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On completion of this lesson you will know: • • • Basic concepts of quantum computer Quantum Algorithms Challenges for the quantum computer

Quantum Computing

Introduction: People all over this world are thinking about atomic scale computing and scientist all over the world work on it. Quantum mechanics is a science where we get the mysterious information about the tiny particle. Now we are trying to utilize the advantage of this mysterious behaviour of these tiny particles. Nobel prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman at the year of 1982, start to thinking about the Quantum computer where he thought that use Quantum mechanics phenomena. After this great start of Richard Feynman scientist over the world start to dream about Quantum computer. First it seems like theoretical work, but then scientist start to work for make it practical one. The superposition is the main advantage of Quantum computer and scientist all over the world try to use this superposition for advance work. Another phenomenon of Quantum mechanics is used by future Quantum computing named entanglement. Using these characteristic of Quantum Mechanics, scientist want to build future computer.

Basics: Main property of Quantum computing is, it use Quantum properties for data representation and operation on data. In Classical computer is we find bits what are the basic of computing only 0 and 1. What we done in classical computer is done by these bits but in Quantum Computer we find 0, 1 and superposition of this two states. We can think this superposition as a mixture of these two states. Generally in Quantum Computer using n qubits it can represent 2^n different states simultaneously. Operating on these qubits a Quantum computer working and using these qubits Quantum computer do whatever it needs. Scientist all over the world working on these area and many people

|↓> = 0 z y z x |↑> = 1 Figure: Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit. We can think these qubits using two spin states particle.from all over the world successfully represent different small scale simulation for Quantum Computer what give a hope for making a real Quantum Computer. Above the picture represent a Bolch sphere. Suppose we use a register of three bits for a representing a number from 0 to 7 and we can represent one number among the numbers. But Quantum computer the scenario is little bit different. But using a Quantum register which is build with qubits if these qubits are in superposition the register can represent the numbers from 0 to 7 at the same time. This behaviour of qubits is known as quantum parallelism. |↓> is known as 0 and when the |↑> the it is known as 1. like when the spin is up then it is one and when the spin direction is down then it is zero. Working scheme: We know from previous that the basic building block of a classical computer is bit which consist of two states 0 and 1. . We can represent a qubit using this geometrical figure. it can calculation using all possible values of the input register at once. If we can make a processor of Qubits. .

When a classical computer algorithm try to find a specific entity from a unsorted database it takes N/2 number of search when the total number of entities is N. This one is for factoring numbers.Quantum Algorithms: Based on Quantum phenomena different type of algorithms build and they only work for Quantum computer. When the database size is become big then this becomes more significant. Different type of experimental and theoretical research in quantum computation is going on all over the world and day by day it increasing. . Shor’s algorithm 2. Quantum phenomenons are very critical to work with normal environment than isolated environment. But first have to build quantum computer. Different challenges: First step for making a quantum computer is making quantum gates. But it’s very hopeful that people all over the world working on it and many hopeful outputs come out from the research. Its may take hundreds of years to build the Quantum computer but it help to people to understand the real quantum phenomena. Grover’s algorithm: Lov Grover has written an algorithm for searching a unsorted database to find a specific entity which is build for quantum computer and it faster than classical computer. Still people are in experimental stage and not independently work with nano particles. Main two quantum algorithms are 1. But Grover’s algorithm shows that it possible by using root N number of search. Grover’s algorithm Shor’s Algorithm: Peter Shor has written this algorithm for factoring a number for Quantum computer. Experimenters work on different type of particle for finding which type of particle is based selection for making quantum gates. Different types of experiment going on based on different materials. This algorithm is based on quantum phenomena and tries to utilize the Quantum parallelism. Factoring a big number is one of the challenges for classical computer but in Quantum computer it is very quick to find a factor for a big number.

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