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T H E C L E A N A I R AC T

CHIMNEY
DISCHARGE

HEIGHTS
A guide to chimney design and installation legislation 10

The Clean Air Act Chimney Discharge Heights

What you need to know


Selkirk are very much aware that their chimney, flue and exhaust systems handle waste gases and combustion products that are discharged into an already sensitive atmosphere. Consequently, we are conscious of the need for the environment to be protected particularly where legislation demands. The chimney height requirement of the Clean Air Act is an area, particularly in relation to commercial heating boilers, that is often abused, misunderstood and on many occasions blatantly ignored. As Europes largest manufacturer of prefabricated residential / commercial chimney and exhaust systems, we are often asked to advise on this subject, inquiries emanating from a broad spectrum of the construction industry, including architects consulting engineers and heating contractors. For global ecological reasons, air quality is now a subject being treated with high priority by many countries. Within the UK, legislation on this subject has been with us since the 1800s. The first Clean Air Act was enacted in 1956 and was subsequently extended and amended by the Clean Air Act 1968. Both these Acts were repealed in 1993 and consolidated into the Clean Air Act 1993. The Environmental Protection Act 1990 regulates the emission of certain substances to air, land or water, from various processes. The 1995 Environment [not Environmental] Act provides for the preparation of a National Air Quality Strategy by the Secretary of State and for local authorities to review and assess local air quality on the basis of health-based objectives for eight pollutants. The National Air Quality Strategy was published by The Stationary Office (formely HMSO), CM3587 in March 1997; Regulations putting the air quality objectives on a statutory basis are expected before the end of 1997. The results of local authority reviews and assessments of local air quality and the requirement for them to take action to ensure air quality objectives are not breached may well affect the guidelines on chimney discharge heights. Those who believe that they can circumnavigate legislation on chimney discharge heights will find that they will contravene other environmental legislation. This publication has been prepared to identify the current UK Statutory Requirements for the discharge height for chimneys serving boiler plant, diesel generators and incinerators. There are many references within the text to the Clean Air Act, the Clean Air Act Memorandum, the Environmental Protection Act and Technical Guidance Note (Dispersion) D1. The reader is advised to obtain and peruse copies of these documents, and will find additional useful information on each in the annual NSCA* Pollution Hand Book. (*National Society for Clean Air) We have set out this booklet in a question and answer format, as it was felt this would best answer most of the queries raised. To assist, there is an index at the back of this booklet to enable particular subjects to be more easily found.

Q1

What legislation within the UK controls the emissions from commercial / industrial boiler house chimneys, diesel generator and incinerator exhausts etc. ? There are two main items of legislation within the UK (excluding N. Ireland), which control the emission of waste gases etc. into the atmosphere . They are the Clean Air Act 1993 and the Environmental Protection Act 1990. In N. Ireland the relevant legislation is the Clean Air (Northern Ireland) Order 1981. An Industrial Pollution Order for N. Ireland has been issued in draft form and is now expected to be enacted during 1997. This order will enforce controls in N. Ireland similar to the Environmental Protection Act in the rest of the UK. There is also a requirement under the Clean Air Act to control the emission of grit and dust from a furnace and to avoid nuisance from odours for example, which is covered by the Environmental Protection Act, Part III (Statutory nuisances and clean air), as well as other legislation. Do any of the Acts set a discharge height at which waste gas emissions are permissible ? Yes. Under sections 14-16 of the Clean Air Act and to the requirements for BATNEEC* in section 7(2) of the Environmental Protection Act, the discharge height is defined as the height, approved by the approving authority, at which the emissions are rendered harmless and are prevented from being a nuisance or prejudicial to health. The approving authority is normally, except in the case of very large plant, the Environmental Health Department for the Local Authority area where the installation is located. *(Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost)

Q3

What would be defined as very large plant, and who would be the approving authority? Within the Environmental Protection Act there are a number of Prescribed Processes, each of which are sub-divided into Part A processes and Part B processes. Part A Processes These require an Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) operating permit and this is controlled by the EA (Environment Agency) or the SEPA (Scottish Environmental Protection Agency) as appropriate. Processes include boilers, furnaces, gas turbines or compression ignition engines of a total of 50MW thermal input or greater at one location, waste oil/recovered oil burners of 3 MW or more, incinerators having an aggregated works capacity of one tonne per hour or more, and most chemical process plants. The approving authority for chimney discharge heights would be the EA or SEPA as applicable. Part B Processes These require an Air Pollution Control (APC) operating permit and this is controlled by the Local Authority. Part B. processes include boilers, furnaces, gas turbines and compression ignition engines having a thermal input from 20-50 MW, and waste oil /recovered oil burners under 3 MW. The approving authority for chimney discharge heights would be the Local Authority in England & Wales and SEPA in Scotland. For a full schedule of all Part A & B processes, see the Environmental Protection Prescribed Processes & Substances Regulations 1991 (and subsequent amendments), or the current National Society for Clean Air Pollution Handbook.

A1

A3

Q2

A2

Q4

We are primarily concerned with smaller commercial / industrial boilers, incinerators and diesel generators. Do any of the Acts set a lower limit for the rating of equipment to be considered under the Act ? Yes. In the case of the Clean Air Act, which covers England, Scotland & Wales, under clause 14 it is an offence to operate a furnace that burns:q q q

Q5

Why is chimney height so important and how does it contribute to pollution control? Chimney heights offer a means of local control of pollutants discharge into the atmosphere from combustion plant (including diesel generators), incineration plant and industrial process. They are used to control the deposition of pollutants to the ground or their ambient concentrations over either long or short time scales, for a variety of purposes including health effects and nuisance (due to odour for example). There may also be the necessity for additional abatement controls on the discharges from a particular source ,e.g. the requirement of BATNEEC* to minimize the discharge where practically possible. However, even when there are high levels of abatement, there is likely to be a residual discharge that must be effectively dispersed by means of an adequate chimney height. *(Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost) Chimneys act as a means of control over local pollution levels by discharging the polluting source to a height sufficient to ensure that the dispersion of the initial discharge plume, where the pollutants are most concentrated, is high above ground level. The chimney height is arranged so that the eventual contact of the plume with the ground results in pollutant concentrations
B 50 to 100 x discharge height

A5

A4

Pulverized fuel Solid fuel at a rate of 45.4 kg/hr or more Liquid or gaseous fuel at a rate equivalent to 366.4 kW or more

unless the height of the chimney serving the furnace has been approved by the local authority. A lower limit of 150kW gross heat input is specified in the introduction to the Clean Air Act Memorandum, and there appears to be no explanation as to why this variance between the Act and the Memorandum should exist. However, since the Memorandum is advisory only, the figure of 366.4kW specified in the actual Clean Air Act should be taken as the lower limit. In the case of N. Ireland, the Clean Air Order 1981 does not set any lower limit and each case is considered on its merits by the local authority officer.
Figure 1

Chimney discarge height

Increasing the chimney discharge height, A, makes little, if any difference to pollutant concentration, characteristics, if B is increased beyond 50 to 100 x A

being within a prescribed limit value. This process is only effective within distances of about 50-100 chimney heights, much beyond which the effects of discharge height are no longer distinguishable. The highest pollutant concentrations usually occur within this range. Figure 1 illustrates the point.

Memorandum take into account the type of fuel burned, and in the case of fuels with a sulphur content greater than 0.04%, the geographical location, (area category) in which the plant operates. (See clause 17 of the Clean Air Act Memorandum and the calculation Process on page x of this document). More recently there has been a need to deal with newer types of combustion plant (e.g. combined cycle), and with the requirements for adequate discharge stack height for a wide variety of smaller process plant etc. This has been met with the Technical Guidance Note D1. Each of these documents is advisory rather than mandatory so as to allow for some variation in unusual circumstances, but a discharge height derived from either method would normally be considered a minimum acceptable figure. However, it should be noted that clause 25 of the Memorandum as well as clauses 6.2 & 6.5 of the Technical Guidance Note D1, both set overiding minimum requirements. There is also specific advice on minimum chimney heights for discharge stacks in the Process Guidance Notes issued by the DOE Local Authority Unit dealing with the requirements for authorization of various Part B processes. These also contain maximum pollutant emission limits for the process.

Q6 A6

How then is the discharge height of a chimney actually set? The calculation of effective chimney height is a matter of great practical importance. There are a variety of methods of doing this, either by direct dispersion modeling or by using one of a number of guides for this purpose. For large plant of the type defined as Part A Processes, (see Q3), it is common for individual dispersion modeling studies to be requested as part of the authorization process. Direct dispersion modeling may also be used for calculating chimney heights for smaller plant where there are complex problems due to the character of the dispersion or the nature of the discharge. However, for the great majority of smaller polluting discharges chimney heights are determined using the published guides for this purpose namely:i Third Edition of the 1956 Clean Air Memorandum Chimney Heights. Published by the Department of the Environment. Technical Guidance Note D1 (Dispersion). Published by The Environment Agency

ii

Q7 A7

When calculating the chimney discharge height what plant rating is to be used? The maximum rated input of the plant, not its normal operational load, is to be used when calculating the chimney discharge height. This applies to both the Clean Air Act Memorandum and Technical Guidance Note D1. In relation to Technical Guidance Note D1 reference should be made to the various Guidance Notes issued by either the

Both documents are available from The Stationary Office (formerly HMSO) The Clean Air Act Memorandum Chimney Heights has been used for many years for conventional combustion plant (mainly heating and steam raising plant burning coal, fuel oil or gas), and is still recommended for this purpose. The calculations to the

Environment Agency (IPR notes) or the Secretary of State (PG notes) which contain guidance on emission concentration limits. A list of these notes is given in Appendix E of D1. When calculating a chimney/exhaust discharge height to D1 it can normally be assumed that the concentrations of the emitted pollutants are at the limit values contained in the IPR or PG note unless the operator has been authorized to operate with lower limits in which case the lower values would be used.

A10

No. Although reference is made in the Scope of Memorandum, (paragraph 3), that it is suitable for diesel generator exhausts, this was added some what as an afterthought and is not strictly correct. See paper by D J Hall, Pollutant discharges from stationary diesel engine exhausts. Clean Air; Vol. 17 No 1, 1987, pp. 9 - 20. This paper gives a method by which the Clean Air Act can be adapted to deal with diesel engine exhausts, but this advice has now been superseded by the issue of Technical Guidance Note D1. The discharge height for a diesel engine exhaust should be determined using Technical Guidance Note D1, as this method takes account of the various pollutants directly, and also the high discharge velocity associated with such exhausts. The levels of pollutants can vary significantly from engine to engine. At present, whilst there are no maximum limits defined in the UK for the various pollutants, other European Countries do impose limits, and we can asume that some guidance will be issued by The Environment Agency in due course. In the meantime, for the best results, details of the pollutant discharge in each case should be obtained directly from the equipment manufacturer. If this is information is not readily available, then the break down of pollutants given in Appendix A of this booklet could be used.

Q8

What if the plant operates with a high turndown ratio or a wide range of discharge conditions? In the case of the Memorandum this is not considered. The chimney height is calculated on the maximum emission and target velocities are set at full load operation. In the case of the Guidance Note, this is dealt with under section 6.3 where it is recommended that a discharge stack height is calculated for both maximum and minimum capacity and the highest calculated height used.

A8

Q9

Can the Clean Air Act Memorandum be used to determine the discharge height for an incinerator exhaust.? No. This is clearly stated in the introduction to the Scope of Memorandum (Par. 3.). Incinerator, as well as gas turbine exhaust discharge heights, are best determined using Technical Guidance Note D1. Reference should be made to the appropriate IPR or PG guidance note for emission concentration limits. (see A7) Can the Clean Air Act Memorandum be used to determine the discharge height for diesel generator exhausts.?

A9

Q11 A11

Does the act relate to all fuels? Yes. No fuel type is exempt. The Clean Air Act applies to furnaces burning pulverized fuel, solid fuel, liquid or gaseous fuel. These are dealt with in the Clean Air Act Memorandum under two headings namely:q

Q10

VLS (Very low sulphur) content fuel defined as a fuel with less than 0.04% sulphur by mass.

In normal practice this refers to Natural Gas, LP Gas, or Premium Kerosene (class C1 BS2869).
q

Other Fuels - defined as a fuel with greater than 0.04% sulphur by mass. In normal practice this refers to Solid fuel, Gas Fuel Oil, and Heavy Fuel Oil.

the discharge velocity is part of the calculation and will therefore have a direct influence on the calculated discharge height. Minimum discharge velocities are set under clause 6.1.1 of the Guidance Note, and are typically between 10 and 15m/s. Again, these values are based on a separate flue/exhaust for each discharge outlet on the equipment. A high discharge velocity is also important for another reason as it prevents cold air entering the top of the chimney/exhaust, flowing downwards and cooling the rising hot gas and the inner surface of the chimney wall. This can cause the formation of condensation on the chimney wall, and in turn lead to corrosion of the chimney construction. In the case of high sulphur fuels, it will also lead to the formation and emission of acid smut from the chimney outlet. The maintenance of an adequate discharge velocity at all times is very difficult where more than one item of equipment is served by one chimney, in view of the turndown involved. To achieve the recommended minimum discharge velocity, it is often necessary, particularly with boiler plant to reduce the internal diameter of the chimney exit by means of a tapered cone. The correct size of tapered cone will increase the discharge velocity as required, but at the same time will have, in most cases, only a limited effect on the chimney systems overall pressure drop. The outlet diameter of the tapered cone can be calculated by either of the expressions in figure 2 opposite. From the above, it can be seen that both from an environmental as well as plant service life viewpoint, it is highly preferable to provide an individual exhaust/chimney from each exhaust outlet on the equipment.

Q12 A12

What fuel pollutants are considered when calculating a chimney discharge height? In the case of boiler plant where the chimney height is calculated via the Clean Air Act Memorandum the major pollutants considered are :q q

VLS fuels . . . . . . Nitric Oxide (NO) Other fuels . . . . Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

When using the Technical Guidance Note D1 to calculate a chimney discharge height, all major pollutants are taken into account. Some typical pollutant values will be found in tables on page 17.

Q13 A13

Is the discharge velocity of the emission from a chimney important? Yes, very important. The higher the discharge velocity, the better the dispersion of the pollutants. In the case of the Clean Air Act Memorandum, the calculations assume that an adequate exit velocity will be achieved to prevent the plume of gas flowing down the outside of the chimney. Target velocities for a range of boiler ratings are listed in the memorandum under clause 7 of the introduction Efflux Velocity. All velocities are at the equipment full load rating. and are based on a separate flue/chimney per boiler. In the case of Technical Guidance Note D1,

Figure 2 30

4Vo

Ve
Where:-

x 1000 = Cone outlet diameter (mm)

Vo = Waste gas volume @ operating temperature (m3/s) Ve = Required exit velocity (m/s)

or
V1 V2
Where:V1 = Exit cone inlet velocity m/s V2 = Target exit velocity m/s D1 = Chimnet diameter (mm)

x D, = Cone outlet diameter (mm)


Note that the sides of the cone should taper at an angle no greater than 30 from the vertical

Q14

In some cases, particularly with natural draught atmospheric gas boilers, it is not possible to achieve the recommended discharge velocity. What can be done in this case? As far as boiler plant is concerned, every effort should be made to design the flue/chimney system so as to provide the stated minimum exit velocity. (See Q13) This is best achieved by providing a separate flue and chimney system for each item of equipment. For aesthetics, the flue pipes could be collected in a common shroud or cupola above roof level. Alternatively, if a common header and chimney system is to be provided, then the system should be designed, incorporating an induced draught fan if necessary, so as to provide the required exit velocity. By incorporating a fan, the chimney internal diameter can be significantly reduced. The fan motor speed can in turn be controlled by a pressure sensing probe, so as to maintain a constant level of draught at each boiler flue outlet connection, irrespective of the number of boilers operating. This will enable a high level of boiler operating efficiency to be achieved at all loads.

If neither of the above options are possible, then the chimney height, C, calculated to the Memorandum, should be further corrected using the following expression. H* = C + Hd where Hd = 2(W/U - 1.5)D

A14

H* = the final corrected chimney height in metres C = the chimney height calculated to the memorandum in metres Hd = the effective reduction in stack height due to low velocity in metres W = the stack actual discharge velocity in m/s U = the windspeed at the top of the stack (normally taken as 5 m/s) D = the stack outside diameter in metres For discharge heights calculated to Technical Guidance Note D1, reference should be made to the Building Research Establishment Report CR. 103/95 which was prepared for the Local Authority Unit of Air Quality Division, Department of the Environment. Section 4 of this report contains a qualification to Guidance Note D1 with reference to low efflux velocities.

Q15

Do the special characteristics of a roomsealed balance draught flue system and terminal, enable a lower discharge height than the height calculated via the Memorandum to be acceptable. No. This is fully dealt with in a paper by Dr. D J Hall in CLEAN AIR, Volume 17, Number 3/4, 1987 and is obtainable either from the National Society for Clean Air 136 North Street - Brighton BN1 1RG. or direct from Selkirks Marketing Services Department. The conclusions to the above paper state the following: Whatever the benefits conferred by the room-sealed balanced flue approach may be, they are enjoyed only in the context of the avoidance of fluctuating pressure differences between combustion air inlet and flue outlet. As far as the control of pollution is concerned, the room-sealed flue does NOT enable lower stack heights or less constrained location than
Figure 3

would be required of any other flue design. Stack heights should continue to be calculated by reference to the Chimney Heights Memorandum irrespective of the details of the flue or termination design.

A15

Q16 A16

When determining a building height, from what datum is the height measured? Building height is measured to the ridge or other highest point of a building above the datum of general ground level as illustrated in Figure 3. The height of a lift or tank room etc., or any other protrusions less than 1% of the roof area can be ignored. See also Figures 8 & 9 related to the calculation example on page 15. This applies to areas around the discharge stack where the ground slope is not greater than 1 in 10, and the topographic effects on dispersion are not significant. Specialist advice may be needed in other cases where topography is a problem.

SD

SD

C H
H = building height C = chimney discharge height GL = ground level SD = separation distance

C H

GL

GL

SD

SD

C H H GL

GL Basement boiler Room

Q17

When considering the correction of chimney height relevant to buildings, how is the distance 5 U and the building width and height measured The distance 5 U is really a radial dimension with the chimney at the centre. All buildings falling within this radius are to be considered when correcting the chimney height for building effect. In practice, it will be relatively easy to discount a number of smaller buildings within this radius, and commonly one building will be obvious as the single dominant structure. The building width B, is measured at right angles to a line connecting the centre of the chimney to the nearest point of the building. This can be seen more clearly in the illustrations used in the Calculation Processes described on page 15. (Defined also in Figure 2 on page 8 of the Memorandum, and Figure 8 on page 36 of Technical Guidance Note D1).

ridge of the building roof is outside distance 5 U, how is the building height to be determined?

A18

A17

This is best illustrated in Figure 4. If the ridge of the roof is beyond the distance 5 U, (Fig 4 a) the building height is taken as the height of the eaves. If the ridge is within the distance 5 U , (Fig. 4b), then the building height is taken to the ridge. Some buildings are rather complex in shape and can have various sections of differing heights and widths. How is this dealt with? Large buildings of this type are broken up into two or more parts, and each part treated as a separate building. (See also Fig. 3 on page 9 of the Memorandum, and Fig. 5 on page 35 of Technical Guidance Note D1). In addition, on page 16 of Technical Guidance Note D1, clause 5.4.3 provides information on the effective height and width of trees, lattice towers and other porous structures, which can influence chimney height. This data can be equally applied to calculations according to the Memorandum.

Q19

A19

Q18

In cases where a chimney serving a small gas fired boiler is located close to or on the outside wall of the building, where the highest point or the
Figure 4

5U

5U

C H

(a)

(b)

Q20

In some instances, a chimney termination can be located close to a tank / plant-room, the height of which has not been included in the calculations because the area is less than 1% of the roof area. The termination could then be an undesirable lower height than the tank / plant-room. Within what separation distance should the chimney termination be raised above the tank / plant-room roof, and by how much? This situation is covered in section 25.c of the Memorandum which states that a chimney should never be less than the height of any part of an attached building with a distance 5 U. In the circumstances described in the question therefore, if the chimney is within a distance of 5 U from a tank/plant-room, then it should extend to a height of 0.6 U above the tank/plant-room roof. (See common case in clause 23 of the Memorandum). However, if the plant-room has ventilation air inlet louvres, the chimney should extend to a height of 3m above the top of the louvres in accordance with section 25.a. 1n a boiler room containg more than one boiler, how is the chimney height determined? The Clean Air Act Memorandum did not envisage multiple discharges in close proximity being treated separately. In terms of building down-wash effects, it is the
Figure 5

cumulative discharge that is important. As a general rule, if the discharges are contained within a distance 5 U, based on the combined discharge, they should be treated collectively, see Figure 5. Outside this distance, they can be treated individually.

Q22

A20

In some cases, dependent on the building design and application, and particularly with small boiler plant, it may be more practical to provide individual vertical chimney for each appliance, rather than to provide a common chimney or cluster. Within what separation distance between chimneys can each boiler chimney discharge be considered separately? If practical, the flues from all boilers should be collected together in a common multiflued chimney system/s, the discharge height being calculated on the combined emission of all boilers. If this is not practical, and a separate chimney system is to be provided for each boiler, then the 5 U rule as described previously in A21 would apply. However, if one of the discharges is significantly smaller than the others, and is separated by less than 5 U, it may considered separately, subject to Local Authority approval. What if there are boilers at more than one location on the same site? If possible, the flues from all boilers should be collected together in a common multiflued chimney system, the discharge height being calculated on the combined emission of all boilers. (See A21). However, if this is not practical a chimney system, multi-flued if necessary, should be provided at each location. When calculating the discharge height for each location, the 5 U rule previously described in A21 will apply. See Figure 6 overleaf.

A22

Q21

A21

Q23 A23

5U

NB : 5U is calculated on the combined discharge of ALL chimneys

10

Figure 6

'x'

If x is less than 5U, based on the combined emission of stacks 1 to 5, then the discharge height for all 5 is based on the combined emission of stacks 1 to 5. If x is greater than 5U, based on the combined emission of stacks 1 to 5, then two individual systems would apply, one based on the combined emission of stacks 1 to 3, and the other on the combined emission of stacks 4 and 5.

Q24

What if an Incinerator and/or Generator exhaust/s is to be included with boiler flues in a multi-flued chimney system? In this case the chimney height would be calculated using Technical Guidance Note D1, because the introduction of the incinerator/ generator exhaust takes it outside the scope of the Memorandum. Again the total combined emission is important but this is treated differently depending on the spacing of the individual flues. (See section 6.4 of Guidance Note D1). How should Stand-by plant be considered? Stand-by plant should be included in the chimney discharge height calculation, if its inclusion would significantly increase the rate of emission or significantly change the type/level of the various pollutants. In cases where multiple boiler plant is used, one of which is a stand-by in case of failure of one of the others, its capacity may be omitted from the chimney height calculations. Where there is a standby fuel, (for example, gas-oil in case of interrupted gas supply), the chimney stack height should be based on that for the most polluting fuel.

Q26

When considering the height of the various buildings, if a building has no openable windows can it be ignored, or its height effectively reduced? Most definitely not. The object of the exercise is to place the chimney discharge at a height were the discharge plume can be dissipated safely over a large area as described earlier in A5. If the discharge plume strikes a building shortly after leaving the chimney exit then the pollutants will be brought to ground level in a greater concentration than is desirable. Is it permissible under any circumstances to discharge flue gas at a low level from commercial boiler plant? Yes. Under clause 26 of the Clean Air Act Memorandum provision is made, subject to certain conditions, for certain fan diluted emissions to be installed to discharge at a height above ground that is below the roof level of the building. Note, however, that there remains a minimum height of 3m, (2m if input is less than 1MW), above the ground, elevated walkways, openable windows or ventilation air intake grills in such installations. (See sections 27 & 28 of the

A24

A26

Q25 A25

Q27

A27

11

Figure 7 Figure 7 Louvre orientation on fan dilution systems

Unobstructed discharge e.g. clear of overhang Diluted combustion gases Louvres should slope upwards at an angle of not less than 30 from the horizontal Drainage

Chimney Heights Memorandum). This arrangement applies principally to gas fired equipment and is restricted to relatively low ratings because as the input rating increases the size of intake and exhaust louvre can become very large and impractical. A common fault with such systems is that the exhaust louvre is NOT set to discharge at an angle of about 30 above the horizontal as recommended in clause 27.f. of the Memorandum. Failure to meet this requirement means that the flue gas can be entrained down the wall surface thus preventing the dispersal of the pollutants and increasing their concentration in the local area, which defeats the intention of the relaxation. See Figure 7. Fan diluted flue systems should never be permitted to discharge into an enclosed, or almost enclosed, well or courtyard.

alignment charts at the end of the Memorandum, and we have included our own simple tables at the end of this booklet, which enable the chimney height to be determined for 95% of Clean Air Act Memorandum applications, i.e., where only one building is to be considered. The calculations required for the Technical Guidance Note are more complicated mathematically, but the results can again be simply obtained from a set of charts at the end of that booklet. The final calculated discharge height should be rounded to the nearest metre, always rounded up in the case of D1. At the end of each of the guides, worked examples are given which are also very helpful in determining the calculation procedure. In each case, the discharge heights calculated using either of the above methods, should be regarded as a guide, rather than a mathematically precise definition of the discharge stack height. The conclusion may need to be modified in the light of particular local circumstances or of practical experience. (See clauses 29 & 30 of the Clean Air Act Memorandum).

Q28 A28

Finally, are the calculations to determine a chimney discharge height difficult? Whilst the text so far may not give such an impression, the calculations required for the Clean Air Act Memorandum are actually quite simple and straightforward. In addition most of the results can be found by using the

12

!
The final chimney discharge height MUST always be approved by the approving authority which in most cases is the local Environmental Health Department. When carrying out calculations to either the Clean Air Act Memorandum or Guidance Note D1, the various separation distances and building measurements should not be taken as exact or precise dimensions, but rather as a guide in each case. It should always be borne in mind that the object of the exercise is to obtain an effective and safe chimney discharge height, rather than a minimum discharge height.

COMPUTER DISK
To accompany this booklet, Selkirk have a computer disk which contains simple to use programs for all of the calculations required in determining the discharge height of a chimney. Copies of the disk are available to consulting design engineers free of charge direct from Selkirks Marketing Services Department at Barnstaple. Telephone 01271 334332.

Acknowledgments
Thanks are due to Dr. David Hall of the Building Research Establishment for discussions on the content of this document, and for his comments on the draft. Dr. Hall was involved with the Third Edition of the Memorandum on Chimney Heights, was responsible for the New Guidance Note D1 and acts in an advisory capacity to both Environmental Health Officers on behalf of the Air Quality Division, DETR (Department of the Environment, Transport & the Regions), and to the Environment Agency. Thanks are also due to Barrie Meridew and Ken Jess of Selkirk Ltd for the formulation and technical supervision of this booklet.

12 13

CALCULATION PROCESS
(Clean Air Act Memorandum only)
For the majority of cases, (95%), where one building is to be considered which is wider than it is high, the tables on pages 18 to 25 can be used to calculate the final chimney height.
q

Determine the uncorrected chimney height, U from the appropriate fuel table, bearing in mind that the appropriate area category, (geographical location), should be used where applicable. (See also A6 as well as the area category list opposite). If the uncorrected height, U, is less than 2.5 times the height of the building to which it is attached or any other building within 5 U of the chimney, then the chimney height should be increased as follows. Otherwise the final chimney height remains as U, and as is acceptable. Consider all buildings within a radius 5 U from the chimney position. If there is only one obvious building to be considered as described above, then the corrected height, C, can be obtained from the appropriate corrected height column in the appropriate table. If there is more than one building, then refer to the calculation procedure in the Memorandum. If in any doubt as to whether more than one building should be considered, it is preferable to complete the calculation for more than one building as per the Memorandum, as this may result in a lesser chimney height than if only one building is considered. Consider the following overriding minimum requirements and increase the chimney height if appropriate.

A chimney should terminate at least 3m above the level of any adjacent area to which there is general access, i.e., ground level, roof area, openable window or ventilation intake grill. (See also A20). A chimney should never be less than the calculated uncorrected chimney height. A chimney should never be less than the height of any part of an attached building within a distance of 5 U. (See also A20).

The tables on page x are Selkirk copyright and have been prepared using the following data:s All Output ratings are 85% of input rating s Fuel Specification 35sec Oil - Cv (gross) = 45.6Mj/kg Sulphur % = 0.3* Heavy Oil- Cv (gross) = 42.9Mj/kg Sulphur % = 3.5* *maximum allowable by BS 2869 Area Categories (geographical location) as taken from Clause 17 of the Memorandum. A an undeveloped area where development is unlikely; B a partially developed area with scattered houses; C a built-up residential area;

D an urban area of mixed industrial and residential development; E a large city or an urban area, of mixed heavy industrial and dense residential development;

14

Calculation examples
Example 1

Figure 8 Building height is always the highest point of the building measured from a datum of the ground level (see Q & A16). In this example the building height is 25m.

Roof area is 1020m2 Roof tank room 3m x 3m by 2,5m high. Chimney system comprising three individual chimneys on a triangular support mast, (or it could be one common chimney serving all boiler plant).

55m 90 18m
Building width is always the widest face of the building at right angles to the separation distance. In this example, the building width is 55m.

Chimney discharge height measured from datum of the general ground level. See also the illustration for Q & A16.

10m high

Building separation distance is always a horizontal line connecting the closest point of the building to the centre of the chimney position. See also the illustration for Q & A16. In this example, the building separation distance is 18m. Illustration is not to scale.

15

1a Fuel - Natural Gas


Total output of three boilers = 5000kW Efficiency 85% Total input = 5882kW From Table A, the uncorrected height U = 3.9m 5 x U = 19.7m The uncorrected height is less than 2.5 times the building to which it is attached, (in this case the boiler house), and any other building within 5 x U. The chimney height will therefore require to be corrected for building effect. The separation distance from the centre of the chimney to the closest point of the office block = 18m. As this separation distance is less than 5 x U and the office block is the tallest building within a radius of 5 x U from the chimney centre, the chimney height will need to be corrected to take into account the height of the office block. The office block height is 25m. The additional height of the of the roof tank room can be ignored, as its area, (9m2), is less than 1% of the total office block roof area, (1020 m2). The office block width is measured along a line which extends to capture the widest frontage facing the chimney, (55m in this case), and which is determined at right angles to another line drawn from the centre of the chimney to the closest point of the building. This other line denotes the separation distance, which in this case is 18m. As there is only one building to be considered; the office block, and it is wider than it is high, then the corrected height can be interpolated from Table D as 27m. Check that the overriding requirements of note 4 above, (Clause 25 of the Memorandum), are satisfied. If no further adjustment is required, then the Corrected Discharge Height = 27m above ground level.

1b Fuel - 35sec. Oil


Total input as previous calculation = 5882kW. From the Area Categories on page 13, select an area type that best describes the location where the boiler plant will be installed. For this example, the Area Category is D. From Table B, and Category D, the uncorrected height U = 11.4m. 5 x U = 57.1m. The uncorrected height is less than 2.5 times the height of the building to which it is attached and any other building within 5U. The chimney height will therefore need correction for building effect. The office block is still the tallest and most obvious building within a radius of 5U from the centre of the chimney. The office block height, (25m), and width, (55m), remain as previous, and the corrected height can be interpolated from Table D as 32m. Check overriding minimum requirements as previous, and if further adjustment is not required, the Corrected Discharge Height = 32m above ground level. The shaded sections in the tables on pages 18, 20 and 23, represent the data extracted for the above sample calculations.

16

Example 2
Figure 9 CH = BW = SD i = SD ii = Chimney Discharge Height. Building width of 58m. Separating distance to Building No.1 of 45m. Separating distance to Building No.2 of 32m.

H 15m CH

Building No. 2

Building No. 1

H 20m

BW

90 SDii

SDi

See Figures 3, 4 and 8 for more explanation of heights and separating distances. Illustration is not to scale.

This calculation is an example in which two buildings are considered where two boilers are served by individual chimneys on a common mast. The example is best read step by step in conjunction with the procedure set out in within the Memorandum, as this will explain some of the variable inputs used in the calculation, e.g. D , which is just one of the Area Categories.

Data Total output Efficiency Total input Fuel Sulphur content Fuel usage = 20,466kW = 80% = 25,582kW = 42.9Mj/kg = 3.5% = 2,146kg/hr

W = 25582 x 3600 42.9 x 1000

SO2 Emission - R = 0.02 x 2146 x 3.5 = 150kg/hr

17

1st Example
Area Category = D (Mixed industrial / residential) Adjusted SO2 emission- Ra = 150 x 1.3 = 195 kg/hr Uncorrected height = U x 1950.5 - 0.9 x 1950.67 = 39m Two buildings within a radius of 5U to be considered. Building No. 1 2 H 20 15 W 6 58 K 6 15 T 29 37.5

2nd Example
Area Category = C (Residential area) Adjusted SO2 emission - Ra = 150 x 1 = 150 kg/hr U = 5 x 1500.5 - 0.9 x 1500.67 = 35.4m Building No. 1 2 Tm = 37.5 Hm = 20 C = Hm + U 1 H 20 15 W 6 58 K 6 15 T 29 37.5

Tm = 37.5 Hm = 20 U > Tm C = U Chimney discharge height = 39m

C = 20 + 35.4 1 -

( ) ( )
Hm Tm

20 = 36.5m 37.5

Chimney discharge height = 37m

Typical Pollutant Values for generators and boilers.


Fuel Oil (0.3 and 3.5% Sulphur)
Pollutant Discharge rate (g/kg of fuel burned) Generator 3.5% 0.3% Boiler 3.5% 0.3%

Gas
Pollutant Discharge rate (g/m3 of fuel burned) Generator Boiler

Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Dioxide (S02) Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 70 22 3 6 70 3.2 0.23 6 Sulphur Dioxide (S02) Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) N/A 9 1 N/A 3 0.02

18

A Table D

Uncorrected Chimney Height (U) for a range of Input/Output ratings

Natural Gas
Output Kw 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 2,100 2,200 2,300 2,400 2,500 2,600 2,700 2,800 2,900 3,000 3,100 3,200 3,300 3,400 3,500 3,600 3,700 3,800 3,900 4,000 4,100 4,200 4,300 4,400 4,500 4,600 4,700 Input Kw 147 176 235 294 353 412 471 529 588 706 824 941 1,059 1,176 1,294 1,412 1,529 1,647 1,765 1,882 2,000 2,118 2,235 2,353 2,471 2,588 2,706 2,824 2,941 3,059 3,176 3,294 3,412 3,529 3,647 3,765 3,882 4,000 4,118 4,235 4,353 4,471 4,588 4,706 4,824 4,941 5,059 5,176 5,294 5,412 5,529 U 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 5xU 2.2 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.5 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.0 11.4 11.7 12.0 12.4 12.7 13.0 13.3 13.6 13.9 14.2 14.5 14.8 15.1 15.3 15.6 15.9 16.2 16.4 16.7 17.0 17.2 17.5 17.7 18.0 18.2 18.5 18.7 19.0 Output Kw 4,800 4.900 5,000 5,100 5,200 5,300 5,400 5,500 5,600 5,700 5,800 5,900 6,000 6,100 6,200 6,300 6,400 6,500 6,600 6,700 6,800 6,900 7,000 7,100 7,200 7,300 7,400 7,500 7,600 7,700 7,800 7,900 8,000 8,100 8,200 8,300 8,400 8,500 8,600 8,700 8,900 9,000 9,100 9,200 9,300 9,400 9,500 9,600 9,700 9,800 10,000 Input Kw 5,647 5,765 5,882 6,000 6,118 6,235 6,353 6,471 6,588 6,706 6,824 6,941 7,059 7,176 7,294 7,412 7,529 7,647 7,765 7,882 8,000 8,118 8,235 8,353 8,471 8,588 8,706 8,824 8,941 9,059 9,176 9,294 9,412 9,529 9,647 9,765 9,882 10,000 10,118 10,235 10,353 10,588 10,706 10,824 10,941 11,059 11,176 11,294 11,412 11,529 11,765 U 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 5xU 19.2 19.5 19.7 19.9 20.2 20.4 20.6 20.8 21.1 21.3 21.5 21.7 22.0 22.2 22.4 22.6 22.8 23.0 23.3 23.5 23.7 23.9 24.1 24.3 24.5 24.7 24.9 25.1 25.3 25.5 25.7 25.9 26.1 26.3 26.5 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.3 27.5 27.6 28.0 28.2 28.4 28.6 28.8 28.9 29.1 29.3 29.5 29.8

Shaded area relates to input for sample calculation 1a

19

Table D Table B
1st of 2 pages

Uncorrected Chimney Height (U) for a range of Input/Output ratings

35sec. Oil
A

CV (gross) 45.6Mj/kg Sulphur % = 0.3

U and 5 U by Area Category


Area Category Output kW 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 2,100 2,200 2,300 2,400 2,500 2,600 2,700 2,800 2,900 3,000 3,100 3,200 3,300 3,400 3,500 3,600 3,700 3,800 3,900 4,000 4,100 4,200 4,300 4,400 4,500 4,600 4,700 Input kW 147 176 235 294 353 412 471 529 588 706 824 941 1,059 1,176 1,294 1,412 1,529 1,647 1,765 1,882 2,000 2,118 2,235 2,353 2,471 2,588 2,706 2,824 2,941 3,059 3,176 3,294 3,412 3,529 3,647 3,765 3,882 4,000 4,118 4,235 4,353 4,471 4,588 4,706 4,824 4,941 5,059 5,176 5,294 5,412 5,529 B C D E

U 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2

5xU 5.9 6.4 7.4 8.3 9.1 9.8 10.5 11.1 11.7 12.9 13.9 14.9 15.8 16.6 17.4 18.2 18.9 19.7 20.3 21.0 21.7 22.3 22.9 23.5 24.1 24.6 25.2 25.7 26.3 26.8 27.3 27.8 28.3 28.8 29.2 29.7 30.2 30.6 31.1 31.5 31.9 32.4 32.8 33.2 33.6 34.0 34.4 34.8 35.2 35.6 36.0

U 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

5xU 7.0 7.7 8.8 9.9 10.8 11.7 12.5 13.3 14.0 15.3 16.5 17.7 18.8 19.8 20.7 21.7 22.6 23.4 24.2 25.0 25.8 26.5 27.3 28.0 28.7 29.3 30.0 30.6 31.3 31.9 32.5 33.1 33.7 34.3 34.8 35.4 35.9 36.5 37.0 37.5 38.0 38.6 39.1 39.6 40.0 40.5 41.0 41.5 42.0 42.4 42.9

U 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7

5xU 7.9 8.7 10.0 11.2 12.3 13.2 14.2 15.0 15.8 17.3 18.7 20.0 21.2 22.4 23.5 24.5 25.5 26.5 27.4 28.3 29.2 30.0 30.9 31.7 32.5 33.2 34.0 34.7 35.4 36.1 36.8 37.5 38.1 38.8 39.4 40.1 40.7 41.3 41.9 42.5 43.1 43.7 44.2 44.8 45.3 45.9 46.4 47.0 47.5 48.0 48.6

U 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 11.0 11.1

5xU 9.0 9.9 11.4 12.8 14.0 15.1 16.1 17.1 18.1 19.8 21.4 22.8 24.2 25.5 26.8 28.0 29.1 30.2 31.3 32.3 33.3 34.3 35.2 36.1 37.0 37.9 38.7 39.6 40.4 41.2 42.0 42.7 43.5 44.2 45.0 45.7 46.4 47.1 47.8 48.4 49.1 49.8 50.4 51.1 51.7 52.3 52.9 53.6 54.2 54.8 55.4

U 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.2 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.4 10.6 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.3 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.9 12.0 12.2 12.3

5xU 10.0 11.0 12.7 14.2 15.5 16.8 17.9 19.0 20.0 21.9 23.7 25.3 26.9 28.3 29.7 31.0 32.3 33.5 34.7 35.8 36.9 38.0 39.0 40.1 41.1 42.0 43.0 43.9 44.8 45.7 46.5 47.4 48.2 49.1 49.9 50.7 51.5 52.2 53.0 53.7 54.5 55.2 55.9 56.7 57.4 58.1 58.7 59.4 60.1 60.8 61.4

20

Table D Table B
2nd of 2 pages

Uncorrected Chimney Height (U) for a range of Input/Output ratings

35sec. Oil
A

CV (gross) 45.6Mj/kg Sulphur % = 0.3

U and 5 U by Area Category


Area Category Output kW 4,800 4,900 5,000 5,100 5,200 5,300 5,400 5,500 5,600 5,700 5,800 5,900 6,000 6,100 6,200 6,300 6,400 6,500 6,600 6,700 6,800 6,900 7,000 7,100 7,200 7,300 7,400 7,500 7,600 7,700 7,800 7,900 8,000 8,100 8,200 8,300 8,400 8,500 8,600 8,700 8,800 9,000 9,100 9,200 9,300 9,400 9,500 9,600 9,700 9,800 10,000 Input kW 5,647 5,765 5,882 6,000 6,118 6,235 6,353 6,471 6,588 6,706 6,824 6,941 7,059 7,176 7,294 7,412 7,529 7,647 7,765 7,882 8,000 8,118 8,235 8,353 8,471 8,588 8,706 8,824 8,941 9,059 9,176 9,294 9,412 9,529 9,647 9,765 9,882 10,000 10,118 10,235 10,353 10,588 10,706 10,824 10,941 11,059 11,176 11,294 11,412 11,529 11,765 B C D E

U 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5

5xU

5xU

5xU

5xU 55.9 56.5 57.1 57.7 58.2 58.8 59.3 59.9 60.4 61.0 61.5 62.0 62.5 63.1 63.6 64.1 64.6 65.1 65.6 66.1 66.6 67.1 67.6 68.0 68.5 69.0 69.5 69.9 70.4 70.9 71.3 71.8 72.2 72.7 73.1 73.6 74.0 74.4 74.9 75.3 75.7 76.6 77.0 77.5 77.9 78.3 78.7 79.1 79.5 79.9 80.7

U 12.4 12.5 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.6 17.7 17.9

5xU 62.1 62.7 63.3 64.0 64.6 65.2 65.8 66.4 67.0 67.6 68.2 68.8 69.4 70.0 70.5 71.1 71.7 72.2 72.8 73.3 73.9 74.4 74.9 75.5 76.0 76.5 77.1 77.6 78.1 78.6 79.1 79.6 80.1 80.6 81.1 81.6 82.1 82.6 83.1 83.6 84.0 85.0 85.5 85.9 86.4 86.9 87.3 87.8 88.2 88.7 89.6

36.4 8.7 43.3 9.8 49.1 11.2 36.8 8.8 43.8 9.9 49.6 11.3 37.1 8.8 44.2 10.0 50.1 11.4 37.5 8.9 44.7 10.1 50.6 11.5 37.9 9.0 45.1 10.2 51.1 11.6 38.2 9.1 45.5 10.3 51.6 11.8 38.6 9.2 46.0 10.4 52.0 11.9 39.0 9.3 46.4 10.5 52.5 12.0 39.3 9.4 46.8 10.6 53.0 12.1 39.7 9.4 47.2 10.7 53.5 12.2 40.0 9.5 47.6 10.8 53.9 12.3 40.3 9.6 48.0 10.9 54.4 12.4 40.7 9.7 48.4 11.0 54.9 12.5 41.0 9.8 48.9 11.1 55.3 12.6 41.4 9.8 49.2 11.2 55.8 12.7 41.7 9.9 49.6 11.2 56.2 12.8 42.0 10.0 50.0 11.3 56.7 12.9 42.3 10.1 50.4 11.4 57.1 13.0 42.7 10.2 50.8 11.5 57.5 13.1 43.0 10.2 51.2 11.6 58.0 13.2 43.3 10.3 51.6 11.7 58.4 13.3 43.6 10.4 52.0 11.8 58.8 13.4 43.9 10.5 52.3 11.9 59.3 13.5 44.3 10.5 52.7 11.9 59.7 13.6 44.6 10.6 53.1 12.0 60.1 13.7 44.9 10.7 53.4 12.1 60.5 13.8 45.2 10.8 53.8 12.2 60.9 13.9 45.5 10.8 54.2 12.3 61.3 14.0 45.8 10.9 54.5 12.3 61.7 14.1 46.1 11.0 54.9 12.4 62.1 14.2 46.4 11.0 55.2 12.5 62.5 14.3 46.7 11.1 55.6 12.6 62.9 14.4 47.0 11.2 55.9 12.7 63.3 14.4 47.3 11.3 56.3 12.7 63.7 14.5 47.6 11.3 56.6 12.8 64.1 14.6 47.8 11.4 57.0 12.9 64.5 14.7 48.1 11.5 57.3 13.0 64.9 14.8 48.4 11.5 57.7 13.1 65.3 14.9 48.7 11.6 58.0 13.1 65.7 15.0 49.0 11.7 58.3 13.2 66.1 15.1 49.3 11.7 58.7 13.3 66.4 15.1 49.8 11.9 59.3 13.4 67.2 15.3 50.1 11.9 59.7 13.5 67.6 15.4 50.4 12.0 60.0 13.6 67.9 15.5 50.6 12.1 60.3 13.7 68.3 15.6 50.9 12.1 60.6 13.7 68.7 15.7 51.2 12.2 61.0 13.8 69.0 15.7 51.5 12.3 61.3 13.9 69.4 15.8 51.7 12.3 61.6 13.9 69.7 15.9 52.0 12.4 61.9 14.0 70.1 16.0 52.5 12.5 62.5 14.2 70.8 16.1 Shaded area relates to input for sample calculation 1b

21

Table C Table D
1st of 2 pages

Uncorrected Chimney Height (U) for a range of Input/Output ratings

Heavy Oil
A

CV (gross) 42.9Mj/kg Sulphur % = 3.5

U and 5 U by Area Category


Area Category Output kW 5,000 5,200 5,400 5,600 5,800 6,000 6,200 6,400 6,600 6,800 7,000 7,200 7,400 7,600 7,800 8,000 8,200 8,400 8,600 8,800 9,000 9,200 9,400 9,600 9,800 10,000 10,200 10,400 10,600 10,800 11,000 11,200 11,400 11,600 11,800 12,000 12,200 12,400 12,600 12,800 13,000 13,200 13,400 13,600 13,800 14,000 14,200 14,400 14,600 14,800 15,000 Input kW 5,882 6,118 6,353 6,588 6,824 7,059 7,294 7,529 7,765 8,000 8,235 8,471 8,706 8,941 9,176 9,412 9,647 9,882 10,118 10,353 10,588 10,824 11,059 11,294 11,529 11,765 12,000 12,235 12,471 12,706 12,941 13,176 13,412 13,647 13,882 14,118 14,353 14,588 14,824 15,059 15,294 15,529 15,765 16,000 16,235 16,471 16,706 16,941 17,176 17,412 17,647 B C D E

U 21.6 21.8 22.0 22.1 22.3 22.4 22.6 22.7 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.8 25.9 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 26.9

5xU 108.1 109.0 109.8 110.6 111.4 112.1 112.9 113.6 114.3 115.0 115.7 116.3 116.9 117.6 118.2 118.8 119.4 119.9 120.5 121.1 121.6 122.1 122.7 123.2 123.7 124.2 124.7 125.2 125.7 126.1 126.6 127.0 127.5 127.9 128.4 128.8 129.2 129.7 130.1 130.5 130.9 131.3 131.7 132.1 132.5 132.8 133.2 133.6 134.0 134.3 134.7

U 23.2 23.4 23.5 23.7 23.9 24.1 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7 24.8 24.9 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.7 28.8 28.9

5xU 115.9 116.9 117.7 118.6 119.4 120.3 121.0 121.8 122.6 123.3 124.0 124.7 125.4 126.1 126.7 127.4 128.0 128.6 129.2 129.8 130.4 131.0 131.6 132.1 132.7 133.2 133.7 134.2 134.8 135.3 135.8 136.2 136.7 137.2 137.7 138.1 138.6 139.0 139.5 139.9 140.4 140.8 141.2 141.6 142.1 142.5 142.9 143.3 143.7 144.1 144.4

U 24.4 24.6 24.7 24.9 25.1 25.3 25.4 25.6 25.8 25.9 26.1 26.2 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.8 26.9 27.0 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.7 27.8 27.9 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 29.9 29.9 30.0 30.1 30.4 30.6 30.7

5xU 121.9 122.8 123.7 124.7 125.5 126.4 127.2 128.0 128.8 129.6 130.3 131.1 131.8 132.5 133.2 133.9 134.5 135.2 135.8 136.4 137.1 137.7 138.3 138.8 139.4 140.0 140.5 141.1 141.6 142.1 142.7 143.2 143.7 144.2 144.7 145.2 145.7 146.1 146.6 147.1 147.5 148.0 148.4 148.9 149.3 149.7 150.1 150.6 152.1 152.9 153.7

U 25.7 25.9 26.1 26.3 26.5 26.6 26.8 27.0 27.2 27.3 27.5 27.6 27.8 27.9 28.1 28.2 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 30.0 30.1 30.4 30.6 30.8 31.0 31.2 31.4 31.6 31.8 32.0 32.2 32.4 32.6 32.7 32.9 33.1 33.3 33.5 33.6 33.8 34.0

5xU 128.4 129.4 130.4 131.4 132.3 133.2 134.1 134.9 135.8 136.6 137.4 138.1 138.9 139.6 140.4 141.1 141.8 142.5 143.1 143.8 144.4 145.1 145.7 146.3 146.9 147.5 148.1 148.7 149.2 149.8 150.4 151.9 153.0 154.0 155.0 156.0 157.0 158.0 159.0 160.0 160.9 161.9 162.8 163.7 164.7 165.6 166.5 167.4 168.2 169.1 170.0

U 26.8 27.0 27.2 27.4 27.6 27.8 28.0 28.1 28.3 28.5 28.6 28.8 29.0 29.1 29.3 29.4 29.6 29.7 29.8 30.0 30.1 30.5 30.8 31.0 31.3 31.5 31.8 32.0 32.2 32.5 32.7 32.9 33.1 33.4 33.6 33.8 34.0 34.2 34.4 34.6 34.8 35.0 35.2 35.4 35.6 35.8 36.0 36.2 36.4 36.6 36.8

5xU 133.9 134.9 135.9 136.9 137.9 138.8 139.8 140.6 141.5 142.4 143.2 144.0 144.8 145.6 146.3 147.1 147.8 148.5 149.2 149.9 150.6 152.6 153.8 155.1 156.4 157.6 158.8 160.0 161.2 162.3 163.5 164.6 165.7 166.8 167.9 169.0 170.0 171.1 172.1 173.2 174.2 175.2 176.2 177.2 178.1 179.1 180.1 181.0 181.9 182.9 183.8

22

Table D Table C
2nd of 2 pages

Uncorrected Chimney Height (U) for a range of Input/Output ratings

Heavy Oil
A

CV (gross) 42.9Mj/kg Sulphur % = 3.5

U and 5 U by Area Category


Area Category Output kW 15,200 15,400 15,600 15,800 16,000 16,200 16,400 16,600 16,800 17,000 17,200 17,400 17,600 17,800 18,000 18,200 18,400 18,600 19,000 19,200 19,400 19,600 19,800 20,000 20,200 20,400 20,600 20,800 21,000 21,200 21,400 21,600 21,800 22,000 22,200 22,400 22,600 23,000 23,200 23,400 23,600 23,800 24,000 24,200 24,400 24,600 24,800 25,000 26,200 25,400 25,600 25,800 26,000 Input kW 17882 18118 18353 18588 18824 19059 19294 19529 19765 20000 20235 20471 20706 20941 21176 21412 21647 21882 22353 22588 22824 23059 23294 23529 23765 24000 24235 24471 24706 24941 25176 25412 25647 25882 26118 26353 26588 27059 27294 27529 27765 28000 28235 28471 28706 28941 29176 29412 30824 29882 30118 30353 30588 B C D E

U 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.8 27.9 27.9 28.0 28.1 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.4 28.5 28.5 28.6 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.8 28.9 28.9 29.0 29.0 29.1 29.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.4 29.5 29.5 29.6 29.6 29.7 29.7 29.8 29.8 30.1 29.9 30.0 30.0 30.1

5xU 135.1 135.4 135.8 136.1 136.4 136.8 137.1 137.5 137.8 138.1 138.4 138.8 139.1 139.4 139.7 140.0 140.3 140.6 141.2 141.5 141.8 142.1 142.4 142.7 143.0 143.2 143.5 143.8 144.1 144.3 144.6 144.9 145.2 145.4 145.7 145.9 146.2 146.7 147.0 147.2 147.5 147.7 148.0 148.2 148.5 148.7 148.9 149.2 150.6 149.7 149.9 150.1 150.4

U 29.0 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.6 29.7 29.8 29.8 29.9 30.0 30.0 30.1 30.3 30.6 30.7 30.8 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.9 32.0 32.1 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 32.9 33.0 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 34.0 34.6 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5

5xU 144.8 145.2 145.6 146.0 146.3 146.7 147.0 147.4 147.8 148.1 148.5 148.8 149.1 149.5 149.8 150.1 150.5 151.7 153.0 153.6 154.2 154.8 155.4 156.0 156.6 157.2 157.8 158.4 159.0 159.6 160.2 160.7 161.3 161.9 162.4 163.0 163.6 164.7 165.2 165.8 166.3 166.8 167.4 167.9 168.4 168.9 169.5 170.0 173.0 171.0 171.5 172.0 172.5

U 30.9 31.1 31.2 31.4 31.5 31.7 31.8 32.0 32.1 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.7 32.8 33.0 33.1 33.3 33.4 33.7 33.8 33.9 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.5 35.6 35.7 35.8 35.9 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.8 36.9 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 38.0 37.5 37.6 37.8 37.9

5xU 154.5 155.3 156.0 156.8 157.6 158.3 159.1 159.8 160.6 161.3 162.0 162.7 163.5 164.2 164.9 165.6 166.3 167.0 168.3 169.0 169.7 170.3 171.0 171.6 172.3 172.9 173.6 174.2 174.8 175.4 176.1 176.7 177.3 177.9 178.5 179.1 179.7 180.9 181.5 182.1 182.6 183.2 183.8 184.4 184.9 185.5 186.0 186.6 189.9 187.7 188.2 188.8 189.3

U 34.2 34.3 34.5 34.7 34.8 35.0 35.2 35.3 35.5 35.6 35.8 36.0 36.1 36.3 36.4 36.6 36.7 36.9 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.6 37.7 37.9 38.0 38.1 38.3 38.4 38.6 38.7 38.8 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.5 39.6 39.9 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8 41.0 41.1 41.8 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.7

5xU 170.8 171.7 172.5 173.4 174.2 175.0 175.8 176.6 177.4 178.2 179.0 179.8 180.5 181.3 182.1 182.8 183.6 184.3 185.8 186.5 187.2 187.9 188.6 189.3 190.0 190.7 191.4 192.1 192.8 193.4 194.1 194.8 195.4 196.1 196.7 197.4 198.0 199.3 199.9 200.5 201.1 201.8 202.4 203.0 203.6 204.2 204.8 205.4 208.9 206.5 207.1 207.7 208.3

U 36.9 37.1 37.3 37.5 37.6 37.8 38.0 38.2 38.3 38.5 38.7 38.8 39.0 39.2 39.3 39.5 39.6 39.8 40.1 40.2 40.4 40.5 40.7 40.8 41.0 41.1 41.3 41.4 41.6 41.7 41.8 42.0 42.1 42.3 42.4 42.5 42.7 42.9 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.5 43.6 43.7 43.8 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.9 44.5 44.6 44.7 44.8

5xU 184.7 185.6 186.5 187.4 188.2 189.1 190.0 190.8 191.7 192.5 193.3 194.1 195.0 195.8 196.6 197.4 198.1 198.9 200.5 201.2 202.0 202.7 203.5 204.2 205.0 205.7 206.4 207.1 207.8 208.5 209.2 209.9 210.6 211.3 212.0 212.7 213.4 214.7 215.3 216.0 216.6 217.3 217.9 218.6 219.2 219.8 220.5 221.1 224.7 222.3 222.9 223.5 224.1

23

Table D Table D

Corrected height (c) for a range of U and building height (H) Based on C = H + 0.6 x U (See clause 23 of Memorandum)

Uncorrected height U 0.5 H 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 6 8 7 9 7 9 7 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15

10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17

10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 53 53 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 55 55 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 57 57 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59

Shaded area relates to input for sample calculation 1a

Shaded area relates to input for sample calculation 1b

H = the building height in metres measured to its ridge or highest point, ignoring lift or tank rooms, or any other projection having an area of less than 1% of the roof area

24

Table D Table E

Corrected height (c) for a range of U and building height (H) Based on C = H + 0.6 x U (See clause 23 of Memorandum)

Uncorrected height U 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22 22.5 23 23.5 24 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30 H 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22 22.5 23 23.5 24 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20.5 21 21.5 22 22.5 23 23.5 24 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 60 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 63 63 63 64 24 24 24 25 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 58 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 62 63 63 63 62 62 62 63 63 63 64 64 64 65 65 65 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 67 67 67 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

In the shaded area, C = U because U>2.5 x H (See clause 21 and 25b of the Memorandum)

H=

the building height in metres measured to its ridge or highest point, ignoring lift or tank rooms, or any other projection having an area of less than 1% of the roof area

25

Table D Table F

Corrected height (c) for a range of U and building height (H) Based on C = H + 0.6 x U (See clause 23 of Memorandum)

Uncorrected height U 30.5 H 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 31 31 31 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 32 32 32 32 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 33 33 33 33 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 33.5 33.5 33.5 33.5 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 34 34 34 34 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 35 35 35 35 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 35.5 35.5 35.5 35.5 35.5 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 36 36 36 36 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 37 37 37 37 37 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 37.5 37.5 37.5 37.5 37.5 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 38 38 38 38 38 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 38.5 38.5 38.5 38.5 38.5 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 39 39 39 39 39 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 40 40 40 40 40 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 31 31.5 32 32.5 33 33.5 34 34.5 35 35.5 36 36.5 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 39.5 40

In the shaded area, C = U because U>2.5 x H (See clause 21 and 25b of the Memorandum)

H=

the building height in metres measured to its ridge or highest point, ignoring lift or tank rooms, or any other projection having an area of less than 1% of the roof area

26

Index
Subject A additional chimney height approval area category B balanced flue building height building width C calculations chemical process plants chimney height clean air act memorandum combined cycle combined emission common flue common header complex building cone corrected height D diesel generator exhausts discharge height discharge plume discharge velocity dispersion dispersion modeling dust E effective chimney height engines equipment rating exhaust louvre exhausts exit cone exit velocity (efflux velocity) F fan (induced draught) fan dilution final discharge height fuels full load G gas turbine exhaust gas-oil gaseous fuel generator exhaust geographical location grit ground level guidance note guides (published) I incinerator individual chimney induced draught fan initial discharge plume L large plant lattice tower legislation lift room lift room area liquid fuel Location (Nos. = Q & A paragraphs) In calculation process on page 13 2, 3, 4 6 and in calculation process on page 13 15 16, 17, 18, 19, 17, 19, 28 and page 13 3 5, 6, 21, 23, 16 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 27, 28 6 21, 22 21, 22 14, 21 19 13 and Figure 2 In sample calculation on page 13 4, 10, 24 2, 3, 6 26 13 6 6 1 6 3 4, 7, 13 27 1 13 13, 14 14 27 14 11 8 3, 9 25 4 4, 10, 24 6 and in calculation process on page 13 1 16 8 6 1, 3, 9, 24 22 14 5 6, 3 19 1 16,20 16, and in sample calculation on page 13 4 Subject local authority location louvres low discharge velocity low level discharge lower limit M maximum emission minimum chimney height multi-flued chimney N nitric oxide normal operating load Northern Ireland nuisance O odours P plant location plant room plume pollutant concentration pollutants pollution porous structure prescribed processes process guidance notes pulverized fuel R rated input rating reduced load roof roof area roof buildings roof level room-sealed balanced flue system S solid fuel stand-by plant sulphur sulphur dioxide T tank room tank room area tapered cone target velocities technical guidance note D1 trees turndown ratio U U uncorrected height V velocities ventilation air intake very large plant VLS VLS fuels W waste oil windows Location (Nos. = Q & A paragraphs) 4 3, 6, 15, 21, 23 20, 27 14 27 4 8 6 23, 24 12 7 1, 4 2 1 3, 6, 15, 21, 23 18, 20 5, 13, 26 5 3, 5, 12, 25 Also tables on page 17 1, 5, 6, 15 19 3 6 4 7 13 7, 8 20 In sample calculation on page 13 16,20 27 15 4 25 11 12 16, 20 16, and in sample calculation on page 13 13 8 6, 13, 18, 24 19 8 17, 18, 19 and in sample calculation on page 13 In sample calculation on page 13 8, 13 27 3 11 12 3 26

27

Notes

The information, tables and sample calculations in this document are intended to provide guidance on the correct application of chimney system discharge dictated by the Clean Air Act Legislation. Whilst we consider the information contained to be accurate, users are advised where necessary to check any calculations and clear all applications with an appropriate authority