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Class : Dicotyledonae 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Embryohaving two cotyledons tap root system Reticulate venation Pentamerous flowers Sheathing leaf bases absent

Subclass : Polypetalae 1. Flowers usually with 2 distinct whorls of perianth-outer calyx and inner corolla. 2. Corolla lobes (petals) are free. Series : Thalamiflorae 1. Prominent thalamus 2. Flowers- Bisexual, hypogynous, actinomorphic 3. Pistil apocarpous or syncarpous Cohort : Ranales 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Simple, alternate leaves Floral parts are generally indefinite. Carpels free (apocarpous) Embryo-minute, embedded in a fleshy endosperm Floral leaves are mostly arranged spirally or hemicyclic, rarely cyclic. FAMILY: ANNONACEAE (Custard apple family) Important plants 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Annona squamosa-custard apple A.reticulata Annona muricata Cananga odorata Artabotrys odoratissimus Polyalthia longifolia Unona discolor Uvaria narum Monodora myristica (fl. Zygomorphic &carpels united)

Annonaceae, also called the custard apple family is a family of flowering plants consisting of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, some lianas, with aromatic bark, leaves, and flowers. Distribution Members of this family are mostly concentrated in the tropics, with few species found in temperate regions.

Vegetative characters Habit- Trees, or shrubs; some of them are climbers-eg:- Artabotrys, Uvaria; bearing essential oils; resinous, or not resinous. The wood is aromatic due to the presence of oil passages in them. Hence the stem is sweetly scented. Leaves-Simple, alternate; distichous; exstipulate; Lamina entire or wavy (Polyalthia); nonsheathing; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; aromatic, or without marked odour; pinnately veined; cross-venulate. Inflorescence- Flowers solitary, or aggregated in inflorescences (Fascicle)-terminal or leaf opposed.. In Artabotrys, the peduncle is modified into a hook Flowers Generally greenish yellow, bracteates or ebracteate, trimerous(usually 3 whorls of perianth with 3 segments in each whorl); bisexual, actinomorphic, hemicyclic, regular, Hypogynous. The receptacle might become enlarged, elevated or flat. Calyx-3 sepals, free(polysepalous), valvate, triangular in shape, green, sepals may show slight union at the base. Corolla- 6 petals arranged in 2 whorls of 3 each (only 3 petals in Annona). Polypetalous, In Uvaria, petals are united at the base. This showed that the family is in the line of evolution with reduction in the no. slight cohesion. The petals are thick and fleshy having a depression at the base on the inner side. Aestivation-valvate. Androecium- Stamens numerous, spirally arranged at the base of an elongated torus;short and stout filaments; anthers adnate (filament is attached to the back of the anther trough out its length), dithecous (2 lobed), exrorse ( face outward) and dehisce longitudinally. Connective is produced at the top of the anther forming a hood or crest. Thisfeature is peculiar to this family. Gynoecium- carpels numerous, apocarpous (usually), or syncarpous (rarely); arranged spirally on the elongated torus above stamens. Each carpel consists of a basal ovary, a short beak like style and stigma. superior ovary .Marginal or basal placentation (Artabotrys,Cananga), each pistil bearing one locule, with one to many ovules. Fruits and seeds -Fruits are fleshy; an aggregate (commonly an aggregate of berries). In Annona, all the carpels fuse to form a single aggregate of berries. In Polyalthia, Each carpeldevelop into a small berry so as to form an aggregate fruitwith a cluster of small berries. Seeds- endospermic. Endosperm ruminate .seeds have a fleshy and usually brightly colored cover. Economic importance Edible fleshy fruits Annona squamosa & A.reticulata Sap of the fruit is also used as beverage & for the preparation of jellies An aromatic oil (Macassar oil) which is used in making some perfumesobtained from Cananga. Cananga is also used for preparing cananga water (perfumed water).

Uvaria is a medicinal plant Many are cultivatd as ornamental plants for their scented flowers E.g. Cananga odorata, Artabotrys odoratissimus, Polyalthia longifolia Polyalthia longifolia is also grown as an avenue plant.

Evolutionary trends This is a primitive family. The woody habit, simple leaves, large flowers with numerous floral parts, hemicyclic arrangement, apocarpous , hypogynous gynoecium, conspicuous thalamus etc. are some primitive features. The family is in the line of progressive evolution since the reduction in the no. of petals is shown by Annona and the slight union among the petals in Uvaria.