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Configuring

Transparent
Firewall

Lesson 14

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-1


Transparent Firewall
Mode Overview

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-2


Transparent vs. Routed Firewall

10.0.1.0 VLAN 100


VLAN 100 10.0.1.0

10.0.2.0 VLAN 200


VLAN 200 10.0.1.0

Routed Mode Transparent Mode

The security appliance can run in two firewall settings:


 Routed: Based on IP address
 Transparent: Based on MAC address

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-3


Transparent Firewall Benefits

Easily integrated and maintained


in the existing network:
VLAN 100
 IP readdressing not necessary 10.0.1.0

 No NAT to configure
Layer 2 Device
 No IP routing to troubleshoot
VLAN 200
10.0.1.0

Transparent Mode

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-4


Transparent Firewall Guidelines
 Layer 3 traffic must be explicitly
permitted. Internet
 Each directly connected network must
be on the same subnet.
 A management IP address is required 10.0.1.10
for each context, even if you do not VLAN 100
intend to use Telnet to the context. 10.0.1.0
 The management IP address must be
on the same subnet as the connected Transparent Mode Management IP
network. Address
 Do not specify the security appliance 10.0.1.1
management IP address as the default VLAN 200
gateway for connected devices. 10.0.1.0
– Devices need to specify the router
on the other side of the security
appliance as the default gateway.
 Each interface must be a different
VLAN interface.
IP–10.0.1.3 IP–10.0.1.4
Gateway – 10.0.1.10 Gateway – 10.0.1.10

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-5


Transparent Firewall Unsupported
Features
The following features are not supported in
transparent firewall mode:
 NAT VLAN 100
10.0.1.0
 Dynamic routing protocols
 IPv6
 DHCP relay
 QoS
 Multicast VLAN 200
10.0.1.0
 VPN termination for through traffic
Transparent Mode

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-6


Enabling Transparent
Firewall Mode

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-7


Viewing the Current Firewall Mode
10.0.1.0 VLAN 100

?
VLAN 100 10.0.1.0

10.0.2.0 VLAN 200


VLAN 200 10.0.1.0

Routed Mode Transparent Mode

ciscoasa#
show firewall
 Shows the current firewall mode

asa1# show firewall


Firewall mode: Transparent

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-8


Enabling Transparent Firewall Mode vs.
Routed Mode
10.0.1.0 VLAN 100
VLAN 100 10.0.1.0

10.0.2.0 VLAN 200


VLAN 200 10.0.1.0

Transparent Mode
Routed Mode

ciscoasa(config)#
firewall transparent
 Changes the mode to transparent
 Requires use of the no firewall transparent command to return to routed mode

asa1(config)# firewall transparent


Switched to transparent mode

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-9


Assigning the Management IP Address
ciscoasa(config)#
ip address ip_address [mask] [standby ip_address]
 Sets the IP address for an interface (in routed mode) or for the management
address (transparent mode).
 For routed mode, enter this command in interface configuration mode.
 In transparent mode, enter this command in global configuration mode.

asa1(config)# ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0


asa1(config)# show ip address
Management System IP Address:
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
Management Current IP Address:
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-10


Configure ACLs
VLAN 100 VLAN 200
10.0.1.0 10.0.1.0
Internet
10.0.1.11 10.0.1.2
ciscoasa(config)#
access-list id [line line-number] [extended] {deny | permit}
{protocol | object-group protocol_obj_grp_id}{host sip | sip
smask | interface ifc_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id |
any} [operator port [port] | object-group service_obj_grp_id]
{host dip | dip dmask | interface ifc_name | object-group
network_obj_grp_id | any} [operator port [port] | object-group
service_obj_grp_id | object-group icmp_type_obj_group_id] [log
[[level] [interval secs] | disable | default]] [inactive | time-
range time_range_name]
 Determines which traffic should be allowed through the firewall
Security levels are supported in transparent mode; therefore, traffic from a higher security level interface to
a lower security level interface will pass without an ACL, just as it does in routed mode.
asa1(config)# access-list ACLIN permit icmp 10.0.1.0 255.255.255.0
10.0.1.0 255.255.255.0
asa1(config)# access-group ACLIN in interface inside
asa1(config)# access-group ACLIN in interface outside

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-11


Ethertype ACLS
VLAN 100 VLAN 200
10.0.1.0 10.0.1.0

IPX Traffic

ciscoasa(config)#
access-list id ethertype {deny | permit} {ipx | bpdu |
mpls-unicast | mpls-multicast | any | hex_number}
Treatment of non-IP packets:
 The transparent firewall introduces a new type of ACL: the Ethertype ACL.
 With Ethertype ACLs, an administrator can allow specific non-IP packets through
the firewall.

asa1(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit ipx


asa1(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside
asa1(config)# access-group ETHER in interface outside

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-12


ARP Inspection
ciscoasa(config)#
arp interface_name ip_address mac_address [alias]
 A static ARP entry maps a MAC address to an IP address and identifies the interface
through which the host is reached.

asa1(config)# arp outside 10.0.1.1 0009.7cbe.2100

ciscoasa(config)#
arp-inspection interface_name enable [flood | no-flood]
 ARP inspection checks all ARP packets against static ARP entries and blocks
mismatched packets.
 This feature prevents ARP spoofing.

asa1(config)# arp-inspection outside enable


arp inspection enabled on outside

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-13


Monitoring and Maintaining
Transparent Firewall Mode

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-14


MAC Address Table

VLAN 100 VLAN 200


10.0.1.0 10.0.1.0

Interface MAC Address Type Time Left


0010.7cbe.6101 -------------------------------------------------------- 0009.7cbe.2100
outside 0009.7cbe.2100 dynamic 10 -
inside 0010.7cbe.6101 dynamic 10 -

The MAC address table is used to find the outgoing interface based on
the destination MAC address.
 Built dynamically; contents learned from source MAC addresses
 No flooding if MAC address not found

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-15


Disabling MAC Address Learning
VLAN 100 VLAN 200
10.0.1.0 10.0.1.0

Interface MAC Address Type Time Left


0010.7cbe.6101 -------------------------------------------------------- 0009.7cbe.2100
outside 0009.7cbe.2100 dynamic 10 -
inside 0010.7cbe.6101 dynamic 10 -

ciscoasa(config)#
mac-learn interface_name disable
 Disables MAC address learning for an interface
(To re-enable MAC address learning, use the no form of this command. By
default, each interface automatically learns the MAC addresses of entering traffic, and
the security appliance adds corresponding entries to the MAC address table.)

asa1(config)# mac-learn outside disable


Disabling learning on outside

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-16


Adding a Static MAC Address
VLAN 100 VLAN 200
10.0.1.0 10.0.1.0

Interface MAC Address Type Time Left


0010.7cbe.6101 -------------------------------------------------------- 0009.7cbe.2100
outside 0009.7cbe.2100 static -
inside 0010.7cbe.6101 static -
ciscoasa(config)#
mac-address-table static interface_name mac_address
 Adds a static entry to the MAC address table
 Guards against MAC spoofing
(Normally, MAC addresses are added to the MAC address table dynamically as
traffic from a particular MAC address enters an interface. )

asa1(config)# mac-address-table static inside


0010.7cbe.6101
Added <0010.7cbe.6101> to the bridge table
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-17
Viewing the MAC Address Table

ciscoasa#
show mac-address-table [interface_name | count | static]
 Displays the MAC address table

asa1# show mac-address-table


interface mac address type Age(min)
----------------------------------------------------------
--
inside 0010.7cbe.6101 static
inside 0008.e3bc.5ee0 dynamic 5

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-18


debug Commands

Debug Support
 debug arp-inspection: To the track code path of ARP forwarding
and ARP inspection module in transparent firewall
 debug mac-address-table: To track the insertions, deletions, or
updates to the bridge table that is maintained for the transparent
firewall.

asa1# debug arp-inspection


asa1# debug mac-address-table

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-19


Summary

 A transparent firewall is a Layer 2 firewall that acts like a “bump in


the wire” or a “stealth firewall” and is not seen as a router hop to
connected devices.
 The security appliance connects the same network on its inside
and outside ports but uses different VLANs on the inside and
outside.
 Layer 2 monitoring and maintenance is performed by customizing
the MAC address table.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-20


Lab Visual Objective
Security
Appliance
172.16.P.30

“Bastion host”: .2
Web or FTP

172.16.P.0 (VLAN 40P)


172.16.P.0 (VLAN 30P)

.100 10.0.P.0
RTS

Web or FTP,
Local: 10.0.P.11
Cisco Secure
Local: 172.16.P.11
ACS, and
Student PC Syslog

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-21


© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SNPA v5.0—14-22