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Mr. Edilberto Tawagon

ISSN 1656-8788

May June 2006

If the menu is attractive to the eye, touch, and if the language of the menu description is imaginative and colorful, then the impression is that the food will also be attractively presented and delicious. If the menu is soiled, worn, torn or dirty, the impression is that the food is greasy, perhaps less than sanitary. As a restaurant operator you must take time to create a first impression, both in terms of quality of product and in terms of the personality and image for which you want your restaurant to be known. The menu is a very important inhouse merchandising tool. This is important not only in a commercial establishment but also in an institutional operation such as hospital or nursing home. When you consider that the menu planner in a health care facility must be concerned about providing many types of special diets, low salt, high protein, etc., then the task of providing variety in a large number of different menus becomes very challenging. One of the most important but often least considered aspects of restaurant operation is the menu that is presented to the public. A restaurants menu is the package that portrays and displays the restaurants products. It is the first representation that management makes of its food offerings. If the menu is posted in the restaurants window or entrance. It must be a sales tool which acts to pull the potential customer into the establishment. If the customers first see your menu after they are seated, it finalizes the sale of your products and services. A menu has four basic functions: 1. It should increase the general check average. 2. It should enhance the sale of the specialty feature items. 3. It should be integrated into the total package of design and dcor that characterize the restaurant. 4. It should make the patron want to return to the establishment again and again to partake of the delicious, safe, and healthful food described thereon. The menu also performs two other basic functions. First of all, it establishes the operating needs for your food service organizations; it dictates what must be done and how it must be done. Second the menu is the primary coordinating tool that can be used to implement each of the management functions

Below are the examples: 1. The menu stipulates what food items must be purchased. For example mushrooms and shrimps are needed to prepare items required by the menu, these food item must be purchased. 2. The menu dictates the nutritional content of meals being served. This is important in institutional food services where 100% of the residents dietary intake is considered. 3. The menu influence equipment needs. Equipment must be available to produce and serve items required by the menu. 4. The menu layout dictates facility layouts and space requirements. The amount of space needed for equipment and how the equipment is placed differ in an establishment with simple sandwich menu and one with a full range of menu items. 5. The menu determines front of the house dcor and design. Few restaurants would feature simple sandwiches in an exquisite dining room with white tablecloths and strolling musicians. 6. The menu dictates serving requirements. In commercial restaurants, procedures for timing orders and communicating between services and product on personnel must be established. Menu Design and Display Menu design and display primarily depend on the type of menu and the foodservice facility. Menus that are a la carte allow for the selection of food items by the consumer from the list of foods presented on the menu with prices. Table dhota menus offer complete meals at a fixed price. There are different sets of menu in hospitals for regular meals and for modified diets. Menus are printed in such a way that more than one copy of the menu is produced when the consumer makes his or her choices.

Menu design needs careful planning since the menu is almost the first thing that consumers see and it may easily be the source of a first impression of the food service establishment. The outside cover tells a lot about facility, since the design, color and quality of the paper provide an overall impression of the restaurant. Creativity in menu design pays off by providing a positive image of the restaurant. Some people collect menus as souvenirs. Menus may also be printed on placemats, napkins, match boxes and handkerchiefs. Good quality durable materials should be used for menu printing. Finally, it should be considered that the success of a menu is evident only when the food on it is selected, served and consume, rather than when it is written. Menu Mechanics and Display Certain mechanical factors must be considered in menu planning. No matter how well the menu is planned and priced, it must also be properly presented so that it is quickly understood and leads to satisfactory sales. Communicating and selling are the keys to successful menu. Proper observance of mechanical factors can enhance menus appearance, make a favorable impression on patrons, and advance the aims of the operations. Professional menu printing companies can be of considerable help in developing a menu that is attractive and achieves its purpose as a merchandising medium. They can prepare original design, write the copy, and provide a good format. Designing and Printing the Menu The selection of a designer, writer, and producer of a menu depends on the part of the sizes and location of the restaurant. Advertising agency. If you are currently using ad agency for your restaurant publicity, you can ask them to write and design your menu as well. You may want to arrange for the actual printing of the menu 2

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yourself, in order to establish an ongoing relationship with a printer. A menu printer. Some printing companies specialize in producing menus. The best of them have a complete staff to serve youwriters, artists and experienced production people- and can show you menus that they have produced for other restaurants so that you can see their capabilities. A menu printer will have printing presses and typesetting equipment suitable for producing menus as well as experience in a problem of producing a menu. An artist designer. A commercial artist or graphic designer can give you an attractive menu plus a functional lay-out. But you still must write the menu yourself or hire a writer. A writer. An advertising copywriter can help you organize your menu and add creative sparkle to the description of your food and drink. The writer must also work with the designer to ensure that text and graphic are compatible. A printer. Most printers can produce a menu after the artwork and typesetting have been finished, although most printers are not specifically equipped for menu printing. The size of the menu, kind of paper, and coating that you choose may determine the printer to be selected. I addition, most menus are short-run printing jobs, whereas some printers are equipped only for longer runs. Large restaurant chains with larger runs of menus, of course, use a printer with the appropriate equipment. And if your menu is to be printed in two or more colors, your printer must have suitable presses and plate-making capabilities. A typesetting, of composition, facilities also are needed to produce a menu or wine list. Today nearly all typesetting is cold photo typesetting. The days of hot metal are long gone. You can of course go to a type house, but some printers and design studios offer composition services as well. Whichever you ] LCCM Research Digest

choose should have a wide selection of typefaces. A word processor or computer and a laser printer are most useful in the production of menu. Most word processors offer many types styles and sizes, so that the finished result will look like type set by the photo typesetting process. Since the paper we used is lightweight, it usually has to be put into a clear plastic folder. Computer generated copy is particularly suited to wine list. For example, the 95th restaurant, the ARA flagship eatery in the ninety-fifth floor of the John Hancook Building in Chicago, has a wine list produced on a word processor. Because the restaurant offers eight hundred different wines, the list is constantly changing, with some wines removed and other added. Storing the entire list in the computer makes it easy to add and delete items and to keep the list current. The wine list itself is a book containing clear plastic pages into which the laser prints outs are inserted. Word Spacing One of the elements which greatly affects legibility, and hence the menu planners ability to communicate effectively with customers, is the spacing of the words on the menu. Excess or too little space between words cans legibility. If the words on the menu are too close together they tend to merge as one, making reading difficult, especially under artificial lighting like in the dining room. An excessive amount of space between each word can cause disruption to the natural eye movement from left to right. Rivers, as this phenomenon is called, is a common fault with computerized typesetting in narrows columns. This is particularly evident when the when the text is justified, meaning it lines up at the left and right margins. Most word processing programs adjust the spacing between characters to allow the text to line up at the margins as directed. A ragged format occurs when the text is not 3

justified, hence the right side appears uneven, although river is not a common problem to menu writing, attention needs to be given to word spacing in promotional or information material printed in the menu where it is often set in a narrow column format. Colour People perceive and interpret colour differently. Colour can signify peace, calm, tranquility, danger, excitement and melancholy. Colour is often identified with elegance, wealth, sophistication and other symbolic phenomena. There are cloours which symbolize actions or products that are recognized through the world, like navigation lights for shipping and air traffic: red for port side, green for starboard side. Colours are associated with trademarks and corporate logos. Bright colours excite, soft colours soothe; bright colours dominate, soft colours are passive. Products and services which reflect a caring, gentle, soft or pampering approach, like many hospitality products and services, will make use of soft color schemes, such as red, orange, yellow are used. Dark greens, browns, blues and grays are called safe colours, outside the excitement/danger and soft fields. Safe colours go through periods of popularity. These colors suffer from fashion consciousness Conclusion For most customers the pleasure of good eating probably consists of chowing down on fresh vegetables with taste budexploding flavors, a tree-ripened, savory peach that melts in your mouth, or a gusty steak or delicious pork chop. But, in truth, the pleasure of good eating consists of much more than tasty treats. There was only one eating rule at our table we were expected to never be schnagich. Schnagich is a Russian-German word for which there is probably no exact English translation. To be schnagich was to be finicky. But it was much more than that; LCCM Research Digest

it was about being disrespectful. Of course there was a lesson in all this that the pleasure of good eating is about much more than the taste of the food. It is about a deep appreciation for, and connection with, everything on our plates. Presentation of the food for the customers is a very crucial merchadising area that a food service provider must consider. Menu is one of the best merchandising tools that could help one attract customers. It may take a lot of time and effort but in the end all of this surely pays off. A successful food service organization has to have a unique food service program one specifically designed to meet the specific needs, preferences, and attitudes of consumers and top management. Yet, tomorrow's program will be different from todays. Conditions change. Customers change. Employees change. Your service must change - responding to consumers' needs with empathy and innovation that solves problems before they occur. You must take advantage of opportunities. References Folsom, L. (1974). The Professional Chef (4th Edition). Boston: Cahners Books International. Kotchover, L. (2000). Management Menu.MC John Willey and Sons. USA. by

West and Wood (2003). Food Service in Institution.Mcmillian Publishing Inc. USA

Mr. Edilberto Tawagon Fulltime Faculty School of HRM and Tourism Research Interests: Product Development, International Cuisine, Meal Management Contact Number 736-02-356 loc. 60

Thinking Seriously About the Environment and Humankind

Dr. Edgardo Gonzaga

Its important to raise the environment to the same level as national security. If we poison our planet, what is there left to defend? (Robert Redford, Actor)
Humankind has occupied planet Earth for thousands of years. In modern times, humans made rapid changes on the planet. Superb developments in technology, six fold growth in the world economy since 1950, and a burgeoning population of 6 billion people has placed staggering demands on the planets resources in a short span of time. More strain, of those kinds will dramatically grow as we traverse the 21st century. Since the 1950s, consumption of seafood has risen five times, need for grain, water use and burning of firewood have quadrupled, paper use is up six fold, and lumber use has more than tripled. Fearing that an over-exploitation of the Earths resources will cause environmental collapse, a worldwide environment movement now urges humankind to find ways to live a balance life with the natural environment. The movement for environmental concern began with citizens at the local level advocating family planning, recycling materials and laws that would protect air and water quality for national communities. By 1990s, the grassroots environmental movement came to emphasize a transnational approach since many problems, such as acid rain, failing to recognize national borders and because people in this planet must somehow share

Humans are noted for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, religion, philosophy and mythology. Source: www. photosearch. com

the resources of the globe that are commonly needed such as fish catch from the seas and oceans. World actors sprouted, including the traditional players, heads of states, international organization, (IGOs) like Green peace and World watch, are making long strides to protect and manage the various elements of the Earths environment. This cooperation, of course, converged around and within regimes, with the norms and rules, to provide environmental administrations in the absence of a true world authority. However, rhetoric about environmental governance has so far outweighed effective actions. Human Ecology When human interacts with the biosphere, such interaction can be a healthy one, with humankind taking and enjoying

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what the biosphere can afford to provide. But, when the reverse occurs, humans can cause the widespread destruction of the natural environment. One view held by environmentalists, asserts that humankind must work hard to protect the natural environment before its too late. They reject the notion that humans are privilege exploiters of the environment. Man should act as steward of the Earth to save it from further ecocide. Man should treat the Earth as mother a fertile given of life. Humankind must live on the rate of resources that the planet can generate overtime. Many people around the world abuse the planets natural bounty by living for today without planning for tomorrow. Humankind should limit its number and lifestyle within the carrying capacity of the Earth. Recently, some viewed that humankind has lived in a predatory relationship with the elements of the biosphere. The worlds physical environment continues to deteriorate. The danger of unchecked degradation will pass the point of no return, making it impossible to restore a healthy environment. In a warning to humanity 15 years ago, 1,600 scientists announced that we are reaching a dangerous stage regarding the planet life support system. As humans move mountains, reverse the flow of rivers, build cities in desert, burn tropical forest, pollute the atmosphere, and stuff mountains of human refuse into the Earth, it was evident that humans has become more exploitative of nature rather than protective of nature. These abuses occur as a result of attempts to accomplish worthy human goals; at other time, the abuse is purely human folly. Both the former Soviet Union and US built unsafe nuclear reactors to produce cheap electricity and both experienced nuclear disaster (at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island) killing hundreds and caused cancer and birth defects for thousands more. Not only that, US and USSR lost several nuclear submarines in accidents and deposited the sunken vessel with nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors on the bottom of the oceans where they are now leaking radiation. In addition, people around the world have LCCM Research Digest

recklessly sprayed pesticides to save crops from insect, but the lands were sprayed with toxics too, removing its natural fertility and is now a major threat to birds life. A devastating damage to environment happened at the coast of Alaska in 1989, a US supertanker ran aground on rocks and created the largest oil spill in history. Thousands of birds, seals and sea lions perished and commercial fishing experienced a blow from which it will take many years to recover. During the first Persian gulf war, hundreds of oil wells were set on fire and a desalinization plant in Saudi Arabia destroyed by spilled oil. When human ecology results in environmental deterioration, human conflict will almost surely intensify as a culmination of growing scarcity. There is growing fear that as human population place higher demands on the earths natural systems, there will follow an intensified competition for these demands resulting to more deadly global conflicts. Some futurists have predicted environmental collapse by the mid 21st century, leading to great levels of conflict. It was observed that pressure for oil supplies in Japan before World war II is a good example of conflict over non-renewable resources such as oil.. However, interstate conflicts are still very likely to occur over renewable water resource as demand for water grows. Possible flashpoints are issues on the modes of sharing the Indus River between India and Pakistan, the Jordan River where Israel, Syria and Jordan are wholly dependent including the siphoning off the aquifer beneath the West Bank occupied by the Palestinians. Another interesting point is environmental degradation that encourages migration as over population and soil depletion stir people to move on a more productive place.

The growing awareness of people despite of much diversity among them across continents led to the formation of layers of advocates towards reaching a single identity, which is the human specie under threat of extinction. Mans realization of his interdependence with the biosphere sharing the same real danger is an important breakthrough and a very inspiring first step to arrest the impending catastrophe Probably, more than any other issue, environmental concerns penetrated world opinion propelled by hundreds of INGO, environmental groups and millions of citizens. These trans-border, global civil society insists that states and the U.N undertake the critical mission of protecting all elements of the biosphere resulted in positive responses in terms of measures of governance, and regulations of the environment by states, IGOs and regimes. Its only by a major effort, requiring the cooperation of peoples and government around the world, can humankind hope to survive and prosper within a sustaining environment. (In the next issue, more environmental concerns will be tackled to raise further the environmental awareness of our readers.) Vocabulary help: Biodiversity the broad range of varietyin both animals and plants and the physical conditions under which they live. Biosphere the layers of soil, ocean, climate, and air that envelop planet Earth and sustain all animal and plant life. Carrying capacity the number of people or animals that given a habitat can sustain at a healthy standard of life. Ecocide the destruction of the natural environment; usually a result of human activity. Ecology the study of organisms interacting with their natural environment. 7

Some 10,000 new refugees from Sudan's civil war fled to Ethiopia during 1999. Ethiopia hosts 70,000 Sudanese refugees. Photo: UNHCR/R. Chalasani

Ethnic conflicts originate from environmental stress forcing two or more groups to compete for the same land and resources. Scarcity in many third world countries, produced by the rising expectation from people has pressured governments to deliver social services that are simply not available resulting to shortfalls and causing local instability, because government with inadequate resources to match peoples demands simply chooses to rely on repression for control. In Haiti, for example, a small mulatto elite suppressed the black majority to seize the limited wealth of the country for themselves. Indeed, as the environments providing capacity decreases, comes or follows political economic subjugation, meaning more instability and authoritarian rule bringing much suffering to people. Today, civic spirit among people to work for the common good had extended from the local to the global level as private individuals and groups link up across borders to improve environmental conditions. Environmental issues are easily understood compare to other political or more theoretical concerns because people can appreciate environmental problems personally by experiencing firsthand poisoned air, contaminated water and toxic waste in ways that transcend culture, social status, nationality and other differences. LCCM Research Digest

Ecosystem a balanced environment in a particular habitat that allows animals and plants to meet their needs and to function successfully. Environment combination of surrounding physical conditions, such as air, water, minerals, and other organisms, that affect a particular organism including human life. Global civil society a public sphere of activity by private individuals, groups and states or governments interacting for common causes. Human ecology study of human interaction with the biosphere, especially concerning healthy human life while sustaining the physical environment. Steady-state society - a human society that can balance its number with the natural resources available, usually by leveling off human numbers and replenishing resources as people use them. Sustainable environment process of developing land, cities, business, communities, and so on that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." References William O. and Boyan, S. (1992). Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity. Deudney, D. (1998)Global Environmental Rescue and the Emergence of World Domestic Politics.

Gore, Al. 1995).Earth in the Ecology and the Human Spirit.


Homer-Dixon, T. (1991). On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict. Korten, D. (1990). Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary Action and the Global Agenda Wagner, P. (1995)Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics.

Dr. Edgardo Gonzaga Faculty School of Arts and Sciences Research Interests: International relations; Political Dynamics Contact Number 736-02-35 local 21

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