o n running track o f carbo n face
X2 Seal set at wro ng wo rking length with no co ntact between face and seat. 'Lumps' o f carbo n remo ved fro m running track, usually at ID.
X3 Shaft diameter to lerance >+0.05mm. Shaft o vality > 0.006mm with wedge seal.
X4 B edplate disto rting due to inadequate fo undatio n suppo rt. Fabricated steel bedplate no t filled with CORRECTIVE A CTION OP TIONS:
co ncrete. Vessel no t aligned to vertical due to mo vement o f fo undatio ns. P ipe strain - ensure flanges are 1. Use '218' o r '539' face material.
co rrectly aligned. Check co upling alignment. 2. Reduce face width (e.g., 3mm).
X5 Leakage g due to thermal expansio
p n of p
pipewo
p rk. NB : 100' length
g o f stainless steel expands
p 3. Reduce spring
p g lo ad. If face width reduced,, ensure face stress is at o r belo w level befo re face
appro x. 2" (50mm) per 100 deg C rise in temperature. P ipewo rk inadequately suppo rted. width reduced.
X6 P ressure to o lo w to keep split faces to gether, e.g., T99/599 seals. 4. Use minimum hydraulic balance rate o f 75%. Co nsider increasing up to 65%.
X7 P ro duct recirc. fro m discharge o n vertical pumps instead o f reverse circulatio n back to suctio n. 5. Seat OD = Face OD to allo w uninterrupted co o ling flo w.
X8 Seal faces dry-running resulting in o verheating. T10T P TFE vs ceramic - P TFE will "burn". High 6. If seat is tungsten carbide o r silico n carbide, matt lap the running track. If no t TC o r SC, co nsider
to rque o n hard face material co mbinatio ns can generate heat that can be transmitted to an changing.
elasto meric seco ndary seal resulting in hardening and burning. Seco ndary seals may "spin". 7. Co nsider use o f cast iro n (006) extended surface seat
X9 Chemical reactio n with an o xidizing agent, e.g., nitric acid. - this wo uld negate the need fo r steps 6 abo ve.
X10 Insufficient flo w to heat exchanger o r co o led ho llo w seat resulting in X8. 8. Eliminate any areas fo r face and/o r seat disto rtio n, e.g., hand-lap seat landings.
X11 Over-co mpressio n due to inco rrect assembly o r wro ng wo rking length resulting in X8. This will also 9. Impro ve venting and po int o f circulatio n entry. Co nsider multi-po int injectio n o r reverse
o ccur if no allo wance is made fo r the reverse o f X1. B alance step fo uling shaft. circulatio n where appro priate.
X12 Seal chamber pressure to o lo w, resulting in X8. No pro duct in pump when running (no t primed). 10. If sealing co mpresso r o ils, ensure that water co ntent in o il is checked and that the o il is changed
X13 Sho t blasting with so lids due to po sitio n and entry angle o f pro duct recirculatio n n. at least every 3000 ho ursurs. Ensure go o d flo w w, and that o il is no t 'fo
fo aming
aming'.
X14 Ineffective o r inadequate heating leads to high visco sity and pro duct so lidifying acro ss sealing X44 Check that the seat landing is flat and free fro m any burrs o r debris.
faces. A lternatively, fluid film increases in visco sity due to visco us shear irrespective o f heat applied, X45 Co mplete an equipment check including amo unt o f to tal axial flo at o f ro tating element.
i.e., dilatant, rheo pectic o r thermo setting (paint). A lso ID chipping o f face when pro duct so lidifies o n X46 Wro ng material selectio n, o r enviro nment is to o ho t. Refer to X24. (Chipping o n face ID).
atmo spheric side. (Oxidatio n?). X47 Clearance between ro tating element and seal chamber to o small, causing so lids to precipitate o ut
X15 P hysical damage due to mis-handling o r o ver-co mpressio n. fro m pumped pro duct, e.g., 'hard water'.
X16 Excessive pressure ro tatio n. (Co ning inwards - chipping o n OD). X48 Liquid in pump freezes, e.g., pump no t drained o r dried after testing o n water, and then sto red at
X17 Seal material no t chemically resistant to pro duct o r co ntaminant, e.g., HF in HCl o r EP T in hydro carbo n sub-zero temperatures o r put o n cryo genic duty.
X18 M aterial deco mpo sed due to temperatures beyo nd its limitatio ns. Usually applies to an X49 Heating left o n to pump whilst still full o f liquid with bo th suctio n and discharge valves clo sed.
elasto mer. NB : Danger o f HF acid fo rmatio n fro m Fluo ro carbo n o r P erfluo ro elasto mer that has X50 Hydraulic sho ck due to to o rapid valve clo sure.
been taken to >400°C. Virgin P TFE abo ve 230°C gives o ff to xic gas (sublimates). X51 P o o r heat transfer to co o ling water due to fo uling (scaling) o n co o ling surfaces.
X19 P o o r alignment o f ro tating element. Seat no t square to axis o f ro tating element. X52 Check axial flo at o f ro tating element. A lso ensure seat canno t mo ve axially due to X40 o r X50.
X20 P ro duct
d t flflo w in
i pumped d system
t restricted
t i t d o n di
discharge
h side
id b by valve
l o r bl
blo ckage
k causing
i excessive
i X53 P ipescale
i l ffo rmatio
ti n - especially
i ll d
during
i co mmissioi i ning.
i
shaft deflectio n. X54 Will usually exhibit o ther sympto ms o f a seal failure, e.g., abrasive wear because seals have been
X21 High pressure jetting fro m recirculatio n line o n to ro tating seal causing eccentric running. handled in a dirty enviro nment. See X63.
X22 Vo rtex fo rmatio n in seal chamber due to trapped vapo ur/gas, i.e., no vent ho le at TDC. A lso X7. X55 Gas entrained in pro duct/sealant expands as pressure dro ps acro ss fluid film - dry running & po pping.
X23 P ro duct is po o r lubricant fo r sealing faces, e.g., water o n P TFE vs ceramic o r carbo n vs stellite. X56 P o ssible indicatio n o f co rro sio n, e.g., tungsten carbide can so metimes take o n a 'blue' surface
X24 P umping against clo sed discharge fo r lo ng time - causes unstable fluid film. Wo rsens facto r X8 & X20. co lo uring. This is no t due to o verheating. Check o ther pro duct-wetted areas o f seat.
X25 Co ntinual remo val o f passive film (usually in chlo ride enviro nment) due to relative mo vement. X57 Ni-resist (007) will appear 'straw' o r 'blue' co lo ured. This is due to o verheating. A lso refer to X24,
X26 Can o ccur in pusher seal thrust rings due to slack clearances in ball bearings. This same fault can especially in tanker-lo ading pumps.
cause fretting under dynamic seco ndary seals. X58 A nti-extrusio n ring no t fitted. A nti-extrusio n ring fitted the wro ng way ro und. Flat side o f
X27 Frictio n welding o r pick-up between materials, e.g., po lished tungsten vs po lished tungsten. anti-extrusio n ring must always be presented to the o -ring, o n the no n-pressure o r lo w
X28 M aterial co mbinatio n being o perated abo ve and beyo nd its P V limit, resulting in X27. pressure side o f the o -ring.
X29 Will arise when clearances are to o small fo r fluid flo w, e.g., high pressure recirculatio n fro m X59 Inco rrect shaft diameter, o r excessive clearance fo r the seco ndary seal to the shaft. A lso , excessive
discharge feeding to lo w pressure suctio n via a seal chamber with small clearances aro und seal. clearance fo r any static seals.
X30 Chemical reactio n with binders in co mpo nent materials, e.g., '171' in nitric acid, '025' in Sea Water. X60 Seal chamber full o f so lids, e.g., bo iler water treatment co mpo und injected as a 'lump' into the
X31 P o ssible indicatio n o f phase change (liquid to gas/vapo ur) acro ss fluid film. suctio n side o f the pump instead o f do wnstream o f the discharge flange.
X32 Usually o ccurs at po int o f maximum disto rtio n acco mpanied by high seal leakage. X61 Differential expansio n, especially between P TFE co mpo nents, resulting in change in diameter,
X33 Interface stress to o lo w. Seal either under-co mpressed, o verbalanced o r springs hung-up/bro ken. length o r shape/sectio n.
X34 Seal chamber pressure to o clo se to pro duct Vapo ur P ressure at P umping Temperature. Check neck bush. X62 Thermal sho ck o n ceramic o r carbide seats caused by sudden change in temperature. Check
X35 Seal interface running in permanent gas po cket. A lso refer to X22. o perating cycles and valve o peratio n.
X36 Can o ccur as narro w band o f co ntact o n seal OD where pro trusio n into seal chamber is fo uling the X63 A brasives in fluid film - use cyclo ne separato r, hard faces, back-to -back seal o r UpStream P umping
ro tating element, e.g., co ver plate gasket extrusio n. X64 Fluid film visco sity to o high. Use heated seat, heated stuffing bo x jacket, o r change to do uble seals.
X37 So lids precipitating o ut o f pro duct acro ss interface, e.g., so dium hydro xide crystals. X65 Changes in speed can aggravate the co nditio n by increasing shaft deflectio n when running at o r
X38 Co mpo nent fitted wro ng way ro und, e.g., carbo n face o n rubber bello ws seal. thro ugh a critical shaft speed.
X39 B ent shaft. Wo rn bearings.g High g shaft deflectio n. X66 Explo
p sive deco mpressio
p n caused elasto mer material to burst due to sudden expansio p n o f trapped
pp g gas.
X40 Co o ling water pressure to o high - will disto rt seat, i.e., 1 bar fo r L/K seats; 2 bar fo r SC/CE seats. X67 Excessive heat generatio n at seal faces will cause po sitive ro tatio n, excessive wear o n ID o f face and
X41 Seal inco rrectly assembled, e.g., T209 thrust ring wro ng way ro und. Face fractures co mmo n. seat with po ssible chipping o n the face ID
X42 Insufficient clearances between seat spigo t and seat ho using, resulting in disto rtio n o f metal seats X68 O-rings can take permanent set. P TFE can co ld-flo w.
and cracking o f ceramic o r silico n carbide seats. X69 Uneven co o ling. Co nsider tangential flush, multi-po int injectio n, o r distributed flush.

.
J A B / FA I LURE 1 . X LS J ohn A B l aber . DA T E OF I SSUE : 20/ 08/ 97

699
Seal Failure Analysis

Complete
p Seals . . .

700
Seal Failure Analysis

701
Seal Failure Analysis

702
Seal Failure Analysis

703
Seal Failure Analysis

704
Seal Failure Analysis

.
Failed Seal New Seal

705
Seal Failure Analysis

706
Seal Failure Analysis

707
Seal Failure Analysis

708
Seal Failure Analysis

709
Seal Failure Analysis

710
Seal Failure Analysis

711
Seal Failure Analysis

712
Seal Failure Analysis

713
Seal Failure Analysis

714
715
Seal Failure Analysis

Sleeves and Pump


p Parts . . .

716
Seal Failure Analysis

717
Seal Failure Analysis

718
Seal Failure Analysis

719
Seal Failure Analysis

720
Seal Failure Analysis

721
Seal Failure Analysis

Rotating
g and Stationaryy Faces . . .

722
Seal Failure Analysis

723
Seal Failure Analysis

724
Seal Failure Analysis

725
Seal Failure Analysis

726
Seal Failure Analysis

727
Seal Failure Analysis

728
Seal Failure Analysis

Carbon Faces . . .

729
Seal Failure Analysis

730
Seal Failure Analysis

731
Seal Failure Analysis

732
Seal Failure Analysis

733
Seal Failure Analysis

734
Seal Failure Analysis

735
Seal Failure Analysis

736
Seal Failure Analysis

Ceramic Faces . . .

737
Seal Failure Analysis

738
Seal Failure Analysis

739
Seal Failure Analysis

740
Seal Failure Analysis

741
Seal Failure Analysis

742
Seal Failure Analysis

Metal Faces . . .

743
Seal Failure Analysis

744
Seal Failure Analysis

745
Seal Failure Analysis

746
Seal Failure Analysis

747
Seal Failure Analysis

Elastomers . . .

748
Seal Failure Analysis

749
Seal Failure Analysis

750
Seal Failure Analysis

Seal Metal Parts . . .

751
Seal Failure Analysis

752
Seal Failure Analysis

753
Seal Failure Analysis

754
Seal Failure Analysis

755
Summary
Summary

© 2003 John Crane EAA 756


Summary
„ Disadvantages of GP „ Advantages of Mech. Seals
Ê Leaks Ê No visible leakage
‹ Health & Safety ‹ Zero emissions with gas
‹ Housekeeping lubricated seals
‹ Corrosion
‹ Environment
‹ Cost
Ê W
Wears shaft
h ft / sleeve
l Ê N shaft
No h ft / sleeve
l wear
Ê Not self-
self-adjusting Ê Self--adjusting
Self
Ê Power consumption Ê Low
o power
po e
Ê Open to tampering Ê Nothing to touch
Ê Run--in time required
Run Ê Work from day one
Ê Fitting errors Ê Cartridges

757
Summary

„ Advantages of GP „ Disadvantages of GP

Ê Low initial cost Ê High running costs and


short life

Ê Fit without stripping Ê Yes - until sleeve is worn.


Strip at least 3 x more than
seal. Split seal?
Ê Low skill level to fit Ê For long life,
life great skill /
art / time required.
g seals veryy simple
Cartridge p
to fit.
758
Summary
„ Mechanical seals prevent leakage
„ Rubbing faces are lubricated by fluid film
„ Fluid film must be present, stable, clean,
reasonable temperature and viscosity
„ Seals must be fitted in clean conditions and
with accuracyy
„ Two types of seal: pusher and non-
non-pusher.
Each
h has
h its
i advantages.
d
759
Summary
„ Seal life (MTBF) affected by:
Ê condition of pump
p mp
Ê state of pumped product in pump
Ê state off pumped
d product
d through
h h the
h faces
f
Ê dry running
Ê excessive heat generation/inadequate cooling
Ê pressure peaks
Ê change in process fluid
Ê sudden temperature changes
Ê stop/start.
760
Summary

„ Fit mechanical seals accuratelyy and in clean


conditions and operate pumps with a little
care and understanding,
understanding and the seals will
last for years

„ If a seal fails prematurely, carry out detailed


failure analysis before fitting a new one
whenever possible.

761
Mechanical Seals

C leanliness

A ccuracy

Time
762
Apply “CAT” and you can . . .

763
Produced by John Blaber