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Field visit report Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project

Name: M.A.M.Ziyan Index no: 090593A Date of Visit: 09/09/2011 Date of Submit: 23/09/2011

Introduction Electricity is the one of main constrain in development in country. The percentage of people connected to grid, the cost of electricity is one of main consideration when the development of country is measured. The demand for electricity in Sri Lanka has been growing at an annual rate of 7-8% and this rate will continue in future. To meet this growing demand each year, 150MW of energy generating capacity should be added to national grid. Presently 60% of the annual demand is provided by various hydropower plants and also Hydro power generation is the cost effective power generation method for country like Sri Lanka due to the large number of streams and rivers in the Southern Highlands which are fed by Sri Lankas two monsoon seasons. The UKHP is likely to be the last large scale hydropower scheme to be developed in Sri Lanka except for few other sites with potential for medium scale plants, and mini-hydropower plants. Project Funding The Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project is funded by the Government of Japan on an Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) loan executed between the two governments on March 28, 2002. The loan is extended to Sri Lanka by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Total loan of up to 33,265 million yen to be used for the Upper Kotmale Hydro Power Project being implemented by the Ceylon Electricity Board. The loan will finance civil works, the installation of equipment and facilities, and consulting services (construction supervision, management-consulting). Re-payment period is 40 years(Including 10 years of grace period). Location The UKHP is located in the Southern Highlands of Sri Lanka and is part of the Nuwara Eliya administrative district. The project area covers some 540km2 of the upstream catchment of the Kotmale Oya, a tributary of the Mahaweli Ganga. The intake dam is located on the edge of the town of Talawakelle. The power station is located in niyamgamdhora. The water is bring to the niyamgamdhora through 13Km underground tunnel. The Environmental Impact Assessment identified key issues associated with the UKHP as, impacts on water fall aesthetics due to stream flow reductions, social impacts due to resettlement of affected people, possible effects on ground water due to tunneling, impacts due to de-watering of streams on downstream water uses and impacts on bio-diversity. St .Clair waterfall is crossed and actions have taken to avoid drying that. Further detailed studies on alternatives were completed in 1996 and the Secretary of the Ministry of Forestry and Environment granted approval for the project in July 1998 subject to strict adoption of proposed mitigatory measures to minimize possible environmental impacts, which included the development of a watershed management plan, maintenance of daytime flows over the waterfalls, monitoring of groundwater levels, an assessment of biodiversity, management of tunnel waste and a resettlement program. This decision was challenged in the Court of Appeal in October 1998. The Secretary of the Ministry of Forestry and Environment gave final order in March 2000, subsequent to the settlement of the appeal.

Overview The UKHP is a run of river hydropower project. It is capable of generating 150MW. It consists of two generators of 75MW capacity. It will produce 409GWh per year. It has the following components: a) Dam - situated in Talawakelle town Height :- 35.5m Length :- 180m Effective capacity:- 0.8 MCM Surface area:- 0.25km2 Full supply level = 1194 masl Minimum operating level = 1190 masl Normal tail water level = 703 masl Net head at FSL = 473 m Maximum plant discharge = 35 m3/s b) Headrace tunnel Running north from the dam towards the Pundal Oya Falls before turning to the northwest towards the existing Kotmale dam and reservoir. (The maximum gross head between the reservoir and the powerhouse will be 491m). Diameter = 4.5m Length = 12.9Km c) An upstream surge tank -12m in diameter and 98m high with a restricted opening, located on the crest of the power house. d) The penstock -formed by an underground incline shaft starting with a diameter of 4.5m and reducing to 1.45m. It is 793m in length, consisting of one lane of 745m and two lanes of 48m. e) An underground powerhouse located at Niyamgamdora, (2km upstream of the confluence of Puna Oya and Kotmale Oya) with dimensions of 66.3m L x 18.8m W x 36.5m H to house two units of 77,000kW turbines, two vertical axis three phase 88,000kVA generators, two 3-phase transformers and a 220kV Gas Insulator Switchgear (GIS) substation. f) An outdoor switchyard, 36.5m wide and 130m long, located at Niyamgamdora, to connect the Power House to a 220kV double circuit transmission line. g) 220kV double circuit transmission line of 18km length to transmit power generated to existing Kotmale Substation and the associated switch yard extensions.

Contracts The Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project is implemented through five separate contracts comprising of LOT 1 to 5 1. Lot 1: Preparatory Woks Preparatory Woks is aimed at preparing the site for the other Lots to commence, including construction of all facilities to the Project Affected Persons. This Lot is composed of four sections namely, Access road to the Respective Construction Sites Permanent Facilities for the Employer and the Engineer Permanent Facilities for the Re-settlers 33 kV Construction Supply Contracts is granted to M/S Maeda Corporation of Japan

2. Lot 02: Main Civil Works- Main Civil Works is the largest lots out of the five lots of having more than half of the project cost will be used to construct civil works. Contract is granted to Maeda Nishimatsu corporation of japan Main Intake Dam- River Diversion Works, Intake Dam, Control Building, Land Reclamation Works and Road and Bridge Works Waterways- Headrace Tunnel, Upstream Surge Tank, Shaft for Penstock, Draft Tunnel, Downstream Surge Chamber, Tailrace Tunnel and Outlet Powerhouse Complex and Switchyard- underground powerhouse complex, Access Tunnel, Cable Tunnel and outdoor Switchyard

3. Lot 03: Hydro Mechanical Equipment- Hydro mechanical Equipment, of Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project is contracted to the Japanese contractors, according to the loan agreement with JBIC, to Design, Supply, Erection and Commission the list of equipment mentioned under the Scope of Work and accounts for about 6.4% of the total project cost. Contract is granted to kurimoto ltd of japan. Main Dam and Intake at Talawekele Diversion Waterway and Power Station Discharge Facility for St. Clairs Water Fall 4. Lot 4 : Electro Mechanical Equipment - Electro Mechanical Equipment is a turnkey contract and the Lot 4 contractor is responsible for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of the equipment listed below Turbine ( Francis type) Generator ( 75MW X 2) Overhead Traveling Crane Power Transformer

Switchyard Equipment Power Plant Equipment Telecommunication Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment

5. Lot 5 : Transmission Line- Contract is to construct the Transmission Line to connect the UKHP plant to the 220 kV National Grid at the existing Kotmale substation. Transmission Line has been awarded to the Kinden Corporation, Japan Consultant Electric Power Development Co. Ltd (J-POWER) was selected as Consultant to the Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project Local Consultant -Central Engineering Construction Bureau (CECB) has deployed as Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project Local Consultant. The Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau (CECB) is a corporate body established in 1973 to provide Engineering Consultancy Services on a commercial basis. Resettlement Altogether 497 households in 11 communities are affected by the Project. The affected households are relocated in eight (08) new locations and they are nearby to their old residence place. Most of affected people had lived under poor facilities some did not even own a legal deed for their property. Through this project they have given facilitated houses with roads, schools and other infrastructures. Income of majority of the households is not affected, as they continue to work in the nearby tea estates even after they are resettled in new locations. In addition to that new job opportunities have been arisen like labour, electrical wiring, motor mechanic work, and welding in this project as.

Discussion UKHP is a run of river hydro project which do not store water for long time as other hydro project but store for few days. Generally the water store is not termed as reservoir in this type. It is called pond. The water stored in the pond is enough to run the generator for 8 hours. To run the operation the water level should be higher than 4 meter from intake tunnel. The water is taken to the power station in Niyamgamdhora from Talawakela through headrace tunnel, distance of 12.9Km. It is travelled horizontally. Then near power station there is a penstock of height 793m. This penstock is divided into to two paths (bifurcation) near turbines to supply both turbines. There is a surge tank to reduce the increased pressure when the penstock is suddenly closed. If the penstock is suddenly closed there will be twice of pressure (due to water hammer effect) as before in penstock. If there is no surge tank then the penstock should be designed to withstand that pressure and cost will increase. The turbine which is Francis type will rotate from the water and generator connected to it will generate power. The underground power station consists of 3 floors called turbine, generator and machine hall floor. This hydropower plant is mainly planed for supply peak hour demand. The water is stored is enough for 8 hour operation so that it can be used to supply two days demand. In the rainy session it is possible to give base load as well. The reasons for having two 75MW generators than having 150MW one generator are One generator can be repaired while other working One generator can be driven if the water supply is not enough One generator can be driven if low supply is needed because it is more efficient when running in full load rather than divide it into two.

To avoid drying St. Clairs Water Fall water stream is supplied in whole day. In addition to that there will be another water supply for half hour in once hour.so the every half an hour we could watch the St. Clairs Water Fall.