Você está na página 1de 67

IRRN growing and changing The International Rice Research Newsletter is in its 12th year of publication.

. In its first issue, October 1976, the IRRN objective was stated as: To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and for rice-based cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in the world , . . IRRN is a mechanism to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings. That remains our objective. To meet that objective in the expanding and increasing complexity of the rice research world, we are initiating some changes, effective with the 1988 publication year. The family of rice researchers is growing exponentially. We distributed 6,000 copies of IRRN Vol. 1, No. 1; we will distribute close to 13,000 copies of Vol. 12, No. 4, to individual scientists and to the libraries of research institutions. The first issue totaled 24 pages; some issues this year totaled 54 pages. The number of research brief reports being submitted has more than doubled, and grows daily. For IRRN to continue to meet its objective efficiently and with increased quality, the categories of research reported are being expanded to include new specializations and topics now being researched. The Guidelines for Contributors have been expanded and specified more precisely. Criteria for reviewers emphasize the global nature of rice research work reports that will be accepted. The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the new categories and the new guidelines that follow. If you have comments or suggestions, please write the editor, IRRN. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. Guidelines for contributors to IRRN The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of research briefs on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world. Contributions to IRRN should be reports of recent work and work-inprogress that have broad interest and application. Please observe these guidelines in preparing submissions: The report should not exceed two pages of double-spaced typewritten text. No more than two figures (graphs, tables, or photos) may

accompany the text. Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Items that exceed the specified length will be returned. Include a brief statement of research objectives and project design. The discussion should be brief, and should relate the results of the work to its objectives. Report appropriate statistical analysis. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. Specify the environment (irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deep water, tidal wetlands). If you must use local terms to specify landforms or cropping systems, explain or define them in parentheses. Specify the type of rice culture (e.g., transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet, dry, monsoon) and by months. Do not use national or local terms for seasons or, if used, define them. When describing the rice plant and its cultivation, use standard, internationally recognized designators for plant parts and growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not use local terms. When reporting soil nutrient studies, be sure to include standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants; do not use common names or local names alone. Survey data should be quantified (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.). When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the actual quantification of damage due to stress used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per row (g/row) for small-scale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use national monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate $:local currency at the time data were collected. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, following it with the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Define in a footnote or legend any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or figure.

IRRN: categories of research reported GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality and nutritional value disease resistance insect resistance drought tolerance excess water tolerance adverse temperature tolerance adverse soils tolerance integrated germplasm improvement research techniques data management and computer modeling IRTP seed technology CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT soils and soil characterization soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer physiology and plant nutrition crop management soil fertility and fertilizer management INSFFER disease management insect management weed management managing other pests integrated pest management water management farm machinery environmental analysis postharvest technology farming systems ARFSN research methodology data management and computer modeling SOCIOECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT environment production livelihood EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION training and technology transfer research communication research information storage and retrieval Criteria for IRRN research reports has international, or pan-national, relevance has rice environment relevance advances rice knowledge uses appropriate research design and data collection methodology reports appropriate, adequate data applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques reaches supportable conclusions

Contents
GENETIC EVALUATION AND UTILIZATION
Overall progress 5 TPS2 variety for Kanyakumari 5 Dominant dwarf mutants in rice induced with fractionated dose of gamma rays 6 TNAU80030 - a promising medium-duration rice for Tamil Nadu 6 IR18348-36-3-3, a promising rice for irrigated and slight acid sulfate soil in Vietnam 7 Metica I released in Brazil Germplasm 7 A simple and convenient method to preserve seed of rice germplasm Agronomic characteristics 8 Response of new rice varieties to N 9 Performance of overage seedlings at different N levels Grain quality 9 Two promising scented rice varieties for the Mekong Delta 10 Molecular basis for puffing quality of rice 10 High-yielding aromatic rice variety GR101 11 Physicochemical properties as a basis for identifying preferred cooking quality 12 Effect of time of evaluation on alkali spreading values 12 High density grain index among primary and secondary tillers of shortand long-duration rices Disease resistance 12 Sugars and phenolic compounds in rice leaves in relation to varietall resistance to bacterial blight (BB) pathogen 13 Field screening IRRI lines against tungro (RTV) disease in Lanrang 13 Manoharsali, neck blast-resistant variety 14 Reaction of varieties and selections to green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) in the greenhouse 14 Ragged stunt virus (RSV) concentration in tolerant rice 14 Symptoms and yield reduction in tolerant varieties infected with ragged stunt virus (RSV) 15 Incidence of rice kernel smut (KSm) in Pakistan 15 Reaction of selected varieties to tungro (RTV) and green leafhopper (GLH) Insect resistance 16 Tolerance of some rice varieties for gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason 17 Stem borers (SB) in dryland and wetland rice 17 Screening of rice accessions against leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis 18 Screening rice varieties for resistance to mealybug Drought tolerance 18 Evaluation of drought-resistant upland rice accessions Adverse soils tolerance 19 A breeding method for tolerance for acid sulfate soil 19 Performance of coarse and fine rice varieties on alkali soils 20 Vyttila 3, a new rice variety for acid saline areas Temperature tolerance 20 Chhomro a promising cold-tolerant traditional rice variety for rainfed wetlands in western hills in Nepal 21 Low temperature tolerance of traditional Vietnamese varieties Hybrid rice 21 Potassium nutrition in hybrid rice 22 Test cross for restorer genes using three male sterile lines Tissue culture 23 Influence of position of rice anthers at plating on callusing and plant regeneration 23 Somatic embryogenesis in rice Oryza sativa, cultivar IR40 24 Somatic embryogenesis in wild rice Oryza perennis Moench

PEST CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT


Diseases 25 Trichoderma in Philippine ricefield soils 25 Interaction in vivo between virulent and avirulent cultures of rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen 26 Fungicidal control of rice sheath blight (ShB) 27 Damage by rice root-knot nematode 27 Detection of seedborne rice fungi by blotter method 28 Cost comparison of neem oil and an insecticide against rice tungro virus (RTV) 29 Ufra threatens deepwater rice in Majuli, Assam 29 Ufra problem in low-lying areas of Bangladesh 30 Weed hosts of ragged stunt virus (RSV) 30 Frequency and timing of insecticide application to control rice tungro virus (RTV) 31 Sheath blotch (SBL) of rice 32 Effect of Azolla hipinnata soil amendment on reduction in viability of sclerotia of rice stem rot (SR) fungus 32 Pestalotia oryzae a new rice fungus in India 33 Effect of grain spotting on rice quality 33 Distribution of rice seedling damping-off in Bangladesh 33 Relationship between tungro transmission by individual Nephotettix virescens, mode of feeding, and life span 34 Incidence of rice panicle stalk blast (Bl) in Manipur Insects 35 Predators of rice insect pests in Chhattishgarh region, Madhya Pradesh, India 35 Effect of insecticides on eggs of Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) 35 Insect pests on main and ratoon rice 36 Electronically recorded waveforms associated with brown planthopper (BPH) feeding activity 37 Strepsipteran parasites of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers in the Philippines 38 Nymphula africalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of azolla in Nigeria 39 Minimum levels of three commonly used insecticides to control five insect pests of rice in the Philippines 40 Biotype shift in a brown planthopper (BPH) population on IR42 41 Control of tungro (RTV) and yellow stem borer (YSB) in rice by synthetic pyrethroids 41 Rice thrips infestations in West Bengal 42 Nymphula africalis, azolla pest in Nigeria 42 Occurrence of a predatory mite Pyemotes ventricosus on Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. 42 Effect of 8 insecticides on rice bug eggs 42 Rice leaffolder (LF) species in North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu 43 Persistence of quinalphos in rice 43 Insecticides to control rice hispa 43 Egg parasites of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in Sri Lanka 44 Diluted quinalphos and fenthion and control of whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) 44 Nisaga simplex caterpillar on rice in western Orissa 44 Rice leaffolder (LF) infestations in West Bengal 45 Biochemical changes in rice plants infested with mealybug

Weeds 45 Effect of frequent cultivation on Rottboellia cochinchinensis density 46 Weed control in irrigated wet and dry seeded rice in medium-textured soils of northwestern India 47 Ricefield weeds in South Andaman, India 47 Response of upland rice to weed control methods 48 Weed control in hybrid rice Other pests 48 Pomacea snails in the Philippines

SOIL AND CROP MANAGEMENT


49 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 Puddling methods for lowland rice Effect of spacing and seedlings per hill Performance of rice varieties on floating rafts Effect of land preparation on control of Paspalum distichum Effect of modified urea materials and N levels on transplanted rice Nitrogen management for increasing N efficiency in transplanted rice Nitrogen sources for flooded rice Effect of transplanting date and N application on yield Effect of slow-release nitrogen fertilizers on lowland rice Constraints to rice yields in Punjab, Pakistan Effect of soil N on rice yield in Punjab Rapid and sensitive method to estimate salinity tolerance of Azolla pinnata 54 Effect of azolla and inorganic N combined 55 Effect of cultivation method on the rice crop and the mechanical impediment of Vertisols 55 Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor

56 Effect of plant density and fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer efficiency 56 Effect of method of applying Azospirillum brasilense on rice yield 57 Effect of urea on decomposition of azolla 57 Induction of callus from leaf explants of Azolla pinnata 58 Cultural practices to reduce winter damage to rice 58 Effect of slow-release nitrogen fertilizers on rice yield 59 Damaged seedling roots and grain yield 59 Performance of long-duration CR1009 with aged seedlings 59 Preservation of Azolla pinnata germplasm 59 Ammonia volatilization loss in rice soils of Cauvery Delta 60 Response of upland rices to nitrogen 60 Relationship between organic N fraction and N uptake of rice in submerged soil 60 Effect of nitrogen on rice in an alkali soil

CONSEQUENCES
61 Energy management in rice production

RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS


63 63 64 64 Effect of soil amendments on rice and wheat yields in salt-affected soils Rice - fish cultivation in the hilly region of Karnataka, India Rice-based crop rotations for upland fields Zinc required for a rice - wheat sequence in alkali soils

ANNOUNCEMENTS
64 World Food Prize to Swaminathan 64 IRRI-CIMMYT honored 64 New IRRI publications

Guidelines and Style for IRRN Contributors


Articles for publication in the International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) should observe the following guidelines and style.
Guidelines

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


OVERALL PROGRESS
TPS2 - a new variety for Kanyakumari S. Kalaimani, O.R. Pillai, W. W. Manuel, and M. Subramanian, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

Contributions should not exceed two pages of double-spaced typewritten text. Two figures (graphs, tables, or photos) may accompany. each article. The editor will return articles that exceed space limitations. Contributions should be based on results of research on rice or on cropping patterns involving rice. Appropriate statistical analyses should be done. Announcements of the release of new rice varieties are encouraged. Pest survey data should be quantified. Give infection percentage, degree of severity, etc.

TPS2, a derivative of IR26/CO 40 developed at the Thiruppathisaram Rice Research Station, has been released. The semidwarf (90-95 cm) with 125 d

duration is suitable for second season (Sep-Oct) sowing. In testing at the research station and in adaptive research trials over the entire Kanyakumari district, it had 16.6-31.4% increases in grain yield and 27.6-48.8% increases in straw yield over IR20 (see table). TPS2 is moderately resistant to brown planthopper, leaffolder, and white tip nematode. It is nonlodging and nonshattering. Grain is bold, with a 1,000-grain weight of 23.5 g.

Characteristics of TPS2 in Kanyakumari, India, 1979-86. Variety Grain yield t/ha 4.6 3.5 4.1 3.4 4.2 3.6 of 1979-86. % increase 31.4 t/ha Station trials a 6.4 4.3 Straw yield % increase 48.8 31.7 27.6 Duration (d)

Style

For measurements, use the International System. Avoid national units of measure (cavan, rai, etc.). Abbreviate names of standard units of measure when they follow a number. For example: 20 kg/ha, 2 h/d. Express yield data in tonnes per hectare (t/ha) With small-scale studies, use grams per pot (g/pot) or g/row. Express time, money, and common measures in number, even when the amount is less than 10. For example: 8 min, $2, 3 kg/ha, 2-wk intervals. Write out numbers below 10 except in a series containing 10 or higher numbers. For example: six parts, seven tractors, four varieties. But There were 4 plots in India, 8 in Thailand, and 12 in Indonesia. Write out numbers that start sentences. For example: Sixty insects were put in each cage. Seventy-five percent of the yield increase is attributed to fertilizer. Place the name or denotation of chemicals or other measured materials near the unit of measure. For example: 60 kg N/ ha, not 60 kg/ha N; 200 kg seed / ha, not 200 kg/ ha seed. Use common names not trade names for chemicals. The US$ is the standard monetary unit in the IRRN. Data in other currencies should be converted to US$. When using acronyms, spell each out at first mention and put the specific acronym in parentheses. After that, use the acronym throughout the paper. For example: The brown planthopper (BPH) is a well-known insect pest of rice. Three BPH biotypes have been observed in Asia. Abbreviate names of months to three letters: Jun, Apr, Sep. Define in the footnote or legend any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or figure. Do not cite references or include a bibliography.

TPS2 IR20 TPS2 IR20 TPS2 IR20


a Mean

125 125 125 125 123 123

Adaptive research trials, 1982-83 20.1 10.8 8.2 Adaptive research trials, 1983-84 16.6 7.4 5.8

Dominant dwarf mutants in rice induced with fractionated dose of gamma rays

C. R. A. Kumar, S. R. Sree Rangasamy, School of Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Presoaked seeds (24 h in distilled water) of TKM6 were exposed to gamma rays

of 35 kR in split or fractionated treatments with 4-h intervals between each exposure. The treatments were 0, 35 kR in a single dose, 30 + 5 kR, 25 + 10 kR, 20 + 15 kR, 15 + 20 kR, 10 + 25 kR, and 5 + 30 kR. In the first generation (M1 ), plants survived from only 3 treatments: 5 + 30 kR (3 plants), 30 + 5 kR (5 plants), and 20 + 15 kR

Table 1. Performance of dominant dwarf mutants of TKM6 in the M 1 . Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Treatment 5 + 30 kR 30 + 5 kR 20 + 15 kR Control Plant height (cm) 84 84 85 150 Tillers (no.) 11 15 17 12 Panicle length (cm) 22.9 21.5 20.9 23.3 Yield/ plant (g) 6.2 20.9 19.6 9.2

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 5

irrespective of treatment (Table 1). When the plants were forwarded to the M2 , the dwarf nature was

(5 plants). All plants were dwarf,

maintained, with increase in tiller number and per-plant yield (Table 2). The dwarf plants were crossed with TKM6 in direct and reciprocal

combinations. The F 1 exhibited the dwarf nature (82.8 cm to 91.3 cm), confirming the dominant nature of the mutation.

Table 2. Performance of dwarf mutants in M 2 . Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Treatment 5 + 30 kR 30 + 5 kR 20 + 15 kR control

Plant height (cm) Mean SE 80.001.33 79.660.56 80.111.16 161.990.49 Range 71.5- 85.0 75.5- 81.0 75.0- 89.0 155.0-163.0 CV 2.35 0.99 2.05 0.43

Tillers (no.) Mean SE Range 9.661.15 9.420.60 9.330.85 9.400.38 5-16 6-12 8-14 8-11 CV 16.84 9.03 12.88 5.12

Panicle length (cm) Mean SE 18.241.19 20.440.48 18.380.43 25.740.51 Range 17.5-21.4 18.4-22.7 16.4-21.2 22.5-26.6 CV 9.23 3.32 3.31 2.8

Yield/plant (g) Mean SE 13.572.29 12.571.11 10.370.76 8.730.61 Range 5.1-28.7 7.6-16.0 7.2-14.9 7.5-10.3 CV 24.04 12.49 10.36 9.88

TNAUB80030 - a promising medium- duration rice for Tamil Nadu S. Palanisamy, G. A. Palanisamy, K. Natarajamoorthy, and R. Velusamy, School of Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641003, India

Yield of TNAU80030 in multilocation trials. Tamil Nadu, India, Sep-Oct 1985. Location Aduthurai Coimbatore Tirur Ambasamudram Madurai Pondicherry Tirupathisaram Trichy Paiyur Bhavanisagar Mean Yield (t/ha) TNAU80030 4.4 5.4 4.7 5.2 2.7 6.4 4.1 3.8 5.2 5.1 4.7 P837 3.9 4.6 4.4 5.0 2.9 8.9 2.1 4.5 5.1 5.7 4.7 CO 43 3.3 5.2 3.2 4.7 2.5 6.9 3.6 6.6 4.3 5.2 4.5 IR20 3.3 4.7 4.5 4.9 2.7 5.8 3.4 3.7 4.7 4.4 4.2

We evaluated several breeding lines for yield potential and field tolerance for brown planthopper. IR13240-82-2-3-2, a derivative of IR30/ Babawee/ / IR36, was found most promising. It was designated TNAU80030 for testing at the Paddy Breeding Station, Coimbatore, and was advanced to multilocation trial. In 10 locations, TNAU80030 ranked first in four and tied with P837 in two

and with CO 43 in one location (see table). TNAU80030 has been advanced to adaptive research trials in farmers' fields.

TNAU80030 is semidwarf with a medium slender grain type and field tolerance for brown planthopper, blast, and rice tungro virus.

IR18348-36-3-3, a promising rice for irrigated and slight acid sulfate soil in Vietnam Nguyen Van Luat, Bui Ba Bong, and Pham Cong Voc, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (CLRRI), Omon. Hau Giang, Vietnam

IR18348-36-3-3, a cross of IR5657-33-22 and IR2061-425-1-5-5, was selected at CLRRI from the International Rice Yield Nursery in early 1983. It has 100115 d maturity, 95-110 cm height, and good grain quality, and is suitable for irrigated, slight acid sulfate soils.

Table 2. Reaction of IR18348-36-3-3 to insects and diseases at CLRRI. Variety BPH IR18348-36-3-3 (OM89) NN6A NN3A Resistant check b Susceptible check c
a

Reaction a to B1 4-5 7-9 7-9 1 9 BB 5-7 7 7 2 8 ShB 7 7 7 3 7

Table 1. Yield of IR18348-36-3-3 in 1984-86 dry and wet seasons. Omon, Hau Giang, Vietnam. Variety IR18348-36-3-3 (OM89) NN3A (check) NN6A (check) cv (%) LSD 5% Dry season 1984 5.5 4.4 4.8 24.5 1.9 1985 5.4 5.5 5.3 1986 5.4 5.3 5.2 20.4 0.6 1983 6.1 4.8 5.2 13.3 1.1 Wet season 1984 5.6 5.7 5.6 1985 5.3 4.3 5.5 26.8 0.5 Average 5.5 4.9 5.2 1.3 0.2

3-5 3 3 3 9

By the Standard evaluation system for rice scale. b Resistant check was IR36 for brown planthopper (BPH), IR8 for blast (BI), Composelak for bacterial blight (BB), Tapochoz for sheath blight (ShB). c Susceptible check was TN1 for BPH, NN7A for B1, IR8 for BB, and IR36 for ShB.

6 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

In 1984-86 trials, the line yielded consistently higher than NN3A and NN6A (Table 1). It is moderately resistant to blast and brown planthopper

biotype 2 and susceptible to bacterial blight and sheath blight (Table 2). In 1986, IR18348-36-3-3 was named OM89 by the Ministry of Agriculture

and released for large-scale cultivation in the Mekong Delta. IR18348-36-3-3, was released by the Philippine Seed Board as IR64 in 1985.

Metica 1 released in Brazil P. H. N. Rangel, E. P. Guimares and V. dos A. Cutrim, National Research Center for Rice and Beans (EMBRAPA/CNPAF) Caixa Postal 179, 74000 Goinia, Goias, Brazil

Irrigated rice is about 30% of the total area planted to rice in Brazil and 40% of total rice production. The most important areas for irrigated rice are located in the south, but lately emphasis has been placed on developing varieties for the tropical region. In 1981, the National Research Center for Rice and Beans (EMBRAPA/ CNPAF) introduced Metica 1 from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. Beginning in 1982, this variety was evaluated in several Brazilian states and in 1986 was released for commercial use in four states. Average yields of Metica 1 were 14 50% higher than local checks' (see table), with similar grain quality. However, Metica 1 was found to be susceptible to brown spot and rice blast, primarily where water control was not adequate. The figure shows the area currently planted to irrigated rice in the states where Metica 1 was released.

Area (ha) planted to irrigated rice in states where Metica 1 was released, Goiania, Brazil. Days to flowering and grain yield of Metica 1. a Goina, Brazil. Days to flowering 115 80 90115 95 Grain yield (t/ha) Metica 1 4.9 6.9 8.0 6.2 7.0 Cica 8 (check) 6.0 6.7 4.1 5.6 De Abril (check) 4.3 Yield increase (%) 14 16 19 50 25

State Rio de Janeiro (RJ) Piaui (PI) Gois (Go) Mato Grosso (MT) Mean (PI, GO, MT)
a

Av of 29 trials.

GERMPLASM

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


sorted in boxes placed in an ordinary room where the average monthly temperatures are about 5C, 6C, 11 C, 17C, 22C, 26C, 29C, 29C, 24C, 18C, 12C, and 10C Jan Dec. After 10 yr, the seeds still have desirable germination abilities. Average moisture content before sealing was about 12%; it is now 78%. Average germination rate is about 90%. Seedlings derived from the germinated seeds grow well in the field. The characteristics of this preservation method are 1. Wellsealed conditions. The ampule was sealed by melting the glass tip, the relative humidity was very low and, with adequate silica gel, continuously becomes lower and lower.

A simple and convenient method to preserve seed of rice germplasm ChangXiang Mao, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha, Hunan, China

More than 500 samples of rice seed harvested in autumn 1976 were sealed with indicating silica gel in glass ampules (see figure). The sealed ampules were

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 7

2. Ease in operating. It is very easy to seal the ampule vials using a bunsen burner and a pair of tweezers. 3. Ease in keeping. The ampule is made of glass, which cannot be affected by moisture, insects, and rats. It can be stored in normal conditions. 4. Low cost. The ampules are very cheap. One 2-ml ampule can store 2030 rice seeds, enough to use for breeding parents. A 20-ml ampule bottle can hold 500 rice seeds. 5. Use for other crops. Glass ampules can be used for other small-seed crops, such as wheat, vegetables, and rapeseeds.

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.
Rice seed samples in glass ampules. Hunan, China, 1987.

AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Response of new rice varieties to N M.S.Maskina, yadvinder-singh and BijaySingh,Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


Grain yield, N uptake, and yield parameters of 3 rice varieties at different levels of N application, Punjab, India, 1986 summer. Variety PR106 PR108 PR109 No N 2.7 3.3 3.1 90 kg N/ha 120 kg N/ha 150 kg N/ha 6.2 6.7 6.4 6 .4 10.7 11.9 11.5 11.4 112 127 117 119 100 118 107 9.6 10.4 10.0 Mean 5.0 5.6 5.3

Rice variety PR106 covers about 80% of the area under rice in punjab. Recently, yield at experimental farms and in farmers fields have dropped markedly Susceptibilityof cultivars to a number of plant dieases was ofund to be the major reason. Two new varieties with high yield potential PR108 and PR109 are more resitant to plant pathogens. Because Punjab soils are inherently deficient in organic matter N, a subtanstial response of the three varaties to applied N is expected. We studied the response of thr three varaties to four N level during 1986 summer.Treatment were laid out in a slit-plot design with three replicantion Soils (pH8.4 EC 0.16 dS/m, 0.30%

Grain yield (t/ha) 5.8 5.5 6.3 6.0 6.1 5.7

Mean 3.0 5.7 6.1 LSD (P=0.05): N levels = 0.27, varieties = 0.31, NXV = ns PR106 PR108 PR109 8.4 8.5 8.7 Effective tillers/plant 9.4 9.7 9.5 11.5 9.1 10.6

Mean 8.5 9.3 10.6 LSD (P=0.05): N levels = 0.5, varieties = 0.4, NXV = ns PR106 PR108 PR109 92 109 94 Filled spikelets/panicle 97 99 115 122 107 109 110

Mean 98 106 LSD (P=0.05): N levels = 7, varieties = 8, NXV = ns PR106 PR108 PR109 39 61 53 106 127 113 N uptake

125 140 132 132

138 150 142 143

102 120 110

Mean 51 115 LSD (P=0.05): N levels = 9, varieties = 8, NXV = ns

8 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

organic C, 0.04% total N) of the experimental field was loamy sand (Typic Ustochrept) with an average percolation rate of 4 mm/ h. N as urea was applied in 3 equal splits: at transplanting and 21 and 42 d

after transplanting. A basal dose of 13 kg P and 12 kg K/ha was applied at last puddling. All the 3 varieties responded up to 150 kg N/ha. PR108 significantly outyielded PR106 at all N levels (see

table). Yield components also were highest in PR108. PR108 matures 6-8 d earlier than PR106, an advantage for early sowing of wheat in a rice - wheat cropping system.

Performance of overage seedlings at different N levels D. M. Maurya and M. P. Yadav, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Crop Research Station, Masodha, Faizabad, U. P., India

Yield and yield attributes of overage seedlings of 4 varieties as influenced by N level. Masodha, India. Treatment N level (kg/ha) 0 50 100 CD (0.05) Variety Mahsuri Sarjoo 52 Ratna Saket 4 CD (0.05) Panicles/m 2 Panicle weight (g) 1.6 1.7 2.0 0.2 1.7 2.3 1.7 1.3 0.3 1000-grain weight (g) 20.3 20.9 21.7 0.3 15.2 27.1 21.6 20.1 0.4 Plant height (cm) 73 82 90 3 94 77 79 77 3 Grain yield (t/ha) 1.5 2.4 2.9 0.1 2.6 2.3 2.1 1.9 0.1

We studied the effect of N level on grain yield and yield parameters using overage seedlings of four transplanted rice varieties - Mahsuri, Sarjoo 52, Ratna, and Saket 4 in a randomized block design with four replications. Experimental plot soil was sandy loam with pH 7.5, EC (1:2) 0.09 mmho/cm, 0.42% organic C, 17.5 kg available P/ ha, and 135 kg available K/ha. Fiftyfive-day-old seedlings were transplanted 10 Aug 1983 at 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20 10-cm spacing. Urea was applied at 0, 50, and 100 kg N/ha. Single superphosphate and muriate of potash at 18 and 32 kg/ ha were basally applied. Each increment of N significantly increased panicle number, panicle

35 44 52 7.0 42 35 41 54 4

weight, test weight, plant height, and grain yield (see table), but average N use efficiency was low, 17.7 kg grain/kg N with 50 kg N/ha and 14.1 kg grain/kg N with 100 kg N/ha. In general, grain yield and yield parameters were adversely affected by planting overage seedlings, which resulted in low grain yields for all varieties. Long-duration Mahsuri performed better than medium

Sarjoo 52 and short Ratna and Saket 4. Although Sarjoo 52 yields higher than other varieties under normal conditions, Mahsuri performed better under these conditions, probably because its longer duration gave sufficient growth and development time to overcome late seedling planting. N application was beneficial to grain yield, even with overage seedlings.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


GRAIN QUALITY
Two promising scented rice varieties for the Mekong Delta Nguyen Xuan Hien and Nguyen Zhu Ha, Plant Breeding Department, Institute of Agricultural Technology of South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Table 1. Agricultural characteristics and grain quality of promising scented varieties. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Character Culm length (cm) Growth duration (d) Panicles/plant Panicle length (cm) Fully filled spikelets/panicle 1000-grain wt (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Culm strength b Brown rice length (mm) Brown rice length-to-width ratio Chakinessb Scentb
aAv

Nang-thom sel. 141.8 160.3 10.6 23.7 108.0 23.4 3.85 5-7 7.03 3.36 1 2

Nang-huong-ran sel. 145.6 165.3 7.3 23.6 131.3 24.9 4.88 1-3 6.62 3.22 1 1

Two promising scented rice varieties Nang-thom sel. and Nang-huong-ran sel. have been released for specific areas in the Mekong Delta. The varieties are suitable for the early Jul - late Dec crop in various waterlogged ricefields. Nang-huong-ran sel. is distinguished

of 4-yr trials. bStandard evaluation system for rice codes.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 9

by strong culms and large and dark green leaves. It grows well in light acid sulfate soils, but has a rather long growth duration. Nang-thom sel. meets all the requirements of Asian rice consumers (Table 1). Gross income for Nang-thom sel. is about 50% higher than that for Nang-huong-ran sel. and other common scented rices. More than 40 samples of 22 scented varieties were collected from 11 provinces in the south and screened in a 4-yr project. The two new varieties confirmed yield and grain quality superiorities over cultivars in testing in relatively large areas during two recent seasons (Table 2).

Table 2. Yields of scented varieties in on-farm trials in Vietnam. Cooperative Thanh Loc (Ho Chi Minh city) An Lac (HCM city) An Phu Tay (HCM city) My Le (Long An Province)
a

Yield (t/ha) Nang-thom sel. 3.6 (135) 3.4 (118) 3.0 (125) 3.3 (115) Nang-huong-ran sel. 3.9 (150) 3.5 (137) 3.8 (131) Check a 2.6 (100) 2.9 (100) 2.4 (100) 2.9 (100)

Local scented varieties. Figures in parentheses are % of local check.

The International Rice Research Newsletter and the IRRI Reporter are mailed free to qualified individuals and institutions engaged in rice production and training. For further information write: IRRI, Communication and Publications Dept., Division R, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Molecular basis for puffing quality of rice B. Thayumanavan, Biochemistry Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

Table 2. Percentage hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin by salivary a -amylase at different time intervals.a Coimbatore, India. Variety Bhavani IR50 Ponni ASD7 CO 25 LSD
a

Component A AP A AP A AP A AP A AP A AP

Percentage hydrolysis at indicated time 30 min 51.8 50.0 49.7 48.2 4 1.4 48.2 43.5 38.3 21.8 38.3 60 min 62.1 59.6 65.3 50.4 53.6 48.9 51.8 43.5 34.7 44.2 120 min 66.2 59.6 79.0 51.8 65.0 49.4 60.1 49.4 43.3 52.2 240 min 86.0 61.9 84.9 56.2 79.7 55.7 66.2 56.9 50.8 59.0 360 min 93.2 65.3 88.0 65.3 83.9 62.1 66.2 57.9 54.9 66.2

High-amylose varieties such as Bhavani and IR50 are preferred for making puffed rice. We compared the molecular properties of amylose and amylopectin in Bhavani and IR50 with those in CO 25, ASD7, and Ponni, which are preferred for making rice flakes, idli, and cooked rice. The amylopectin of Bhavani showed a longer chain than the other varieties studied (Table 1). The chain length of amylose was not determined. The amylose and amylopectin isolated from these varieties were treated with
Table 1. Amylose percentage and chain length of amylopectin in rice varieties.a Coimbatore, India. Variety Bhavani IR50 CO 25 Ponni ASD7 LSD
a

0.7 (between varieties) 0.8 (between varieties)

Each value represents the average of duplicate analysis. A = amylose, AP = amylopectin.

alpha-amylase and the amount of reducing sugars released was measured across time. The rate of release of reducing sugars from the amylose of Bhavani and IR50 was faster than in the

other varieties (Table 2). For amylopectin, the rate of release of reducing sugars was faster for Bhavani.

Amylose (%) 30.0 27.6 27.3 27.2 29.5 0.48

Chain length (no. of glucose/ branch) 26 23 22 22 21 0.95

High-yielding aromatic rice variety GR101


N. D. Desai, S. Raman, M. U. Kukadia, and M. R. Patel, National Agricultural Research Project, Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari 396453, Gujarat, India

Each value represents the average of triplicate analysis.

GR 101, selected from segregating

material of IR8/Pankhali 203 cross, was released in 1986. The new variety has maintained its superior performance at all locations (Table 1). It has yielded 4.1 t/ ha, 83.6% more than Pankhali 203. GRl0l has long, slender, fine grains with an oily translucent kernel and mild aroma (Table 2). It has resistance to neck blast.

10 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Table 1. Average yield data and yield characteristics of promising scented cultures. Gujarat, India, 1980-83. Grain yield (t/ha) 4.1 2.2 Flowering (d) 105 92 Plat height (cm) 101 140 1000-grain weight (g) 19.3 17.2 Length (mm) Breadth (mm) Classification Milled rice recovery (%) 69.63 53.78

Variety

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

GRl0l Pankhali 203 (check)

9.52 8.43

2.24 2.30

Fine Fine

Table 2. Quality characteristics of GR101. Kernel

Variety GRl0l
Pankhali 203 (check)

Length (mm) 6.5 5.7

Breadth (mm) 1.9 1.9

Water uptake (%) 295 185

Alkali spreading

Alkali clearing

Protein (%) 7 7

Moisture (%) 13 13

Starch value 21 6

After cooking Appearance Cohesiveness Tenderness


Whole smooth grain Indistinct broken grain Wellseparated grain Sticky Firm and chewy Firm and chewy

Taste
Scented Scented

Completely Collar dispersed cleared Collar incomplete Collar cottony

Physicochemical properties as a basis for identifying preferred cooking quality B. Thayumanavan, Biochemistry Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 3, India

influence the cooking quality of milled rice. We measured physicochemical parameters of 40 popular rice varieties (Table 1). The varieties were classified as rices with high, medium, and low cooking quality on the basis of total points (Table 2).

Table 2. Total evaluation points of rice varieties and cultures. a Coimbatore, India. Variety or culture IR20 Ponni IR60 Bhavani IR50 CO41 White Ponni ADT36 IR62 CO 44 IR42 NLR CO 37 ADT27 CO 43 CO 25 ASDl5 Ponmani IR8 TKM9 ASD1 ASD7 TNAU801790 TNAU831293 TNAU801793 AD85001 TNAU80042 TNAU80058 AS25370 TNAU80030 AD9408 AS13744 BS8 IET7301 IET7590 AS28883 IET7303 BC367-4 TM8089 = >25, medium = 20-24, law = <20. Total 28 28 28 27 27 27 27 27 26 26 25 25 23 23 23 23 22 21 17 17 16 15 28 26 26 26 25 25 25 23 23 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 19

Many physicochemical properties


Table 1. Cooking quality of physicochemical characteristics of milled rice. Coimbatore, India. Characteristic Pericarp Single grain weight (mg) Length (mm) Shape L/B/T a Surface area (cm2 /g) Alkali disintegration value Cooked volume for 100 g rice (CC) Elongation ratio in length Elongation ratio in shape (L/B) Amylose content (%)
a Length-breadth-thickness.

Cooking quality High Red >23 <5 <1.2 <15.0 >6.0 <260 <1.4 <2.4 <20.00 Medium White 18.0 22.9 5.0 5.99 1.21 1.59 15.1 16.9 3.1 5.99 261279 1.40 1.59 2.41 2.99 20.0024.99 Low <18 >6 >1.6 >17.0 <3.0 >280 >1.6 >3.0 >25

Complete slide sets of photos printed in Field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the Communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. No orders for surface mail handling will be accepted.

a High

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 11

Effect of time of evaluation on alkali spreading values

A. A. Vidal and J. J. Marassi, Estacin Experimental Ins. Agr. Julio Hirschhorn, Facultad de Agronoma, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

High density grain index among primary and secondary tillers of short- and long-duration rices S. P. Rao, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, A. P., India

The gelatinization temperature of the endosperm starch, a test of rice cooking quality, is estimated by the extent of spreading and clearing of milled rice treated with a 1.7% solution of potassium hydroxide for 23 h at 30 C. Grain with low gelatinization temperature dissolves completely; the endosperm of grain with intermediate gelatinization temperature spreads partially; rices with high gelatinization temperature are essentially unaffected. We studied the effect of time of exposure in the alkali test using 41 Argentinian and United States varieties and lines of rices with alkali spreading values ranging from 2.62 to 7 in a random split-plot design with 3 replications. The alkali test was evaluated at 6, 12, 18, and 23 h following the original method. No significant difference in the varietal reaction was noted between alkali exposure at 18 and at 23 h (see table).
Effect of soaking time on mean alkali spreading value of milled rice of 41 varieties. Time (h) 6 12 18 23 Alkali spreading value 5.27 c 5.66 b 5.94 a 5.91 a

We conducted a multilocation field experiment using two short-duration and two long-duration varieties during 1985 wet season in a randomized b1ock design with four replications. Test plots were fertilized 80-13-25 kg NPK/ ha.

Tillers were sequentially labeled during crop growth and 50 panicles/replication were sampled at harvest. Density was measured by immersing the grain in a 1.20 specific gravity salt solution. The percentage of submerged high density grain from primary and secondary or tertiary tillers was recorded. In early varieties. the high density grain index was higher for primary tillers than for secondary and tertiary tillers (see table). In late varieties, the indexes were equal.

High density grain index (%) of primary and tertiary tillers of short and long-duration varieties. Hyberabad, India, 1985 kharif. Variety High density grain index Hyderabad Chinsurah Primary tillers 71.6 55.7 I 5 3.0 61.8 5.2 4.3 85.9 72.8 83.6 81.2 2.4 1.5 66.5 71.2 ns 9.8 86.5 79.0 ns 5.1 60.0 29.0 75.0 90.0 4.1 3.3 Kanpur Kapurthala Maruteru

Short duration Rasi Ratna Long duration Mahsuri IET5656 CD (0.05) CV (%) Early Rasi Ratna Late Mahsuri IETS 65 6 CD (0.05) CV (%)

Secondary. and tertiary tillers 64.6 50.4 55.1 61.8 3.5 3.0 80.0 71.5 81.3 76.1 1.4 1.3 60.4 38.0 10.3 5.8 65 .0 75 .0 6.4 2.6 53.0 23.0 80.0 91.0 2.5 2.1

Tukey 5% 0.07 Tukey 1% 0.1

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


DISEASE RESISTANCE
Sugars and phenolic compounds in rice leaves in relation to varietal resistance to bacterial blight (BB) pathogen B.N. Mahto, R.N. Singh, C.P. Anasthi, and A.B. Abidi, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, P. O. District Faizabad 224229 (U. P.), India

Mean values with the same letter are not significantly different from each other.

The International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) invites all scientists to contribute concise summaries of significant rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to one or two pages and no more than two short tables, figures, or photographs. Contributions are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors will be identified by name, title, and research organization.

A few reports establish a relationship between phenolic and sugar constituents of rice leaves and resistance or susceptibility of a variety to BB caused

by Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Dye. Following standard procedures, we analyzed for total phenol, total sugar, and reducing sugars from alcoholic and aqueous extracts Of apparent1y hea1thy rice leaves. The leaves were from plants that had been inoculated with the local BB isolate and showed resistant, moderately resistant, and highly susceptible disease reactions. Highest total phenol, 278.26 mg/100 g of fresh leaves, was found in IR20, a resistant variety; the lowest, 100 mg/100

12 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

g of fresh leaves, in Anand, the highly susceptible check. This trend is reflected in reducing and total sugars as well. The amount of phenol and sugars present in the leaves of resistant varieties varied considerably, but was always higher than that present in moderately susceptible Bhagalpuri, which in turn was higher than that present in highly susceptible Anand (see table). These findings establish that higher amounts of phenols and sugars keep BB lesion size smaller by generating a resistant reaction to the BB pathogen.

Total phenol and reducing and total sugar content in apparently healthy leaves from BB inoculated resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), and highly susceptible (HS) rice varieties. Kumarganj, India. Variety IR20 Anjani III Damodar Randhuri Getu Zeerabatti Bishunbhog Bhagalpuri Anand
a

Resistance levela 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 9

Reaction R R R R R R R MR HS

Total phenolb (mg/100 g) 278.26 126.08 121.73 117.39 113.04 113.04 112.50 104.34 100.00

Reducing sugars b (mg/100 g) 114.40 113.90 114.30 114.00 114.00 113.90 113.80 113.70 113.50

Total sugars b (g/l00 g) 1.1085 1.1080 1.1059 1.1070 1.1060 1.1069 1.1058 1.1050 1.1048

Standard evaluation system for rice (1980). b Fresh weight basis.

Field screening IRRI lines against tungro (RTV) disease in Lanrang M. Sudjak S., A. Muis, S. Sama, W. Wakman, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, P. O. Box 173, Uung Pandang, Indonesia

Field screening of IRRI lines against tungro disease in Lanrang, Indonesia. Line IR1352 IR1354-21-2-3-3-2-2 IR31868-64-2-3-3-3 IR11288-B-B-60-1 IR14437-Kn-6-0-0-5-3 IR15864-430-3-1-2-3 IR19743-43-2-3-3 IR1975-5-2-3-1 IR21567-18-3 IR28224-3-2-3-2 IR28228-119-2-3-1-1 IR29692-99-3-2-1 IR31851-96-2-3-2-1 IR35546-2-1-3-2 IR37218-24-2-2 IR38784-137-2-6-6 IR4432-28-5-30Kr-b-Mr-3 IR4432-28-5-40Kr-b-Mr-9 IR18348-36-3-3 IR28128-45-3-3-2 IR29658-69-2-1 IR29925-22-3-3-3 IR31082-48-2-2 IR33450-25-2-1-1-2-2 IR35664-42-1-2-2-2-2 SES rating 4 WT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 6 WT 8 WT 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

transplanting (WT) on the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES). Of 400 lines tested, 18 were resistant and 7 moderately resistant (see table).

To obtain sources of resistance to RTV for the breeding programs in Indonesia, we screened IRRI lines in the field in Lanrang substation during the 1986 wet monsoon season. Lines tested were transplanted in 2 rows of 20 hills/row. Susceptible check variety TNI was transplanted between each two rows. All test lines and TNI were transplanted at 20- 20cm spacing. The trial was fertilized with urea and triple superphosphate at 90 kg N/ ha and 26 kg P/ ha. RTV symptoms were measured at 4, 6, and 8 wk after

Complete slide sets of photos printed in Field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the Communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. No orders for surface mail handling will be accepted.

Manoharsali, neck blast-resistant variety Y. Rathaiah and G.R. Das, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Titabar 785630, Assam, India

Incidence of neck Bl in 5 varieties in Assam, India. Variety Manoharsali Kmj 1-17-2 Biraj IET7 25 1 Pusa 2-21
a

Disease scorea 0 0 3 9 9

During the 1986 Jul-Dec season, a severe neck and nodal blast (BI) incidence throughout Assam offered an opportunity to screen rice varieties against neck B1. Infection was assessed

Standard evaluation system for rice.

on 20 randomly selected hills of 5 promising varieties grown in adjacent plots.

Manoharsali and Kmj 1-17-2 were totally free of neck Bl (see table). Manoharsali also showed complete resistance to B1 in farmers' fields. This variety has been grown in Assam for 20 yr. Kmj 1-17-2 is a derivative of the cross Manoharsali/IR8 and might have inherited resistance from Manoharsali. Manoharsali also is tolerant of bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight and resistant to brown planthopper. It is susceptible to brown spot.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 13

Reaction of varieties and selections to green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) in the greenhouse L. M. Sunio and E. H. Tryon, Entomology Department, IRRI

Ragged stunt virus (RSV) concentration in tolerant rice A. Parejarearn and H. Hibino, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

We evaluated selected varieties and lines for resistance to GLH and RTV. Six-day-old seedlings were infested with 4 second- and third-instar GLH nymphs/ seedling, using the no-choice seedling bulk test. Damage was rated at 7 d after inoculation, when susceptible check TN1 died. The experiment was repeated 3 times with 8 replications of 15 seedlings/ variety. For RTV inoculation, ten 2-wk-old seedlings of each variety were separately exposed for 24 h to 2 adult GLH which had 2-d acquisition feeding on RTVinfected TN1 plants. Infected plants were counted 14 d after inoculation. Varieties and selections were categorized as 1) resistant to both insect and virus, 2) resistant to insect but susceptible to virus, 3) susceptible to insect but resistant to virus, and 4) susceptible to both insect and virus (see table).
Reaction of selected varieties and lines to GLH and RTV. IRRI, 1986. Variety GLH rating RTV (%) 0 30 30 30 20 20

Seven-day-old seedlings of Sitopas, Ptb 18, Tetep, and Lemo, which have symptomatic resistance (tolerance) to RSV, and several nontolerant varieties were individually inoculated with RSV and transplanted in pots. Uninoculated seedlings were transplanted as a check. Five RSV-infected and 3 uninoculated plants of each variety were individually tested for height and RSV concentration at 30 and 45 d after infection (DI). Whole plants except roots were separately homogenized with buffer solution and the sap at 1/5 dilution was directly tested in ELISA. For ELISA, Micro ELISA Plate (Dynatech) was coated with immunoglobulin to RSV at

2 g/ ml and immunoglobulin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate was diluted 300 times. RSV concentration in sap was indicated by absorbance value at 405 nm. In ELISA, absorbance of uninfected plant sap was below 0.05 throughout the tests. Infected seedlings of all varieties showed typical RSV symptoms. Plant height reduction at 30 DI was high in RSV-infected plants of all varieties (see table). At 45 DI, height reduction was less in Sitopas, Lemo, and TN1. RSV concentration in Sitopas and Ptb 18 was consistently lower than in other varieties. Although RSV concentration was generally lower in tolerant varieties than in nontolerant varieties at 45 DI, the difference was not significantly large. Resistance to RSV in the varieties tested may not be due solely to their resistance to RSV multiplication.

Plant height reduction and RSV concentration at 30 and 45 DI in plants of 10 rice varieties infected at 7 d after soaking. IRRI, 1985. Variety Sitopas Ptb 18 Tetep Lemo Ptb 21 Utri Rajapan Khao Mali Khao-Tah-Haeng Kirikara TN 1
a

RSV concentration a 30 DI 0.86 0.89 1.13 1.00 0.94 0.93 1.06 1.07 1.15 1.24 0.19 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.17 0.06 0.03 45 DI 0.84 0.87 1.04 0.95 1.10 1.01 1.06 1.20 1.10 0.94 0.01 0.00 0.09 0.20 0.13 0.10 0.01 0.19 0.13 0.09

Height reduction (%) 30 DI 34 33 35 28 24 21 21 28 26 26 45 DI 2 15 16 0 11 11 8 46 16 4

Resistant to GLH and RTV Pankhari 203 3 IR29725-109-1-2-1 3 3 IR32307-107-3-2-2 IR32429-47-3-2-2 3 3 IR32453-20-3-2-2 IR33043-46-1-3 3

Indicated by absorbance at 405 nm of sap at 1/5 dilution in ELISA.

Resistant to GLH, susceptible to RTV Ptb 18 1 70 ASD7 1 90 Palasithari 601 3 90 IR28222-9-2-2-2-2 3 100 IR28224-3-2-3-2 1 70 IR28228-199-2-3-1-1 3 70 Susceptible to GLH, resistant to RTV Utri Rajapan 9 0 Utri Merah 7 0 ARC11554 7 10 Naria Bachi 9 30 ARC10342 7 50 7 60 Basmati Susceptible to GLH and RTV ARC10980 7 IR22 7 IR42 7 TN1 9 70 100 80 100

Symptoms and yield reduction in tolerant varieties infected with ragged stunt virus (RSV)

A. Parejarearn and H. Hibino, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI Seedlings of 10 selected varieties were transplanted 7 d after soaking (DAS), in 16- 16- 19-cm pots with fertile soil at 3 seedlings/pot. Seedlings were inoculated at 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 DAS. Uninoculated plants served as control. Trials were established Sep 1984 and Nov 1985, with three replications each.

Plant height, major symptoms, and grain yield were noted for each plant. Seedlings inoculated at 7 and 15 DAS developed symptoms characteristic of RSV about 2 wk after inoculation. Emergence of new leaves was delayed and leaves were short, ragged or twisted, and darker in color. At 1 mo after inoculation, newly developed leaves were less abnormal in all varieties. At 2 mo after inoculation, many varieties showed vein swelling and occasional ragged or twisted leaves, but less stunting (Table 1). The symptoms were especially milder in Sitopas, Ptb 18, and

14 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Table 1. Symptomsa and plant height reduction at 30 and 60 d after infection in 10 rice varieties infected with RSV 7 d after soaking. Sep 1984, IRRI. Variety 30 d after infection Symptoms Height reduction (%) 24 29 29 57 59 52 43 45 68 56 60 d after infection Symptoms Height reduction (%) 7 17 22 36 20 21 21 43 34 25

Sitopas Ptb 18 Tetep Lemo Ptb 21 Utri Rajapan Khao Mali Khao-Tah-Haeng Kirikara TN 1

R+++ Tw, V+ , R+, TW, V + + Tw, V + R, R+, Tw R+, Tw R+ Tw R+, Tw, V+ R+, Tw, V+ R+, V+

Tw, V R+ , V++ R++, V+ R++, Tw, V+ V ++ R+, Tw, V+ V++ R++ , V+ R+, Tw, V++ R++, Tw, V++

aR = ragged leaves, Tw = twisted leaves, V = vein swelling. +, ++, +++ = degree of severity from low to high.

Table 2. Yield reduction in 10 rice varieties infected with RSV at different days after soaking. IRRI, Sep 1984. Variety Sitopas Ptb 18 a Tetep Lemo Ptb 21 Utri Rajapan Khao Mali Khao-Tah-Haeng Kirikara TN1
a

Yield reduction (%) 7 DAS 41 38 22 57 99 100 80 100 77 84 15 DAS 55 65 58 53 59 79 100 96 90 30 DAS 28 28 30 33 10 35 32 15 34 78 45 DAS 35 21 46 28 3 5 47 28 52 65 60 DAS

5 21 22 39 16 52 20 2

Tetep. The symptoms in plants infected at 30 DAS were milder and those in plants infected at 45 DAS were not clear in any varieties except Kirikara and TN1. In the first trial, yield reduction was high in plants of almost all varieties infected at 7 or 15 DAS (Table 2). Sitopas, Ptb 18, Tetep, and Lemo have significantly less yield reduction than other varieties infected at the seedling stages. In the second trial, flowering was delayed and yield reduction was less than in the first trial in all varieties. Yield reduction in many varieties inoculated at 30 DAS was higher than in plants inoculated at 7 or 15 DAS. Sitopas, Ptb 18, Lemo, and Ptb 21 had significantly lower yield reduction. Sitopas, Ptb 18, Lemo, and Tetep developed milder symptoms and sustained less damage when infected with RSV at seedling stage. Their tolerance for RSV was due to their high ability to recover after severe infection at an early stage.

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

Percentage yield reduction was calculated based on the yield of plants inoculated at 60 DAS.

Incidence of rice kernel smut (KSm) in Pakistan


M.A. Akhtar and M. Sarwar, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, POB 1031, Islamabad

Reaction of rice varieties to Tilletia barclayana. Islamabad, Pakistan. Variety Bara, Basmati Pak, Dokri Basmati, Jhona 349, Kangni, Melha 364, Motia, Mushakan, Palman, Ratria, Red rice, Sathra 278 Basmati 370, Sada gulab C622, IR579 Disease incidence (%) Sheikhupura >50 Gujranwala >50 Reaction Susceptible

Sixteen rice varieties were evaluated at Gujranwala and Sheikhupura district research farms against KSm by the partial vacuum method using the chlamydospores of Tilletia barclayana. Sporidia1 cultures were prepared on potato dextrose agar for inoculation of 20 panicles of each variety at anthesis. Percentages of infected panicles were recorded at maturity. Varieties showed differential reaction at both locations. Disease incidence ranged from 5.25 to 95.25% at Sheikhupura and 6.25 to 97.25% at Gujranwala. C622 developed the lowest

>10 <10

>10 <10

Intermediate Resistant

infection, followed by IR579 and Basmati 370 (see table).

None of the varieties appeared to be immune.

Reaction of selected varieties to tungro (RTV) and green leafhopper (GLH)

E. R. Tiongco, Z.M. Flores, and H. Hibino, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

Seven-day-old seedlings of ASD7, ARC11554, Gam Pai 30-12-15, Kataribhog, TKM6, TN1, and Utri Rajapan were individually exposed to one or five RTV-viruliferous adult

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 15

GLH. Longevity of adult GLH on the seedlings also was evaluated. Plants were scored 3 wk after inoculation for symptoms and assayed by latex test for the presence of the rice tungro bacilliform (RTBV) and spherical (RSTV).viruses. ARCl 1554, Gam Pai 30-12-15, Kataribhog, and Utri Rajapan showed low level of apparent RTV infection but were mostly infected with RTBV alone, regardless of the number of insects used for inoculation (see table). Average vector longevity was shorter on ARCl 1554 and Gam Pai 30-12-15, indicating resistance to GLH, and longer on Kataribhog and Utri Rajapan, indicating low resistance. TKM6 and ASD7 showed apparent RTV symptoms even when infected with RTBV.

Longevity of adult GLH, percentage of seedlings with apparent symptoms, and infection by RTBV and RTSV of rice varieties exposed to 1 or 5 RTV-viruliferous GLH. IRRI, 1987. Seedlings infected a (%) Variety GLH longevity (d) 1 insect/seedling With apparent symptoms 13 47 13 33 4 0 28 By latex test RTBV+ RTBV RTSV RTSV 43 0 0 7 2 0 5 33 48 19 38 7 11 73 4 0 0 4 0 0 2 5 insects/seedling By latex test With apparent symptoms RTBV+ RTBV RTSV RTSV 74 39 13 46 7 11 25 61 3 0 25 3 0 14 32 46 49 47 22 22 60 2 0 0 2 0 0 0

TN1 TKM6 Gam Pai 30-12-15 ASD7 Utri Rajapan ARC11554 Kataribhog
a Av

9.4 1.3 4.9 3.8 8.4 4.1 9.4

of 2 trials. Plants scored and assayed by latex test 3 wk after inoculation.

Kataribhog had low infection on the basis of symptoms but had high RTBV

infection, indicating symptomatic resistance (tolerance) to RTV.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


INSECT RESISTANCE
Tolerance of some rice varieties for gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason P.S. P. Rao, Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack 753006, Orissa, India

Thirty-day-old seedlings of 15 varieties were transplanted singly at 15- 15-cm spacing in two 18- 3-m plots per entry

on 29 Jul 1982 to synchronize the vulnerable tillering stage with high GM infestation. The varieties were grown with 80 + 20 kg N, 18 kg P, and 33 kg K/ ha. One plot of each variety was protected with granular diazinon applied to soil water at 1.50 kg ai/ ha on 10, 25, and 40 d after transplanting (DT). Because the experimental field tended to

be invaded by other insects (leaffolder, yellow borer, etc) from 40 DT, all plots were sprayed with 0.4 kg ai phosphamidon/ha at 40, 50, 60, and 70 DT. Twelve 9-plant samples were marked at random in each plot. Percent silvershoots (SS) was estimated at 50 d after treatment and grain yields were recorded at harvest. Vikram, PTB10, and CR94-MR1550

GM incidence and yield losses in some rice varieties. CRRI, Cuttack, 1982 wet season. Variety GEB24 Pankaj CR94R-MR1559 Vijaya Sona Jaya CR58-MR1538 Padma Bala Leuang 152 Vikram CR94-MR1550 PTB10 CR1014 Jagannath
a Percent

Seed to 50% flowering (d) 116 113 104 96 96 90 85 82 65 138 96 95 70 121 113

GM incidence (%) Lowest 0 10 14 17 11 11 10 18 10 0 0 0 3 0 0 Highest 95 91 94 93 88 90 62 91 40 0 39 46 24 78 80 Mean (24 samples) 50 46 59 54 56 60 29 49 25 0 13 8 9 34 35

Regression equation for expected yield (kg/ha) 3161 1301 3119 4099 3321 5913 5658 2194 2405 6072 5588 2112 2569 + 4798 19.6 59.1 34.1 21.8 11.3 55.2 62.6 14.2 23.5 32.2 28.0 1.6 1.3 12.8

Regression (r) value 0.747** 0.900** 0.699** 0.777** 0.802** 0.887** 0.747** 0.625** 0.450* 0.282 0.215 0.151 +0.342 0.457*

% yield loss/ unit % incidence 0.62 0.81 0.93 0.68 0.52 0.93 1.11 0.5 1 0.98 0.5 3 0.50 0.35 0.06 0.27

Reactiona to pest based on Incidence S S S S S S S S S HR R R R S S Yield loss LT LT LT LT MT LT LT MT LT HT HT

silvershoots. S = susceptible, R = resistant, HR = highly resistant, LT = least tolerant, MT = moderately tolerant, HT = highly tolerant.

16 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

rated resistant, with means of 8-13% SS; Leuang 152 was highly resistant (no SS). The correlation of incidence with yield was negatively linear except for CR1014. In 10 varieties, the regression coefficient was significant or highly significant (see table). Yield loss ranged from -0.06% in

CR1014 to 1.1% in CR58-MRl538. Based on yield losses, susceptible entries could be tentatively classified for tolerance as follows: Highly tolerant : CR1014, Jagannath (0-0.30%) Moderately tolerant : Sona, Padma (0.31-0.60%)

Least tolerant (0.61%higher)

: GEB24, Pankaj, CR94-MRl559, Vijaya, Jaya, CR58-MR1538, Bala

As yield loss varied widely among varieties, economic injury and threshold levels also varied.

Stem borers (SB) in dryland and wetland rice A. T. Barrion and J. A. Litsinger, Entomology Department; E. Sison and M. Arraudeau, Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

We compared SB infestation in an

irrigated wetland field planted to indica varieties and in a dryland field planted to japonica varieties. The experimental fields were planted the same day. At 2 wk before harvest, 150 tillers/variety were dissected. SB infestation was higher in the japonica varieties (see figure). SB species found in

wetland indicas and dryland japonicas also differed. Five SB sp. were collected in both rice environments: Chilo suppressalis (Walker), C. auricilius Dudgeon, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), Maliarpha sp., and Sesamia inferens (Walker). Species abundance in the indicas was S. incertulas > C. auricilius > C. suppressalis > S. inferens > Maliarpha sp. In the japonicas, it was C. suppressalis > C. auricilius > S. inferens > Maliarpha sp. > S. incertulas. The indicas had fewer whiteheads (1-4%) and SB (4-12 larvae) than the japonicas (1-12% whiteheads and 0-130 SB larvae). Four Brazilian japonica varieties Japones, Maranhao Vermelho, Manteiga, and Poupa Preguica had the highest infestation.

Screening of rice accessions against leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis R. Rajendran and R. Velusamy, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore 641003, India

Relative abundance of rice SB in japonica varieties planted in dryland fields and indica varieties planted in wetland fields. IRRI farm, 1985 wet season.

We screened 32 rice accessions from the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project for resistance to LF during 1986 wet season, using a seedling screening technique. Pregerminated seeds of accessions were sown 6 cm apart in 6 rows in 50- 40- 10-cm wooden seedboxes. Each accession was planted across the width of the seedbox to maintain at least 5 hills (3 plants/hill)/row. One row of susceptible check TN1 and one row of resistant check Ptb 33 were sown at

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

17

random in the seedboxes. At 7 d after seeding, the seedboxes were transferred to iron trays (60 40 15 cm) filled with 5 cm water. At 20 d after seeding, the plants in the boxes were covered with nylon net cages into which LF moths collected in the field were released at 20 moths/ cage (1 male to 1 female). A cotton swab soaked in 1% sugar solution was hung inside the cage as food for the moths. Moths were allowed to oviposit for 3-4 d. At 15 d after release of moths, LF damage was assessed as percent damaged leaves in each row and accessions were rated according to the Standard evaluation system for rice. The same accessions were screened in the field at the Paddy Breeding Station, TNAU.

Reaction of rice accessions to LF. Coimbatore, India. Accession BKNBR1088-83 RP1579-43 RP2199-41-25-30-55 RP2199-249-209 F'TB12 (donor) RP2035-48-54-6 RP2235-85-62-8 RP2235-115-75-40 RP2235-136-65-10 TNAULFR83 1324 TNAULFR832042 T2005 (donor) TNl (susceptible check) PTB33 (resistant check)
a By

Cross IR2030-203-3-1/RD 1 Phalguna/ARC6650 Phalguna/TKM6 Phalguna/TKM6 Phalguna/IR50 Phalguna/IR50 Phalguna/IR50 Phalguna/IR50 Bhavani/IR4707-106-3-2 Bhavani/ARC10550

Damage rating a Greenhouse 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 3 Field 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 3

the Standard evaluation system for rice.

Twelve accessions were identified as resistant in the greenhouse and in the field (see table).

Screening rice varieties for resistance to mealybug M. Gopalan, N.C. Radja, and G. Balasubramanian, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

with 3 replications. Twenty hills were selected for each entry and the number of mealybugs/ tiller and percentage infested plants on 20 hilIs/entry were recorded at 15-d intervals beginning 15 d after transplanting. Mealybug infestation ranged from

19% to 58% (see table). IET8616 had the fewest infested plants; AD85001 was highly susceptible. ACM10 had the highest number of mealybugs/ tiller. Mealybugs/ tiller and percentage infestation were positively correlated ( r = 0.9786).

We evaluated 17 varieties for resistance to mealybug Brevennia rehi Lindinger. Experimental plots were 4 2 m with 2 seedlings/ hill at 15- 10-cm spacing
Mealybug infestation on 17 rice varieties. a Coimbatore, India. Variety PY 3 CO 37 CO 41 ADT31 ADT36 IR20 IR50 ACM9 ACM 10 IET8616 AS20665 AS24956 A528838 AD85001 AD85003 TNAU831146 TNAU831175
a Means

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


DROUGHT TOLERANCE
Evaluation of drought-resistant upland rice accessions
P.G. Nayagam, G. Soundrapandian, S. Natarajan. Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Paramakudi, India

Infested plants (%) 31.2 (33.1) a-d 23.4 (28.6) a-c 36.8 (36.7) b-e 31.9 (35.9) a-e 28.2 (31.9) a-d 29.2 (42.4) c-e 31.5 (34.0) a-d 45.7 (42.5) c-e 51.0 (45.6) de 19.1 (25.7) a 19.8 (26.3) ab 48.4 (44.0) c-e 55.0 (47.9) de 58.0 (49.7) e 53.1 (46.8) de 43.7 (41.2) c-e 52.7 (46.6) de

Mealybugs (no./tiller) 43.4 43.1 41.7 58.6 61.0 64.2 92.7 101.2 107.6 32.7 39.6 92.0 102.2 96.7 101.1 98.6 101.7 (19.7) b (19.6) b (19.2) b (23.0) c (23.2) c (24.0) c (28.9) de (30.1) d-f (31.0) f (17.1) a (18.9) b (28.7) d (30.2) ef (29.5) de (30.2) ef (29.7) d-f (30.1) d-f

We evaluated 53 early-maturing rice accessions against local checks Oct 1986Feb 1987. Seeds were sown directly in 1m2 plots at 20 cm between rows and

10 cm within rows. Rainfall during the cropping period was 474.4 mm in 20 rainy days, with a 16-d drought spell during the vegetative phase. Drought tolerance and recovery percentage were scored using the Standard evaluation system for rice. Two drough)-resistant varieties were identified: IRAT 170 and IR21018-97-1 (see table).

Performance of promising upland rice varieties under moisture stress. Paramakudi, India. Variety IRAT 170 IR21018-97-1 Nootripathu (local check) PMK1 (improved check) cross IRAT13/Palawan BG34-8/RP825-70-7-1//IR36 Co 25/ADT31 Drought tolerance 3 3 3 3 Drought recovery 3 3 5 3

of 3 replications. Figures in parentheses are arc sine transformed values. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by DMRT.

18 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

ADVERSE SOILS TOLERANCE


A breeding method for tolerance for acid sulfate soil Dao The Tuan and Pham Van Chuong, Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


Tolerance for acid sulfate soils among different varieties and crosses. Hanoi, Vietnam. Scorea Al toxicity tolerance IR8 Bau V12 NN75-2 IR2151-9-6 IR2153-2-6 IR8/Bau V12/NN75-2 NN75-2/V12 (V14) IR8/NN75-2 V12/IR2151-9-6 V12/IR2153-2-6
a By

P deficiency tolerance 5 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1-3

Fe toxicity tolerance 5 1-2 3-5 5 3-4 5 3 3 3 5-7 3-5 5

Acid sulfate soils tolerance 5-1 1 3-5 2-3 1-2 2-3 1-3 1-3 1 3-5 1-3 5

Tolerance for acid sulfate soils is related to tolerance for Al toxicity, Fe toxicity, and P deficiency. Local varieties have all three characteristics, modern varieties or lines only one or two. We crossed high-yielding varieties with local tolerant varieties and modern varieties with different tolerances. Crossing modern varieties with different tolerances gave quicker and more effective results because negative traits of local varieties did not need to be eliminated. Among six crosses, the cross NN752/V12 gave the best performance. NN75-2 is an intermediate variety with tolerance for Al toxicity and P deficiency, V12 is a high-yielding

7 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1-3

the Standard evaluation system for rice.

semidwarf variety with relatively high tolerance for Fe toxicity. From this cross, we selected line V14, with good plant type, large panicles, moderate resistance to blast, and high cold tolerance. With these traits, VI4 could be grown in the spring on acid

sulfate soils in the north. In varietal testing in different soil types, V14 gave 1015% higher yield than NN75-2, a variety adapted to acid and acid sulfate soils, and yield similar to that of IR8 on nonacid soil (see table).

Performance of coarse and fine rice varieties on alkali soils K. K. Mehta, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India

In 1986 we evaluated selected varieties in 40 farmers' fields in 7 villages of the Operational Research Project for reclamation of alkali soils. Soils were highly alkali (pH > 10.0), sandy loam in

texture, and are classified as Natrustalfs (see table). The fields were bunded and leveled and gypsum (30 mesh) applied JunJul 1986. For IR8, PR106, PR107, and Basmata varieties, 120 kg N/ ha and 6 kg Znl ha were applied. For B370 and Basmati Desi, N was reduced to 80 kg/ha. Maximum yield was with IR8 (4.6 t/ha) followed by PR106, PR107,

Basmata, B370, and Basmati Desi. Basmata, with an average yield of 4.0 t/ ha, had the maximum return $881/ha because of its higher sale price (see figure).

Grain yield of different rice varieties in first year of reclamation of alkali soils. Karnal, India, 1986. Variety IR8 PR106 PR107 Basmata Basmati (B370) Basmati Desi
a Converted

Fields (no.) 1 6 3 16 10 4

Av pH 1:2 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.0 10.2

Gypsum applied 10.5 10.5 10.0 10.5 10.0 10.5

Grain yield (t/ha) 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.0 1.6 1.5

Sale price a ($/t) 128 135 135 220 384 340

Gross return a ($/ha) 589 605 592 881 631 506

at the rate of $1 = Rs 12.49.

B-370 (Basmati) and Basmata varieties of rice have similar grains but differ in yield potential. Karnal, India, 1986.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 19

Vyttila 3, a new rice variety for acid saline areas T. U. George, P. J. Tomy, and R. G. Pinhero, Rice Research Station, Vyttila, Kerala, India

Performance of Vyttila 3 in farmers fields, Kerala, India. Location Parur Vyttila Maradu Panangad Chellanam Kandekadavu Kannamali Mean Yield (t/ha) Vyttila 1 0.9 3.6 2.4 3.7 4.5 4.3 4.5 3.4 Vyttila 3 1.3 3.8 2.4 4.0 5 .0 4.1 4.9 3.6

Vyttila 3 has-been released for acid saline areas of Kerala. The Vyttila 1 / Taichung Native I cross yields 200 kg/ ha more than improved pureline selection Vyttila 1. Vyttila 3, with 115 d duration, is

suitable for May-Jun to Sep-Oct (pokkali season) cultivation. It is 166 cm tall with 3.6 t/ ha average yield potential and 5 t/ha maximum yield potential (see table). Kernels are red with good cooking quality; protein content is 7.8%. The variety is photoperiod insensitive and tolerant of major diseases and most insect pests (except stem borer, leafroller, and rice bug).

TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE
Chhomro a promising cold-tolerant traditional rice variety for rainfed wetlands in western hills in Nepal B. R. Sthapit, Lumle Agricultural Centre (LAC), P.O. Box 1, Pokhara, Kaski, Gandaki Zone, Nepal

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


Table 1. Comparative performance of selected cold-tolerant rice varieties identified in different nurseries. LAC, 1985-86. Trial or nursery Farmers field, 1985 (n= 13) NCTRN, 1985 (n = 30) IRCTN, 1985 (n = 184) NCTRN, 1986 (n = 22) LRCTNa, 1986 (n = 52) PONb, 1986 (n = 50) SFTc, 1986 (n = 36)
a

Best yielding varieties Chhomro local Banahu local Ghara local Laisika-F WR10072-79-1-2-3 NR10068-60-3-2 Laisika-I K39-96-1-1-1-2 Chhomro local NR10073-167-3-1-3 Phalame Chhomro local Seto Bhakunde Kalo Patle Raksali Banahu local Chhomro local Raksali Chhomro local

Grain yield (t/ha) at 12% moisture content 5.3 5 3.4 4.2 2.4 2.2 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.1 3.4 5.0 3.9 3.2 3.1 4.1 4.0 2.8 4.1

Sterilityd (%) 0 .05 15 20 25 25 5 5 0 30 60 2 2 1 5 6 5 10 0

Cold injury at seedling stagee (1-9 scale) 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 1 4 4 1 2 2 3 2 1 3 1

No improved rice varieties have yet been identified for temperate regions, particularly for elevations above 1,500 m. We evaluated 57 local varieties and 367 exotic materials during 1985-86. Local rices were collected from the altitude range 1,000-2,300 m in the western hills. Major sources of exotic materials were the International Rice Cold Tolerance Nursery (IRCTN), the National Cold Tolerance Rice Nursery (NCTRN), and an initial evaluation trial (IET) carried out in collaboration with the National Rice Improvement Programme (NRIP), Parwanipur. Cold tolerance screening nurseries were established at LAC (1,500 m). Mean air temperatures during early seedling growth (Jun-Jul) were 16.217.1 C minimum and 22.6-22.8 C maximum. During ripening (Oct-Nov), minimum temperature was 9.9-15.2 C and maximum was 16.7-20.1 C Maximum water temperature was 20.1 C in Jul and 14.0 C in Oct. Cold tolerance of local and exotic varieties was measured by leaf discoloration at seedling stage, spikelet sterility, and grain yield.

Local Rice Cold Tolerance Nursery. b Preliminary Observation Nursery. c Spacing Fertility Trial on Chhomro local. d Spikelet sterility was estimated by eye and by grasping the panicle. e Measured according to the procedures mentioned in the IRRI Standard evaluation system for rice scale.

Table 2. Comparative performance of 2 best cold-tolerant local varieties of rice at an altitude of 1500 m. a LAC, 1985-86. Variety Chhomro local Raksali local Difference (P = 0.05)
a Yields

Plant stand/m2 46.6 3.27 29.4 4.48 17.2 ns

Tillers/ plant 7.0 1.05 5.6 0.70 1.4 ns

Panicles/m2 256.6 34.71 263.3 52.30 6.7 ns

Grain yieldb (t/ha) 4.798 0.475 2.359 0.794 2.439***

were estimated from 1 m 2 crop cuts (n = 10) from seed multiplication block. b At 12% moisture content.

20 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

No injuries from cold temperatures were observed in traditional varieties Chhomro and Raksali at the seedling stage; most improved lines had either discolored leaves or stunted yellowish growth. Chhomro and Raksali consistently performed better than the exotic cold-tolerant materials for 2 yr. Spikelet sterility on exotic lines was

large (25100%); no sterility was noticed in Chhomro (Table I). Yields of Chhomro were significantly superior to those of Raksali in 1986 (Table 2). Widely grown Raksali suffered some spikelet sterility and yielded relatively less than Chhomro. Most of the exotic lines from

NCTRN and IRCTN failed to set grain at Lumle. Chhomro yields ranged from 4.8 to 5.3 t/ha under rainfed wetland conditions. Chhomro's cold tolerance could be utilized in developing suitable coldtolerant rice varieties for temperate areas of Nepal and elsewhere.

Low temperature tolerance of traditional Vietnamese varieties D. Duc, Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute. Van Dien Thanhtri. Hanoi, Vietnam, and R. M. Visperas and B.S. Vergara, IRRI

include many japonicas. Both north and south wet season varieties are indica types.
Varieties were tested at the seedling stage (10C for 4 d), panicle initiation (I7C for 15 d), and anthesis (17C for 10 d). At the seedling stage, 39 entries many of them winter rice varieties showed cold hardiness (Table 1). A large number of the varieties used in the mountains did not have cold tolerance at the seedling stage. Some glutinous varieties showed cold tolerance at the seedling stage. Winter rices usually are divided into six subgroups on the basis of morphological characteristics. The Tep group had the highest number of coldtolerant varieties (Table 2). The rice plant is most sensitive to low temperature at meiosis or panicle initiation. The outstanding Vietnam entry tolerant of 17C air temperature at panicle initiation was Bong Sen (Acc. 10861) with a score of 1 ; Tep Trang and Ba Ren were relatively tolerant at

The mountain and winter varieties

Table 2. Winter season Vietnam varieties (Chiem) and their response to low temperature at the seedling stage. Hanoi, Vietnam. Varieties (no.) with indicated cold tolerance Good Te (nonglutinous rice) Tep (fine, short grain) Cut (round grain) Bau (large grain) Saiduong (brown glume) Other Chiem varieties 3 4 0 2 3 29 Poor 4 5 6 10 3 23 Total 7 9 6 12 6 52

Group

About 2.5 million ha of rice in Vietnam is subjected to low temperature. In the north, low temperature killed 27,110 ha of rice seedlings in 1976. The first crop NovJun is subjected to low temperatures NovMar (5.0 to 11.0C minimum temperature), coupled with low sunshine hours (1.34.5 h/d). The most common cold injury symptoms are seedling stunting, leaf wilting or even death, spikelet degeneration, poor grain filling, high sterility, and delayed growth. We evaluated the cold tolerance of 475 traditional Vietnamese rice varieties from the International Rice Germplasm Center to identify possible donor parents for breeding. The entries could be grouped into five categories: 1) glutinous (mostly japonica), 2) mountain area, 3) winter rice, 4) wet season rice in the north, and 5) wet season rice in the south (Table 1).
Table 1. Response of Vietnamese rice groups to low temperature at the seedling stage. Hanoi, Vietnam. Varieties (no.) with cold tolerance at seedling stage Good Glutinous Mountain area Winter rice (Chiem) Wet season (north) Wet season (south) Total 9 4 14 0 12 39 Poor 28 30 77 92 209 436 Total 37 34 91 92 221 475

panicle initiation and at the seedling stage. Most of the varieties had relatively poor tolerance at anthesis. The most tolerant are Bong Sen, Nep Da, Nep Den (Acc. 24149), Bat Ngoat (Acc. 24193), Ba Ren, Tep 62, and Khau Mua Venh. Ba Ren and Tep 62 are the most promising. Scores for the other Vietnamese varieties are available from the IRGC data bank.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


HYBRID RICE
Potassium nutrition in hybrid rice Fan Mingxieng and Ge Dangzhi, Hunan Agricultural College; and fiang Longyin, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Centre, China

Group

We studied hybrid rice Vu 35 at different K levels on a Quaternary red clay soil with pH 6.0, 2.76% organic matter, 70 ppm available K, 240 ppm

slowly available K, and 0.188% N. Conventional variety Xiang 9 was the check. KC1 was applied at 0, 110, 220, and 440 kg/ ha in main plots with 350 kg urea and 550 kg superphosphate/ ha. All the P, 2/3 N, and 1/3 K were applied before transplanting, 1/3 N and 2/3 K at tillering. The 2 varieties were transplanted in 4- 8-m subplots with 3

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 21

Table 1. Effect of K level on growth of hybrid rice Vu 35. a Hunan, China. K level (kg KCl/ha) 0 110 220 440 0 110 220 440 0 110 220 440
aSignificance

Tillering

Panicle initiation Leaf area index 4.51 4.80 4.88 4.04

Full heading

Maturity

1.63 1.52 1.68 1.71

6.69 8.39** 8.44** 9.71**

Net assimilation rate (A Dry matter mg/dm2 per h) 10.5 12.3 8.1 1.9 13.3 9.0 8.6 9.5 11.0 10.9 13.2 11.4 2.73 2.73 2.96 3.23 Dry matter weight (g/plant) 8.13 8.27 8.30 8.30 19.47 26.10* 21.97 28.10*

2.19 3.64** 4.34** 4.10** 7 .0 9.3 8.9 8.9 27.17 34.93* 33.73* 35.27*

at the 5% (*) or 1% (**) levels by Duncans multiple range test.

Table 2. Effect of K fertilization on yield and K absorption by hybrid rice and a conventional variety. Hunan, China. Variety Vu 35 K level (kg KCl/ha) 0 100 220 440 0 110 220 440 Yield (t/ha) 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.2 7.3 7.6 7.4 7.6 K absorbed (kg/ha) 107.8 147.9 198.4 250.9 88.95 144.2 190.3 195.3 K depleted (kg/t grain) 12.72 16.92 22.54 27.42 12.25 18.88 25.68 25.80 Grain increase (kg/kg K 2O) 4.8 2.9 3.0 6.6 1.3 1.6

Xiang 9

replications. Samples were taken at transplanting, tillering, panicle initiation, full heading, and maturity for soil, plant, and yield analyses. Increased K increased K content in plant and absorbed K increased with increased K fertilizer at all stages for both varieties; however, Vu 35 was more sensitive to K supplied from panicle initiation to heading and needed more K. The leaf area index was significantly correlated with plant N content (r = 0.91*) at early growth stages and with plant K content (r = 0.94) at late growth stages. Total photosynthetic area and net assimilation rate had increased significantly at heading and maturing stages, which led to 13-44% increase in dry matter production with K application (Table 1). Grain yield of Vu 35 increased 3-8% with K level, but increase/ kg K2 O applied declined (Table 2), resulting in lower K economic efficiency at higher K levels. Yield of Xiang 9 was significantly lower than that of Vu 35 and did not show obvious response to K fertilization.

Test cross for restorer genes using three male sterile lines O. Watanesk and S. Sa-nguansaj, Chainat Rice Experiment Station, Chainat 17000, Thailand

Restorers and maintainers a for CMS lines V20A, IR46828A, and IR46829A in Thailand, 1986. Variety IR11418-19-2-3 SPRLR75007-16-3-1 SPRLR76037-2-164-1-1 CNTBR71011-59-2-2-2 SPRLR76035-PSL-16-1-2 SPRLR80187-21-1-1 BKNLR77011-31-1-1-1-1 SPRLRl7034-PSL-17-1-1-1 SPRLR75055-352-2-1 BKNLR77003-PSL-9-1-1 IR36 RD7 RDll RD23 C4-63 (green)
a

V20A PR PR M PR PR PR PR R R, PR R R R R R R

IR46828A PR PR M PR PR PR PR PR PR

IR46829A PR PR M PR PR PR PR PR PR

We tested crosses for restorer genes for the Thailand hybrid rice breeding program in 1982. Now we have 8 varieties and 10 elite breeding lines that are effective restorers for V20A. In 1985, we received male sterile lines IR46828A and IR46829A from IRRI and crossed 5 varieties and 10 elite breeding lines as male parents with 3 CMS lines V20A, IR46828A. and IR46829A (which are the same WA type) to identify their restorers (see table). The F1 hybrids were grown in the field. Spikelet fertility was evaluated visually for each plant. Varieties showing more than 80% spikelet fertility were classified as restorers. those

R M PR R M

R M PR R M

R = restorer (>80% spikelet fertility), PR = partial restorer (5- 80% spikelet fertility), M = maintainer (<5% spikelet fertility), = damaged seedlings.

showing 5-80% as partial restorers. and those with less than 5% as maintainers. RD23 and IR36 were effective restorers for all 3 CMS lines. RD11, SPRLR77034-PSL-17-1-1-1, and SPRLR75055-352-2-1 were effective

restorers only for V20A. SPRLR760372-164-1-1 was an effective maintainer for all CMS lines. RD7 and C4-63 (green) were effective restorers for V20A, but maintainers for IR46828A and IR46829A.

22 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


TISSUE CULTURE
Influence of position of rice anthers at plating on callusing and plant regeneration
S. T. Mercy and F.J. Zapata. Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

We studied the effect of anther orientation at plating on callusing response and plant regeneration in japonica rice variety Taipei 309. Callus induction from anthers was according to standard IRRI procedure. Anthers were plated on semisolid E10 (modified B5 medium, each liter containing 1 mg 2,4-D, 0.5 mg BAP, 0.5 mg IAA, 20 g sucrose, and 5 g glucose). Sixty anthers were inoculated at random (specific positioning of anthers is extremely difficult because of their small size). Microscopic examination showed that anthers were naturally positioned approximately half on edge (one lobe touching the medium) and half flat (both lobes in contact with the medium). Plates were incubated at 26-29C in dim light and scored for callusing 40 d after plating. Some calli of both flat and edge-oriented anthers were transferred for regeneration in MS medium (1 mg each NAA and kinetin/liter and 30 g sucrose/ liter) under continuous light. Percentage of green plant regeneration was recorded. Most of the anthers dehisced within 5 d of plating, liberating a large part of the pollen grains on the medium. None of the liberated pollen grains developed into calli. Calli from pollen grains held within the anther started appearing about 25 d after inoculation. Of the 2,160 anthers plated, 518 (24%) produced calli. Of the anthers with calli, 60% were plated on edge (see figure) and 40% flat. Most of the anthers plated flat callused on both lobes, but callusing on one lobe was also observed. Most anthers plated on edge produced callus on the upper lobe. Only rarely did

Callusing response of anthers. 1= Anther positioned on edge callusing from upper lobe. 2 = One anther on edge at left and the other flat at right, both callusing. 3 = Anther flat, callusing from both lobes. 4 = Anther flat, callusing from only one lobe. 5 = Anther on edge, callusing from upper and lower lobes. 6 = Anther on edge, callusing from lower lobe only. Note calli from lower lobes growing into the medium.

anthers plated on edge produce callus from both lobes or from the lower lobe only. About 15% of the calli transferred for regeneration produced green or green and albino plantlets. Observations made on rice varieties Somatic embryogenesis in rice Oryza sativa, cultivar IR40
Man Si Wang and F.J. Zapata. Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

IR5, Basmati 370, and Pankaj showed the same anther callusing response. No special anther inoculation technique is needed to get satisfactory callusing response in rice except to see that anthers are not buried in the medium. number of true-to-type plants. Plants derived through embryogenesis are unicellular in origin, and are likely to be more suitable for genetic, breeding, and mutation research. We studied the efficiency of O. sativa regeneration through this pathway. Dehulled mature seeds and young panicles of rice variety IR40 were sterilized and used as explants. The

Somatic embryogenesis is a preferred method of plant propagation in vitro. It allows rapid production of a large

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 23

Plant regeneration at different durations in culture of calli derived from young inflorescences and seeds of IR40. IRRI, 1987. Young inflorescence-derived callus Passage Calli plated (no.) 44 0 25 25 20 Calli responding no. 7 0 3 6 3 %a 15.9 0 12.0 24.0 15.0 Av green plant production b (no.) 4.1 0 3.0 5.0 4.0 Calli plated (no.) 25 24 20 15 20 Seed-derived callus Calli responding no. 4 11 3 1 0 %a 16.0 45.8 15.0 6.7 0 Av green plant production b (no.) 3.0 5.1 4.3 4.0 0

5 6 7 8 9
a

Total no. of calli responding x 100 Total no. of calli plated for regeneration Plants produced/calli-producing plant. Longitudinal section of an embryoid showing synchronous development of coleoptile (CL) and coleorhiza (CR). SC = scutellum. IRRI, 1987.

materials were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D); liter, 0.2 mg benzyl adenine (BAP)/liter, 3% sucrose, and 0.8% Difco Bacto agar (MS3 ) at pH 5.85.9. MS3 has been found optimum for callus induction in young rice panicles. The cultures were incubated in darkness at 26-27 C. Induced calli were subcultured every 4 wk (1 passage). From passages 5 to 9, embryogenic calli were transferred to a regeneration medium: MS medium supplemented

with 4 mg BAP/liter, 0.5 mg/ indoleacetic acid (IAA)/ liter. 0.5 mg naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)/ liter, 500 mg casein hydrolysate/ liter, 3% sucrose, 0.8% Difco Bacto agar, pH 5.85.9 (MS18-1). The cultures were incubated in continuous light, 3,000 1x intensity, at 2627 C. Data on regenerated plants were gathered after 4 wk in MS18-1 medium. Regenet ation efficiency decreased with the number of passages (see table). The decrease was more pronounced in

seed-derived callus. Plants from inflorescence-derived cultures could still be regenerated after passage 9. Seedderived callus regenerated only through passage 8. The explants did not differ in average plant production. The longitudinal section shows that germinated embryoids were bipolar with scutellum, coleoptile, and coleorhiza, indicating that plant regeneration was through embryogenesis (see figure).

Somatic embryogenesis in wild rice Oryza perennis Moench


Man Si Wang and F. J. Zapata, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

Wild rice species O. perennis Moench is tolerant of stagnant flooding and acid sulfate soils and has desirable floral characteristics for outcrossing. We sterilized and cultured young inflorescences and the scutellum of mature seeds of O. perennis. Embryogenic calli (E-callus) and nonembryogenic calli (NE-callus) were initiated from both explants (see figure). E-callus induction frequency was higher in young inflorescences (62%) than in mature seeds (44%). The embryogenic nature of the callus cultures from both explants was maintained over 14 subculture passages (about 16 mo).

Two types of callus formed from scutellum of mature seed after 4 wk in culture.

Regeneration frequency and average green plant production of the callus derived from young inflorescences decreased with time in culture (see table). In seed-derived callus, there was no clear trend in the percentage of calli responding. However, average green plant production showed a decreasing trend. Generally, a decline in

regeneration capacity of the callus and in average green plant production was observed. Although the regeneration capacity of both explants did not differ significantly, from a practical point of view mature seed is a more convenient source of explant than a young inflorescence because it can be stored and is more readily available any time of the year. The effect of different concentrations of BAP (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/liter) on plant regeneration at passage 8 was determined. The optimum level was 4 mg/ liter, which gave the highest callus response and average green plant regeneration in both explants. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was proven by longitudinal section and scanning electron microscopy. Structures of somatic embryos resembled those of IR40.

24 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Plant regeneration at different durations in culture of calli derived from young inflorescences and seeds of O. perennisa IRRI, 1987. Young inflorescence-derived callus Passage (mo in culture) 6-8 7-9 8-10 9-11 10-12 11-13 12-14 13-15 14-16
aComputed b

Seed-derived callus Calli Calli plated respondingb (no.) (%) 20 20 15 12 43 20 20 30 30 75.0 50.0 66.7 58.3 69.8 65.0 70.0 66.7 53.3 Total Av green plants plant produced production c (no.) (no.) 97 58 60 35 132 52 57 65 17 6.5 5.8 6.0 5.0 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.3 1.1

Calli Calli plated responding b (no.) (%) 25 20 20 25 20 34 34 20 20 80 65 60 60 60 58.8 35.3 40 45

Total Av green plants plant produced production c (no.) (no.) 117 78 62 64 42 70 43 24 20 5.8 6.0 5.2 4.3 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.2

This is the first report on somatic embryogenesis from a wild rice species. Young inflorescences and scutellum of mature seeds appear to be appropriate explants for establishing wild rice species plants via somatic embryogenesis.
The International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) invites all scientists to contribute concise summaries of significant rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to one or two pages and no more than two short tables, figures, or photographs. Contributions are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors will be identified by name, title, and research organization.

cPlants

after 4 wk in culture on MS 18-1 medium. Total no. calli responding 100 Total no. calli plated for regeneration produced/calli-producing plant.

Pest Control and Management


DISEASES
Trichoderma in Philippine ricefield soils
A. Nagamani and T. W. Mew, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI
Occurrence of Trichoderma species in lowland and upland rice fields in the Philippines, 1985-86. Culture type Upland

Species
Dominant 70-40% T. aureoviride or T. harzianum Common 20-39% T. piluliferum T. fongibrachiatum Uncommon 2-5% T. koningiia Trichodermab I Trichodermab II Very rare 1-2% T. T. T. T. T. T. T. T. T. T. T. pseudokoningii hamatum a glaucum a polysporum a viride a reesei a glaucum hamatum polysporum viride reesei

Common soil fungus Trichoderma can control several soil-borne pathogens. To assess its potential as a biocontrol agent in disease management of crops planted after rainfed rice, we collected 200 soil samples from 23 Philippine provinces Oct 1985 - Dec 1986. Trichoderma was isolated by dilution plate and soil plate techniques using Trichoderma medium E. Trichoderma populations in 90% of the samples ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 103 CFU/g of soil. The survey recorded 13 species, including 7 new to the Philippines and 2 unidentified. Dominance and occurrence of species varied with culture type (see table). Our study showed wide distribution and variation in dominance of different species. All species were antagonistic to rice sheath blight fungus in vitro. The potential isolates belonging to different species could be used as biocontrol agents in crop disease management.

Lowland

T. pseudokoningii or T. aureoviride

T. harzianum T. piluliferuma T. longibrachiatum

T. koningii Trichoderma sp I Trichoderma sp. II

Species not previously reported in the Philippines. bSpecies unidentified.

Interaction in vivo between virulent and avirulent cultures of rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen J. C. Durgapal, Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India When tested for virulence, some cultures of the BB pathogen Xanthomonas camptestris pv. oryzae failed to cause typical disease symptoms in the leaves of susceptible variety TN1. The cultures

induced only dark brown discoloration at inoculated sites. Microscopic examination did not reveal characteristic bacterial streaming in those leaves. The cultures were identified as avirulent (AV) forms of the bacterium. The AV cultures were morphologically and culturally identical to virulent (V) cultures except that they grew faster on culture medium. We studied the interaction between V and AV cultures on TNl plants. Standard aqueous suspensions of

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 25

young, actively growing cultures of virulent (V 1, V2 ) and avirulent (AV1 , AV2 ) types, each consisting of about 10 9 cells/ ml, were mixed in different proportions (see figure) and inoculated separately by pin-prick (PP) and leaftip-cut (TC) techniques in flag leaves of the host. Disease intensity (DI) average leaf lesion length (cm) of 3 replications was recorded 15 d after inoculation. Disease increase or reduction over check was assessed as average DI of PP and TC inoculations, expressed in percentage. The disease-producing ability of V cultures was noticeably reduced when the AV cultures were mixed. Qualitative and quantitative disease suppression was detected. Necrosis induced by the V + AV inoculum developed slowly and was characteristically discontinuous and less intensive than in the checks. Although lesion length reduction (DI) occurred even in leaves inoculated with less than 50% of the AV culture, it was significant where inoculum had 50% or more of AV culture. Inoculation with V 1 + V2 combinations, however, did not show significant increase or decrease of

Percentage of increase or reduction in disease intensity over checks (inoculated with single virulent culture) at varying concentrations of virulent (V 1 ,V2 ) plus avirulent (AV1, AV2) and V1 plus V2 cultures in inoculum.

infection over checks. The fact that the AV forms of X. c. pv. oryzae interfere with the diseaseproducing ability of the V population of

the pathogen suggests that occurrence of AV forms is important in the epidemiology of the disease.

Fungicidal control of rice sheath blight (ShB)


Y.J.P.K. Mithrasena, D. L. Wickramasinghe, and W.P. Adikari, Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Bombuwela, Sri Lanka

Effectiveness of fungicides on rice ShB disease incidence and grain yield. a Bombuwela, Sri Lanka. Fungicide 50% benomyl Triphenyltin hydroxide 25% pencycuron Control (no fungicide)
a

Application time after inoculation 24 h 2 wk 24 h 2 wk 24 h 2 wk CV (%)

Disease incidence 1984/85 maha 3.88 a 3.12 ab 2.50 b 3.26 ab 2.38 b 2.48 b 3.63 a 18.8 1985 yala 3.22 a 2.55 bc 2.29 c 2.80 ab 2.30 c 2.52 bc 2.85 ab 9

Grain yield (t/ha) 1984/85 maha 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.1 11.5 1985 yala 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.2 11.7

ShB caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a serious disease in the wet rice-growing areas of Sri Lanka. No suitable chemicals for its control have been recommended. Since a variety resistant to ShB has yet to be found, the effectiveness of some fungicides was tested in vitro and in vivo. Ten concentrations, 10-100 ppm, were tested against R. solani in PDA medium, using the filter paper disc technique. The medium in the plates was divided into four equal parts and filter paper discs dipped in fungicide solutions were placed in each quarter. A single sclerotium of R. solani was placed in the center of the plate. The inhibition zone

Av of 3 replications. In a column, values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT.

around each disc for each concentration was measured as the fungus grew. Benomyl, triphenyltin hydroxide, and pencycuron were used for field tests for two seasons in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plot size was 6 3 m. Rice variety BW288-13 was broadcast. Recommended

fertilizers were applied. Standard plant protection measures were taken. The inoculum, 7-d-old R. solani cultured on rice grain, was spread evenly on the water surface at panicle initiation. Fungicides were sprayed 24 h and 2 wk after inoculation at 0.5 kg ai/ha for benomyl and triphenyltin hydroxide,

26 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

and 0.25 kg ai/ha for pencycuron. Disease incidence was assessed at harvest as follows:
Disease incidence =

1(H) + 2(L) + 3(M) - 4(S1) + 5(S2) Total no. of tillers

H = healthy tillers, L = lightly infected

tillers, M = moderately infected tillers, S 1 = severely infected tillers, and S2 = very severely infected tillers (flag leaf dried and killed). Of fungicides tested in PDA medium, inhibitory zones were shown only with triphenyltin hydroxide at 10 ppm and

pencycuron at 30 ppm. Disease incidence and yield in two seasons are given in the table. In both seasons, the lowest disease incidence was with pencycuron applied 24 h after inoculation.

Damage by rice root-knot nematode N. C. Patnaik and N. N. Padhi, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India

Healthy seedlings of rice variety PTBl0 were transplanted in 10-cm-diameter earthen pots containing sterilized soil (500 g/ pot). At 6 d after planting, 0, 1, 4, and 16 Meloidogyne graminicola egg masses/ plant were introduced in the root zone. The treatments were in 8 replications in a randomized block design. Symptoms of infestation on foliage and external symptoms and gall formation on the root system were recorded. Disease caused by the root-knot nematode affected the entire rice plant, producing damage symptoms on foliage and roots. On the foliage, tip drying was observed at all levels of inoculum. Leaf bronzing developed from the tip downward and from the margin toward the midrib of the leaf blade. Plants were chlorotic. There was considerable distortion in leaf emergence and growth. The leaves were crinkled (Fig. 1). New tillers had reduced height. Severely

1. Symptoms on plants showing crinkled appearance of leaves.

infected plants flowered and matured early. Emerging panicles were crinkled, grain setting was poor, and chaffiness was observed in the panicles. Characteristic knots appeared in a string on the fibrous roots (Fig. 2). Roots showed profuse development of small, slender, lateral roots, resulting in a hairy root system. Galls were beaded, club- or spindleshaped. In cases of heavy infection, they coalesced and formed peculiar shapes. The minimum-size galls, which appeared 4 d after inoculation, were 300-550 m long and 150450 m wide. Each gall

2. a) Root system of an infected plant. b) Different shapes of galls.

was as big as 13 mm long and 2.29 mm wide after egg production.

Detection of seedborne rice fungi by blotter method T.S. Singh, Horticulture and Soil Conservation Department, Manipur, Imphal Pin 795001, India

Seed samples of Ratna, Jaya, IR24, Pusa 2-21, Phouren, and Moirangphou that had been collected 2-3 mo after harvest were kept in polythene bags in desiccators. Glass petri dishes and semitransparent plastic petri dishes were

used. Twenty-five seeds/petri dish were plated on three 11-cm diameter circles blotter paper moistened with water. Plates were incubated 6 d in B.O.D. incubators fitted with daylight tubes. Intact growths of fungal pathogens were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. Four hundred seeds/ variety were tested under the following conditions: Temperature. 17C, 22 C, 27C, and 32C with 12 h light. Temperature had a significant effect on percentage

infection of most fungi (Table 1). Higher infection percentages of Pyricularia oryzae, and Nigrospora spp. at 22C were detected, higher infection percentages of Drechslera oryzae, Trichoconis padwickii, and Curvularia spp., at 27C. Light. Maximum infection percentages of most fungi were detected at 12 h/d exposure to light (Table 2). Substrate moisture. Eight to 10 ml water were optimum to detect maximum infection percentages of most

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 27

seedborne rice fungi. pH level. Infection percentages were higher at substrate moisture at pH 5-6. Type of container. Higher infection percentages were detected in semitransparent plastic petri dishes than in glass petri dishes.

Use of streptomycin. When 100 ppm concentration streptomycin solution was used as substrate moisture, higher infection of D. oryzae, T. padwickii, and Phoma spp. could be detected, but growth and detection of P. oryzae were

reduced. 2,4-D. Use of low concentrations 2,4D (0.05%0.10%) in the substrate moisture restricted root growth and facilitated detection of most of the important fungi.

Table 1. Effect of incubation temperature on infection percentage of seedborne rice pathogens by blotter method. Imphal Pin, India. Temperature (C) 17 22 27 32 CD (0.05) Infection detected (%) D. oryzae 13 18 18 19 4 P. oryzae 8 22 15 5 4 T. padwickii 16 16 20 27 4 N. oryzae 12 16 13 11 3 Curvularia spp. 21 20 21 27 5 Alternaria spp. 2 6 4 1 3 Phoma spp. 9 10 10 10 ns Fusarium dimerum 11 18 15 17 3 Stemphylium sp. 2 4 2 0 2

Table 2. Effect of light on infection percentages of seedborne rice pathogens. Imphal Pin, India. Light h/d 0 (24 h darkness) 4 8 12 16 20 CD (0.05)
a

Mean infection percentage transformed into angles a D. oryzae 15.83 (7.44) 22.38 (14.50) 23.42 ( 15.80) 24.69 (17.45) 25.36 (18.34) 23.75 (16.25) 3.50 P. oryzae 12.91 (5.0) 16.66 (8.22) 20.04 (11.74) 22.68 (14.86) 21.57 (13.51) 21.34 (13.24) 3.32 T. padwickii 14.86 (6.57) 21.26 (13.15) 24.38 (1 7.04) 26.17 (19.45) 26.78 (20.30) 25.66 (18.75) 6.39 N. oryzae 24.17 26.76 27.35 27.66 27.17 27.47 ns Curvularia spp. 28.34 (22.53) 33.25 (30.07) 33.59 (30.61) 35.73 (34.00) 34.72 (32.43) 33.23 (30.03) 3.81 Alternaria spp. 22.62 24.03 25.57 27.13 25.85 26.46 ns Phoma spp. 18.76 21.06 21.48 21.25 21.83 21.60 ns F. sernitectum 6.99 7.60 8.24 8.69 13.66 11.91 ns Stemphylium sp. 13.46 13.45 11.19 11.32 11.43 12.83 ns

Figures in parentheses indicate values transformed back to percentages.

Cost comparison of neem oil and an insecticide against rice tungro virus (RTV) A. Abdul Kareem, R.C. Saxena, and H.D. Justo, Jr., Entomology Department, IRRI

Comparative RTV control, yield, and net gain in ricefields sprayed with neem oil and insecticide. a IRRI, 1987. Treatment RTV (%) 5a 4a 7a 4a 6 ab 9 b 29 a 56 b 52 b Yield (t/ha) 6.1 a 6.1 a 5.6 a 5.1 a 4.7 a 4.6 a 3.1 a 2.5 b 2.3 b Value of yield ($) Jan-Apr 1984 1068 1068 980 Jun-Oct 1984 892 822 8 05 Nov 1984-Mar 1985 542 438 402 cost of treatment ($) 44 125 12 44 125 12 44 125 12 Net gain (value of yield less cost of treatment b ) 1024 943 968 848 697 793 498 313 390

The potential of neem oil (NO) mixed with custard-apple oil (CAO) was evaluated in three consecutive croppings 1984-85. A 50% NO:CAO mixture in 4:1 proportion at 8 liters/ha was sprayed with an ultralow volume (ULV) applicator at weekly intervals from seedling to maximum tillering stages. The treated control was sprayed with BPMC at 0.75 kg ai/ha and the untreated control with 1.66% Teepolwater solution (emulsifier). Incidence of

NO:CAO BPMC Control NO:CAO BPMC Control NO:CAO BPMC Control


a Av

of 4 replications/cropping season. Cost of palay = US$0.175/kg (NFA price). NO:CAO mixture and BPMC were applied 8 times during each cropping season. Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. bCost of treatment includes labor and materials. Control treatment cost included labor (US$l0) and 8 pc DC batteries (US$2) for applying 1.66% Teepol-water solution (emulsifier) using an ULV-spray applicator.

28 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

RTV and yield are shown in the table. Jan-Apr 1984, RTV incidence was negligible and yields were high in all treatments. JunOct 1985, plots treated with the oil mixture had significantly less RTV infection than the untreated

control (9% RTV), but yields were not significantly different. Nov 1984-Mar 1985, RTV incidence was significantly less in plots treated with the oil mixture than in insecticide-treated and untreated control plots. Yield was significantly

higher in plots treated with the oil mixture. Net gain was consistently higher in plots treated with NO:CAO than in untreated or insecticide-treated plots.

Ufra threatens deepwater rice in Majuli, Assam


Y. Rathaiah and G. R. Das, Regional Agricultural Research Station. Assam Agricultural University, Titabar 785630, Assam, India

figure). Variety Padmapani appeared to escape the disease, probably because of

its early maturity (Nov). Popular variety Rangabao was severely affected.

Ufra problem in low-lying areas of Bangladesh


A. H. Mondal and S. A. Miah, Plant Patho1ogy Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Ufra disease caused by stem nematode Ditylenchus angustus was severe in deepwater rice on Majuli, the river island of Brahmaputra in Assam. About 2,000 ha was badly damaged. Symptoms observed included the characteristic white patches of barren rice plants, panicles of many plants that did not emerge, or only half emerged, and stems of many plants that produced aborted skeletons of deformed panicles (see

We surveyed the disease situation of five low-lying areas during the 1986 aman (AprDec). Three zones in the south, where ricefields are subjected to tidal submergence twice every 24 h, were found to be ufra prone (see figure). Tidal water helps spread ufra

Aborted panicles of rice due to stem nematode. Assam, India.

Outbreak of ufra disease in Bangladesh.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 29

nematode. Most of the ufra-prone areas grow broadcast aman (B. aman) rice Apr-Nov, followed by boro rice Nov Mar. That helps the ufra nematode survive throughout the year. Repeated cultivation of highly susceptible varieties Kaladhan, Dudhomona, and Kaligacha has contributed to the development of ufra. These varieties also act as sources of secondary and tertiary inocula. About 60-70% of the areas, covering about 200,000 ha, was infested. Digha variety was found to be resistant in one zone, probably because it escaped the disease because of its early maturity. Khalni was moderately resistant. In the two other zones, local B. aman varieties Rayanda (Rayada) and Keora were resistant. Other minor diseases observed during the survey are given in the table.

Disease distribution in deepwater rice areas of Bangladesh, with existing cropping pattern and varieties cultivated. Bangladesh, 1986. Zones of Bangladesh Pabna Barisal Cropping patterna BA or rabi/boro BA or TA/rabi/ boro Varieties cultivated Diseasedb Major Minor Ufra infestation (%) Varieties resistant to ufrac Digha (R) Khalni (MR) Rayanda (R) Keora (R)

Faridpur Khulna Sylhet Comilla Noakhali


a

BA or rabi/ boro BA or rabi/ fallow BA or rabi/ boro

Sharshari, Boron, ShB (only BB, B1 Dhaldhigha, in one BS, ShR Bhawalia location) Chikon, Mota, Ufra BB, B1 40-50% d d Pajam , Dudhmona , LSc, d, Khalni, Gorcha, Asfal ShR, ShB Digha, BR11, IR5, Joina d Grkajal d , Kaladhad Ufra BS, ShR 60-70% B1 Digha d, Joina, Khaiya motor d Rayanda, Marchan Karkati, Badal, ShR, BB Bazail, Biron ShR Kaligachad , Ufra 80-90% Barwad, Keora, Aman, Hirbain

BA = broadcast aman, TA = transplanted aman. bBB = bacterial blight, B1 = blast, BS = brown spot, ShR = sheath rot, ShB = sheath blight, LSc = leaf scald. cR = resistant, MR = moderately resistant. dHighly susceptible to ufra.

Weed hosts of ragged stunt virus (RSV)


G. Z. Salamat, Jr., A. Parejarearn and H. Hibino. Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

Detection of RSV by ELISA in weeds inoculated with RSV. Inoculated samples (no.) 23 33 35 23 Infected samples (no.) 4 3 10 6 Average absorbance at 405 nma Infected 0.42 0.90 0.58 0.32 Control 0.19 0.02 0.07 0.09

Weed species

We collected young weed plants of different species commonly found in ricefields and transplanted them individually in pots. Each plant was exposed to 50 RSV-viruliferous brown planthopper (BPH) for 2 d. One month after inoculation, the 2 youngest leaves of each plant were homogenized with 2 times (by weight) 0.02 M PBS-Tween. Extracts were tested in ELISA for the presence of RSV antigen. Extracts of uninoculated weed plants served as the control. Absorbance values at 405 nm of test extracts above 2 times mean absorbance value of control extracts were considered positive. Echinochloa glabrescens, Eleusine indica, Monochoria vaginalis, and Paspalum distichum gave positive ELISA; Commelina benghalensis, Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crusgalli, Ischaemum rugosum, and Ludwigia octovalvis negative (see table). That result indicates that some weed

Echinochloa glabrescens Eleusine indica Monochoria vaginalis Paspalum distichum


aValue

above 2 absorbance value of control considered positive.

species can be hosts of RSV. BPH nymphs given a 1.5-d acquisition access on some of the plants

gave positive ELISA. Nymphs fed on healthy rice seedlings for 8 d, then tested for infectivity, did not transmit RSV.

Frequency and timing of insecticide application to control rice tungro virus (RTV)
S. L. Valencia and O. Mochida, Entomology Department, IRRI

When vector populations are high, using insecticides to control RTV infection in moderately resistant and susceptible cultivars requires increasing the number of applications. More precise timing of insecticide application could reduce the number of applications needed.

We conducted two trials during the 1986 wet season to test insecticide timing and application frequency. IR64 (resistant) and TN1 (susceptible to green leafhopper and RTV) were planted in 5 7-m plots with 4 replications. The seedbeds were covered by mesh to prevent early RTV infection. In the first trial, cypermethrin (0.05 kg ai/ha) and monocrotophos (0.4 kg ai/ ha) were applied 4 times at 10-d intervals starting at 1, 5, or 10 d after transplanting (DT). RTV infected hills were recorded at 60 DT.

30 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

1. Effect of insecticide application timing in preventing RTV IRRI, 1986 WS.

Sheath blotch (SBL) of rice S.C. Ahuja and U. Bhan, Rice Research Station, Kaul 132021, Haryana, India

2. Effect of frequency of insecticide application in preventing RTV. IRRI, 1986 WS.

We studied the host range of Pyrenochaeta oryzae, the cause of SBL, and the effect of infection on germination, seedling vigor, and yield parameters on potted plants and inoculated grains of four crops. Plants of Zea mays, Oryzae barthii, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Sorghum vulgare were inoculated by inserting a hypha piece between the sheath and culm. P. oryzae could infect Z. mays and O. barthii, causing brownolivaceous spots 4 d after inoculation. Pycnidia formed after 17 d only on O. barthii. Rice varieties HKR101, Palman 579, RP2151-33-4, RP2151-76-1, RP2151-271, RP2151-40-1, IET7662, 7688, and HAU47-6045-1 were inoculated at booting by injecting mycelial suspension prepared from oat grain culture. Grains and enclosing sheaths of all varieties showed lesions. Initially, glumes assumed a blood red color, which
Table 1. Effect of P. oryzae infection on seedling characteristics. Haryana, India. Variety Reductiona (%) Root length 38.3 43.4 15.6 6.7 Shoot length 7.0 47.8 5.1 11.2 Germination 0 26.7 20.0 6.7

Palman 579 RP2151-76-1 RP2151-40-1 RP2151-27-1


a Compared

cations.

to healthy seedlings. Av of 3 repli-

Table 2. Effect of SBL on yield parameters. Haryana, India. Reduction or increases (%) Jaya 2 0 33 2b 51b 4 Pusa 2-21 12 4 69 18 52 5

Parameter

RTV incidence was significantly lower on IR64 and TN1 with cypermethrin applied within 5 DT (Fig. 1). Monocrotophos applied 1 DT gave control only on the resistant cultivar. In the second trial, three insecticides were used on moderately resistant IR42.

Cypermethrin at 0.05 kg ai/ha and monocrotophos and MIPC at 0.41 kg ai/ha were sprayed 2, 3, and 4 times at 10-d intervals starting 5 DT. Three applications protected the seedlings (Fig. 2).

Affected plants (%) 1000-grain wt Filled grains/panicle Unfilled grains/panicle Discolored grains/panicle Panicle length (cm)
aAv

of 3 replications, 5 panicles each. bIncease over healthy panicles.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 31

turned into the color of clotted blood. Rice varieties could not be graded on panicle infection. Germination and seedling vigor of discolored and healthy grains of 4 selected varieties were tested in petri plates at 30 1C. Varieties differed in reduction of percent germination and

root and shoot length (Table 1). Reduction was maximum in RP215176-1 and minimum in RP2151-27-1. Although germination in discolored seeds of Palman 579 was not affected, root length reduction was noticed. Affected and healthy panicles from six plots of Jaya and Pusa 2-21 were

collected to study the effect of SBL on yield parameters. Number of filled grains was reduced and number of unfilled and discolored grains was higher in affected panicles (Table 2). Infection was more pronounced on Pusa 2-21 than on Jaya.

Effect of Azolla bipinnata soil amendment on reduction in viability of sclerotia of rice stem rot (SR) fungus S. Hussain, S. M. Haroon Usmani, and A. Ghaffar, Botany Department, University of Karachi, Pakistan

Table 2. Analysis of variance for the viability of sclerotia of Sclerotium oryzae. Source of variance Treatments (T) Moisture (M) Time (D) TXM TX D MXD TX MXD Residual Total SS 1045.51 1 625.328 4220.755 306.91 1 1152.045 670.128 1853.533 10938.667 20812.978 *P<0.05 df 3 2 4 6 12 8 24 120 179 **P<0.01 MS 348.50 312.69 1055.19 51.15 96.00 83.77 77.23 91.15 F ratio 3.82** 3.43* 11.58** 0.56 1.05 0.92 0.85

A greenhouse pot experiment examined the effect of Azolla bipinnata used as an organic substrate on the survival of sclerotia of the SR fungus Sclerotium oryzae. Soil artificially infested with sclerotia of S. oryzae at 5 sclerotia/g of soil was amended with fresh azolla at 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% wt/ wt. The soil in 7cm-diameter pots was adjusted and maintained at 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity by watering daily. At 0, 10-, 20-, 40-, and 80-d intervals, sclerotia were separated by wet sieving and their viability tested on water agar supplemented with streptomycin sulfate and penicillin at
Table 1. Reduction in viability of sclerotia of Sclerotium oryzae in soil amended with Azolla bipinnata at different moisture levels. Karachi, Pakistan. Azolla treatment Control Moisture (%) 50 75 100 50 75 100 50 75 1 00 50 75 100 Reduction in viabilitya (%) 10 d 20 d 4 5 0 10 0 14 4 12 5 1 13 12 3 4 10 3 14 13 12 0 8 18 8 16 40 d 80 d 3 8 13 9 8 4 8 13 17 5 13 14 0 4 13 5 13 17 25 14 35 29 18 26

3,000 ppm each. Maximum reduction, up to 35%, in sclerotial viability was observed with azolla at 0.5% wt/ wt (Table 1). Azolla at different concentrations and at different time intervals showed significant reduction in viability of sclerotia (Table 2). Moisture also was significant. Interactions among

amendment, moisture, and time were not significant. Presumably soil incorporation of azolla and the decomposition of organic matter generate anaerobic conditions and/ or accumulation of fungitoxic substances due to increased microbial activity, resulting in a reduction in viability of S. oryzae sclerotia.

Pestalotia oryzae - a new rice fungus in India N. I. Singh, Botany and Plant Pathology Department, Manipur Agricultural College, Iroisemba, Imphal 795001, India A severe glume spot disease of rice was found in Manipur for the first time in

Panicle stage and susceptibility to Pestalotia oryzae. Iroisemba, Manipur, India, 1985-86. Panicle stage Just emerged Milk Dough Mature Panicles inoculated (no.) 30 30 30 30 Panicles infected (no.) 2 30 6 0

Azolla 0.1 %

Azolla 0.5% Azolla 1.0%

Zero reduction at 0 d.

Symptoms appeared first as small, pale brown spots which gradually increased to 2 mm in size. The center of the spot is gray-brown with a dark brown margin and bears minute fruiting bodies of the fungus. Diseased grains were collected in separate bags from different ricegrowing valley areas during the crop season. The causal organism was isolated and maintained on potato

1985-86.

dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Pathogenicity of the fungus was proved by inoculating young panicles with 7-dold cultures. The fungus failed to infect the living leaves. However, it could easily infect dead rice leaves. The isolated pathogenic fungus has been identified as Pestalotia oryzae Hara. This is the first record of its

32 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

occurrence on rice glumes in India. The fungus produces hyaline, caenocytic mycelium. Conidiophores are short and simple. Conidia are dark and 5-celled, with hyaline and pointed-end

cells having 23 hyaline apical appendages. Size of conidia is 3035 710 m with appendages 20-35 m long. During pathogenicity tests, mycelial

bits of the fungus were prepared from 7d-old culture and sprayed on rice grain at different stages. The milk stage was found to be most susceptible to fungal infection (see table).

Effect of grain spotting on rice quality


V.S. T. Murty, B.S. Chandrakar, A. K. Singh, and R. K. Misra, J. N. Agricultural University Campus, Bilaspur (M. P.), India

Loss to grain spotting. Bilaspur, India. Variety Jaya Ratna Bd 200 R-35-2752 BPT1235 Surekha RP9-4 Saket-4 IR36 Chatri Mahsuri IET4094 R-2384 Phalguna Pankaj Kranti Pusa IET3273 Jagriti Garima Patel 85 Infection (%) 6.2 7.3 3.4 9.1 6.2 4.6 5.4 5.8 10.3 10.4 1.6 5.2 11.7 4.1 4..0 6.9 7.3 11.5 4.7 4.5 4.8 Loss (g) in husk weight 0.26 0.18 0.1 1 0.51 0.31 0.21 0.1 2 0.30 0.30 0.53 0.1 1 0.28 0.06 0.1 3 0.10 0.17 0.1 1 0.39 0.27 0.12 0.21 Difference in 1000-grain weight (g) 1.79 3.27 2.0 1 0.78 4.33 1.80 2.84 3.62 0.26 0.07 3.44 5.96 3.94 3.75 2.09 0.20 3.99 0.65 1.70 1.86 2.73 Cooking expansion difference (ml) 0.12 0.12 0.00 2.19 1.95 0.48 0.24 1.09 0.73 1.09 0.36 1.09 0.36 0.45 0.00 0.61 0.6 1 0.36 0.24 0.36 0.73

Grain spotting is caused by several microorganisms (Trichoconis spp., Helminthosporium oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae, Aspergillus spp., Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia spp., etc.). Symptoms (distinct black dots, sometimes brown blackish blotches) vary with the degree of infection. We sampled grain lots of 21 varieties and measured grain spotting incidence. Twenty-five healthy and 25 infected seeds of each variety were selected at random, dehusked, and the husk and grain weighed. Ten healthy and 10 infected seeds were dehusked and the grains placed in 15- 1-cm test tubes with 10 ml water each tube. Grain volume was measured. The tubes were placed in a 500-ml beaker with 200 ml water, heated for 30 Distribution of rice seedling dampingoff in Bangladesh
M. M. Rahman, A. H. Mondal, and S.A. Miah, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh

min, and grain volume after cooking measured. All varieties showed grain spotting (see table). Infected seeds weighed less

than healthy seeds. Infected husk also weighed less. Healthy grains expanded more than spotted grains with cooking. We surveyed the distribution and intensity of the disease in different districts during Jan 1987. The disease was prevalent in all 11 districts visited, with damage as high as 70% in seedbeds kept submerged during and after sowing (see table).

Severity of rice seedling damping-off in 11 districts of Bangladesh. winter, 1987. District Bogra Comilla Chittagong Dinajpur Gazipur Jamalpur Mymensingh Pabna Rajshahi Rangpur Tangail Seedbeds affected (%) 30 25 25 40 30 70 30 30 40 60 20 Severity (0-9 scale a ) 57 57 57 57 59 59 57 57 35 39 35

Rice seedling damping-off caused by Achlya sp. was first identified in Bangladesh in 1978. The disease is soil borne and is disseminated through both soil and water. The pathogen affects seeds or young seedlings during the winter (NovFeb). The fungus forms a gray/ brown/ black-colored tangled mass of hyphae covering the surface of the infected seeds. During 1978, severe seed or seedling damage occurred in the seedbed at the BRRI farm. Almost all rice varieties or

a 0 = no incidence, 3 = 1120% damage. 4 = 21 30% damage, 5 = 3140% damage, 6 = 4150% damage, 7 = 5160% damage, 8 = 6170% damage, and 9 = 81100% damage.

Relationship between tungro transmission by individual Nephotettix virescens, mode of feeding, and life span
G. Dahal and H. Hibino, Plant Patholagy Department, IRRI

lines sown were affected, with up to 80% seed or seedling mortality.

A green leafhopper (GLH) Nephotettix virescens colony collected from

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 33

Transmission of RTBV, RTSV, and RTBV +RTSV on IR54, IR36, and TN1 by GLH, area of acidic and basic honeydew excreted during inoculation feeding, and survival of GLH on the respective cultivars. IRRI, 1986.

Koronadal, South Cotabato, and reared on TN1 for 5-6 overlapping generations was used in this study. About 3-4 d after molting, adult GLH were given 4-d acquisition access to plants infected with both rice tungro bacilliform (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical viruses (RTSV). The GLH then were tested individually on IR36, IR54, and TN1 for virus transmission, feeding behavior during inoculation feeding, and survival on seedlings. Feeding behavior was monitored by the reaction of honeydew spots on bromocresol-green treated filter paper discs. Blue color spots (basic honeydew) indicates phloem feeding and orange or brown color spots (acidic honeydew) indicates xylem feeding. Inoculated plants were indexed by latex serology. After inoculation feeding, each GLH was caged on about 3-wk-old plants of the respective cultivars to determine life span. Leafhoppers fed on both phloem and xylem on all test varieties. They excreted less basic honeydew on GLH-resistant IR36 and IR54, survived fewer days, and transmitted viruses at lower rates (see figure). On susceptible TN1, the GLH excreted more basic honeydew, survived longer, and transmitted viruses at higher rates. There was a significant correlation between percent virus transmission and, the average areas of basic honeydew spots, and the average life span of GLH on the test varieties. However, there was

Transmission of RTBV and RTSV on 3 cultivars by individual GLH and their feeding behavior during inoculation access. a IRRI, 1987. Cultivar IR36 GLH tested (no.) 30 Transmissions (no.) by GLH RTBV+RTSV 10 RTBV 7 RTSV 1 None 12 RTBV+RTSV 3 RTBV 9 RTSV 0 None 18 RTBV+RTSV 18 RTBV 6 RTSV 2 None 4 GLH (no.) that fed on Phloem 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Phloem and xylem 7 5 1 1 2 2 0 3 16 6 1 2 Xylem 3 2 0 11 1 7 0 15 2 0 0 2

IR54

30

TN1

30

aGLH

fed on plants infected with RTBV and RTSV were individually given a 1-d inoculation access feeding on seedlings.

no correlation between the areas of basic honeydew spots excreted by the individual leafhoppers during inoculation feeding and life span on the same variety. On IR54, there was no clear tendency indicating that GLH which predominantly excreted more basic honeydew transmitted the viruses at higher rate. But on IR36 and TN1, GLH which excreted more basic honeydew transmitted the viruses. Irrespective of variety, a high proportion of GLH which fed on both phloem and xylem transmitted the viruses (see table). About one-third of the GLH that fed on xylem alone transmitted the viruses. The results indicate that virus transmission occurs even when GLH feed predominantly on xylem.

Incidence of rice panicle stalk blast (BI) in Manipur N. Iboton Singh, Botany and Plant Pathology Department, Manipur Agricultural College (MAC), Iroisemba, Imphal 795001, India

Internodal culm Bl of rice was found for the first time in experimental plots of MAC and in many rice-growing areas in Manipur in 1985; the incidence was severe in 1986. Punshi and KD 2-6-3, varieties widely cultivated in Manipur, suffered 60100% yield loss. The disease attacked rice plants from anthesis on. Symptoms were numerous white, empty panicles. But the

34 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the infected internode remained healthy. Sections of tissues of the uppermost internode rotted and were covered with sooty spore masses. In late infection, grains developed poorly. The disease was more severe in dry fields than in wet

fields. When microscopically examined, diseased samples collected from different rice-growing valley areas in the State consistently showed Pyricularia oryzae Cav. The pathogen was isolated on rice straw extract agar medium and its

pathogenicity proved. The sudden spread of the disease seems to have been influenced by cultivation of high-yielding, susceptible rice varieties and by a long dry spell during late growth stage.

Pest Control and Management


INSECTS
Predators of rice insect pests in Chhattishgarh region, Madhya Pradesh, India D. Bhardwaj and A. D. Pawar, Central Biological Control Station, Raipur, Madhya Pradesh, India

20-30 C temperature during the JunSep monsoon. Monsoon rice cultivation favors insect multiplication.

We counted natural enemies of monsoon rice pests in 1984-86 (see table). placed in a petri dish lined with moist filter paper and sprayed with 1 ml spray solution, using an atomizer. Eggs that hatched were counted every 15 min for 3 d. Data were converted into arc sin values and corrected for natural mortality using Abbott's formula. BPMC 0.25 kg ai/ha delayed hatching most, and crawlers that hatched, died.

Effect of insecticides on eggs of Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) M. Gopalan, N. C. Radja, and G. Balasubramanian, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

Madhya Pradesh is situated between latitude 17 and 26N and longitude 74 and 84E. Rice is the predominant crop in Chhattishgarh, which has mixed red and yellow soil, 1,400-1,600 mm average rainfall, 85-95% average humidity, and
Predators of rice insect pests in Chhattishgarh region, Madhya Pradesh, India, 198486. Predators I Araneida Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha mandibulata Lycosidae Lycosa pseudoannulata Orthoptera Tettigonnidae Conocephalus longipennis Odonota Coenagrionidae Ischnura sp. Agriocnemus pygmaea Coleoptera Carabidae Ophionea nigrofasciata Casnoidae indica Coccinellidae Coceinella arcuata Menochilus sexmaculata Scymnus postpinctus Staphylinidae Paederus fuscipes Hemiptera Miridae Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Gerridae Limnogonus sp. Microvelia sp. Nabidae Tropiconabis capsiformis Prevalence High Moderate Moderate Low High Moderate Low Moderate Low Low High High Moderate Moderate Moderate

We tested the ovicidal action of 11 insecticides in the laboratory (see table). For each treatment, 50 eggs were

Effect of insecticides on hatchability of B. rehi eggs. a Coimbatore, India. Insecticide Endosulfan Phosphamidon Monocrotophos Fenthion Chlorpyrifos Methyl demeton Dimethoate Phosalone Biphenyl methyl carbamate Deltamethrin Carbaryl Control
a

Rate (kg ai/ha) 0.33 0.25 0.20 0.50 0.35 0.125 0.15 0.35 0.25 0.01 0.5

Hatchability (%) 11 def 13 efg 10 def 11 cde 12 efg 10 c 8 cd 12 efg 2a 14 fg 7 b 14 g

Mortality (%) 31 de 22 f 36 de 34 de 22 f 39 d 51 c 23 f 88 a 14 g 58 b

II III

IV

Mean of 3 replications. Figures in parentheses are arc sin transformed values. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by DMRT.

Insect pests on main and ratoon rice A. K. Chakravarthy, Regional Research Station, Mudigere 577132, India

Intan, a popular irrigated rice variety in the hilly region of Karnataka, was sown 5 Jul 1984 and 7 Jun 1985 in 8- 1-

0.1-m nursery beds. Seedlings were transplanted 2 Aug 1984 in 64-m 2 plots and 13 Jul 1985 in 66-m 2 plots with 4 replications. To supplement natural buildup of insect population, 15-20 20-m-long rows were maintained on each side of the experimental field. No insecticides were

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 35

Insect pests on main crop and ratoon crop of lntan at Mudigere, India. OHLH = orangeheaded leafhopper, WM = whorl maggot, CW = caseworm, LR = leafroller, T = thrips, GM = gall midge, SB = stem borer, GLH = green leafhopper, BPH = brown planthopper.

used. The crop was harvested on 31 Dec 1984 and 25 Nov 1985 leaving 8-cm stubble. The ratoon crop was fertilized with 45 kg urea 30 d after main crop harvest. Insects were sampled on main crop and ratoon crop using a sweep net. Ten criss-cross sweeps were made at the top of the canopy on each plot and selected species counted. Plants also were examined for noticeable damage. In 1985, natural enemies were also sampled following the same sampling methods. The ratoon crop recorded significantly higher numbers of orangeheaded leafhopper Thaia subrufa (Motsch.) and green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens (Distant) than the main crop in both 1984 and 1985 (see figure). Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stl) had significantly higher numbers on the ratoon crop in 1985. Whorl maggot Hydrellia griseola (Fallen), caseworm Nymphula depunctalis (Guene), leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene), gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason), and thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis

(Bagn.) did not increase. Stem borers Scirpophaga incertulas (Walk.) and S. innotata (Walk.) damaged both the main and ratoon crops. Both main and ratoon crops harbored natural enemies that can play a crucial role in suppressing insect pests.

Six spiders, 2 odonatans, 2 wasps, 1 neuropteran, 16 Cyrtorhinus sp., and 12 Microvelia sp. bugs were recorded per 10 clumps on the main crop. On the ratoon crop, one spider, two odonatans, one neuropteran, six Cyrtorhinus, and two Microvelia spp. were recorded. A brachypterous female was tethered with a 10-m-diameter gold wire leading to the input of the electric current detection amplifier using electric conductive paint Dotite D-550 and allowed to feed on a potted rice plant electrified by applying a 500 Hz, 5 V alternative current from the oscillator. The plant and BPH were confined in a copper net cage during measurement to shut off electric noise. BPH is a phloem feeder, with stylet sheath feeding. Its feeding process consisted of probing and sucking phases that elicited distinct waveforms. When the BPH started to penetrate the plant epidermis, an abrupt upsurge of electric current appeared. This is possibly due to excretion of a bulk of sheath material

Electronically recorded waveforms associated with brown planthopper (BPH) feeding activity D. Kilin, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops, Cimanggu Kecil 2, Bogor, and K. Sogawa, Indonesia-Japan Joint Programme on Food Crop Protection, Directorate of Food Crop Protection, P. O. Box 36 Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

We analyzed the feeding activity of BPH by an electronic measurement system constructed with a power supply unit, variable oscillator, logarithmic amplifier, and stripchart recorder. BPH behavioral components associated with feeding activity were recorded as different voltage fluctuation patterns.

36 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

on and into the plant tissues. Subsequent stylet probing along with stylet sheath formation produced an irregular jagged pattern with gradual drop of voltage (P). Once the BPH went into sustained sucking from sieve elements in the phloem, confirmed by excretion of honeydew rich in sucrose, stable voltage output with micro vibrations in amplitude continued (S). Between the probing (P) and sucking (S) waveforms, two types of brief but characteristic waveforms registered: a regular pulsation pattern (A) and a small plateau formed by a vertical rise of voltage (B) similar to an intermittent sucking waveform. The A and B waveforms are possibly related to sensory responses of the BPH for

1. Examples of waveforms produced by biotype I females on resistant variety IR26, Indonesia, 1987. The upper chart shows that sucking from a sieve element after a P-AB-A sequence was discontinued shortly. The lower chart shows a very short sucking waveform between the A-waveforms.

2. Examples of waveforms produced by biotype 1 females on susceptible variety Pelita I/1, Indonesia, 1987. The upper chart indicates a process going into a sustained sucking from a sieve element after a sequence of P-AS-A waveforms. The lower chart shows that a P-B-A sequence occurred during sustained sucking, indicating a change of sucking sites from one sieve element to another without withdrawal of the stylets from the plant. Letters A, B, P. and S indicate A, B, probing, and sucking waveforms, respectively. Arrow indicates a voltage upsurge at time of stylet insertion.

localization of sieve elements within the phloem, such as pulsatory emission of watery saliva for gustatory sensing and trial sucking. The sequences of waveforms commonly recorded when BPH fed on susceptible rice varieties is P-A-S, P-BA-S, or P-A-B-A-S. The same waveforms also were produced on resistant varieties. The sucking waveform appeared only briefly, if at all on resistant varieties (Fig. 1). They lasted for a long time on susceptible varieties (Fig. 2). This reconfirms that the varietal resistance to BPH is attributed to gustatory blockage of sustained sucking on sieve elements.

Strepsipteran parasites of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers in the Philippines A. T. Barrion and J. A. Litsinger Entomology Deparment, IRRI

Strepsiptera are highly host-specific parasites of auchenorhynchous Homoptera. Host records can be determined by dissecting specimens. In 1985-86, we collected leafhoppers and planthoppers by D-Vac suction machine from dryland ricefields and adjacent grasslands of Caliraya in Laguna and Claveria in Misamis Oriental and from wetland ricefields in Koronadal in South

Cotabato, Calauan in Laguna, and Zaragoza in Nueva Ecija. Two new host records for the Philippines were found, bringing the total to six (see table). The earlier record of Halictophagus yiperi Bohart on its sole host Cofana longa Merino was not detected. Elenchus yasumatsui Kifune et Hirashima parasitizes nymphs and adults of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and is newly recorded on N. bakeri, H. spectrus Yang attacks only Cojana spectra and H. munroei Hirashima et Kifune only green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. H. bipunctatus Yang, recorded in Japan and China, was observed on N. IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 37

Parasitization of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers in the Philippines. a IRRI, 1985-86.

Host

Specimen dissected (no.)

Parasitization (%)

Halictophagus spectrus
10

Elenchus

munroei
0.1
b

bipunctatus b yasumatsui ?japonicus b


0.3 0.1 9 0.7 2.1 3.2

Cicadellidae Nephotettix virescens (Distant) N. nigropictus (Stal) Cofana spectra (Distant) Delphacidae Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) N. bakeri (Muir) b Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) S. longifurcifera (Esaki & Ishihara) S. kolophon (Kirkaldy) Sogatodes pusanus (Distant)
a

1884 3621 1875 4666 430 5045 238 175 5730

8 3.4 1.1 11

H. piperi and its host C. longa were not collected.

New records.

virescens and N. nigropictus. E. nr. japonicus Esaki et Hashimoto was taken from the whitebacked planthopper complex Sogatella and Sogatodes. Parasitization by strepsiptera is low, 0.1-11%, but supplements that of other nymphal-adult parasites, such as Tomosvaryella and Pipunculus, in regulating populations of rice leafhoppers and planthoppers. Strepsipterans cause castration or stylopization on the host genitalia. Usually they occur as wormlike or pupiform structures with their cephalothorax exserted between the dorsal or ventral abdominal segments of hoppers. An infested host usually has two to three adult strepsiptera embedded in its abdomen.

Nymphula africalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of azolla in Nigeria


M.S. Alam, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria

In China, six moths, one beetle, and a snail are considered major pests of azolla. Information on insect pests of azolla in Africa is scarce. In West Africa, two pests (snail Limnea natalensis and caseworm Nymphula sp.)

are reported to have quickly destroyed the inoculum of Azolla pinnata var. africana. In Sep-Oct 1986, azolla in an irrigated ricefield at Ibadan was infested with caseworm Nymphula africalis Hampson. The adult N. africalis is a dull-colored moth about 10 mm long with 4 distinct wavy bands on its forewings and a 15to 18-mm wing span (Fig. 1). Newly hatched larvae feed on azolla leaf buds. After a few days, they conceal themselves in cases made from azolla

2. a) Larval case, b) full-grown larva, and c) pupal case of Nymphula africalis.

1. Adult moth of Nymphula africalis.

fronds, which they carry with them as they move about for food. Larvae stretch their heads and thoraxes from the cases to feed. A full-grown larva is 15-16 mm long and will consume 9-14 azolla leaves a day. The larval cases are about 20 mm long. Mature larvae spin cocoons inside the cases for pupation. A pupal case is about 14 mm long (Fig. 2). Pupae are brown and about 9 mm long. Adult moths emerge from cocoons within a week.

38 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Minimum levels of three commonly used insecticides to control five insect pests of rice in the Philippines R.F. Macatula and O. Mochida, Entomology Department, IRRI

prevented whiteheads. Significantly fewer rice tungro virus (RTV) infested hills were observed on plots treated with monocrotophos. Monocrotophos or MIPC at 0.3 kg

ai/ha was as good as higher dosages against GLH adults and nymphs. Chlorpyrifos + BPMC at 0.4 kg ai/ ha was effective on adults and at 0.75 kg ai/ ha on nymphs (see figure).

The recommended foliar insecticide rate to control rice insect pests in the Philippines is 0.75 kg ai/ ha. We tested monocrotophos, MIPC, and chlorpyrifos + BMPC at 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 kg ai/ ha on the IRRI farm. IR22 seedlings were transplanted at 21 d old in 6.0- X 5.2-m plots with 4 replications. Insecticides were sprayed 5 times at 14-d intervals from 5 to 61 d after transplanting. Populations of Nephotettix virescens (GLH), Hydrellia philippina (RWM), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (LF), Chilo suppressalis (SB), and Leptocorisa oratorius (RB) were monitored. There was no difference between dosages of the effective insecticides (see table). Monocrotophos or chlorpyrifos + BMPC were effective against LF. None of the insecticides lowered RWM incidence below 50%. Monocrotophos at 0.4 kg ai/ha was effective against RB. None of the insecticides gave better than 50% control of SB deadhearts. Monocrotophos at 0.3 kg ai/ha or chlorpyrifos + BPMC at 0.5 kg ai/ ha

Effect of 3 insecticides applied as foliar spray at different rates on GLH. IRRI, 198586. In a row, means followed by different letters show that the average populations of adults and nymphs were significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

Rate (kg ai/ha)

Field evaluation of minimal levels of commonly used insecticides to control insect pest complex. a IRRI, 198586.
b

Insecticide

Rate (kg ai/ha) 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 -

LF damaged leaves (%) c 70 DT 6a 7a 5a 5a 13 14 12 14 b b b b

RWM damaged leaves (%) c 20 DT 24 bc 23 abc 25 bc 20 ab 25 27 24 22 bc bc bc abc

Hills (%) showing RTV symptoms 65 DT de 13 9 cde 11 de 8 bcd 9 cde 10 cde 10 cde 8 bcd 5 abc 3a 7 abcd 4 ab

Stem borer Deadhearts (%) 60 DT 15.4 cd 13.3 bcd 15.0 cd 13.5 bcd 14.7 cd 13.7 bcd 14.9 cd 14.5 cd 12.4 abc 9.6 a 9.4 a 10.9 ab 17.1 d Whiteheads (%) 5 DBH d 1.1 abc 1.2 bc 0.9 ab 0.8 ab 2.8 2.8 2.5 1.9 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 2.5 ab ab ab a d d d d cd

RB e (no./m2) at milk stage 5.3 4.8 4.3 5.0 bcde abcd abc bcde

Chlorpyrifos + BPMC 3 1.5 EC

MIPC 50 WP

5.8 cde 6.3 cde 8.8 de 4.5 abcd 5.3 bcde 2.3 abc 1.0 ab 0.7 a 9.2 e

Monocrotophos 30 EC

7a 6a 6a 5a 14 b

20 ab 24 bc 20 ab 18 a 32 d

Control
a

12

de

DT = days after transplanting. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. b Insecticides were applied at 5, 19, 33, 47, and 61 DT. Spray volume was 300500 liters/ha. c Data based on 20 sample hills. Av of 4 replications. LF = leaffolder, RWM = rice whorl maggot. d Days before harvest. e Rice bug.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 39

Biotype shift in a brown planthopper (BPH) population on IR42 K. Sogawa and D. Kilin, Indonesia-Japan Joint Programme on Food Crop Protection, Directorate of Food Crop Protection, P.O. Box 36, Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Gradual improvement in the Jatisari BPH population nymphal growth during a course of selection on IR42. Jakarta, Indonesia. Generation 1 2 3 4 5 Nymphs tested (no.) 197 59 54 58 40 Adult emergence (%) 19.3 22.0 48.1 70.0 82.5 Mean nymphal period (d) 17.1 16.4 14.1 13.5 12.4 2.9 3.6 1.5 1.3 0.9 Growth index 1.13 1.34 3.42 5.36 6.65 Brachypterous females (%) 62 100 100 100 100

IR42, with bph 2 gene for resistance to BPH, was introduced in Indonesia in 1980. However, its BPH resistance has been defeated rather easily by the development of a new biotype in North Sumatra in 1982 and in Central Sulawesi and Riau in 1983. The developmental process of the new biotype was reproduced in the laboratory at Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops. The field BPH population was collected on susceptible variety Pelita I/1 at Jatisari Field Laboratory, West Java. The Jatisari population is biotype 1. First-instar nymphs hatched on Pelita I/1 plants were individually introduced into test tubes (1.5 16 cm) containing 2 IR42 seedlings. Seedlings were changed weekly. Nymphal development and mortality were recorded daily. Adults that emerged were immediately transferred to Pelita I/1 plants to mate and produce progeny. Nymphs that hatched on the Pelita I/1 plants were again subjected to individual rearing on IR42 seedlings. These procedures were applied for five consecutive generations. The Jatisari population of the BPH became compatible with IR42 or shifted from biotype 1 to biotype 3 within five generations. Adult emergence on IR42 increased logarithmically, from 19.3 to 82.5%. The average nymphal period was shortened from 17.1 to 12.4 d, and the growth index improved from 1.13 to 6.65 (see table). Adults of the 4th and 5th generations were able to reproduce significantly to maintain the population on IR42 plants at tillering. During the first 2 generations, nymphal duration on IR42 ranged from 12 to 22 d. However. after the third generation, the variation in duration was gradually reduced to a binomial

Change in frequency distribution of nymphal period of the BPH Jatisari population for 5 consecutive generations selected on IR42 seedlings, Jakarta, Indonesia.

distribution pattern (see figure). About 40% of the females were macropterous

in the first generation; after the second generation, all were brachypterous.

Complete slide sets of photos printed in field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. No orders for surface mail handlingwill be accepted.

40 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Control of tungro (RTV) and yellow stem borer (YSB) in rice by synthetic pyrethroids P.S.P. Rao, G. Bhaktavatsalam, and A. Anjaneyulu, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, Orissa, India

Resurgence of insect pests following repeated insecticide applications has become widespread. We evaluated foliar application of available synthetic pyrethroids in controlling RTV vector green leafhoppers (GLH) Nephotettix virescens (Distant) and N. nigropictus Stl and YSB Scirpophaga incertulas Walker.

Two field experiments were conducted in wet season (Jul-Nov) 1984 using rice variety Ratna, which is tolerant of both RTV and YSB. Thirtyd-old seedlings were transplanted in 3- 3-m plots at 20- 15-cm spacing (300 hills) late in the season (12 Sep) to synchronize the RTV-vulnerable, early tillering stage with emergence of GLH in mid-Sep to mid-Oct and the flowering stage YSB (end of Oct to mid-Nov). The crop was grown with 100-18-33 kg NPK/ha. Five days after transplanting (DT), 2 m around each plot was transplanted with RTV inoculated seedlings in the glasshouse. In the first experiment, decamethrin

and cypermethrin were sprayed six times. In the second experiment, synthetic pyrethroids decamethrin + bufrofezin, tralomethrin, S.399, and S.423. decamethrin and cypermethrin were sprayed four times. Adult and nymph populations were monitored at 30 and 42 DT and RTV disease at 4951 DT. Stem borer infestation at heading (%, whiteheads) was estimated from 4 random samples of 20 hills each. Treatments differed significantly (see table). In both experiments, synthetic pyrethroids gave good to excellent control of both RTV and its vector, but were not effective against YSB.

Control of RTV, GLH, and YSB by some synthetic pyrethroids. a Cuttack, India, 1984 kharif. Green leafhopper/10 hills Insecticide Dose (ai/ha) 30 DT A. Decamethrin 200 g 100 g 50 g 25 g 12 g 6g Cypermethrin 100 g 2 kg Carbofuran (treated check) Control (untreated check) 100 g 200 g 10 g 20 g 125 g 250 g 500 g l000 g 12 g 50 g 2 kg 0.3 a 1.3 ab 0.7 a 0.3 bc 2.7 bc d 6.7 1.3 ab 4.3 cd 16.0 e 11.7 8.7 6.3 5.0 30.0 18.7 20.0 15.7 6.3 2.7 13.7 29.3 bcde abcd ab ab g efg fg def abc a cdef g Adult 42 DT 3.0 ab 3.7 ab 4.0 b 5.0 b 5.0 b 9.7 c 1.7 a 5.0 b 34.7 d 8.0 ab 6.0 a 9.7 ab 8.3 ab 18.0 cd 14.0 ab 6.3 a 12.7 bc 8.3 ab 7.0 ab 9.0 ab 21.0 d Nymph 30 DT 0.3 a 1.3 ab 3.0 b 3.7 b 3.0 b 10.3 c 2.0 ab 20.3 d 98.3 e 4.3 2.3 6.7 2.3 41.0 27.0 13.0 6.3 3.3 3.0 13.7 59.0 ab a b a a ab ab ab c 42 DT nil a 0.3 nil a 0.7 1.0 3.0 nil a 2.0 53.3 a ab ab b ab c Disease (%) (49-51 d) 1.7 a 1.9 a 3.7 b 4.5 bc 4.7 bc 5.2 bc 2.1 a 11.6 d 43.6 e 8.4 bc 5.9 ab 9.5 c 4.1 a f 38.9 e 23.8 d 14.5 8.3 bc 5.2 ab 4.6 a 10.6 cd f 42.3 YSB infestation at heading Whiteheads (%) 3.9 12.0 14.6 13.9 11.6 8.6 15.6 1.6 7.7 10.6 8.2 9.5 11.0 7.2 8 .0 7.1 8.4 8.0 12.6 0.03 4.9 Angular value 11.34 ab 20.21 cdef 22.36 ef 21.90 def 19.87 cde 16.97 cd 23.02 ef 6.82 a 15.80 bc 18.79 16.40 17.90 19.27 15.47 16.36 15.43 16.68 16.46 20.54 6.03 12.75 cd bcd cd cd bc bcd bc bcd bcd d a b

B. Synthetic pyrethroids Decamethrin + bufrofezin Tralomethrin S. 399 S. 423 Decamethrin Cypermethrin Carbofuran (treated check) Control (untreated check)
aWithin

3.0 abc 1.3 a 5.0 bc 1.0 a 15.3 d 12.3 d 5.0 c 2.0 a 1.0 a 1.7 a 2.3 ab 37.3 e

a group, means in a column followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

Rice thrips infestations in West Bengal P.B. Chatterjee, Rice Research Station, P.O. Chinsurah R.S. 712102, Hooghly, West Bengal, India

Rice thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis (Bagnall) is essentially a pest of young rice plants. On wetland or monsoon

season rice (kharif), maximum infestation is found Jul-Aug when rice is in nursery beds or at tillering in the field. However, a severe outbreak occurred at late tillering in West Bengal in Sep 1986. An estimated 60,000 ha was affected. A prolonged dry spell from Aug to the third week of Sep in the middle of the rainy season may have been one of the causes.

Another thrips species, Haplothrips gunglbaueri Schmutz, commonly known as rice ear thrips, damages the inflorescence of early varieties. It is polyphagous and has been recorded on other crops. On rice, adults and nymphs congregate on the emerging inflorescence, lacerate the lemma and palea of the spikelet, and suck the content. Symptoms include ear

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 41

distortion and spikelet whitening and sterility. H. ganglbaueri has been found in Hooghly, .Midnapore, Burdwan, and 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. On wet season rice, damage occurs Sep-Oct; on dry season rice, maximum thrips concentration occurs in Mar-Apr.

Nymphula africalis, azolla pest in Nigeria

Opisina arenosella (Wlk). Females feed by piercing the integument with their chelicerae. Mite eggs develop inside the female which gives birth to nymphs. The mite reproduces parthenogenetically. P. ventricosus mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscopic slides and kept in a hot air oven at 50C for 2 d. Taxonomic characters were examined under a phase contrast microscope. In the genus Pyemotes, the idiosoma are oval-shaped and the anterior edge of the dorsal propodosomal shield partially

overhangs the gnathosoma. In the female, legs I have five free segments terminating in a claw. Legs I1 to IV terminate in two claws and a pretarsus. In the male, tarsus IV bears a single claw. P. ventricosus characters agree with this description. This mite has been a problem in maintaining insect cultures in the laboratory and is said to cause dermatitis in people handling infected storage materials.

M. N. Ukwungwu, S.O. Fagade, and E. Fagbohun, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, P.M. B. 8, Bida, Nigeria Insect damage reportedly limits azolla production as a supplementary N source for rice in many Asian countries. We observed high infestations of caseworm Nymphula africalis Hampson on Azolla pinnata in the 1986 wet season in multiplying tanks at Badeggi, Nigeria. We also observed high incidence on the Institute's farm at Badeggi. The larvae were reared in the laboratory and the adult identified by the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London, as Nymphula africalis. This is the first report of this species on azolla in Nigeria. Nymphs and adults of Tramea sp. (Odonata: Libellulidae) were predators of both larvae and adults of N. africalis.

Effect of 8 insecticides on rice bug eggs

R. Rujendran and S. Chelliah, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India Twenty adults each sex of rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) were collected from the field and released on flowering rice plants confined in
Ovicidal effect of insecticides. Coimbatore, India. Insecticide Fenthion Chlorpyrifos Phosphamidon Phosalone Monocrotophos Quinalphos Malathion Endosulfan Formulation 100 20 85 35 36 25 50 35 EC EC SC EC SC EC EC EC

cylindrical polyester cages. The leaf portions containing eggs were clipped and 30 eggs placed on moist filter paper in a petri dish. Insecticide was sprayed with an atomizer at a pressure of 0.7 kg/cm2 . Treatments were replicated three times. Nymphs that emerged were counted daily from 6 to 10 d after treatment. Fenthion had the maximum ovicidal action, with 74% reduction in hatching followed by chlorpyrifos (see table).

Rate (kg ai/ha) 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.35 0.40 0.38 0.25 0.35

Egg hatch reduction a (%) 74 a 60 ab 55 bc 44 c 29 d 22 de 18 de 11 e

Occurrence of a predatory mite Pyemotes ventricosus on Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. A. Dakshinamurthy, P. Karuppuchamy, and M. Mohanasundaram, Agricultural Entomology Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Coimbatore 641003, India

aMeans followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level, Duncan's multiple range test. Mortality corrected by Abbott's formula.

Rice leaffolder (LF) species in North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu

Rice LF genera in North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu, India. Generic composition (%) Division Cnaphalocrocis medinalis 34 64 79 83 31 74 7 53 Marasmia patnalis 66 36 21 17 69 26 93 47

A predatory mite P. ventricosus (Newport) has been reported to prey on the larvae of rice moth Corcyra sp., Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella Oliv., satin moth Stilpnotia salicis L., peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller, bud moth Spilonota ocellana Schiff, and coconut caterpillar

S. Jaganathan and N. Chandramohan. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Research Centre, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Rice LF has been a major pest in Tamil Nadu for 15 yr. We surveyed North Arcot District during Sep-Jan (late samba) to identify LF species on rice. In each division, 100 larvae were collected and reared in the glasshouse.

Arakonam Cheyyar Gudiyatham Thiruvannamalai Vaniyambadi Vellore Walajah Mean

42 lRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Emerging adults were identified on the basis of wing markings. Two species were found: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis. C. medinalis accounted for 53% and M. patnalis for 47% of the population (see table). M. patnalis predominated in Walajah, Thiruvannamalai, and Arakonam divisions; C. medinalis in the other divisions.

estimated by spectrophotometric method. Recoveries from fortified samples were 80-85% Initial deposits of quinalphos in rice plant samples were reduced to

nondetectable levels within 15-20 d after treatment during the dry season (Table 1) and within 15-20 d after treatment during the wet season (Table 2).

Insecticides to control rice hispa P. V. Krishnaiah, P. Seshagiri Rao, P. Sanjeeva Rao, N. H. P. Rao, and V. Narasimham, I. C. O. R. P. Project, Agricultural Research Station, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India

Persistence of quinalphos in rice A. K. Pal, H. K. Senapati, and N. Panda, Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Soils and Agriculture Chemistry Department, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, Orissa, India

We evaluated eight insecticides against rice hispa Dicladispa armigera (Oliv.) in a duplicated farmers field trial during kharif 1986. Plot size was 100 m2.

Live grub population from 10 hills/ plot was recorded before insecticide application and 1 wk after. Adult beetle population and percent leaf damage on all leaves in 10 hills/plot were assessed 2 wk after insecticide application. Monocrotophos at 0.06% was most effective against hispa grubs, closely followed by quinalphos at 0.07%. Adult beetle population also was checked by monocrotophos followed by quinalphos (see table).

We studied the persistence of quinalphos in rice variety Lalat following foliar spraying during 1984-85 kharif and rabi. Quinalphos was sprayed at 0.5 kg ai/ ha and 1.0 kg ai/ ha, with 3 replications. Plant samples were extracted by chloroform, cleaned by celite:MgO:charcoal column, and
Table 1. Quinalphos residue in rice, 1984-85 dry season (rabi), Bhubaneswar, India. Days after treatment 0 5 10 15 20 50% residue level (d)
a

Chemical control of rice hispa in Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh, India. a Treatment Grubs/hill Before application 12 9 11 7 12 10 10 10 10 ns 7 d after application l a 3a l a 2a 6 b 2a l a l a 11 c ** 2 % reduction of grubs 87 a 60 ab 94 a 69 ab 42 b 83 ab 89 a 92 a c 8 ** (26) Adults/hill at 14 d after application 0.4 ab 1.2 b 0.2 a 0.6 ab 6.8 d 2.5 c 0.8 ab 0.3 ab 7.0 d ** 1.0 % leaf damage ab ab ab a c b ab ab c ** (5.70) 0.1 0.9 0.3 0.0 8.0 1.8 0.4 0.1 8.4

Quinalphos residue a (ppm) 0.5 kg ai/ha 5.3 2.5 0.5 n.d. n.d. 3 1.0 kg ai/ha 9.5 3.1 1.0 0.25 n.d. 3

Carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg/ha Phorate 10G @ 10 kg/ha Monocrotophos 40EC @ 0.06% Chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 0.06% Endosulfan 35EC @ 0.09% Fenvalerate 20EC @ 0.01% Phosalone 35EC @ 0.09% Quinalphos 25EC @ 0.07% Untreated control F test CD (0.05)
a

In a column, values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly. Figures in parentheses are transformed values.

Egg parasites of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in Sri Lanka D. Ahangama, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, and F.E. Gilstrap, Entomology Department, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA

n.d. = not detectable.

Table 2. Quinalphos residue in rice, 1985 wet season (kharif), Bhubaneswar, India. Days after treatment 0 5 10 15 20 50% residue level (d) Quinalphos residue (ppm) 0.5 kg ai/ha 4.23 1.74 0.27 n.d. n.d. 2.5 1.0 kg ai/ha 6.53 2.71 0.69 0.34 n.d. 3.0

We studied the yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in Mar and Jul 1982 at the Dryzone Agricultural Research Station, Maha Illuppallama, Sri Lanka. After transplanting, experimental plots were covered with mesh cages. Two weeks after transplanting, plots were exposed

for YSB oviposition. The experiment was repeated four times in two seasons. Hatched egg masses were collected on day four, remaining egg masses were collected on day eight and held in glass vials in the laboratory. Number of parasites emerging from each egg mass was recorded. Then, egg masses were soaked in 5% HCl and separated into individual eggs and number of hatched eggs, unenclosed dead larvae, and unemerged parasites recorded. Parasites were sent to the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology for identification. Telenomus sp. and Tetrastichus

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 43

schoenobii Ferriere were the only egg parasites obtained from 193 egg masses (1,070 eggs) of S. incertulas (see table). Although Telenomus sp. caused a higher percentage of parasitization than T. schoenobii in all four generations (S. incertulas completes two generations each cropping season in Sri Lanka), the difference was not significant. Diluted quinalphos and fenthion and control of whitebacked planthopper (WBPH)
J. Singh and S.S. Malhi, Plant Breeding Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

Parasitization of S. incertulas eggs by Telenomus sp. and T. schoenobii. Maha Illuppallama, Sri Lanka, May and Jul, 1982. Generation 1st 2d 3d 4th Eggs (no.) 208 195 345 322 Parasitization Telenomus sp. 27 .0 27.4 36.3 35.3 (%) Total 44.3 43.4 60.8 58.6

T. schoenobii 17.3 16.0 24.5 23.3

Nisaga simplex caterpillar on rice in western Orissa


N. C. Patnaik, Entomology Department, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Bhubaneswar - 3; B. Mohanty, Regional Research Station (RRS), Bhawanipatna; and A. K. Parida, AICRP on Weed Control, OUAT; Bhubaneswar - 3, India

Two experiments with two insecticides (quinalphos and fenthion) were conducted to evaluate diluted insecticides in controlling WBPH Sogatella furcifera at Bhupindra Rice Research Substation, Rauni, 1985 wet season. Recommended rate (0.5 kg ai/ ha) of quinalphos and fenthion was diluted with water to apply 250, 375, and 500 liters/ha. A randomized block design with four replications for quinalphos and three for fenthion was used. Plot size was 300 m 2. WBPH counts at 2 and 8 d after application for quinalphos and 2 d after application for fenthion showed no significant differences among treatments (see table).
Effect of diluted insecticides on WBPH incidence. Punjab, India, 1985. Treatment WBPHa (adults + nymphs)/l0 hills Pretreatmentb 2 d after application 11 a 9a 4a 200 b 11 a 9a 10 a 294 b 8 d after application 80 84 101 273 a a a

Hairy caterpillar Nisaga simplex Wlk. (Eupterotidae: Lepidoptera) regularly damages upland and medium ricefields in various locations of Kalahandi and Koraput districts in the wet season JunDec. Moths emerged in Jun with the onset of the monsoon and oviposit on weedy growth of scrubby jungles and on adjoining ricefields. Incubation lasted 79 d. In the laboratory, 8 larval instars were completed in 68-76 d. Pupation took place in soil. Caterpillars fed

voraciously on the leaf lamina, leaving only the midrib. In its natural habitat, the pest pupated in loose lateritic soil, often as deep as 30 cm, in Oct and overwintered to the following Jun. The caterpillars shunned water and did not migrate to lowland fields. The moths are poor fliers. Weedy fields attracted higher populations than weeded fields. The caterpillars also attacked maize, sorghum, finger millet, sugarcane, and these weed species: Brachiaria mutica, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, E. crus-galli, E. glabrescens, Eleusine indica, Ischaemum rugosum, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Panicum repens, Paspalum conjugatum, P. clistichum, and P. scrobiculatum.

Rice leaffolder (LF) infestations in West Bengal


P. B. Chatterjee, Rice Research Station, P.O. Chinsurah R.S. 712102, Hooghly, West Bengal, India

Quinalphos 25 EC 174 a 250 171 a 375 174 a 5 00 Control 184 a Fenthion 1000 EC 250 211 a 189 a 375 500 175 a Control 182 a
aFor

Rice LF generally appears as a minor pest of rice in West Bengal. However, it

infested over 67,000 ha in 11 districts in 1986, causing appreciable damage to standing wet season rice. All the districts experiencing massive infestation were located on the south and southwest sides of the river Ganges. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene) was the most dominant LF species;

Leaves damaged by LF, maximum and minimum temperatures, and rainfall in different months. a West Bengal, India. b Month May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct
aMean

Damaged leaves (%) 3.6 5.5 12.6 31.3 73.6 31.9

Mean monthly temperature (C) Maximum 34.5 34.3 31.5 32.7 31.4 30.6 (1.9) (+0.4) (0.2) (+1.4) (0.1) (0.4) Minimum 22.3 26.6 25.9 26.3 25.1 22.1 (2.7) (+l.l) (+0.2) (+0.6) (0.4) (0.8)

Rainfall (mm) 178.8 (+63.4) 278.6 (+30.0) 249.5 (40.2) 98.2 (404.4) 750.0 (+513.5) 104.3 (8.0)

each group of insecticide treatments, means in a column followed by a common letter do no differ significantly at the 5% level by DMRT. b30 Aug for quinalphos and 5 Sep for fenthion.

of 20 samples. Figures in the parentheses indicate deviations from normal.

44 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

however, Marasmia exigua (Butler) also caused damage. Their relative proportion was 80:20. Wet season rice usually is transplanted JulAug and harvested in Nov. But an unusual drought in Aug Sep caused setbacks. Stray incidences of LF were observed in May on broadcast rice seedlings sown in Apr. Gradually the pest population built up. Percentages of damaged and folded leaves/m 2 of sample plots were recorded May-Oct 1986. The sample was 20 randomly selected plots in each district. Data with rainfall, temperature, and deviations from normal are presented in the table. Four overlapping LF broods were observed. Cotesia sp. and Temelucha philippinensis (Ashm.) were the common larval parasites. It appears the unusual dry conditions combined with other bioecological factors favored the outbreak. After superabundant rain 22 Sep-8 Oct (a record 503 mm rainfall was recorded in 12 d at Chinsurah), the infestation gradually waned.

Effect of mealybug infestation on biochemical contents of rice. a Coimbatore, India. Biochemical constituent Total phenol Total sugar Reducing sugar Nonreducing sugar Total N Amino acid (mg/100 g dry weight) Histidine Lysine Serine Tyrosine Alanine Glycine Tryptophan Arginine Isoleucine Proline Threonine Hydroxyproline Total
a

Content (mg/g dry weight) Healthy 3.9 16.9 6.4 10.5 10.7 28 54 25 199 47 127 29 31 52 37 202 838 Infested 4.0 32.6 12.9 19.7 6.8 34 62 29 221 8 60 142 37 87 140 39 297 1156

Change (%) + 2.6 + 92.9 +101.6 + 87.6 36.7 + 21.4 + 14.8 + 16.0 + 11.1 + 11.3 + 27.7 + 11.8 + 27.6 +180.6 +169.2 + 5.4 + 47.0 37.9

Mean of 3 replications.

Biochemical changes in rice plants infested with mealybug


M. Gopalan, N. C. Radja, and G. Balasubramanian. Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatoire 641003, India

to use in estimating total and reducing sugars and total phenols and for chromatographic estimation of individual amino acids. The amino acids were separated unidimensional descending chromatographic technique for qualitative analysis and estimated quantitatively by Demetriades method. The nitrogen was estimated on dry

plants by Humpries method. Feeding injury by mealybugs resulted in a marginal increase in total phenolic content (see table). Total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar and total amino acid contents increased phenomenally. Among the amino acids, isoleucine and proline contents increased more.

Pest Control and Management


WEEDS
Effect of frequent cultivation on Rottboellia cochinchinensis density D.C. Navarez, E.M. Castin, and K. Moody,
IRRI

We studied the contents of reducing and nonreducing sugars, total phenols, and amino acids in healthy rice plants and those infested with mealybug Brevennia rehi Lindinger. Fifty mealybugs were placed on each tiller of 20-d-old IR20 seedlings, and allowed to feed 40 d. Samples were drawn 60 d after treatment from healthy and infested seedlings with three replications. A 10-g sample of plant material was plunged into boiling 80% ethyl alcohol and extracted for 10 min. The extract was decanted, the tissues ground with a pestle and mortar and reextracted with another aliqout of ethanol, then strained through cheesecloth. Extracts were pooled to make up a desirable volume

Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton (syn. R. exaltata) is a major weed in upland rice, maize, sugarcane, and legumes in the Philippines. We tested the effect of cultivation frequency (every 2, 3, and 5 wk) on R. cochinchinensis emergence in a fallow field at IRRI Aug 1983 - Jul 1985. Weeds were counted monthly in two 50- 50-cm random quadrats per 48-m2 (6 8 m) plot.

Initial weed density was 285 plants/m 2 , with R. cochinchinensis comprising 30% of the population. After 1 yr, R. cochinchinensis population declined substantially (see figure). Reduction was associated with more frequent cultivation. By the end of the second year, R. cochinchinensis had been practically eliminated with cultivation every 2-3 wk; only a few plants grew in plots cultivated every 5 wk. This indicates that seeds of this weed either have very short dormancy or no dormancy or are short-lived. Decline in the R. cochinchinensis population was not necessarily accompanied by an overall reduction in

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 45

total weed density. Cyperus rotundus L. populations decreased in plots that were frequently cultivated but increased with less frequent cultivation. Densities of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. and Portulaca oleracea L. also increased. Total weed density after 2 yr was not reduced in the plots rototilled every 5 wk. However, R. cochinchinensis was replaced by less competitive weeds.

Effect of frequency of cultivation on density of Rottboellia cochinchinensis and all weed species. IRRI, Aug 1983-Jul 1985.

Complete slide sets of photos printed in Field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the Communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. No orders for surface mail handling will be accepted.

Weed control in irrigated wet and dry seeded rice in medium-textured soils of Northwestern India B.B. Bhol and K.N. Singh, Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110012, India

Effect of herbicide schedule and seeding method on grain yield of direct seeded rice. IARI, New Delhi, India, 1983-84. Treatmenta Grain yield (t/ha) Dry seeded 4.3 4.1 3.8 2.1 1.9 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.3 Wet seeded 4.7 4.6 3.9 3.0 2.2 2.5 2.0 1.3 Weed wt (g/m 2 ) Dry seeded 19 18 36 71 73 88 101 125 6 6 Wet seeded 20 19 36 61 69 73 81 105

Eight weed control treatments were tested to control weeds in direct seeded rice when sprouted seeds were sown on a puddled field and when dry seeds were sown on an unpuddled bed. The trial was in a split-plot design with three replications during 1983 and 1984 monsoon seasons. The field was well-drained sandy clay loam soil. Pusa 33, 105-110 d duration and photoperiod insensitive with high yield potential, was the test variety. The crop received 100-22-42 kg NPK/ha. Preemergence herbicides like oxadiazon, pendimethalin, and butachlor were applied 4-5 d after seeding (DAS); propanil was applied 21 DAS. Echinochloa colona and E. crus-galli

Oxadiazon 0.6 pre + propanil 2 post Oxadiazon 0.6 kg pre Hand weeding + propanil 2 post Pendimethalin 1.5 pre + propanil 2 post Butachlor 1.0 pre + propanil 2 post Pendimethalin 1.5 pre Butachlor 1.0 pre Weedy check CD for weed control treatment means for the same method of seeding CD for method of seeding means for the same level of weed control

aPre and post = preemergence and postemergence applications. Herbicide measurements are in kg ai/ha.

were the predominant weed flora. Among the preemergence herbicides, oxadiazon at 0.6 kg ai/ ha resulted in the best weed kill, with yields of 4.1 t dry seeded rice and 4.6 t wet seeded rice/ha

(see table). Combining propanil at 2 kg ai/ha with butachlor or pendimethalin was more effective than when the preemergence herbicides were applied alone.

46 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Ricefield weeds in South Andarnan, India


D. Singh and B. Gangwar, Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair 744101, India

We surveyed weeds in 103 randomly selected ricefields in 14 locations of South Andaman during Oct 1986. Percentage cover for all weed species was assessed in 51 clay loam soil and 52 clay soil fields between heading and

flowering. Forty weed species belonging to 13 families were identified: 30% were Cyperaceae and 27.5% Poaceae (see table). Thirty-nine species were found in clay loam fields, 38 in clay fields; 37 were common to both conditions. Eleocharis dulcis was not found in clay loam fields; Ageratum conyzoides, and Spilanthes paniculata were not found in clay fields. Fimbristylis miliacea was predominant in all the clay loam and

94% of the clay fields surveyed. Echinochloa colona, Ludwigia hyssopifolia, Torenia violacea, and Cyperus rotundus were almost equally important in both soil types. Scirpus juncoides and Monochoria vaginalis in clay fields and Cyperus difformis in clay loam fields were also important.

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

Percentage of fields infested with weeds and severity of infestation in transplanted upland and lowland rice in South Andaman. Clay loama Weed species Family Field infested (%) 100 84 80 64 64 64 80 84 56 53 53 55 53 53 39 29 37 35 33 31 31 29 29 29 23 23 27 23 27 12 10 2 8 4 2 2 4 2 4 Cover (%) 27.6 7.4 2.1 2.7 8.2 2.3 2.3 4.9 1.6 2.3 2.1 1.6 9.1 1.3 4.5 2.4 2.5 0.2 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 1.9 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.6 1.9 0.5 0.3 3.4 1.1 0.3 0.4 Clay soilb Field infested (%) 94 75 71 75 63 79 69 53 51 51 51 55 53 34 50 34 52 29 38 29 29 29 23 29 23 23 6 23 4 12 12 6 12 8 6 4 4 2 Cover (%) 23.0 1.8 2.5 6.3 5 .0 21.2 4.6 2.9 4.1 1.6 1.6 1.5 7.7 0.5 2.3 1.1 2.2 0.1 1.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.7 >.l 0.1 0.1 >.1 0.1 0.1 >.1 >.l >.l >.1

Response of upland rice to weed control methods


M. R. Deshmukh, K.K. Trivedi, and J. P. Tiwari, Agronomy Department, JNKVV, Jabalpur, (M. P.), India

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl Echinochloa colona (L.) Link Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell Torenia violacea (Azaola ex Blanco) Pennell Cyperus rotundus L. Scirpus juncoides Roxb. Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) Pres1 Cyperus difformis L. Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Cyperus iria L. Cryptocoryne Ciliata (Roxb.) Schott Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell Cyperus javanicus Houtt. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv. Amaranthus viridis L. Ageratum conyzoides L. Euphorbia hirta L. Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Henschel Fimbristylis alboviridis C. B. Clarke Aponogeton natans (L.) Eng & Kr. Hedyotis umbellata (L.) Lam. Marsilea quadrifolia L. Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC. Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Paspalum scrobiculotum L. Ischaernum indicum (Houtt.) Merr. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. Panicum repens L. Cyperus kyllinga Endl. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan Cyperus halpan L. Cyperus sanguinolentus Vahl Commelina benghalensis L.

Cyperaceae Poaceae Onagraceae Scrophulariaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Pontederiaceae Cyperaceae Scrophulariaceae Poaceae Poaceae Cyperaceae Araceae Poaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Cyperaceae Euphorbiaceae Scrophulariaceae Cyperaceae Poaceae Amaranthaceae Asteraceae Euphorbiaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Aponogetonaceae Rubiaceae Marsileaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Cyperaceae Commelinaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Commelinaceae

aDrained soils located on the lower edge of hills. During rainy season, these soils remain wet. b Clay soils of valley areas. Water stagnates up to 15-20 cm during the rainy season. With short dry spells, the soils become dry. Rice transplanting is common in both clay loam and clay soils in Andaman, Nicobar Islands.

We evaluated 14 treatments to manage the complex weed ecosystem in upland rice. Each treatment was replicated four times in a randomized block design. Pusa 33 seed at 100 kg/ha was drilled in 20-cm-wide rows the first week of Jul. Fertilizer was 100-26-33 kg NPK/ ha. All P and K and 1 / 2 N were applied at sowing; the remaining N was applied in 2 equal splits at 20 and 40 d after sowing (DAS). Cyperus iria, C. rotundus, Commelina diffusa, Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria ciliaris, Paspalum distichum, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, and Alternanthera sessilis were the major weeds in the experimental field. The weed biomass was determined at harvest. Weed biomass was lowest with oxadiazon 0.75 kg ai/ha plus 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS (see table). Effective tillers were highest with oxadiazon 0.75 kg ai/ha + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS. Crop biomass was highest (13.7 t/ha) with thiobencarb 1.5 kg ai/ha + 1 hand weeding 30 DAS. Highest grain (4.39 t/ ha) and straw (9.29 t/ ha) yields were observed with thiobencarb 1.5 kg ai/ha + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS. The same treatment gave the highest profit ($241.46/ ha).

IRRN 124 (August 1987) 47

Influence of various weed control treatments on weed control efficiency, growth, and yield of upland rice. Jabalpur, India. Treatment a Thiobencarb 1.5 + 1 HW 30 DAS Oxadiazon 0.75 + 1 HW 30 DAS Pendimethalin 1 + 1 HW 30 DAS Hand weeding 20 and 40 DAS Oxadiazon 1.0 Thiobencarb 1.5 Oxadiazon 0.75 Thiobencarb 1.5 + 2,4-D EE 1.0 Hand hoeing 20 and 40 DAS Thiobencarb 2.0 Pendimethalin 2.0 Pendimethalin 1.0 + 2,4-D EE 1.0 Weedy check Pendimethalin 1.0 CD at 5%
a Herbicide

Weed biomass (t/ha) 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 1.4 0.9 1.8 2.5 1.2 2.3 1.6 3.4 3.1 0.853

Effective tillers/ plant 2.7 3.8 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.2 0.76

Crop biomass (t/ha) 13.7 12.9 11.6 11.7 12.7 10.8 11.6 10.3 10.0 10.5 8.6 9.4 7.4 7.1 3.117

Straw yield (t/ha) 9.3 8.8 7.5 7.6 8.7 7.0 7.9 6.8 6.6 7.4 5.2 6.5 5.3 5.2 2.22

Grain yield (t/ha) 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.286

Treatment cost b ($/ha) 93.45 95.45 90.00 190.90 40.90 29.81 31.81 40.27 50.90 39.45 48.63 35.90 26.36

Profit c ($) 241.46 203.43 195.10 92.84 238.91 208.88 195.85 165.65 137.60 104.97 60.18 74.87 64.94

measurements are in kg ai/ha. HW = hand weeding. EE = ethyl ester. b Cost of herbicide and labor: thiobencarb = $1 7.45/liter, pendimethalin (G) = $21.81/kg, oxadiazon = $36.36/liter, 2,4-D EE = $9.54/kg, application charges = $4.54/ha, Cost of hand weeding 1 = $127.27/ha, cost of hand weeding 2 = $63.63/ha, cost of hoeing 1 = $31.81/ha, cost of hoeing 2 = $19.09/ha, hand weeding after herbicide application = $63.36/ha, price of rice = $136.3/t, and price of straw = $8.18/t. c Profit = grain yield + straw yield minus treatment cost.

Weed control in hybrid rice M. Yasin HG, P. O. Box 173, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia

Effect of some herbicides on tillering, plant height, weeds, and grain yield in hybrid rice. Maros, Indonesia, 1985-86 wet season. Treatment kg ai/ha Tillers (no.) 12 10 13 12 12 12 10 20 Plant Dry weeda (g/m 2) height (cm) BroadGrasses Sedges leaves 70 60 71 67 66 70 70 7 2.8 3.4 1.5 3.5 3.1 0.6 8.9 16.4 bc c b c c a d 2.0 2.4 1.1 2.3 2.8 0.4 5.1 21.5 b b a b b a c 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.3 0.0 2.9 23.6 bc cd b bc cd a d Grain yield (t/ha) 3.3 3.4 4.2 3.2 3.4 5.2 2.3 12.0 c c b cd c a d

We evaluated some herbicides to control weeds in hybrid rice Shen Zhan 97A/Saddang in the 1985-86 wet season. Herbicides were applied 3 d after transplanting. The herbicides did not influence tillering and plant height. MCPA-K salt, oxadiazon, thiobencarb, and 2,4-D were not significantly different in controlling broadleaves, grasses, and sedges (see table). Piperophos + 2,4-D was not significantly different from hand weeding, especially for controlling grasses. Highest yield was with hand

MCPA K salt Oxadiazon Piperophos + 2,4-D Thiobencarb 2,4-D Hand weeding 7 and 35 DT b Unweeded control CV (%)
a

0.40 0.50 0.33 + 0.17 1 .00 0.85

Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. Data transformed to log (x + 1). bDays after transplanting.

weeding, then with piperophos + 2,4-D. Thiobencarb increased yield 35%.

Pest Control and Management


OTHER PESTS
Pomacea snails in the Philippines

O. Mochida, IRRI Pomacea snails indigenous to South America were recently introduced for human food in Taiwan (China), Japan, and the Philippines. Scientific names,

frequently confused, were determined by Habe as follows: Family: Pilidae (Ampullariidae) Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) Ampullaria canaliculata Ampullarium insularum Hamada et Matsumoto 1985 (nec dOrbigny 1839)

Ampullarius insularus Chang 1985 (nec dorbigny 1839) Ampullarius insularus. Miyazaki 1985 (nec dOrbigny 1839) Ampullarius insularus Miyahara et al. 1986 (nec dOrbigny 1839) Pomacea gigas (Spix) Ampullaria gigas

48 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Three sources introduced Pomacea spp. in the Philippines: P. canaliculata via Taiwan from Argentina to Lemery, Batangas, Luzon, 1982.

P. gigas from Florida (USA) to Makati, Metro Manila, 1983. Pomacea snails directly from Argentina to Asturias, Cebu, in 1984. An African snail, Pila

leopordivillensis dOrbigny, was also introduced from Taiwan. P. cuprina (Reeve) is also found in the Philippines.

Soil and Crop Management


Puddling methods for lowland rice
S. Purushothaman, P. Jayapaul, and R. Kandasamy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai 625104, India
Effect of puddling method on grain yield and return. Tamil Nadu, India. Grain yield (t/ha) Kharif 6.0 6.4 5.4 5.7 0.6 Winter 4.7 5.0 4.2 4.4 0.4 Cost of cultivation ($/ha) Kharif 353 337 321 327 Winter 339 323 329 313 Net income ($/ha) Kharif 625 701 562 604 Winter 424 492 354 401

Puddling method Puddling 3 times with iron plow (conventional) Puddling twice with iron plow and once with helical blade puddler Puddling twice with country plow and once with helical blade puddler Puddling once with iron plow and twice with helical blade puddler CD (0.05)

We studied the effect of puddling methods on lowland rice (Paiyur 1 variety) during Jun-Sep kharif and OctJan (winter) seasons 1982-83. Puddling twice with an iron plow followed by one puddling with a helical blade puddler produced the highest grain yield and net income (see table).

Effect of spacing and seedlings per hill


S. Ramasamy, B. Chandrasekaran, and S. Sankaran, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai 612101, India

Effect of spacing and seedlings/hill on yield parameters of short-duration rice. a Tamil Nadu, India, 1985 dry season. Treatment Spacing 12.5 10.0 cm 15.0 10.0 cm 20.0 10.0 cm Seedlings/hill 2 4 6 8 Tillers/ hill 6.6 b 7.0 a 7.3 a 7.4 6.9 6.7 6.6 a ab ab b Tillers/ m2 528 a 425 b 371 c 466 a 442 b 422 c 416 c Panicle weight (g) 1.41 a 1.44 a 1.48 a 1.81 a 1.38 b 1.35 b 1.21 c Spikelets/ panicle Grain yield (t/ha) 4.0 a 3.6 b 3.3 c 4.8 a 3.6 b 3.1 c 2.9 c

We studied the effect of spacing and seedlings per hill in the 1985 dry season. Short-duration rice variety ADT36 was transplanted at 60 d after seeding. The experiment used 3 spacings (12.5 10.0 cm with 80 hills/m 2 , 15.0 10.0 cm with 66 hills/m 2, and 20.0 10.0 cm with 50 hills/m 2 and 2, 4, 6, and 8 seedlings per hill in a randomized block design. NPK at 75- 17-3 1 kg/ ha were applied. N was split: 50% as basal, 25% 15 d after transplanting (DT), and 25% 30 DT. The primary tillers produced panicles, within 21 DT, but these panicles shattered before harvest. In spite of reduced tillers/ hill, panicle weight, and number of filled spikelets/panicle, 12.5- 10.0-cm spacing produced significantly higher

46 b 51 ab 53 a 62 a 50 b 47 b 41 c

a In a column within each group, means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at the 5% level.

grain yield, mainly because of higher numbers of tillers/unit area (see table). Increasing the number of

seedlings/ hill had an adverse effect. All yield parameters were reduced with more than 2 seedlings/hill.

Performance of rice varieties on floating rafts V. K. Sasidhar, M.A. Salam, and V. R. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani 695522, India

Rice cultivation on floating rafts, a technique developed at the College of Agriculture, is suitable for flooded areas (see figure). The system saves the labor and electricity needed to drain an area for a single dry season rice crop. Rice

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 49

can be raised year round with this system. Bamboo platforms were attached to two large airtight oil drums. The tops of the rafts were covered with damaged gunny sacks and a thin 7.5-cm layer of rice soil was spread over the surface. We compared the performance of 10 short-duration rice varieties on 3- 3-m floating rafts with 3 replications. Seedlings were transplanted 18 d after seeding in Jun 1985 (wet season). Crop growth was satisfactory (see table).

Growth characteristics, yield attributes, and yield of rice varieties grown on floating rafts. Vellayani, India, 1985 kharif. Variety Height (cm) 62 92 102 90 95 100 102 82 110 105 Tillers/ hill 28 27 25 28 21 11 21 18 14 23 Productive tillers/ hill 26 23 22 22 16 9 18 16 10 20 Percentage of panicles/hill 93 85 88 78 76 82 82 89 71 87 Panicle length (cm) 14 18 20 19 18 19 19 17 20 20.5 Filled grains/ panicle 36 30 30 32 25 22 39 32 21 43 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.0 4.0 2.0 2.7 2.1 1.7 4.6 2.7 2.0 4.7 Straw yield (t/ha) 6.9 6.7 5.0 6.8 6.1 6.9 6.4 6.8 5.5 8.7

Cul. 170 Cul. 8 Karthika Mo-5 Pavizham Mo-4 Triveni Bhadra Kochuvithu Cul. 93

Effect of land preparation on control of Paspalurn distichurn

F.F. Fajardo and K. Moody, IRRI


We tested tillage to control perennial grass weed Paspalum distichurn L. in transplanted rice in Guimba, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Total dry weed weight in unweeded plots was highest with 1 plowing + 3 harrowings by hand tractor; Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Hook. f. accounted for the bulk of the weed growth (see table). The intensive soil turning by the hand tractor reduced growth of P. distichum, but not significantly. It could have brought seeds of E. glabrescens to the

surface or scarified them, resulting in increased germination and growth. Or, an allelopathic substance that might be released by P. distichum reduces growth of E. glabrescens. Tall-growing annual grass E. glabrescens also might have competed with and reduced growth of shorter P. distichum. The significant yield reduction was the result of weed competition, probably because of increased growth of E. glabrescens. No significant yield differences were found in the plots treated with butachlor or hand weeded. This indicates that P. distichum can be reduced with good land preparation and the annual grass population that may increase can be checked by butachlor.

Effect of modified urea materials and N levels on transplanted rice S.S. Tomar, Sukhadia University,
Agricultural Research Station, Borkhera, Kota 324001 (Rajasthan), India

Split application of urea and modified urea materials was tested in 1985 kharif. In a field experiment laid out on a deep Vertisol (pH 7.5, 0.61% organic C, CEC 20.6 meq/ 100 g, 25.3 kg available P (Olsen)/ ha, 4.6 meq exchangeable K/ 100 g, 0.2 ppm available Zn and silty clay texture). At the last puddling, 26.4
Effect of modified urea and N level on tramplanted rice. Kota, India, 1985 kharif. Treatmenta Control (no N) 58 kg N/ha PU-BS PU-SS SCU-basal USG-placement MPCU-basal 87 kg N/ha PU-BS PU-SS SCU-basal USG-placement MPCU-basal Grain yield (t/ha) 2.2 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.6 4.5 5.9 6.1 4.8 6.0 5.8 6.0 6.1 5.6 Panicles (no./m2) 181.3 214.8 213.3 237.5 270.0 219.0 241.5 238.3 269.8 270.3 249.8 287.8 296.3 316.8 329.0 268.5

Total weed weight and weight of Echinochloa glabrescens and Paspalurn distichum in the unweeded a plots as affected by tillage levels, and grain yield as affected by different weeding regimes. Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Weed weight (g/m 2) Tillage treatment Echinochloa glabrescens 180 a 159 a 418 b 53 a 127 a Paspalum distichum 30 a 37 a 8a 60 a 62 a Total 274 a 259 a 578 b 141 a 214 a Grain yield (t/ha) No Hand weeding weeding (21 and 35 DT) 2.1 a 1.9 a 0.9 b 2.3 a 2.3 a 2.7 a 2.6 a 2.4 a 2.0 a 2.6 a Butachlor (0.6,3 DT) 2.6 ab 2.2 b 2.6 ab 2.3 b 3.0 a

1 plowing + 3 harrowings (within 1 mo before transplanting) 1 plowing + 3 harrowings (within 2 mo before transplanting) 1 plowing + 3 harrowings (harrowing by hand tractor) 2 plowings + 3 harrowings (animal) 1 plowing + 5 harrowings (animal)
a In

116 kg N/ha PU-BS PU-SS SCU-basal USG-placement MPCU-basal CD


aPU-BS

(0.05) 0.338.3

a column, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. DT = days after transplanting.

= prilled urea, local best split, PU-SS = prilled urea, standard split, SCU-basal = sulfhrcoated urea, USG-placement = urea supergranules, and MPCU-basal = Mussooriephoscoated urea.

50 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

kg P/ha and 33.2 kg K/ha were applied. Prilled urea was applied as basal in 2-3 cm standing water. Root zone placement (10-12 cm) of urea supergranules (USG) and basal sulfur-coated-urea (SCU) and Mussooriephos-coated urea (MPCU) at

58, 87, and 116 kg N/ha were evaluated against local best split (1/2 basal + 1/4 at maximum tillering + 1/4 at panicle initiation) and standard best split (2/3 basal + 1/3 at panicle initiation). Maximum grain yield was with USG and SCU at all N levels (see table). USG

produced significantly higher yields than standard best split urea and MPCU at 87 and 116 kg N/ha. USG and SCU also produced significantly more panicles/m 2 than MPCU at 116 kg N/ha.

Nitrogen management for increasing N efficiency in transplanted rice S. K. Shrivastava, Jr., R. Singh, B.R. Chandrawanshi, and H.P. Agrawal, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Raipur, M.P. 492012, India

We compared the efficiency of a single application of sulfur-coated urea (SCU), urea supergranules (USG), and split application of prilled urea (PU) at

varying levels of N during 1983 kharif. The experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were SCU, USG, and PU at 29, 58, 87, and I16 kg N/ha. Mediumduration, dwarf variety Usha was the test crop. Soil was a Vertisol (clay-loam, with 210.11 kg available N, 12.50 kg available P, 225 kg available K/ ha, 0.20 mmho EC, 0.60% organic C, and pH 6.5-7.5). Growth and yield-contributing characters were significantly superior with SCU and USG (see table). Grain

and straw yields were significantly different with different forms and levels of N. Maximum grain yield was with SCU, followed by USG. SCU and USG were similar in N efficiency. USG produced a significantly higher straw yield than SCU and PU. N at 116 kg/ ha produced significantly high grain and straw yields.

Nitrogen sources for flooded rice H. Singh and B. Mishra, Soil Science Department, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, (U.P.), India

Grain yield and ancillary characters as influenced by sources and levels of N. Raipur, India, 1983 kharif. Nitrogen (kg/ha) 0 29 29 29 Sources and methods of N application Check Urea, best split SCU, broadcast and incorporated in soil USG placed at 10-12 cm soil depth Mean 58 58 58 Urea, best split SCU, broadcast and incorporated in soil USG placed at 10-12 cm soil depth Mean 87 87 87 Urea, best split SCU, broadcast and incorporated in soil USG placed at 10-12 cm soil depth Mean 116 116 116 Urea, best split SCU broadcast and incorporated in soil USG placed at 1012 cm soil depth Mean CD (0.05) for forms for levels Grain yield (t/ha) 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 0.2 0.2 Straw yield (t/ha) 2.30 2.94 3.51 3.77 3.40 3.15 4.35 4.97 4.16 3.50 5.30 5.84 4.88 4.32 6.24 6.97 5.84 0.40 0.46 Effective tillers/m2 190 206 259 257 240 243 304 303 283 277 344 340 320 335 409 405 383 9 10 Panicle weight (g) 1.3 1.7 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.3 0.1 0.2 Panicle length (cm) 17 18 20 19 19 19 21 20 20 19 21 21 20 20 22 22 21 0.4 0.5 Sound spikelets/ panicle 48 62 69 66 65 67 76 70 71 68 79 76 75 72 82 80 78 5.7 6.6

We evaluated prilled urea (PU), neem cake coated-urea (NCU), lac-coated urea (LCU), didin-coated urea (DCU), and urea supergranule (USG) at 40, 80, and 120 kg N/ ha for transplanted rice in the 1983 and 1984 wet seasons. Experimental field soil was a fine, silty, mixed, hyperthermic, Typic Hapludoll with pH
Effect of N source and N level on yield. Pantnagar, India, 1983 and 1984 wet seasons. Treatment N sources PU NCU LCU DCU USG SE CD (0.05) N levels (kg/ha) 0 40 80 120 SE CD (0.05) Grain yield (t/ha) 1983 3.67 4.36 3.79 3.71 4.70 0.06 0.16 2.25 3.36 4.11 4.66 0.04 0.12 1984 3.71 4.57 4.14 4.11 4.73 0.06 0.16 2.42 3.55 4.36 4.91 0.04 0.12 Mean 3.69 4.46 3.96 3.91 4.72 2.33 3.45 4.24 4.78

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 51

7.6, 1.2% organic C, 44 kg available P/ha, and 3 13 kg available K/ha. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design. One-half the PU was applied at transplanting and one-half equally divided into two topdressings at tillering and panicle initiation. NCU, LCU, and DCU were applied one-half at

transplanting and one-half at tillering. USG was placed 8-10 cm deep in the center of 4 hills 1 wk after transplanting. All plots received 17.4 kg P and 33.3 kg K/ ha. Two seedlings per hill of rice variety Jaya were transplanted at 20- 20-cm spacing. The field was flooded (5 cm 3 cm) by rain or irrigation from

transplanting to milk stage. N levels and N sources significantly influenced yield (see table). All amended N fertilizers except DCU in 1983 performed better than PU in both years. USG outyielded other N sources, with 28% higher yield than PU in 1983 and 27.5% higher in 1984.

Effect of transplanting date and N application on yield M.S. Maskina, Bijay-Singh, and YadvinderSingh, Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India

Under optimal water and minerals, applied N absorption by rice and its translation into grain yield are limited by such climatic factors as light and temperature. Transplanting date and crop duration seem to be important. We studied yield response to applied N at different transplanting dates. The experiment was in a Fatehpur loamy sand (Typic Ustipsamment) with pH 8.5, 0.24% organic C, and 0.03% total N. Four levels of N (0,60, 120, and 180 kg/ ha) were used in a split-plot design. PR106 seedlings at 45 d were transplanted on 9 Jun, 30 Jun, and 21 Jul at 15- 15-cm spacing. Field plots were submerged 2 d before the

transplanting. Crop durations were 121, 112, and 101 d. Although response to applied N was significant, transplanting date had a pronounced effect on the nature and extent of the response (see figure). Rice transplanted 9 Jun and 30 Jun and harvested at 121 and 112 d exhibited quadratic response curves that were almost flat with 180 kg N/ha. Rice transplanted 21 Jul matured in only 101 d and responded linearly, with lower yields than the crops transplanted in Jun, at least up to 180 kg N/ ha. The influence of transplanting date and N was reflected primarily in tiller density and spikelet number. The interaction between N level and date of transplanting was significant. Yield similar to those with 180 kg N/ha and 21 Jul transplanting could be obtained with 120 kg N/ha and 30 Jun transplanting or 60 kg N/ha and 9 Jun transplanting.

Effect of slow-release nitrogen fertilizers on lowland rice B.K. Jena, P.K. Mahapatra, and G.K. Patro, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India

We studied five sources of N during the 1984 wet season (WS) in a split-plot design with three replications. N levels were in the main plots and sources in the subplots. The soil was lateritic and sandy loam, pH 5.8, EC 0.112 dS/m, 0.73% organic C, 0.07% total N, 20 kg available P, and 140 kg available K/ha. Rice varieties were Lalat (135 d) during the WS and Jajati (120 d) during the dry season (DS). Spacing was 15 10 cm. All N sources were applied in a single dose at transplanting except for prilled urea, which was split-applied: 25% at transplanting, 50% at tillering, and 25%
Effect of N source on yield and BB intensity. Bhubaneswar, India, 1984-85. Grain yield (t/ha) WS N level No N 56 kg/ha 84 kg/ha 11 2 kg/ha CD (0.05) CV (%) Source Prilled urea split application Urea gypsum Rock phosphatecoated urea Urea supergranule Urea nitro-humic acid CD (0.05) CV (%)
aStandard

Treatment

BB a WS DS 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2

DS 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.7 0.3

1.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 0.3 45

3.0 2.5 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.6 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.8 0.2 0.3 6 6

Effect of transplanting date on lowland rice response to N. Ludhiana, India.

evaluation system for rice scale.

52 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

at panicle initiation. The WS crop received 17 kg P and 33 kg K/ha. All the treatments received 50-2242 kg NPK/ha during the DS to study residual effects of N. All N levels were superior to the control during both seasons (see table). Constraints to rice yields in Punjab, Pakistan
M.S. Zia, M. Ashraf, and M. Munsif, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, National Agricultural Research Centre, Soil Science Section, P. O., N.I. H., Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan

N at 56 kg/ ha equaled 84 kg N/ ha; 112 kg N/ha was best during the WS. USG gave the highest yields, 3.3 t/ ha in the WS and 2.9 t/ha in the DS. DS yield was low because of a hailstorm at harvest. Residual effect was pronounced

with N levels as well as sources during DS . Bacterial blight (BB) intensity increased with increasing N, and was higher in the WS than in the DS with respect to levels as well as sources.

We analyzed the contribution of various factors to the gap between potential and actual yields in farmers field trials. The recommended inputs were land preparation by 2 plowings in dry soil and 4 plowings and 2 plankings in standing water, transplanting with 30-dold seedlings, fertilizer at 110-26 kg NP/ ha, plant density of 250,000 hills/ha, 2 kg Zn/ha, insect control using carbofuran (3G) at 16 and

20 kg/ ha, and hand weeding at 20 and 30 d after transplanting. Farmers inputs were land preparation with 2 plowings and 1 planking in standing water, transplanting with 50-dold seedlings, plant population of 125,000 hills/ ha, fertilizer at 50-13 kg NP/ ha, no Zn, no insect and weed control. The contribution of plant density to the yield gap was 43-45% for IR6 and 55% for Basmati 370 (see figure). The contribution of fertilizer was 33-39.5% for IR6 and 27% for Basmati 370. Other test factors contributions follow: land preparation for IR6, 22.6%; insect control (for Basmati 370), 18%; weed control, 10-17%; and seedling age (IR6), 9.7%.

Effect of soil N on rice yield in Punjab


N.S. Dhillon, R.K. Gupta, and G. Dev. Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

We conducted 15 experiments in farmers fields using 0, 50. 100, and 150 kg N/ ha as urea, replicated twice. Surface soil samples of Typic Ustochrepts (0-15 cm) collected before transplanting were loamy sand to loam in texture, alkaline (pH 7.4 to 8.8), nonsaline (EC 0.06 to 0.48 dS/ m), and low to medium in organic C (0.14 to 0.68%). The mean and range of soil test

Table 1. Status of nitrogen in rice growing soils. Punjab, India. N content (g/g soil) Range 392-952 233-699 60-168 14-56 42-140 112-309 Mean 643 468 106 28 94 220

Soil N fraction Total N Hydrolyzable N Hydrolyzable amino acid N Hydrolyzable hexosamine N Hydrolyzable NH4 -N Nonhydrolyzable N

Table 2. Relationships of soil N fractions with yield and N uptake by rice. a Punjab, India. Soil N fraction Total N Hydrolyzable N Hydrolyzable amino acid N Hydrolyzable hexosamine N Hydrolyzable NH 4 -N Nonhydrolyzable N
a

Relative yield 0.54* 0.52* 0.43 0.61* 0.64** 0.55*

Relative N uptake 0.68** 0.66** 0.60* 0.60* 0.72** 0.67**

Contribution of test factors to yield gap. Punjab, Pakistan.

Significance at the 5% (*) and 1% (**) levels. Yield or uptake without N Relative 100. yield/ = Maximum yield or uptake relative with N uptake

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 53

values for various forms of soil N (0-15 cm depth) before transplanting are given in Table 1. The values show that a major part of organic N was present in acid hydrolyzable N form (5974%) and nonhydrolyzable N constituted 2641% of the total N present. Hexosamines represented 1.97.1% and amino acids 10.716.7% of total N. Hydrolyzable

NH4-N constituted 10.613.9% of total N present. Total N, hydrolyzable N, and nonhydrolyzable N correlated significantly with yield and N uptake by rice variety PR106 (Table 2). Among the forms of hydrolyzable N, NH4-N showed the highest significant relationship with relative yield ( r =

0.64*) and relative N uptake ( r = 0.72**), followed by hexosamine N (r = 0.61*, 0.60*) and amino acid N (r = 0.60*, 0.43). Results show that forms of both hydrolyzable N and nonhydrolyzable N supply N to rice plants. Among the various fractions of soil N, hydrolyzable NH4-N seemed to be more important.

Rapid and sensitive method to estimate salinity tolerance of Azolla pinnata

K. Rajarathinam and M.A. Padhya. Botany Department, The M. S. University of Baroda, Baroda 390002, India

We have developed a rapid, nondestructive but sensitive method for assessing the salinity tolerance of different strains of Azolla pinnata. Pigments (chlorophyll and phycocyanin) are measured by their fluorescence in the heterocysts and the vegetative cells of Anabaena azolla isolated from sodium chloride-treated azolla, using Leitz fluorescence microscope. Chlorophyll and phycocyanin were reduced in both types of cells (see figure). The acetylene reduction activity of the AzollaAnabaena complex also showed reduction, which correlated with that in the pigments of the endophyte. Measuring the chlorophyll and phycocyanin content of Anabaena isolated from salt-treated azolla can be used to estimate the salinity tolerance of a particular strain of azolla.

Effect of salinity on chlorophyll and phycocyanin of Anabaena azollae, and on acetylene reduction activity, Baroda, India. Sodium chloride levels: 1 = 10 mM, 2 = 20 mM, 3 = 30 mM, and 4 = 40 mM.

Effect of azolla and inorganic N combined V. Chandrasekharan, G. S. Thangamuthu, and P. Balasubramaniyan, Agronomy Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

We studied the effect of azolla and inorganic N on growth and yield of lowland rice variety Co 43 during 198384 wet and dry seasons. Soil was clay loam, with 261 kg available N/ ha,

15.9 kg P/ha, 460.7 kg K/ha, and pH 7.9. The design was a randomized block with four replications. Seedlings were transplanted at 30 d at 20- l0-cm spacing. Prilled urea (PU) or urea supergranules (USG) alone or in combination with azolla at 75:25 were compared. N rate was 100 kg/ ha for all the treatments except control. PU was split-applied: 50% basal, 25% at tillering, and 25% at panicle initiation stages;

USG was applied all basal, point placed, 1 wk after transplanting. Superphosphate at 22 kg P/ha and muriate of potash at 42 kg K/ha were basally applied. Azolla was incorporated 1 wk before transplanting. USG at 100 kg N/ha or azolla at 25 kg N/ha with USG at 75 kg N/ ha were equal in increasing dry matter production, number of panicles, grain numbers, and grain and straw yields in both seasons (see table).

54 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Effect of azolla and inorganic N on rice. a Coimbatore, India, 1983-84 1983 wet season Treatmentb Dry matter production (t/ha) 6.4 d 13.4 b 11.0 c 15.2 a 15.1 a Panicles (no./m 2 ) 245 d 502 b 413 c 618 a 565 a Filled grains (no.) 69 d 91 b 88 c 100 a 100 a Grain yield (t/ha) 2.5 d 5.9 b 5.0 c 7.0 a 7.0 a Straw yield (t/ha) 4.0 d 7.7 b 6.4 c 9.0 a 8.9 a Dry matter production (t/ha) 6.1 d 13.1 b 10.7 c 14.8 a 14.6 a 1983-84 dry season Panicles (no./m 2) 212 d 483 b 397 c 598 a 560 a Filled grains (no.) 63 d 83 bc 80 c 87 ab 89 a Grain yield (t/ha) 2.3 d 5.5 b 4.5 c 6.5 a 6.4 a Straw yield (t/ha) 4.0 d 7.6 b 6.2 c 8.4 a 8.4 a

Control (no N) 100 kg N-PU 25 kg N-azolla + 75 kg N-PU 100 kg N-USG 25 kg N-azolla + 75 kg N-USG
aMeans

followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. b N rate = 100 kg/ha.

Effect of cultivation method on the rice crop and the mechanical impediment of Vertisols B.L. Ganjir and R.P. Rajput, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, J.N. Agricultural University, Jabalpur 482004, M.P., India

Table 2. Effect of method of cultivation on growth and yield of paddy. Jabalpur, India, 1985. Treatment Direct drilling Direct transplanting Bullock puddling Tractor puddling CD at 0.05 cv (%) Yield (t/ha) Grain 4.2 3.3 3.7 3.4 0.7 28 Straw 10.6 8.4 9.2 9.4 1.5 19 Plant height (cm) 76.8 75.6 77.8 72.0 ns Tillers/ Plant 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.3 ns Panicle length (cm) 20.8 21.2 21.2 21.3 no

Puddling for transplanted rice facilitates transplanting, maintenance of submergence, and weed control. But in Vertisols, with low infiltration rates, puddling disturbs the soil physical condition and creates problems for field preparation of dry season wheat. We studied the influence of different cultivation methods on the rice crop and soil mechanical impediment. Treatments direct drilling (DD), direct transplanting (DT), bullock puddling (BP), and tractor puddling (TP) were in a randomized block design with four
Table 1. Effect of puddling on penetration force. Jabalpur, India, 1985. Penetration force (kg/cm2) Tillering stage 1.49 4.93 6.49 2.15 5.30 6.39 1.37 3.31 4.37 1.02 4.47 6.02 Milk stage 4.61 6.26 7.36 4.85 6.24 7.49 2.74 6.01 7.35 2.80 6.18 7.43

replications. Rice variety Ratna was sown 7 Nov 1985. Fertilizer was applied at 120-60-40 kg NPK/ha. Plant height, tiller numbers, panicle length, and grain and straw yields were recorded. Penetration force at tillering and milk stages was measured by penetrometer. DD gave the highest mechanical impediment (MI), and TP the lowest, irrespective of growth stage (Table 1). The increased magnitude of MI at the

milk stage was attributed to reduced moisture content. Tillers/ plant, plant height, and panicle length did not differ significantly (Table 2). DD gave the significantly highest grain and straw yield. The differences among DT, BP, and TP were not significant. A similar trend was found with straw yield. Reduced yield due to puddling is attributed to deterioration of physical conditions of the soil.

Treatment

Depth (m) 5 10 15 5 10 15 5 10 15 5 10 15

Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, and M.S. Maskina, Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India

Direct drilling Direct transplanting Bullock puddling Tractor puddling

We studied the relative efficiency of urea, ammonium sulfate, and potassium nitrate during 1986 kharif (Jun-Sep). Nitrification inhibitor 4-amino-1,2,4triazole (ATC) was applied at 5% by weight of urea. To restrict NH3 volatilization, urea-nitrification inhibitor and urea alone treatments were applied

in bands (3 cm below surface) between the rows. N at 110 kg/ ha was applied in 3 equal splits: 7, 21, and 42 d after transplanting with no standing water. Soil of the experimental field was Fatehpur loamy sand (Typic Ustipsamment) with pH 8.5, 0.23% organic C, 7 kg Olsens P/ha and 71 kg ammonium acetate extractable K/ha. Soil percolation rate was about 6 mm/h. Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Six-week-old seedlings of rice variety PR106 were transplanted the third week of June.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 55

Urea and ammonium sulfate topdressed in three equal splits did not differ significantly (see table). Band application slightly increased grain yield and N uptake over topdressing. Additional benefit with band placement was probably due to the low rate of nitrification. Application of ATC, a water-soluble chemical recommended for nitrification inhibition, did not influence yield and N uptake of rice, even at higher rates. This may be due to ineffective coating and leaching of the chemical from the bands. Potassium nitrate was the most

Influence of N source and a nitrification inhibitor (ATC) on yield and N uptake of wetland rice. Ludhiana (Punjab), India, 1986 kharif. Treatment Ammonium sulfate (topdressed) Urea (topdressed) Potassium nitrate (topdressed) Urea (banded) Urea + ATC (banded) LSD (P = 0.05) Control (no N) Yield (t/ha) Grain 7.6 7.2 4.8 7.8 7.7 0.6 2.5 Straw 8.8 8.8 6.3 9.2 9.3 0.8 3.5 N uptake (kg/ha) 124.5 113.2 80.6 122.6 119.8 5.4 38.9 Apparent N recovery (%) 11.8 61.5 37.9 76.1 13.5

inefficient N source. Recovery of N from potassium nitrate was about half

that from ammonium sulfate and urea.

Effect of plant density and fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer efficiency M.S. Zia, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

Effect of plant density and fertilizer level on rice yield and fertilizer efficiency. Muridke, Pakistan. Yield (t/ha) at indicated NP (kg/ha) level 0-60 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.4 c 60-60 5.7 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.1 b 90-60 5.9 6.1 6.4 6.7 6.3 b N efficiency (kg rice/ Mean for Mean for kg N) at indicated NP plant plant (kg/ha) level density a density (kg rice/ 120-60 (t/ha) 60-60 90-60 120-60 kg N) 6.3 6.7 6.9 7.2 6.8 a 5.2 c 5.5 b 5.7 ab 6.0 a 42 44 45 46 44 30 32 33 34 32 26 28 29 29 28 33 35 36 36

Spacing Plant density (cm) (hills/ha) 40 25 20 20


a

We studied fertilizer efficiency at different N P levels and different plant densities, with IR6 as the test variety. Plant density and NP level significantly affected yield (see table). The highest yield was at 20- 20-cm spacing (250,000 hills/ha) and the lowest at 40- 25-cm spacing (100,000 hills/ ha). The highest yield was with

100,000 160,000 200,000 250,000 Mean for fertilizera

25 25 25 20

Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different from each other.

120-26 kg NP/ha. Fertilizer efficiency was lowest at the highest level of fertilization, increasing

gradually with decreased fertilizer. Fertilizer efficiency was highest at higher plant densities.

Effect of method of applying Azospirillum brasilense on rice yield G. Gopalaswamy and P. Vidhyasekaran, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TNRRI), Aduthurai 612101, India

Method of application of Azospirillum on rice yield. TNRRI, Aduthurai, India. Azospirillum application method Seed Seedling Seed + seedling Seed + soil Seedling + soil Seed + seedling + soil Uninoculated (control) CD Plant height (cm) 87 86 Productive tillers (no./hill) 8 7 Straw yield (t/ha) 8.0 1.2 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.9 4.8

Azospirillum brasilense Tarrand et al. fixes atmospheric N in soil. We studied methods of applying bacterium to increase yield. Peat-based A. brasilense inoculum (6 kg/ ha) containing l0 8 bacteria/g of peat soil was used for all treatments. For seed treatment, 60 kg of seeds were soaked for 24 h in 60 liters water containing 6 kg peat-based inoculum. The seeds were allowed to sprout, then sown in the nursery. For seedling treatment, seedling roots were dipped in

Soil

88 89 86 89 84

86

7 7 7 8 6

1.5
8.8 1.4 8.3 9.3 6.3

4.6
5.6 4.8 5.5 6.5 4.4

1.4

1 .0

400 liters water containing 6 kg inoculum for 20 min and transplanted. Soil application of the bacterium was done by mixing 6 kg inoculum with 15 kg sand and broadcasting in the main field before transplanting. Inoculum also

was split into two doses and given as seed + seedling treatment or seed 4- soil treatment or seedling + soil treatment. In the last treatment, inoculum was split into three doses and given as seed + seedling + soil treatment.

56 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Cultivar ADT36 was grown during Jun-Oct 1986. Plot size was 25 m 2 in a split-plot design replicated 3 times. Soil was clayey loam with pH 7 and CEC 36 meq/ 100 g. It had 0.13% total N,

70 kg available P/ ha, and 92 kg exchangeable K/ ha. Maximum and minimum temperatures during growth were 31-39 C and 22-28 C. Total rainfall was 324 mm.

Split application of A. brasilense inoculum through seed, seedling, and soil gave the highest grain and straw yields, plant height, and number of productive tillers (see table).

Effect of urea on decomposition of azolla


S. Subramani and S. Kannaiyan, Agricultural Microbiology Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

We applied urea as a foliar spray over the azolla mat in a pot culture experiment to study azolla decomposition. One liter soil extract

medium was kept in plastic tubs and 30 g Azolla pinnata, A. microphylla, and A. filiculoides inoculated and maintained. Urea was added directly to the soil extract solution at 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm or sprayed at 3 d after inoculation. At 5 d after urea treatment, the decayed biomass was filtered in muslin and the moisture content removed by placing the mass on tissue paper. With increased urea concentration,

azolla decomposition increased (see table). Urea at 2,000 ppm caused considerable weight reduction in all the 3 species of azolla. Weight reduction was highest in A. microphylla. Urea incorporated into the soil extract significantly activated decomposition (see figure).

Induction of callus from leaf explants of Azolla pinnata


B.K. Sarma and P. C. Deka, Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, India

Influence of foliar spray of urea on the decomposition of azolla. Tamil Nadu, India. Urea concentration (ppm) Weight on 5th day after spraying A. pinnata g 13.7 1 2.8 11.2 14.8 13.3 10.8 0.7 % decrease from initial inoculum 54 57 63 51 56 64 g 20.8 20.0 18.0 15.9 13.9 12.0 0.9 A. filiculoides % decrease from initial inoculum 31 33 40 47 54 60 g 18.1 15.4 15.0 12.5 10.5 10.0 1.2 A. microphylla % decrease from initial inoculum 40 49 50 58 65 67

50 100 250 500 1000 2000 CD

Callus from root and leaf explants of Azolla pinnata var. imbricata, Jorhat strain, was induced on two standard media: MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) and SH (Schenk and Hildebrandt, 1972) as such and with certain modifications in type and concentration of the hormones and cytokinins. Callus induction from leaf explants was achieved in the modified SH medium supplemented with IAA (1.0 mg/ liter),

Effect of adding urea to soil extract medium on the decomposition of Azolla. Tamil Nadu, India.

Callus induced from Azolla pinnata, after 8 wk in culture, Jorhat, India.

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 57

NAA (0.5 mg/ liter), 2,4-D (1.0 mg/ liter), and benzyl aminopurine (0.5 mg/liter) without kinetin. Temperature was maintained at 25 + 10 C. Callus first appeared 22 d after inoculation. Callus induction and development were more effective at 1,000 1x. Welldeveloped callus was 20% and poor callus, 66.6% when cultures were grown with light; they were 0% and 53.33% when cultures were grown in darkness,

indicating that light has some effect on callus induction. Further growth and development was measured weekly. After 8 wk in culture, the callus grew sufficiently for subculturing. Subculturing was done in the same medium. Initially, growth was slower, with a callus doubling time of about 8 wk. But with frequent subculturing, callus doubling time was reduced to 5 wk.

Under the microscope, no Anabaena cells were found in mature callus cells (see figure). This indicates that Anabaena-free Azolla pinnata cultures can be produced through tissue culture of leaf explants. It could be possible to isolate Anabaena-free Azolla protoplast from these calli which could be utilized for future somatic cell fusion experiments with improved N2-fixing Anabaena cells.

Cultural practices to reduce winter damage to rice


M. Mahadevappa and Nagaraju, Seed Technology Department, Agricultural College, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India

Table 1. Effect of pruning on days to 50% flowering of winter rices. Bangalore, India, 1985. Entry ES18 Mangala IR19743-25-2-2 IR18476-55-2 IR15579-135-3 IR9202-25-1-3 Days to 50% flowering No cutting 94 104 100 100 114 110 54 DAS 100 110 103 104 126 117 64 DAS 100 111 107 107 126 121 74 DAS 110 113 110 110 127 124 84 DAS 127 126 114 114 131 127 96 DAS 131 131 126 127 133 131

In the tank-fed areas of southern Karnataka India, cold temperaturesensitive rice varieties planted after the first week of Sep fail to produce any grain. The main cause is high susceptibility to low temperature at flowering. Local cold-tolerant varieties S705, S317, and Mangala fail because of heavy disease pressure. We tested postponing flowering time by cutting tillers to 10 cm at varying times after transplanting. Six varieties with varying maturities were sown 11 Sep 1985 and transplanted 10 Oct 1985. Cutting up to 74 d after seeding (DAS) did not delay flowering because the primordia was unaffected (Table 1). Cutting 84 and 96 DAS markedly

Table 2. Effect of pruning of winter rices on tillering. Bangalore, India, 1985. Entry ES18 Mangala IR19743-25-2-2 IR18476-55-2 IR15579-135-3 IR9202-25-1-3 Tillers (no.) No cutting 14 16 19 14 12 15 54 DAS 16 20 18 10 10 14 64 DAS 15 39 14 8 9 11 74 DAS 19 25 17 13 14 15 84 DAS 18 14 16 11 13 12 96 DAS 15 20 15 8 12 11

delayed flowering because the stem tip was pruned. Flowering delay due to cutting date varied by genotype. 11315579-135-3 could be delayed a

maximum of 19 d, ES18 could be delayed 37 d. Plant height and tiller production did not vary because of pruning (Table 2).

Effect of slow-release nitrogen fertilizers on rice yield


A. K. Chakraborty and B. Bhattacharya, Agriculture Department, Calcutta University, India

Effect of slow-release urea materials on yield and fertilizer efficiency. Calcutta, India. Treatment Control Urea Urea supergranule Neem cake urea mixture Lac-coated urea Sulfur-coated urea Bitumen-coated urea formaldehyde Sawdust urea formaldehyde Urea formaldehyde Mean SE () CD (0.05) Grain yield (t/ha) 2.0 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.3 0.66 0.37 Straw yield (t/ha) 2.9 3.9 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.2 0.69 0.37 Total N uptake (kg/ha) 34.28 58.31 60.69 70.41 77.48 94.89 93.64 85.76 84.60 70.81 6.82 Fertilizer efficiency (%) 24.03 26.41 36.13 43.20 60.61 59.36 51.48 49.37 43.45 5.13

We studied the effect of slow-release N fertilizers on grain yield, total N uptake, and fertilizer efficiency using Ratna variety during the 1983 and 1984 wet seasons. Soil was Gangetic alluvial clay-loam with pH 6.7, 0.35% organic C, and

58 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

0.078% total N. Available P, K, and Zn were 11.8 kg/ ha, 368.5 kg/ ha, and 1.68 kg/ha (DTPA extractable Zn). Soil CEC was 21.80 meq/100 g. The trial was in a randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications. All plots except control and urea

supergranule (USG) treatments received one basal application of 100 kg N/ha during puddling. USG was applied immediately before transplanting by pressing the granules below the surface soil with the foot. Sulfur-coated urea (SCU) gave the

highest grain yield, N uptake, and fertilizer efficiency (see table). In our laboratory, bitumen is used to coat ureaform. Results are comparable to those with SCU. Ureaform formulations also showed a significant increase in fertilizer efficiency.

Damaged seedling roots and grain yield


H. Om, R. K. Joon, and O. P. Singh, Haryana Agricultural University. Rice Research Station, Kaul 132021, India

We studied the effect of seedling root damage on grain yield during kharif 1985 and 1986. The treatments follow: roots were handled carefully to avoid injury, roots trimmed from the base, seedlings uprooted from semidry soil with the help of a spade. Thirty-day-old Jaya seedlings were transplanted the first week of July and fertilized with 120-26-50-6 kg N-P-KZn/ha. All of the P, K, and Zn were applied basally at transplanting. N was applied in 3 equal splits: basal, 21 d after transplanting (DT) and 42 DT. Experimental field was clay loam with pH 8.1, low N, and medium P and K. Root injury did not affect grain yield (see table). In transplanting rice, uprooting seedlings with the help of a spade may minimize labor costs.
Effect of root injury on grain yield, Kaul, India. Treatment Panicles (no./ hill) Grains (no./ panicle) 120 128 125 Grain yield (t/ha) 5.6 5.5 5.7

(samba season), transplanting of widely cultivated 165-d duration CR 1009 is sometimes delayed because of delayed receipt of water in the canal. We tested the performance of late-planted CR1009 during 1985-86 samba. Seedlings were transplanted 30, 40, 50, and 60 d after

seeding. Plant height, panicles/ hill, panicle weight, grain weight/panicle, 100-grain weight, and grain yield were not affected by planting up to 50 d after sowing (see table). Later planting reduced yield parameters and yield.

Performance of late-planted CR1009 in 1985-86 samba, Aduthurai, India.a Seedling age (d) 30 40 50 60
aIn

Plant height (cm) 92 89 88 87 a a a a

Panicles/ hill 8.5 8.9 9.3 7.5 a a a

Panicle weight (g) 4.1 1 a 4.27 a 4.09 a 3.54 b

Grain weight/panicle (g) 3.82 3.92 3.72 3.24 a a a

100-grain weight (g) 2.38 2.30 2.25 2.18 a a a a

Grain yield (t/ha) 5.40 5.49 5.65 4.43 a a a

a column, numbers followed by a common letter are statistically identical at the 95% level of confidence.

Preservation of Azolla pinnata germplasm


K. Rajarathinam and M.A. Padhya, Botany Department, The M.S. University of Baroda Baroda 390002, India

10 All roots intact Roots 100% cut 9.5 Seedlings uprooted 10 with spade

Senescence and death of azolla during the summer is common in tropical areas. We have developed a technique to preserve germplasm of Azolla pinnata. Surface-sterilized fronds were inoculated on sterilized N-free medium solidified with 0.9% agar. Cultures were incubated at 25 1C and illuminated
Growth of Azolla pinnata in solid and liquid medium. Baroda, India.

with cool white fluorescent light for a 16/8 light/dark cycle. Growth of azolla was extremely slow compared to growth in a liquid medium (see table). The fronds remained green for more than 3 mo and, when transferred to a N-free liquid medium, continued to grow and develop faster. Viability of the fronds transferred to liquid medium was 100%. The azolla cultures also were easy to transport.

Ammonia volatilization loss in rice soils of Cauvery Delta


A. Saravanan, V. Velu, and K. M. Ramanathan, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TNRRI), Aduthurai, India

Performance of long-duration CR1009 with aged seedlings


P. Balasubramaniyan, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai 612101, India

Period (wk) 0 1 2 3

Fresh weight (mg) Solid medium 300 398 518 780 20.0 20.6 22.1 39.1 Liquid medium 300 698 1258 2638 20.0 29.8 34.0 73.2

In the Cauvery delta during Aug-Feb

We quantified NH 3 loss using different sources of N with basal and split application of 90 kg N/ha in Jun-Sep 1984. Experimental field soil was a clay

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 59

loam textured Entic Chromustert with KMnO4-N 110 ppm, 0.75% organic C, and pH 7.4. Test crop was ADT36, grown in 20-m2 plots replicated 3 times in a randomized complete block design. A 12.5- 35-cm cylindrical frame covered with a polythene bag was placed between rows immediately after fertilizer application. A petri dish containing 100 ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 was suspended inside the frame. The dish was emptied at 3-d intervals and the contents distilled for NH 3 . Ammonia volatilization loss was calculated 15 d after basal application and after each topdressing (see table). Values are after deducting loss in control plots. Correlations were worked out for pH, temperature, and NH 4 -N content of floodwater with volatilization loss. The cumulative N loss ranged from 3.44 to 5.85 kg/ ha. The highest was with urea split application, followed by splitapplied lac-coated urea. Green manure

Volatilization loss of N. TNRRI, Aduthurai, India, 1984. Loss of N (kg/ha) Treatment Phase I 0-15 d 2.82 3.13 2.89 2.78 2.20 2.34 1.71 1.18 2.37 52 Phase II 16-30 d 2.24 1.28 1.35 1.19 1.11 2.15 1.88 1.79 1.62 36 Phase III 31-45 d 0.80 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.57 0.74 0.48 0.57 12 Cumulative loss of N kg/ha 5.85 4.95 4.72 4.39 3.78 5.06 4.33 3.44 0.47 100

Urea best split ( + + ) Urea all basal Lac-coated urea (LCU) basal Neem cake coated urea (NCU) basal Green manure + urea (1 : 1) basal LCU split ( + + ) NCU split ( + + ) Green manure + urea split ( + 1/8 + l/8) Mean CD % loss to the total loss

and urea combination had relatively lower loss than other N sources. Basal application showed higher losses than topdressings. Of the total volatilization loss, 52% occurred within 15 d, 36% between 15 and 30 d, and 12% between 3 1 and 45 d. NH3 loss correlated with

morning floodwater pH (r = 0.45**), evening floodwater pH ( r = 0.55**), morning floodwater temperature (r = 0.49**), evening floodwater temperature ( r = 0.61**), and NH4-N content of floodwater (r = 0.43**).

Response of upland rices to nitrogen J. K. Kehinde and S. O. Fagade, National Cereals Research Institute, Rice Research Programme, PMB 5042, Ibadan, Nigeria

Three upland rice varieties (Faro 11, E425 and R66) were planted on sandy loam soil with 0.09% total N, 1.63%

organic matter, and pH 5.4. N as ammonium sulfate was applied at 0, 30, and 60 kg N/ ha, half at planting and half 60 d after. P and K were applied basally, each at 30 kg/ha. Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plot size was 12 m2. Plant spacing was 30 30 cm.

Application of 60 kg N/ha did not significantly increase grain yield over 30 kg N/ ha (Table 1). Stem borer damage and lodging percentage were higher with 60 kg N/ha. Varieties tested were similar in all parameters examined (Table 2). The International Rice Research Newsletter and the IRRI Reporter are mailed free to qualified individuals and institutions engaged in rice production and training. For further information write: IRRI, Communication and Publications Dept., Division R, P. O. Box 933, Manila Philippines.
Relationship between organic N fraction and N uptake of rice in submerged soil B.S. Mahapatra, K. C. Sharma, and G. L. Sharma, Agronomy Department, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Nainital, U. P. 263145, India

Table 1. Effect of N level on yield, yield components, and growth of rice.a Ibadan, Nigeria, 1984. N level (kg/ha) 0 30 60
a

Yield (kg/plot) 1.64 b 1.94 a 1.98 a

Lodging b (%) 0 31 78

Whiteheads (no./plot) 31 b 41 b 91 a

Wt of 10 panicles (g) 46 b 50 b 62 a

p1ant ht b (cm) 102 b 111 a 113 a

Tillersb (no./hill) 14 b 15 b 16 a

Mean of 3 replications. b Recorded at maturity. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Table 2. Varietal differences in yield, yield components, and growth of rice. Ibadan, Nigeria, 1984. Variety Faro 11 E425 R66 LSD (0.05) Yield (kg/plot) 1.87 1.93 1.78 ns Lodging (%) 39 36 33 Days to 50% flowering 87 88 88 Whiteheads (no./plot) 55 53 54 ns Wt of 10 panicles (g) 52 53 52 ns Plant ht (cm) 107 108 110 ns Tillers (no./hill) 15 15 15 ns

A field experiment during the 1983-84 wet season showed that hydrolyzable

60 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Correlations between N uptake and organic N fractions (hydrolyzable and nonhydrolyzable N). a Pantnagar, India, 1983-84 wet season. Plant N uptake 15 DT 30 DT 45 DT 60 DT (50% flowering) At harvest
a

Hydrolyzable N 15 DT 0.331 0.702** 0.853** 0.870** 0.862** 30 DT 0.500 0.743** 0.805** 0.829** 45 DT 0.594* 0.659* 0.667** 60 DT 0.436 0.468 15 DT 0.116 0.115 0.175 0.051 0.118

Nonhydrolyzable N 30 DT 0.331 0.321 0.339 0.338 45 DT 0.405 0.387 0.424 60 DT 0.640* 0.641*

organic N (6 N HC1 extractable) is ultimately responsible for N in submerged soil. Hydrolyzable organic N up to 45 d after transplanting (DT) and N uptake of the rice crop at different growth stages (except N uptake at 15 DT) showed significant positive correlation (see table). The trend was reversed tor nonhydrolyzable organic N except at 30 DT.

Significance at the 5% (*) and 1% (**) levels. DT = days after transplanting.

Effect of nitrogen on rice in an alkali soil K.N. Singh and D.K. Sharma, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India

variety Damodar (CSR1) in a highly barren alkali soil without amendment during 1981-1982 wet seasons. Soil was sandy-loam with pH 10.4, 91% exchangeable Na, 0.32 meq exchangeable Ca + Mg/ 100 g, 40 kg available N/ha, 18 kg Olsens extractable

We studied the effect of N on rice

P, and adequate K in the 015 cm layer. Spacing was 15 15 cm with 3 seedlings/ hill. N as urea was applied one-third at transplanting and the remainder as 2 equal splits at 25 and 50 d after transplanting; zinc sulfate was applied at 5.5 kg Zn/ ha. The rice was harvested 17 Nov 1981 and 16 Nov 1982. Yield attributes and grain and straw yields significantly increased with N level (Table 1). Grain and straw N also increased significantly up to 120 kg N/ha (Table 2). Soil pH was not

Table 2. Influence of N level on N content of grain and straw of Darnodar grown in an alkali soil. Karnal, India, 198182. Nitrogen content (kg/ha) N level (kg/ha) 0 60 120 180 CD (0.05) 1981 Grain 1.12 1.30 1.37 1.45 0.09 Straw 0.39 0.46 0.49 0.49 0.03 Grain 1.17 1.25 1.37 1.40 0.06 1982 Straw 0.32 0.39 0.44 0.46 0.04

affected by N level, but decreased with cultivation.

Table 1. Effect of nitrogen in an alkali soil on yield attributes and yield of Damodar (CSR1). Karnal, India, 198182. 1981 N (kg/ha) Height (cm) 81.1 94.8 104.0 108.7 4.4 Productive tillers/hill 7.1 10.6 12.2 13.7 1.1 Panicle length (cm) 15.4 17.1 17.9 18.3 0.6 Yield (t/ha) Grain 1.1 2.2 2.7 3.2 0.5 Straw 2.1 3.8 4.6 5.2 0.8 Height (cm) 88.8 105.1 112.6 116.1 3.3 Productive tillers/hill 6.3 10.8 12.0 13.3 0.8 1982 Panicle length (cm) 14.8 16.5 16.9 17.7 0.5 Yield (t/ha) Grain 1.2 2.5 3.2 3.6 0.2 Straw 1.9 4.3 5.4 6.0 0.6 Soil pH after rice 1982 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.8

0 60 120 180 CD (0.05)

Consequences
Energy management in rice production A.S. Saini, Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan 173001, District Sirmur (H.P.); and R.K. Patel and R.V. Singh, NDRI, Karnal 132001 (Haryana), India

We estimated total energy input and energy-use balance and efficiency in rice

production in relation to farm size in six randomly selected villages of Karnal district, Haryana State, north India. The farm households were categorized into five Strata on the basis of operational holding size (Cumulative Frequency Square Root method). Input-output data on the rice crop were gathered from I19 farmers (10% of the total population) representing the strata: 31

marginal (up to 1.0 ha), 26 small (1. 12.0 ha), 29 lower medium (2.14.0 ha), 20 upper medium (4.16.0 ha), and 13 large (more than 6.0 ha). In general, farmyard manure (FYM) and chemical fertilizers (stock resources), followed by labor and machinery (flow resources), were the most important energy inputs to rice production (Table 1). FYM and

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 61

chemical fertilizers alone accounted for about 60% of the total energy input. Energy inputs (3828 thousand kcal) were highest on the marginal farms and lowest (2287 thousand kcal) on the small farms. Grain and straw yields were highest on the large farms and lowest on the small farms. Fertilization and manuring were the

major energy-consuming operations, followed by irrigation, plowing, and planking (Table 2). These operations collectively accounted for about 90% of the total energy input. Energy use by fertilization and manuring was about 1.6 times higher on marginal farms than on other farms. Energy use as irrigation was about double that on marginal

farms on all farm sizes except small farms. Except for marginal farms, total and net energy output increased progressively with farm size. The highest energy input for rice production was on marginal farms. They applied more fertilizers, but had the lowest energy output-input ratio.

Table 1. Source of energy inputs and rice production. Haryana, India. Average farm size (ha) Energy inputa (thousand kcal/ha) Labor Human 276 (7) 244 (11) 266 (9) 273 (8) 277 (10) 269 (9) Bullock 669 (17) 443 (20) 529 (17) 497 (16) 356 (12) 468 (16) Seed Farmyard manure Chemical fertilizers Machinery Diesel engine (5 hp) 175 (5) 305 (13) 392 (12) 417 (13) 397 (14) 376 (13) Tractor (35 hp) 12 (1) 49 (2) 95 (3) 44 (1) Total Rice production b (t/ha) Grain 2.6 bc
c

Farm size

Straw 4.4 bc 4.2 4.7 b 4.7 b 6.1 a 5.0 b


c

0.1-1.0 1.1-2.0 2.1-4.0 4.1-6.0 6.1 & above Overall


aFigures

0.5 8 1.68 3.00 5.25 8.50 1.46

64 (2) 53 (2) 65 (2) 87 (3) 88 (3) 76 (3)

1675 (44) 325 (14) 8 24 (27) 926 (29) 846 (29) 848 (28)

969 (25) 91 7 (40) 998 (32) 919 (29) 822 (29) 914 (30)

3828 a 2287

2.4 2.9 b 3.0 b 3.6 a 3.0 b

3086 b 3168 b 2881 b 2995 b

in parentheses indicate % of total energy input. bIn a column, values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly (P = 0.05) by DMRT.

Table 2. Energy use balance by operation in rice production.a Haryana, India. Energy use (thousand kcal/ha) Farm size groups (ha) 0.1-1.0 1.1-2.0 2.1-4.0 4.1-6.0 6.1 & above Overall
aFigures

Plowing and planking 4.64 (12) 371 (16) 432 (14) 442 (14) 392 (14) 417 (14)

Seed, nursery raising, and transplanting 167 (4) 141 (6) 157 (5) 187 (6) 172 (6) 168 (6)

Fertilization and manuring 2844 (74) 1295 (57) 1924 (62) 1930 (61) 1730 (60) 1848 (62)

Irrigation 228 (6) 357 (15) 448 (15) 478 (15) 452 (16) 432 (14)

Harvesting 63 (2) 62 (3) 63 (2) 67 (2) 68 (2) 66 (2)

Threshing 62 (2) 61 (3) 62 (2) 64 (2) 67 (2) 64 (2)

Total energy input 3282 a 2287 3086 b 3168 b 2881 b c

Total energy output 13,175 bc 12,573 14,531 b 15,105 b 18,373 a 15,462 b c

Net energy output 10,347 b 10,286 b 11,445 b 11,937 b 15,492 a 12,467 b

Energy output-input ratio 3.4 5.5 ab 4.8 b 4.8 b 6.4 a 5.2 ab c

2995 b

in parentheses are % of total energy input. In a column values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly (P = 0.05) by DMRT.

The International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) invites all scientists to contribute concise summaries of significant rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to one or two pages and no more than two short tables, figures, or photographs. Contributions are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors will be identified by name, title, and research organization.

62 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

Rice-based Cropping Systems


Effect of soil amendments on rice and wheat yields in salt-affected soils S. K. Mathur, O.P. Mathur, and N.R. Talati, Krishi Bhawan, Bikaner (Raj.), India
Table 1. Characteristics of experimental soil profile, Typic Salorthid. Bikaner (Raj.), India. Depth (cm) 0-1 8 18-72 72-99 99-140 140-172
aExchangeable

pH 8.7 9.2 9.5 9.0 9.0

ECe (mmho/cm) 6.0 7.5 10.4 22.7 26.3

ESP a 39.6 62.5 58.5 56.4 66.0

Silt (%) 36.7 45.1 34.4 50.4 27.9

Clay (%) 25.5 43.8 15.8 28.4 23.0

CaCo3 (%) 11.2 11.6 11.0 12.6 9.4

More than 0.17 million ha in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command is affected by moderate to severe salinity and sodicity. We studied the effect of organic manure and gypsum on rice and wheat yields in Typic Salorthid, fine-textured, saltaffected soils in a split-plot design (Table I). Farmyard manure (FYM) was the main plot treatment (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 t/ ha) and gypsum was the subplot treatment (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 t/ha). Rice variety Jhona 349 was transplanted in the wet season and wheat variety C591 was sown as the dry season crop. N at 100 kg/ha and P at 18 kg/ ha were applied after adjusting for N supplied by FYM. FYM significantly increased rice and wheat yields (Table 2). Gypsum did not significantly affect yields.

sodium percentage.

Table 2. Yield of rice and wheat with farmyard manure and gypsum application. Bikaner, India. FYM (t/ha) Yield (t/ha) with indicated amount of gypsum 0 gypsum 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.2 2.3 Mean 0 5 10 20 40 Mean
aCD

Mean yield 20 t/ha 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.6 (t/ha) 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 1.9 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.0 1.6

5 t/ha 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 2.1 1.5

10 t/ha Ricea 1.8 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.1 Wheat b 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.6 1.5

15 t/ha 1.8 1.9 1.7 2.1 2.3 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.6 2.1 1.6

0 5 10 20 40

1.9 1.1 1.0 1.9 1.3 2.2 1.5

= 5.57 with FYM, ns with gypsum. bCD = 2.68 with FYM and ns with gypsum.

Rice - fish cultivation in the hilly region of Karnataka, India K. Manjappa, S.J. Patil, M. Rajashekar, and K. V. Devraj, Regional Research Station, Mudigere 577132. Karnataka, India

Fish harvest in a rice - fish system for the hilly region of Karnataka, India.

Length

Weight

Fish

Initial (mm) 23 24 22 26 24

At harvest (mm) 51 54 57 61 56

Times Initial increase over (g) initial 2.22 2.25 2.59 2.35 2.35 1.81 1.93 1.87 1.95 1.90

At harvest (g) 12.31 9.48 10.68 25.49 14.49

Times increase over initial 6.8 4.9 5.7 13.1 7.6

Survival (%)

We evaluated rearing of different species of fish to the fingerling stage in ricefields. A trench 1.5 m wide and 0.9 m deep was dug in the center of each of three 360-m2 plots. Corrugations 0.3 m wide and 0.15 m deep were made on either side every 6 m to help the fish to move along the trench. Plot bunds were raised to 45 cm high. The trenches covered 14% of the total plot area. Fertilizer was applied at transplanting of 30-d-old Intan rice seedlings. Topdressing with 50% recommended N

Catla Rohu Mrigal Common carp Mean

69.3 48.1 65.7 71.4 63.6

was done 30 d after transplanting (DT). Carbofuran granules were applied at transplanting to protect the crop against pests. For plankton production, plots were manured with cow dung before fish were stocked. Fish at the fry stage were released in the ratio of 4 catla:2 rohu: 1 mriga1:and 3 common carp 20 DT at

50,000/ ha (each plot received 1.800 fish fry). The plot was manured once a month and the fish fed regularly. After 100 d in the field, fingerlings were harvested and survival, length, and weight of each species recorded. Rice was harvested 6 d after fish. Average fish survival was 63.6%; it

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987) 63

was highest with common carp (71.4%), and lowest with rohu (48.1%) (see table). Weight increase of common carp was 13.07 times initial weight. Weights of other species increased 4.91-6.80 times. Although the rice area was reduced

14%, there was little difference in grain yield from plots with fish (4.6 t/ha) and control plots (4.7 t/ha). The additional cost incurred in raising fingerlings (preparation of trench, fish stock, feed, labor) was $485/ha per 100 d. (Only

10% of the cost of trench preparation is taken to calculate cost of one season). The total return from fish yield was $751/ha per 100 d. Net return was $266/ ha per 100 d.

Rice-based crop rotations for upland fields P. K. Mahapatra, B. B. Bhol, and R. N. Patnaik, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India

Efficiency of crop rotations under partially irrigated conditions. Semiliguda, India, 1980-81. Crop rotation Rice Rice Rice Rice Rice Rice - fallow - wheat - gardenpea (green pod) - chickpea - mustard - potato Yield (t/ha) Wet season 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.0 Dry season 3.0 2.5 0.7 0.8 18.9 Proteina (t/ha) 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 Carbohydrate a (t/ha) 1.0 3.0 1.1 1.3 1.1 4.7 Energya (MJ 10 3 /ha) 18.2 59.0 21.4 26.8 34.4 84.3

Upland crop rotations were tried 198081 under partially irrigated conditions at the Regional Research Station, Semiliguda, Koraput (884 m, 1820 N, 8230 E) in a randomized block design with 4 replications. Short-duration rice was direct sown during the wet season under rainfed conditions, followed by wheat cultivar Utkalika, gardenpea Bonneville, chickpea JG62, mustard M27, and potato Kufri Chandramukhi in the dry season (DS). Rice varieties used were OR 165-24- 12 in 1980 and Culture-I in 1981, both with 90 d duration. The rice received 60-13-25 kg NPK/ha in 1980 and 40-9-17 kg in 1981. DS crops received the recommended package of practices. The soil was red clay loam with 5.1 pH, EC 0.168 dS/m, 0.68% organic C, 0.06% total N, 5 kg available P, and 320 kg available K/ha. Highest yield (20.9 t/ha) was with rice - potato (see table). Rice - potato also was most efficient. Single crop rice was the most inefficient. Highest net profit was with rice - potato (see figure).

aProtein,

carbohydrate, and energy components were calculated for edible portions only, per standards fixed by the National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, India.

Efficiency of crop rotations in terms of net profit. Semiliguda, India, 1980-81.

Zinc required for a rice - wheat sequence in alkali soils


T. N. Singh, H. P. Singh, and G. Singh, Crop Physiology Department, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad (U.P.), India

We evaluated Zn levels needed for a rice - wheat crop rotation in field experiments in the alkali soils of

Kumarganj. Experimental fields had pH 10.2-10.4, ESP 70-90 and EC 2-2.5 mmho/cm in 1:2 soil-water suspension. Gypsum (14% S) at 12 t or pyrite (30% S) at 4.5 t/ha had been added to improve soil conditions before the first rice crop in 1976. Plot size was 6 3.5 m in a randomized block design with 4 replications. Short-duration semidwarf Pusa 2-21 was transplanted at 15 15 cm with 4-

Table 1. Zn requirement of transplanted rite Pusa 2-21 in alkali soils of Kumarganj, India. Zn (kg/ha) 0 3.4 6.8 10.0 LSD (0.05) Grain yield (t/ha) at foliar spray intervals of 1 wk 0.6 1.7 1.5 2.5 2.2 2.1 0.3 2 wk 0.5 3.4 3 wk 0.9 1.1 1.7 2.9

64 IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

5 seedlings/hill. Elemental N and P were added at 120 and 22 kg/ ha. Zinc sulfate (22% Zn) was applied at 0, 3.4, 6.8, and 10 kg Zn/ha as a soil drench; 1.1 kg Zn was applied as a single foliar spray at 1, 2, or 3 wk after transplanting. Medium-duration IR24 and Jaya responses to a single dose of 9 or 7.9 kg Zn/ ha also were evaluated. Without Zn and at the lower levels, rice plants developed severe Zn deficiency symptoms leaf browning and stunted growth with eventual death of many plants. Foliar Zn spray brought a withered crop back within 3-4 d of spraying. Zn increased grain yield tremendously

(Table 1). The responses of mediumduration varieties were even greater. At 9 kg Zn, IR24 yielded 5.3 t/ha; at 7.9 kg Zn, Jaya yielded 6.4 t/ha in 1977 and up to 6.8 t/ha in 1978, indicating a lower demand for Zn with progressive improvement in soil conditions. Wheat was grown after rice in 6- 4m plots in the field treated with pyrite in a randomized block design with 4 replications. Rows were spaced 25 cm apart and sown with 125 kg seeds/ha. Fertilizer was 100-18-17 kg NPK/ha. ZnSO4 at 0, 2.3, 4.5, 6.8, and 9.0 kg Zn/ha was applied basally at sowing. Zn deficiency caused stunted growth and poor tillering.

Table 2. Zn requirement of wheat in alkali soils of Kumarganj, India, 1976-79. Zn (kg/ha) 0 2.3 4.5 6.8 9.0 Grain yield (t/ha) 1976-77 (HD1982) 1.9 2.3 3.0 3.6 3.3 1977-78 (HD1553) 2.1 2.5 3.2 3.6 3.5 0.3 1918-79 (HD1553) 1.9 2.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 0.3

LSD (0.05) 0.4

Wheat yields increased with Zn application; 6.8 kg Zn pushed yield to 3.6 t/ha (Table 2).

Announcements
World Food Prize to Swaminathan

M.S. Swaminathan, IRRI director general, has been named the first recipient of the General Foods World Food Prize, a new, major international award to recognize, encourage, and reward outstanding individual achievement in improving and increasing the world food supply. Swaminathan will receive the prize 6 Oct 1987 at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., where a colloquium on international food issues will be held in conjunction with the award ceremony. Norman E. Borlaug, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, conceived the

World Food Prize, which is sponsored by the General Foods Fund, Inc. The prize consists of a $200,000 cash award and a commemorative sculpture.

IRRI - CIMMYT honored

The National Research Council and the Agency for International Development of the United States have honored IRRI and CIMMYT jointly for significant and sustained contributions in science and technology for international development over 25 yr. The awards were presented in Washington, D.C., 22 Jun 1987.

Eight nonmonetary awards recognized important efforts in using science and technology resources to help improve the lives of people in developing countries. A 2-d symposium on science and technology for development also was held on the occasion of USAIDs 25th anniversary. New IRRI Publications World rice statistics 1985 Appendix to the Rice economy of Asia Training in the CGIAR system

IRRN 12:4 (August 1987)

65