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Age Problem

Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/
1. Paul is 10 years younger than Greg. In 7 years, he will be 10 years more than one half as old as Greg. Find their age at present. Help me solve it. Let Greg be X and Paul be X - 10 as far as current ages. In 7 years (thats x + 7) he will be 10 years more than 1/2 as old as Greg (thats (x - 10 + 10)/2 or x/2). So set them equal... X and x -10 x + 7 and x - 10 + 7 28 and 25

(x+7)/2 + 10 = x - 3 x + 17 = 2x - 6 x =23 So Paul is 23 and Greg is 33 CHECKING: (33+7)/2+10 =33-3 30 = 30 correct 2. "Bob is one third the age of his father. In 12 years he will be half the age of his father. How old is each now?" Ok Bob being 1/3 the age of his father is the same thing as saying the father is 3 times as old as him. It makes it easier to work with. So let Bob be x and his father be 3x. And in 12 years bob will be half as old as his father. So we have... x + 12 = (3x + 12) / 2 2x + 24 = 3x + 12 x = 12 so Bob is 12 years old and his father is 3(12) or 36 years old now. In 12 years Bob will be 12 + 12 or 24 years old and his father will be 36 + 12 or 48 years old which means Bob will be half as old so it checks out. CHECKING:

12 +12 = [3(12) +12]/2 24 = 24 correct

3. John is twice as old as his friend Peter. Peter is 5 years older than Alice. In 5 years, John will be three times as old as Alice. How old is Peter now?

Solution:
Step 1: Set up a table.
AGE NOW AGE IN 5 YRS

John Peter Alice Step 2: Fill in the table with information given in the question. John is twice as old as his friend Peter. Peter is 5 years older than Alice. In 5 years, John will be three times as old as Alice. How old is Peter now? Let X be Peters age now. Add 5 to get the ages in 5 yrs.
AGE NOW AGE IN 5 YRS

John Peter Alice

2X
X X

2X + 5 X+5 X5+5

Write the new relationship in an equation using the ages in 5 yrs. In 5 years, John will be three times as old as Alice. 2X + 5 = 3(X 5 + 5) 2X + 5 = 3X Isolate variable X
X

=5

Answer: Peter is now 5 years old.


CHECKING: 2(5) + 5 = 3[(5)-5+5]

15 = 15 correct

NUMBER PROBLEMS
Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/
1. The sum of two consecutive integers is 15. Find the numbers. They've given me two pieces of information here. First, I know that I am adding two numbers, and their sum is fifteen. Second, I know that the numbers are nice neat round numbers (like 3 or 6), 17 not messy ones (like 4.628 or /32), and that the second number is one more than the first. This last piece of information comes from the fact that "consecutive integers" (or "consecutive whole numbers", if they're restricting the possibilities to only positive numbers) are one unit apart. Examples of "consecutive integers" would be 12 and 11, 1 and 2, and 99 and 100. Using these facts, I can set up the translation. I will represent the first number by "n". Then the second number has to be "n then:

+ 1". Their sum is

n + (n + 1) = 15 2n + 1 = 15 2n = 14 n=7
Copyright Elizabeth St0-2011 All Rights Reserved

The exercise did not ask me for the value of the variable n; it asked for the identity of two numbers. So my answer is not "n = 7"; the actual answer is: "The numbers are 7 and 8." CHECKING: 7+(7+1)=15 7+8=15 15=15 2. The product of two consecutive negative even integers is

24. Find the numbers.

They have told me quite a bit about these two numbers: the numbers are even and they are negative. (The fact that they are negative may help if I come up with two solutions a positive and a negative so I'll know which one to pick.) Since even numbers are two apart (for example,4 and 2 or 10 and 12), then I also know that the second number is two greater than

the first. I also know that, when I multiply the two numbers, I will get 24. In other words, letting the first number be "n" and the second number be "n + 2", I have:

(n)(n + 2) = 24 n2 + 2n = 24 n2 + 2n 24 = 0 (n + 6)(n 4) = 0
Then the solutions are n = 6 and n = 4. Since the numbers I am looking for are negative, I can ignore the "4" and take n = 6. Then the next number is n + 2 = 4, and the answer is The numbers are 6 and 4. CHECKING: (-6)(-6+2) = 24 24=24 In the exercise above, one of the answers was one of the solutions to the equation; the other answer was the negative of the other solution to the equation. Warning: Do not assume that you can use both solutions if you just change the signs to be whatever you feel like. While this often "works", it does notalways work, and it's sure to annoy your teacher. Throw out invalid results, and solve properly for valid ones.

3. Twice the larger of two numbers is three more than five times the smaller, and the sum of four times the larger and three times the smaller is 71. What are the numbers? The point of exercises like this is to give you practice in unwrapping and unwinding these words, and turning the words into algebraic equations. The point is in the solving, not in the relative "reality" of the problem. That said, how do you solve this? The best first step is to start labeling: the larger number:

x y

the smaller number: twice the larger:

2x

5y + 3 relationship between ("is"): 2x = 5y + 3


three more than five times the smaller: four times the larger:

4x 3y 4x + 3y = 71

three times the smaller:

relationship between ("sum of"):

Now I have two equations in two variables:

2x = 5y + 3 4x + 3y = 71
I will solve, say, the first equation for x:

x = (5/2)y + (3/2)
Then I'll plug the right-hand side of this into the second equation in place of the "x":

4[ (5/2)y + (3/2) ] + 3y = 71 10y + 6 + 3y = 71 13y + 6 = 71 13y = 65 y = 65/13 = 5


Now that I have the value for y, I can solve for x:

x = (5/2)y + (3/2) x = (5/2)(5) + (3/2) x = (25/2) + (3/2) x = 28/2 = 14


As always, I need to remember to answer the question that was actually asked. The solution here is not "x = 14", but is the following sentence: The larger number is 14, and the smaller number is 5. CHECKING:

4x + 3y = 71 4(14) + 3(5) =71 56 + 15 = 71 71=71

The trick to doing this type of problem is to label everything very explicitly. Until you become used to doing these, do not attempt to keep track of things in your head. Do as I did in this last example: clearly label every single step. When you do this, these problems generally work out rather easily.

MIXTURE PROBLEM
Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/

Mixture Problems: Example 1: John has 20 ounces of a 20% of salt solution, how much salt should he add to make it a 25% solution? Solution: Step 1: Set up a table for salt.
ORIGINAL ADDED RESULT

concentration amount Step 2: Fill in the table with information given in the question. John has 20 ounces of a 20% of salt solution. How much salt should he add to make it a 25% solution? The salt added is 100% salt, which is 1 in decimal. Change all the percent to decimals Let X = amount of salt added. The result would be 20 + X.
ORIGINAL ADDED RESULT

concentration amount

0.2 20

1
X

0.25 20 + X

Step 3: Multiply down each column.


ORIGINAL ADDED RESULT

concentration amount multiply

0.2 20 0.2 20

1
X

1X

0.25 20 + X 0.25(20 + X)

Step 4: original + added = result

0.2 20 + 1 X = 0.25(20 + X) 4 + X = 5 + 0.25X Isolate variable X X 0.25X = 5 4 0.75X = 1

Answer: He should add

ounces of salt.

2.

Removing From The Solution

Mixture Problems: Example 2: John has 20 ounces of a 20% of salt solution. How much water should he evaporate to make it a 30% solution? Solution: Step 1: Set up a table for water. The water is removed from the original.
ORIGINAL REMOVED RESULT

concentration amount Step 2: Fill in the table with information given in the question. John has 20 ounces of a 20% of salt solution. How much water should he evaporate to make it a 30% solution? The original concentration of water is 100% 20% = 80% The resulted concentration of water is 100% 30% = 70% The water evaporated is 100% water, which is 1 in decimal. Change all the percent to decimals. Let X = amount of water evaporated. The result would be 20 X.

ORIGINAL REMOVED RESULT

concentration amount

0.8 20

1
X

0.7 20 X

Step 3: Multiply down each column.


ORIGINAL REMOVED RESULT

concentration amount multiply

0.8 20 0.8 20

1
X

1X

0.7 20 X 0.70(20 X)

Step 4: Since the water is removed, we need to subtract original removed = result 0.8 20 1 X = 0.70(20 X) 16 X = 14 0.7X Isolate variable X X 0.7X = 16 14 0.3X = 2

Answer: He should evaporate 6.67 ounces of water. CHECKING: 0.8 20 1 6.67 = 0.70(20 6.67) 9.33=9.33
3.

REPLACING THE SOLUTION

Mixture Problems: Example 3: A tank has a capacity of 10 gallons. When it is full, it contains 15% alcohol. How many gallons must be replaced by an 80% alcohol solution to give 10 gallons of 70% solution? Solution: Step 1: Set up a table for alcohol. The alcohol is replaced i.e. removed and added.
ORIGINAL REMOVED ADDED RESULT

concentration amount Step 2: Fill in the table with information given in the question. A tank has a capacity of 10 gallons. When it is full, it contains 15% alcohol. How many gallons must be replaced by an 80% alcohol solution to give 10 gallons of70% solution? Change all the percent to decimals. Let X = amount of alcohol solution replaced.
ORIGINAL REMOVED ADDED RESULT

concentration amount

0.15 10

0.15
X

0.8
X

0.7 10

Step 3: Multiply down each column.


ORIGINAL REMOVED ADDED RESULT

concentration amount multiply

0.15 10 0.15 10

0.15
X

0.8
X

0.15 X

0.8 X

0.7 10 0.7 10

Step 4: Since the alcohol solution is replaced, we need to subtract and add. Original removed + added = result 0.15 10 0.15 X + 0.8 X = 0.7 10 1.5 0.15X + 0.8X = 7 Isolate variable X 0.8X 0.15X = 7 1.5 0.65X = 5.5

Answer: 8.46 gallons of alcohol solution needs to be replaced. CHECKING: 1.5 0.15(8.46) +0.8(8.46) =7 7=7

RATE OR MOTION PROBLEM


Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/
1. A 555-mile, 5-hour plane trip was flown at two speeds. For the first part of the trip, the average speed was 105 mph. Then the tailwind picked up, and the remainder of the trip was flown at an average speed of 115 mph. For how long did the plane fly at each speed? First I'll set up a grid:
Copyright Elizabeth Stapel 2000-2011 All Rights Reserved

d r t d 105 t second part 555 d 115 5t total 555 --5 Using "d = rt", the first row gives me d = 105t and the second row gives me:
first part

555 d = 115(5 t)
Since the two distances add up to 555, I'll add the two distance expressions, and set their sum equal to the given total:

555 = 105t + 115(5 t)


Then I'll solve:

555 = 105t + 575 115t 555 = 575 10t 20 = 10t 2=t CHECKING: 555=105(2) +115(5-2) 555=555
According to my grid, "t" stands for the time spent on the first part of the trip, so my answer is The plane flew for two hours at 105 mph and three hours at 115 mph." You can add distances and you can add times, but you cannot add rates. Think about it: If you drive20 mph on one street and 40 mph on another street, does that mean you averaged 60 mph?

2. Example:

In still water, Peters boat goes 4 times as fast as the current in the river. He takes a 15-mile trip up the river and returns in 4 hours. Find the rate of the current. Solution:Let x = rate of the current.
down river up river r 4x + x 4x - x t 15 / 5x 15 / 3x d 15 15

checking: 8/2=4, 4=4 The rate of the current is 2 mph.


3.

John and Philip who live 14 miles apart start at noon to walk toward each other at rates of 3 mph and 4 mph respectively. In how many hours will they meet? Solution: Let x = time walked.
John Philip r 3 4 t x x d 3x 4x

3x + 4x = 14 7x = 14 x=2 They will meet in 2 hours. CHECKING: 3(2) +4(2) =14 14=14

Work problem
Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/
1. This is the solution to Work Problem 6 which asked, "A mother can rake a yard in 90 minutes and her daughter can do it in 60 minutes.If the mother rakes for 15 minutes before her daughter joins her,how long will it take them to finish the work?" Ok the mother can do 1/90th of her job in a minute so if you have x/90 in 90 minutes 90/90 = 1 she completes her job same thing goes for the the daughter .. 1/60 of her job done in a minute with x/60 in 60 minutes 60/60 = 1 she completes her job. Seems kind of silly that I'm pointing this out but this is how you solve the problem you just add their work together and set it equal to 1. Their is one additional stipulation in the problem though and thats the mother starting 15 minutes before the daughter joins the mother otherwise it would just be x/90 + x/60 = 1... but the mother rakes for 15 minutes and compels 15/90 of her job so the way to write it out would be x/90 + 15/90 + x/60 = 1. Multiply everything by 180 and get 2x + 30 + 3x = 180. 5x + 30 = 180 5x = 150 x = 30 so it would take 30 minutes if they worked together. CHECKING: 5x + 30 = 180 5(30) +30 =180 180=180

2. Jane, Paul and Peter can finish painting the fence in 2 hours. If Jane does the job alone she can finish it in 5 hours. If Paul does the job alone he can finish it in 6 hours. How long will it take for Peter to finish the job alone? Solution: Step 1: Assign variables: Let X = time taken by Peter Step 2: Use the formula:

Step 3: Solve the equation

Multiply both sides with 30X

Answer: The time taken for Peter to paint the fence alone is CHECKING: 15(7 ) 11(7 ) =30 30=30

hours.

3. A tank can be filled by pipe A in 3 hours and by pipe B in 5 hours. When the tank is full, it can be drained by pipe C in 4 hours. if the tank is initially empty and all three pipes are open, how many hours will it take to fill up the tank? Solution: Step 1: Assign variables: Let X = time taken to fill up the tank Step 2: Use the formula: Since pipe C drains the water it is subtracted.

Step 3: Solve the equation

The LCM of 3, 4 and 5 is 60 Multiply both sides with 60

Answer: The time taken to fill the tank is


CHECKING: 17(3 9/17) = 60 60=60

hours.

MONEY, COIN, INVESTMENT PROBLEM


Source: http://algebra-word-problems.blogspot.com/
1. This is the coin problem 6 solution which read "a stack of pennies and dimes has a total value of $2.31. how many dimes are in the stack if there are twice as many dimes as pennies?" Make $2.31 into cents so 231 cents... a dime is worth 10x and penny is worth x. So if you had 1 dime and 1 penny you would have 10(1) or 10 cents plus 1(1) or 1 cent which is 11 cents. Were trying to have it add up to 231 cents though and there are twice as many dimes 2(10x) or 20x as pennies.

So we have 20x + x = 231

21x = 231 x = 11 So there are 11 penny's or 11 cents and 22 dimes or 220 cents .. 220 cents plus 11 cents equals 231 cents or $2.31. CHECKING: 20x + x = 231 20(11) +11 = 231 231=231

2.

Paul has $31.15 from paper route collections. He has 5 more nickels than quarters and 7 fewer dimes than quarters. How many of each coin does Paul have? Solution: Let x be the number of quarters x + 5 be the number of nickels x 7 be the number of dimes 25x + 5(x + 5) + 10(x 7) = 3,115 25x + 5x + 25 + 10x 70 = 3,115 40x = 3,160 x = 79 Paul has 79 quarters, 84 nickels and 72 dimes. CHECKING: 25x + 5(x + 5) + 10(x 7) = 3,115 25(79) +5[(79) +5)] +10[(79)-7=3,115 3,1115 = 3,115

3. A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there? I'll start by picking and defining a variable, and then I'll use translation to convert this exercise into mathematical expressions. Nickels are defined in terms of quarters, and dimes are defined in terms of nickels, so I'll pick a variable to stand for the number of quarters, and then work from there: Number of quarters: q number of nickels: 3q number of dimes: ()(3q) There is a total of 33 coins, so:

= (3/2)q

q + 3q + (3/2) q = 33 4q + (3/2)q = 33 8q + 3q = 66 11q = 66 q=6


Then there are six quarters, and I can work backwards to figure out that there are 9 dimes and 18 nickels. CHECKING:

q + 3q + (3/2) q = 33 6+3(6) + (3/2)6=33 33=33


"But," you say, "We never used the fact that the coins add up to $3.30. Shouldn't we have?" Well, we can use that information to check our answer. But this information was not actually necessary to the solution. Copyright Elizab-2011 All Rights Reserved