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DURABILITY DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TAIWAN

Chih-Ta Tsai*
Assistant Research Fellow, Sustainable Environment Research Center National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Lung-Sheng Li
Associate Professor, Department of Assets and Property Management Hwa-sha Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

Chien-Chih Chang
Research Assistant, Sustainable Environment Research Center National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Chao-Lung Hwang
Professor, Department of Construction Engineering National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

:
. . (SFRSCC) ( super-plasticizer) ( SFRSCC) . ( SFRSCC) . .

*Address for Correspondence: Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University No. 500, Sec. 3, An-Ming Road, Tainan, Taiwan 70955 Email: chihta.tsai@gmail.com Tel: +886-6-3840136 ext. 217 Fax: +886-6-3840960
Paper Received 27 March 2008; Accepted 9 February 2009

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ABSTRACT This paper presents the way durability has been introduced to steel fiber reinforced concrete in Taiwan. It is generally acknowledged that steel fibers are added to improve the toughness, abrasion resistance, and impact strength of concrete. However, a locally developed mixture design method, the densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA), was applied to solve not only the entanglement or balling problem of steel fibers in concrete or to produce steel fiber reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SFRSCC) with excellent flow-ability, but also to increase the durability by reduction in the cement paste content. By dense packing of the aggregates and with the aid of pozzolanic material and superplasticizer (SP), concrete can flow honey-like with less entanglement of steel fibers. Such SFRSCC has already been successfully applied in several projects, such as construction of a low radiation waste container, bus station pavement, road deck panel, and two art statues. So it is recommended that the SFRSCC can be used for improving the performance of ordinary steel fiber reinforced concrete in many ways and should be considered for increasing the lifecycle of a concrete structure. Key words: durability, steel fiber reinforced concrete, DMDA, dense packing, lifecycle

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DURABILITY DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TAIWAN


1. INTRODUCTION

Although concrete is a widely used construction material, it has major disadvantages such as low tensile strength and low strength to weight ratio, and it is liable to cracking [1]. The brittle nature of plain concrete cannot be neglected and an approach to make concrete a ductile material is necessary. In this regard, steel is no doubt a useful reinforcement material for concrete whether it is in the form of a steel fiber or a reinforcing bar. The addition of steel fibers to concrete can improve the tensile strength and ductility, but it will also reduce the workability [27]. Research work is being conducted in Taiwan, since 1993, to improve the workability of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). A task force has been formed in Taiwan to develop High Performance Concrete (HPC) and selfconsolidating concrete (SCC) for solving the problems of honeycombing due to improper concrete practices. A local mixture proportion method, Densified Mixture Design Algorithm (DMDA), has been developed to produce HPC and SCC mixture proportions. This method combines the past volume method and the current weight method resulting in a densely packed aggregate with the optimization of cement paste. The main objectives of the durability design using DMDA were: (1) To avoid any honeycombing, bleeding, segregation, and heterogeneous features by improving the workability using less water and paste, with the aid of pozzolanic materials (PM) and super plasticizers (SP). (2) To improve the volume stability by minimizing the water amount and cement content to reduce the possibility of shrinkage and swelling, respectively. (3) To determine the ability of concrete to resist harmful substances penetration by using electrical and electrochemical techniques (e.g. concrete electrical resistivity and its ability to resist chloride ion penetration). With the aid of the DMDA method, the steel fiber reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SFRSCC) can be obtained from traditional steel fiber reinforced concrete, with improved durability aspects. SFRSCC has been successfully used to construct: (1) A high integrity concrete container (HIC) for storing radiation waste, (2) Bus station pavement in Taipei city, (3) High Performance Road Deck Panel (HPRDP), and (4) Concrete art statues. Regarding the concept of sustainable use of the material, SFRSCC has been identified as one of the future visions [8] of the concrete industry in USA. 2. DENSIFIED MIXTURE DESIGN ALGORITHM (DMDA)

2.1. The Durability Design Logic of DMDA The most important durability design logic of DMDA is the achievement of least void through the utilization of fly ash (to fill the void between blended aggregates) and the cement paste (to fill the rest of the void) as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The utilization of fly ash (in addition to the cement paste) to fill the void between blended aggregates will increase the density of concrete. And the addition of the SP (super plasticizers) is helpful to solve the potential problem of tangling or balling of steel fibers. Thus the workability of the SFRSCC with the aid of SP is ensured as a result. 2.2. The Durability Design Consideration of SFRSCC In conventional mixture design, concrete workability is decided by the water amount and the compressive strength, whereas the durability is decided by the water-to-cement ratio (w/c) [9]. The workability can be improved by increasing the water amount and the strength can be increased by increasing the cement content. However, too much cement paste will cause large slump loss and bleeding as well as segregation; moreover, the hydration of the cement will cause chemical shrinkage, and the shrinkage rate or expansion rate is in direct proportion to the water and cement amounts [10]. Besides, ordinary concrete contains water at least twenty percent of the concrete volume,

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and hence drying shrinkage cannot be avoided. Thus the durability of concrete is destroyed, due to disintegration and crack formation. To avoid these problems, a concrete mixture designed with low water amount and low cement content is suggested. Durability design should be considered for improving both the fresh and hardened stages of the concrete and should finally extend their service life. First and foremost the concrete mix design should have a very low water amount so as to minimize the shrinkage rate or the expansion rate of concrete [10]. Then, the concrete must be

(b)

(a)

(c)

Figure 1. The procedure of aggregate packing; (a) The schematic drawing; (b) Variation of dry loose density as coarse aggregate filled with sand; (c) variation of dry loose density as mixed aggregates filled with fly ash [11]

Figure 2. Cement paste acts as the role in DMDA [12]

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designed to satisfy the construction needs such as low slump concrete (e.g. roller compacted concrete) or high slump concrete (e.g. self-consolidating concrete, high performance concrete), type of construction work, and the required final finished result. In the plastic stage, the fresh concrete is designed to prevent the occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracks due to excess water evaporation from the concrete surface. A certain amount of steel fiber should be included in the concrete mix to absorb energy and in the case of crack formation, to stop their propagating. The addition of pozzolanic materials is necessary to help the self-healing of cracks if they are generated. A strict standard operation procedure for mixture proportion, material selection, trial batch, quality control, and curing are required to lower the possibility of crack formation. 2.3. The SFRSCC Design Procedure by DMDA The following steps can be used to provide computational basis for design of the SFRSCC mixture employing the DMDA procedure. (1) Select proper material resource and gather material information. This is an important step for the mix design of SFRSCC. The basic quality information of the ingredients of concrete is necessary for the purpose of quality control. (2) Obtain the maximum dry loose density by iteratively packing aggregates (i.e. coarse aggregate, sand, fly ash) shown in Figure 1 [11]. (2a) Fill coarse aggregate with sand and then obtain:

W cs W cs +W ca

(1)

where is the ratio at maximum dry loose density as coarse aggregate is filled with sand; W cs is the weight of sand [kg]; W ca is the weight of coarse aggregate [kg].
(2b) Fill the rest void between coarse aggregate and sand with fly ash under fixed , and obtain:

W fly W fly + (W cs +W ca )

(2)

where is the ratio at maximum dry loose density as blended aggregates filled with fly ash; W fly is the weight of fly ash [kg].
(3) Select the volume of steel fiber () added into concrete. (4) Calculate the least void, Vv shown in Figure 2 [12]:

W i Vv = 1 i

(3)

where W i [kg/m3] and i [kg/m3] are the weight and density of i material in blended aggregates, respectively. (5) Assign a lubricating paste thickness (t ) and calculate the volume of cement paste (See Figure 2):

V p = nV v
where n is a multiplier for lubricating paste; Vp is the volume of cement paste. (6) Calculate the factor of volume variation () [12]:

(4)

1 nV v 1 V v

(5)

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(7) Calculate the weight of coarse aggregate, sand, fly ash, and steel fiber, respectively:

W fiber = fiber W fly = W fly W cs = W cs W ca = W ca

(6) (7)

(8) (9)

where fiber is the unit density of steel fiber [kg/m3]; Wfiber , Wfly , Wcs , and Wca are weights of steel fiber, fly ash, sand, and coarse aggregate, respectively [kg/m3]. (8) Calculate the amount of cement, slag, and mixing water:

Vp =

Ww w

Wc c

W sl sl

(10)

If is the ratio of replacing cement with slag by weight, then:

W sl W sl +W c

(11)

where Ww , Wc , and Wsl are weights of water, cement, and slag, respectively [kg/m3]; w , c , and sl are densities of water, cement, and slag, respectively [kg/m3]. Substitute Equation (11) into Equation (10) to obtain:

W w W c W Wc 1 c Wc Vp = + + w c sl If the water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm) is , then: W w = (W c +W sl +W fly )

(12)

(13)

Using Equation (11) and Equation (13), Equation (12) can be used to solve for Wc :
W fly Vp w Wc = 1 1 + + + w c 1 w sl

(14)

The calculated Wc can be substituted both into Equation (14) and Equation (11) to obtain Wsl and Ww , respectively.

(9) Determine the dosage of SP and amount of water. The dosage of SP is determined by its quality and the total water content. Under fixed total amount of water and w/cm ratio, the SP dosage can be estimated according to past experience (See Figure 3) [12].

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(a)

(b)
Figure 3. The SP dosage based on past experience; (a) trial mixing in the laboratory; (b) mixing in the batching plant [12]

3.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.1. Constituent Materials

The Type I Portland Cement produced by Taiwan Cement Company, blast-furnace slag (BF slag) provided by China Steel Company, and class F fly ash supplied by Taiwan Power Station are used in this study for making the concretes. Type G superplasticizer, a NF based lignin sulfonate, was purchased from a local factory. Crushed coarse aggregate and natural sand were provided from local quarries. The steel fibers made by HAREXE Company in Germany were purchased from an agent in Taiwan. All materials conform to the related ASTM standards and their physical properties as well as chemical compositions are shown in Tables 13.
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Table 1. Physical and Chemical Analyses of Cement, BF Slag, Fly Ash, and SP Item Physical properties Specific gravity Surface area (m2/g) SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO Chemical compositions (%) SO3 P2O5 Na2O K2O Solid content Loss on ignition (%) Cement 3.15 2970 22.01 5.51 3.44 2.59 2.03 0.05 0.40 0.70 0.51 BF slag 2.86 4350 34.86 13.52 0.52 7.18 1.74 0.31 Fly ash 2.20 3110 51.23 24.31 6.14 1.61 0.61 0.31 1.29 4.85 SP 1.18 42.99 -

Table 2. Properties of Coarse Aggregate and Sand Sieve size 3/4 in 1/2 in 3/8 in #4 #8 #16 #30 #50 #100 Specific gravity Absorption (%) Dry loose density (kg/m3) Percentage of passing Coarse aggregate 100 97.9 60.7 5.3 0 2.64 0.8 1576 Sand 100 99.1 90.4 65.3 36.5 11.4 1.7 2.64 2.0 1649

Table 3. Types and Properties of Steel Fibers Type A B C Shape Double hook-edge Double hook-edge Straight Diameter (mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 Length (mm) 50 30 10 Aspect ratio (L/D) 100 60 20 Tensile strength (MPa) 900 850 750

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3.2. Mixture Proportioning

The mixture proportions of SFRSCC designed by DMDA in this study for investigating the effects (including water to cementitious material ratio (w/cm), steel fiber content, and aspect ratio (L/D) of steel fiber) on the properties of SFRSCC are shown in Table 4. Every SFRSCC mixture has its utility or construction requirement (e.g. C1C4 mixture proportions are adopted to discuss properties of SFRSCC; C2 is the control mixture; A1, B1, C3, and D1 mixes are respectively applied to the high performance road deck panel (HPRDP), the bus station pavement, the high integrity concrete container (HIC), and concrete art statues).
Table 4. Mixture Proportions Mix No. w/cm Fiber Content (Vol. %) Fiber Length (mm) Coarse Aggregate Proportion (kg /m3) Binder Sand Cement 819 775 924 1014 995 982 878 300 300 300 274 265 255 235 Pozzolan 204 160 235 202 220 235 233 127 135 171 152 155 157 150 Water + SP

A1 B1 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1

0.25 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.7

30 30 50 30 30 30 30 & 10

964 950 734 767 755 745 427

Remark: Diameter of Steel Fiber is 0.5 mm C2 is a control mixture A1~C4 use normal weight aggregate and steel fiber D1 uses lightweight aggregate and polypropylene (PP) fiber, and two types of steel fiber lengths

3.3. Testing Program

3.3.1. Workability Test The slump and slump flow of SFRSCC were measured according to ASTM C143 [13] and CNS 14842 [14], respectively. The flow time is different from ASTM C995 Standard Test Method for Time of Flow of Fiberreinforced Concrete through Inverted Slump Cone. Herein the flow time of SFRSCC is defined as the passing time from the slump cone lifted to concrete stops flowing in slump flow test. 3.3.2. Cylinder Compressive Strength Test The preparations of SFRSCC specimens for cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting strength, concrete electrical resistivity, and ability of concrete to resist chloride ion penetration tests follow ASTM C192 [15] and those specimens are cured in saturated limewater at the temperature of 23 2.0 C. According to ASTM C39 [16], casting of the SFRSCC cylinders with dimension of 150 300H mm were conducted compressive strength test at the age of 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days, respectively. 3.3.3. Cylinder Splitting Strength Test According to ASTM C496 [17], casting of the SFRSCC cylinders with dimension of 150 300H mm were conducted for cylinder splitting strength test at the age of 28 days.
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3.3.4. Flexural Strength Test According to ASTM C293 [18], casting of the SFRSCC specimens with dimension of 75 75 280L mm were conducted for flexural strength using simple beam with center point loading test at the age of 28 days. 3.3.5. Concrete Electrical Resistivity Test A concrete electrical resistivity meter manufactured by the CNS Company in UK is used in this study for conducting the concrete electrical resistivity test to measure the SFRSCC electrical resistivity under saturated condition at the age of 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days, respectively. 3.3.6. Ability of Concrete to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration Test According to ASTM C1202 [19], preparation of the SFRSCC specimens with dimension of 100 50H mm sliced from the cylinders of 100 200H mm were conducted for chloride ion penetration test to assess the ability of SFRSCC to resist chloride ion penetration at the age of 90 days.
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

4.1. Workability of SFRSCC

Figure 4 presents the workability including slump (see Figure 4(a)), slump flow (see Figure 4(b)), and flow time (see Figure 4(c)) of each SFRSCC mixture type. As expected each mixture type had excellent workability except the C4 mixture with 1.0% volume steel fiber. The addition of excessive amount of steel fiber will again result in tangling of fibers and hence more lubrication paste is needed to improve the concrete workability. Although the slump of C4 mixture still is 220 mm, the slump flow significantly lowers down to 400 mm because of insufficient lubricating paste on the fibers. D1 mixture with 0.7% volume steel fiber still had excellent workability close to C1 mixture. Due to the light weight aggregate applied to D1 mixture, the spherical particles are helpful for workability of concrete [2, 3, and 20]. Consequently Figure 4 also indicates that the dosage of steel fiber should not be greater than 0.5% for SFRSCC using normal weight as well as crushed coarse aggregate to achieve high flow-ability.
4.2. Compressive Strength of SFRSCC

Figure 5 shows the relationship between strength development and fiber content. Even if the result indicates that the higher the fiber content, the higher will be compressive strength, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, and fiber crack-control effect, the compressive strength of SFRSCC is not directly proportional to the fiber content. This is because the compressive strength of SFRSCC is affected by a number of steel fiber factors including the shape, casting direction, and distribution as well as the property of interface between steel fiber and cement paste among others. Figure 6 shows that the compressive strength increases with increase in the aspect ratio (L/D) of fiber and with decrease in the water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm).
4.3. Strength Efficiency of Cement of SFRSCC

The strength efficiency of cement implies the yielded strength per kilogram of cement and denoted as MPa/kg cement. Figure 7 shows the higher amount of steel fiber the higher compressive strength and the higher strength efficiency of cement. For the C4 mixture (with 1.0% volume fiber content), the strength efficiency of cement at 28-day and 90-day is in excess of 0.20 MPa/kg cement and 0.25 MPa/kg cement, respectively. The 90-day value is 3.6 times higher than that of traditional concrete (0.07 MPa/kg cement). Such result indicates that the cement consumption is only about one quarter of the normal usage based on the same compressive strength. In such manner, it not only saves cement usages, but also minimizes the detrimental effect of mechanisms causing crystallization, sulfate attack and alkali aggregates reaction, and so forth [2, 3, and 20], and hence may increase the service life of concrete. Consequently, the energy consumption and CO2 footprint during the production of cement can significantly be reduced to environmental advantage.

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(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 4. Workability of SFRSCC; (a) slump; (b) slump flow; (c) flow time

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4.4. Cylinder Splitting Strength of SFRSCC

ACI 363 [21] describes the relationship between the cylinder splitting strength and the compressive strength for ordinary high strength concrete (i.e. compressive strength exceeding 21 MPa). Figure 8 shows that the curve for SFRSCC mixtures is above one recommended by ACI 363. This implies that the SFRSCC mixtures designed by DMDA method achieves not only increased cylinder splitting strength, but also improved crack resisting ability. The addition of pozzolanic material contributes to the increase in the cylinder splitting strength, which is greater than the value obtained from Equation (15) recommended by ACI 363. This is because of the pozzolanic reaction and densification of the interface, which improve the bonding strength within SFRSCC materials. A modified equation for determining the cylinder splitting strength resulting from the compressive strength of SFRSCC mixes is given in Equation (16). f sp = 0.59 f c (15)
f sp = 0.738 f c 0.737 where f'c is the compressive strength [MPa]; 21 MPa f'c 85 MPa; fsp is the cylinder splitting strength [MPa].
4.5. Flexural Strength of SFRSCC

(16)

Figure 9 shows the load-deflection curves obtained for different fiber contents. The increase in the fiber content, increases the sustained load and energy absorption capacity of SFRSCC, (i.e., the area under P- curve), as expected. The fiber combined with pozzolanic material for SCC provides great improvement in the bonding force surrounding fiber and withstands large deflection (i.e. crack arresting effect). Since the configuration of the fiber is the double hook-edge type, it sustains more force to resist the deflection and also sustains an external load.
4.6. Concrete Electrical Resistivity of SFRSCC

The measurement of concrete electrical resistivity gives an indication of durability of the concrete [22, 23]. Figure 10 shows the relationship between concrete electrical resistivity and curing ages, and it indicates the reduction of concrete electrical resistivity with increase in the steel fiber content due to conductivity of the steel fiber. The gel formation from cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction will, however, make the microstructure dense as well as fill the conductive channel, and hence it decreases the effect of steel fiber conduction. In the long run, the addition of 1.0% steel fiber will finally reach the desired concrete electrical resistivity of over 20 k-cm proposed by Taylor Woodrow [23].

Figure 5. Effect of fiber content on the compressive strength

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(a)

(b)
Figure 6. Effect of fiber aspect ratio and w/cm ratio on the compressive strength; (a) Fiber aspect ratio; (b) w/cm ratio
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Figure 7. Effect of fiber content on strength efficiency of cement of SFRSCC

Figure 8. Relationship of compressive strength and splitting strength of SFRSCC


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4.7. Ability of SFRSCC to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration

The ASTM C1202 [19] method is adopted in this study for assessing the ability of concrete to resist chloride ion penetration. Figure 11 shows that the charge passed by ASTM C1202 method increases with increase in the steel fiber content, due to the conductivity of the steel fiber and the interface between steel fiber as well as cement paste in SFRSCC. However the level of chloride ion penetration for all of SFRSCC remains in the Low range of the charge spectrum and thus indicating that the SFRSCC has a good ability to resist chloride ion penetration. This result also illustrates the condition that fiber entanglement or balling within the SFRSCC does not necessarily occur and thus the perceived accommodation of a conductive channel, which would otherwise increase the charge passed within the SFRSCC, is not significantly generated.

Figure 9. Effect of fiber content on loading deflection curves of SFRSCC

Figure 10. Effect of fiber content on concrete electrical resistivity of SFRSCC

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Figure 11. Results of ASTM C1202 method on SFRSCC

5.

SFRSCC PROJECTS

5.1. Bus Station Pavement in Taipei City

Due to the heavy traffic and exposure to severe environmental conditions, the top pavement layer of bus station used the B1 SFRSCC mixture (See Table 4) with excellent flexural strength. But the bottom pavement layer was made with only SCC. The concrete selection was made to meet the requirement of JRCP [24] and to satisfy the design requirements, as shown in Table 5. Figure 12 shows the quality control chart of both fresh SCC and SFRSCC, and it indicates that the concrete has sustained stable quality throughout the concreting period. Figure 13 shows the compressive strength development of hardened SCC and SFRSCC constructed in August 28, 1998. Furthermore, Table 6 shows the flexural strength of SCC and SFRSCC at different ages. Due to the combined usefulness of steel fiber and pozzolanic material, the flexural strength of the SFRSCC mix designs at 28 and 56 days are respectively higher by 102% and 115% than the specified (required) value shown in Table 6. After 5 years of exposure to heavy vehicular traffic, the road pavement in Taipei city is observed to be performing well without fracture, abrasion, shrinkage crack, or any other defects with limits of normal maintenance routines.
Table 5. Requirement for Bus Station Pavement of Concrete in Taipei City Property Slump (mm) Slump Flow (mm) Time Up to 45 min. Up to 45 min. 3 day Compressive Strength (MPa) 28 day 56 day Flexural Strength (MPa) 28 day 56 day SCC 250 20 600 50 28 49 70 4.5 5.0 SFRSCC 230 20 500 50 28 49 70 4.5 5.0

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Figure 12. Quality control chart of SCC and SFRSCC in bus station pavement

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Figure 13. Strength development of SCC and SFRSCC in bus station pavement

Table 6. Flexural Strength (MPa) of SCC and SFRSCC (Mixture B1) in Bus Station Pavement SCC Age 28 56 SFRSCC Age 28 56 Construction date 1998/8/27 7.6 8.3 1998/8/28 7.7 8.3 Ave. 7.65 8.3 Req. 4.5 5.0 Ave/Req. 1.70 1.66

Construction date 1998/8/27 8.3 10.0 1998/8/28 9.9 11.5 Ave. 9.1 10.75 Req. 4.5 5.0 Ave/Req. 2.02 2.15

5.2. Precast High Integrity Concrete (HIC) for Low Radiation Waste

Since 1996 research has been conducted in Taiwan for developing HIC for storing low radiation wastes. The standard processes of mixture design, material inspection, and prototype test have been completed. Table 7 compares the performances of HIC between French and Taiwan specifications. The application of the SFRSCC to HIC was successful and satisfied the prescribed strict specifications as shown in Table 7. Meeting these specifications not only increases the safety, volume stability, durability of the storage structure, but also reduces the possibility of corrosion of steel rebar and the associated material cost. The C3 mixture (in Table 4) that has been developed in the laboratory, as shown in Figure 14, was used for the HIC project.
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Table 7. Specification of Low Radiation Waste HIC for France and Taiwan French specification Cement type Cement amount (kg/m3) At 56-days compressive strength (MPa) At 56-days tensile strength (MPa) At 56-days Shrinkage (m /m) < 300 < 300 245 > 4.5 > 4.5 9.8 > 50 > 56 63 Cp 55 > 370 Taiwan specification Portland Type I 250~350 C3 SFRSCC Portland Type I 265

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d )

Figure 14. Photographs of HIC; (a) Slump and slump flow measurement; (b) L-flow test; (c) placing and casting; (d) dropping test

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5.3. High Performance Road Deck Panel (HPRDP)

Precast HPRDP elements of dimensions 1 m 2 m 150 mm and 1 m 3 m 150 mm with SFRSCC were designed to replace the traditional steel road deck panel having 50 mm concrete topping. The A1 mixture as shown in Table 4 was developed for this project. The initial crack load of HPRDP is four times more than the initial designed value 12 ton. Figure 15 compares the deflections of the HPRDP developed in Taiwan and the Metro-deck panel developed in America [25], respectively. It was found that the HPRDP made with SFRSCC had higher energy absorption capacity, higher flexural strength, and higher impact strength when compared to the Metro-deck panel. Figure 16 shows the demonstration of the field abrasion test conducted by a 50-ton bulldozer. No abrasion or scratches were observed after the test.

(a)

(b)
Figure 15. Comparison of the deflections: (a) Precast HPRDP; (b) Metro-deck panel

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Figure 16. Field abrasion test, a 50-ton bulldozer on precast HPRDP element

5.4. Concrete Art Statues

There are two famous statues made by SFRSCC in Taiwan. One is Xi Men in Ying-Ger Ceramics Museum, Taipei County, as shown in Figure 17(a). The other is a statue of the badge of the department of Construction Engineering in the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, as shown in Figure 17(b). Filling SFRSCC inside ceramic tiles without steel reinforced bars made the Xi Men statue. The SFRSCC used low water and cement content, which not only reduces drying shrinkage, but also avoids the ceramic from stripping. The badge statue was made with lightweight aggregates and hybrid fibers consisting of blended short and long steel fibers as well as polypropylene (PP) ones. The D1 mixture SFRSCC (as shown in Table 4) was used to cast the badge.

(a)

(b)

Figure 17. SFRSCC applied to statues in Taiwan; (a) Xi Men; (b) badge in NTUST

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6.

CONCLUSION

According to the results in this study, a number of conclusions such as the following can be drawn. 1. The SFRSCC designed by the DMDA method reduces the entanglement or balling problem of fibers. To attain high flowing capability, the content of steel fiber should not be greater than 0.5% for normal weight SFRSCC made with crushed coarse aggregate. Test results reveal that higher fiber content has brought about increased compressive strength, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, and fiber crack-control effect. Hence the addition of steel fiber within SFRSCC is more helpful for the flexural strength than the compressive strength. The usefulness of combined steel fiber and pozzolanic material improves the bonding strength as a result of which a modified equation for determining the cylinder splitting strength from the compressive strength has been derived for the SFRSCC. Despite the use of highly conductive fiber, the range of concrete electrical resistivity as well as the level of chloride ion permeability has remained in the passive range, by virtue of the dense microstructure gains brought about by the DMDA. The application of the SFRSCC designed on the basis of the DMDA has already been successful across a number of projects in Taiwan, comprising road pavement, precast products, and art statues.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors greatly appreciate Professor V. Ramakrishnans continuous support and technical assistance as well as Dr. G.T.C. Kungs assistance in English revision. The grant from National Science Council and Atomic Energy Council as well as the financial support from RSEA Engineering Corporation, Kao Cheng Industrial and Commercial Co. Ltd., Sun Tech Enterprise Co. Ltd., and Bayton Enterprise Co. Ltd. in Taiwan, are gratefully acknowledged.
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