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FINAL PROJECT

CALCULUS

SUBMITTED TO:

Sir ABDUL HAFEES SHEIKH

SUBMITTED BY:

H.Mohsin Bashir 06l0237


Umair Suleman 06l0247
Owais Ahmed Jan
06l0233
Muhammad Ahmer Naeem Mirza
06l0245

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Table of Contents

 Origin
 Representation
 Functions
 Application of the binary system of the brain-
The pivotal organ of the human body
• The brain system and its various functions
• How the Brain controls the body
• Brain control signal
• Memory loss signal
• Case of no brain wave
• Shut down of brain signal
• Death of brain
• Coma
 Similarities between Brain and Computer
 Conclusion
 References`

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Origins
The modern binary number system, which consists of two digits, was fully documented by
Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century in his article “Explication de l'Arithmétique
Binaries”. Leibniz's system used 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, which
is still in use and has wider use in computer nowadays also the microwave products are
based on this binary system. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a
landmark paper detailing a system of logic that would become known as Boolean
algebra. His logical system proved instrumental in the development of the binary system,
particularly in its implementation in electronic circuitry.

Representation

There are two numbers in binary number system 1 and 0, (usually 1 represent on or true
while 0 represent false or off). Binary numbers also known as binary digits. A binary
number can be represented by any sequence of bits (binary digits), which in turn may be
represented by any mechanism capable of being in two mutually exclusive states. The
following sequences of symbols could all be interpreted as the same binary numeric
value.

Functions

Functions of binary digits are different from other decimal number system, as mention
earlier that in binary system 1 represent on and 0 represent off so their functions are little
bit different from 1 and 0 in decimal number system. In computer circuit designing we
use these logics. Addition of binary is different as from decimal in binary 1+1=10, while
in decimal 1+1=2. Counting in binary is similar to counting in any other number system.
Beginning with a single digit, counting proceeds through each symbol, in increasing

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order. Decimal counting uses the symbols 0 through 9, while binary only uses the
symbols 0 and 1. An introduction about the arithmetic in binary is given below.

Binary system and computer

Personal computer is also known as digital electronic device this is because of binary
digits, as in computer circuits binary digits plays a great role. Computer electronic
circuits are either on or off. Just two states to work with. So the natural number system
for use in an electronic computer is base 2 (called the binary number system). In a
computer’s memory, a tiny transistor that is on (conducting a current) might represent a
1, while a transistor that is off would represent a 0 (zero). A bit is one binary digit. A bit
can hold either a 1 or a 0 (zero). A string of bits can hold larger numbers (just as you use
strings of base 10 digits to represent numbers larger than 9)
.

Application of the binary system to the brain-The pivotal


organ of human body

The brain system and its various functions

The main function of the brain is to care for the body so all the cells in the body stay
clean, healthy and young. By keeping all the cells free of waste by discharging the waste
and reloading with new nourishment every time the cells need to feed. It is the brain that
is responsible to store in the memory cells what is to be stored for future uses as we learn
something new. It also helps us recall any information we need to know in the future.

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It is brain that send signals to the tongue and the
vocal cords for us to speak words. Brain also perform
task of producing sense. When sensory input is
converted into electrical signals called nerve
impulses that are transmitted to the brain. There the
signals are brought together to create sensations, to
produce thoughts, or to add to memory; Decisions
are made each moment based on the sensory input. This is integration.

How the brain controls the body

As in computer control unit of CPU control the whole computer similarly the brain
control the whole system of the body. The brain controls the body with DC electric
signals which is made in the body's cells automatically. Each cell is a little battery cell
and each cell provides a little bit of the universal energy. The brain controls the body by
sending an electric signal for the cell to stretch or retract for the movements of the body.
The results of this signal sending will either b true or false. When any part of the body
breaks down, gets sick or damaged in any way the brain controls the body and protects
the body by sending a signal to the immune system to repair the problem and the signal
from the brain decides on exactly how the immune system is to fight the germs and how
to repair the body break downs or damage. There is an iron rule of brain in our body just
like the role of control unit in computer system. And the whole system base on just two
functions, just like in computer (on or off) true or false.
When the body's brain signal control
stops the body is dead because when
the brain signal control stops the body
shuts down, the heart quits beating
and the lungs stop breathing. This is
actually a D.C. electric signal sent
from the brain signal control to signal
the cells to stretch or contract for all body functions as in computer there were two cases
true or false. Nothing takes place in the body with out getting a signal from the brain.

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When the energy channels get plugged the signals can't get to the body's immune system
and the body breaks down and gets sick.

Brain control signal

The brain control signal with the help of cells. The brain control signal is the nerves and
meridians, which are the energy channels of the body. Every cell in the body has a little
fine thread connected to it, which is connected to the brain control signal system, as parts
of computer are connected to CPU through wires.

Memory Loss Signal

We know that the hard drive of computer is kept in protection in order to make sure the
safety of data. Similarly the memory of our mind might also lose. Memory Loss Signal
comes from the body's universal energy electric signal system having a high
concentration of electrical signals in it. The electrical signals pick up the heavy metals in
the pollution of the atmosphere we live in and carries the molecules of heavy metal back
to the negative polarity charge in the body and deposits them there, plugging up the
energy channels causing memory loss and the cells of the body causing the body to loose
the signal connection to the brain causing memory loss and all sorts of body failure
Depending on the group of cells that got shut down to cause Memory Loss, when the liver
looses connection to the brain and shuts down so the blood going to the brain does not
have the aluminum filtered out the aluminum particles coats the memory cell to cause
Memory Loss so that it shuts the signal off from the brain cells and you have Memory
Loss Signals from those cells.
As time goes by and living in this industrial world the atmosphere has all kinds of heavy

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metal molecules that the electrolysis in the D.C. electric signals of universal energy the
body uses to keep the body clean from body failure.

Case of no brain wave

Case of no brain wave occurs when the energy channels from the brain are plugged and
no signal is getting to the cell leaving the body paralyzes. You
must clean the energy channels so that you reverse this trouble.
There is no drug that can reverse this disease. Usually when
such a situation arises, the person is in a deep sleep leaving the
subconscious mind to keep the body alive with no brain signals
to the cells to be able to talk, walk or eat. (Cell is shown in picture)

Shut down of brain signal

The brain signal shut down occurs when the energy channels get plugged so the brain
signals don't get through. The brain is shut down. When the brain signal shut down, the
body is in big trouble.

Death of brain

Death of brain occurs when the energy channels get plugged so no brain signals are sent,
causing brain dead. To reverse brain dead you must clean the energy channels so the
brain signals get to the cells of the body to stop brain dead. All drugs do is add more
residue and that is what clogs the energy channels to cause brain dead.

COMA

Coma is fairly common for people in accidents with brain damage to go into a coma as
the brain heals. The cells that were damaged are repaired with the memory that was
stored in the memory cell. The memory will be there if that cell was able to be repaired, if

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Similarities between brain and computer
not the brain replaces the cell with a new one, that memory is lost and has to be started
and new memory developed. If the brain cells don't start, the body is left in a coma.

Some similarities between the computer and brain are given below in order to show that
the system of sending signals is almost similer to that of brain

 Both work by transmitting "logic signals" to each of their parts. Signals in


both cases are electrical.
 In both cases the whole system is controlled by a major part.
 In both cases there are just two options for sending a signal.
 A computer works by using binary ("on"/"off" logical signals known as
"bits", put together as "bytes" to represent data.) To communicate internally
between components, represent information and store data. In case of brain
there are neurons, neurons in the brain are either "on" or "off" by either firing
an action potential or not firing.

 Both are used for storage of information, to process information and to run
tasks. In terms of the functions, both are used for mathematical calculations,
carrying out complex algorithms and to storing of crucial information
Conclusion

Thus this whole study shows that it is all a computerized system… just like a computer
uses switches that are either on or off ("binary system"). In a way, neurons in the brain
are either on or off by either firing an action potential or not firing an action potential.
However, neurons are more than just on or off because the "excitability" of a neuron is
always changing. This is because a neuron is constantly getting information from other
cells through synaptic contacts. Information traveling across a synapse does NOT always
result in an action potential. Rather, this information alters the chance that an action
potential will be produced by raising or lowering the threshold of the neuron.

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References:
http://library.thinkquest.org
http://www.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/fermib.html
http://www.biologic.com.au/bugbrain/hall.htm
www.wikipedia.org