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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The ever growing population of Mumbai is putting lots of pressure on the existing infrastructure especially on the transportation segment. Traffic snarls are common in Mumbai and the rights of pedestrians is often breached by the vehicle owners and hawkers, who have encroached the footpath. Mumbai suburbs such as Dadar, Bandra, Andheri and Borivali are marked with congestion problem mainly near the station area. The station area is marked with chaos as the commuters both entering and exiting the station premises make a beeline which the existing bridges and entry/exit points cannot handle. Moving / parked vehicles outside the station and hawkers selling their wares add to this congestion and the ultimate result is lack of leg space for people to move. Transport interchange activities, passenger transfer between trains, buses, taxies & Private vehicles make the station area most congested. The problem aggravates with the road side hawking and vehicular parking. The Sky walk is an elevated walk way dedicated to the pedestrians connecting the railway Station, high concentration commercial area and destination points where the concentration of pedestrians prevail. The purpose of the sky walks is for efficient dispersal of commuters from station/congested area to strategic locations viz. bus stops, taxi stands, shopping areas, off roads etc. and vice versa. This would help decongest the crowded streets. The purpose of the study is to find whether potential commuters use the skywalk or not and if no, then the reasons behind it, and thereafter identifying feasible solutions on how they can use it. There are 48 skywalks lined up in Mumbai i.e. around Rs.560 crore at stake. This research will give them a lead on whether to go ahead with those projects or modify few aspects that may benefit the commuters. This, in turn will lead MMRDA to achieve their basic objective of reducing the congestion on roads and footpaths. The Objective of the study, firstly, is to find if there was a need of the skywalks at and thereafter to identify whether the potential commuters are using the skywalk or not. If not, then identify the reasons and suggest a solution for the same.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

SYNOPSIS
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT To study the concept of SKYWALKS To study the various process of developing a Skywalk

To analyze the importance, use of SKYWALK and also predict the future use.

METHODOLOGY

The study is based on primary as well as secondary data. The primary data has come from the questionnaire surveys. The secondary data has been obtained from the articles in magazines and newspapers and the internet.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY


How the people should be knowing about the new infrastructure How the new infrastructure is to be used How the skywalk is comfortable for the public.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

SCOPE OF THE STUDY This project of mine revolves around the study of newly introduced SKYWALKS thus trying to highlight many of its unknown aspect and also gives an eye-sight into the future use of it.

LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

The data presented in this project should be regarded as illustrative rather than exhaustive. This project was not only an exercise in primary data collection but it also paved ways for new innovative infrastructures which will surely help me in the coming years for having or getting new and modern infrastructure options.

RATIONALE BEHIND THIS PROJECT

The idea behind the Project is to provide an in-sight into the future of infrastructure so that more and more development in the field of infrastructure is to be made so that it brings convenience to the people living in the economy. As of now Skywalks are something very new to the economy as people are taking time to get in habit to it. This is how new infrastructures can help an economy get better in many ways.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

INTRODUCTION
Mumbai's suburban railway already has one of the highest passenger densities of any urban railway system in the world. With almost 7 million passengers using the system daily, as well as the associated transport interchanges in their vicinity (bus stations, taxi stands, auto rickshaw stands, car parks, etc.) make the suburban railway stations the most congested areas of the city. The problem is further aggravated by the presence of hawkers and parked vehicles, making the commute hazardous for pedestrians. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) conceived of the Skywalks in response to these problems in 2007 The sky elevated walk way dedicated to the pedestrians connecting the railway station/ high concentration commercial area and points where concentration of pedestrians prevail. The purpose of the skywalk is for efficient dispersal of commercial station/congested areas to strategic locations viz. bus stops, taxi stands, shopping areas, off roads etc. and vice-versa help decongest the crowded streets. Planning: MMRDA has already planned construction of 36 numbers of Skywalks in and around Mumbai Metropolitan Region Cost Estimates: Total estimated cost is Rs. 607.21 cr. Total contract cost is Rs. 735.02 cr. The total expenditure incurred so far is Rs.385.86 cr. Implementing Agencies: Before finalizing detailed project report i.e. before preparing GAD; local people, corporators from that area are being contacted to understand their views. PMC for these works have been and they are asked to coordinate with other concerned department like MCGM, Railways etc. The Alignment and Design: To be finalized considering various factors like: Entry points at strategic locations Underground utilities and minimum number of structures affected Available road widths Proximity of adjacent buildings Number of trees, large and small size getting affected Speed of construction
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Commuter safety Operation and maintenance etc .

Present Status:

Project Management Consultants (PMC) for project preparation designing and supervision work is finalized by MMR First Skywalk from Bandra Station to Kalanagar Junction has been already completed and immediately opened for public use after inauguration on 24.6.2008 The constructions of 14 numbers of skywalks which are partly completed are also open for pedestrian traffic. Construction of balance skywalk will be completed by the end of December 2010.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

ADVERTISEMENT ON SKYWALKS The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), which is constructing skywalks across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), has floated tender inviting agencies to display advertisements on its selected skywalks for a period of five years. This is not the first time the MMRDA is inviting agencies for the advertisement contracts. In August 2008, though the development authority had planned to give advertising and maintenance contracts to agencies, it failed terribly. As per the tender notice, the agencies can display advertisements on 18 skywalks including the first skywalk the MMRDA constructed in Bandra (east). The interested parties can opt for skywalks at
Bandra (west) Santacruz (west) Santacruz (east) Borivali (west) Kandivali (west) Dahisar (east) Dahisar (west) Mira Road (east) Bhandup (west) Ghatkopar (west) Ulhasnagar (west) Virar (west) Vasai (west) Badlapur (east)

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI


Badlapur (west) Kalyan (west) Kanjur Marg

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

SKYWALKS COMPLETED

EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

BANDRA EAST SKYWALK

Bandra Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) is one such project formulated by MMRDA for Bandra suburb of Mumbai. Bandra SATIS project is high on the agenda of the Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project, which aims to improve road network and provide effective traffic dispersal system in Greater Mumbai. The recently commissioned Bandra Skywalk is one such project, which is part of Bandra SATIS Bandra is one of the most prominent and bustling suburb of Mumbai. It is estimated that on an average more than 5 lakh commuters use this station. Out of this around 39 per cent are pedestrians, 32 per cent prefer bus service, 16 per cent travel by auto and the remaining 13 per cent use other modes of transport. The factors which are contributing to more commuter traffic on the eastern side is due to the existence of Bandra Kurla Complex - one of the largest office space complex in Mumbai and the other factor is the location of Bandra Kurla Railway Terminus on the eastern side, which sees both inbound and outbound commuter traffic Mumbai, June 24 (IANS) Yet another glittering jewel has been added to Bandra, the queen of Mumbai suburbs - a swank new skywalk, built at a cost of Rs.136 million. The skywalk will benefit over half a million train commuters and office-goers proceeding to the Bandra-Kurla Complex, a major suburban commercial hub developed over the past ten years. Inaugurating the skywalk, Maharashtra Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh said this was the first of the 50 skywalks being constructed at strategic locations all over Mumbai to ease congestion and provide faster access to railway stations.
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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

The skywalk, almost a kilometre long, will take the people from Bandra station right up to the Western Express Highway junction, near the existing Kala Nagar flyover, bypassing local hurdles like the Behrampada slums. After a couple of months, it will be extended up to the Bandra-Kurla railway Terminus nearby.

About the Project


Construction of Skywalk from Bandra Suburban Station (East) to Kalanagar under Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project (MUIP). Total length of Skywalk as per Bid document was 1300metre including 3 staircases. The Skywalk is supported on pile foundations, pile cap and structural steel columns/piers. Superstructure is of structural steel truss, pre-cast slab panels as deck slab with flooring of approved tiles. Walkway Project included covering structure with 16mm thick multi wall Polycarbonate sheets.

Challenges faced during execution


The site is in the heavily trafficked area. Major work was carried out in the night. The tender did not include any soil data which was collected only after award of work. During the execution of the work number of changes were required to be made in the alignment of the skywalk. Also due to sub soil strata of diversified nature changes were made. This called for execution of additional items/works. The GAD (General Arrangement Drawing) had to undergo a total at 5 revisions in order to suit the changes in the alignment as required by MMRDA and also the site conditionsviz. avoiding underground services such as electrical cables, gas lines, storm water drain, etc., As the period given was only 6 months we had to work 24 hours a day

BANDRA WEST SKYWALK

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Estimated Cost Rs. 1847 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 2395 (in lakhs)

Bandra (West) is one of the busiest suburbs in the city and caters to various business houses, educational institutions and residential complexes. In view of the vehicular movement, especially during the peak hours, this skywalk will be a great help, said MMRDAs Joint Metropolitan Commissioner Ashwini Bhide The much awaited 864-meter long skywalk at Bandra West is the 21st skywalk constructed by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), and pertinently the skywalk has recorded, on an average, thirty thousand footfalls each during the morning as well as the evening peak hours on a daily basis. Two years after it got its first skywalk, Bandras second skywalk and citys 21st was officially thrown open to the public. The 864-metre skywalk in Bandra (West), which was opened last week, has on an average 30,000 people using it during the morning and evening peak hours. The Rs 28.74-crore skywalk runs from platform number one to SV Road and opens up with two arms, one reaching the National Library and the other Badi Masjid on SV Road. The skywalks are proving to be a boon for the commuters, said Ms.Ashwini Bhide, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA. Also, the Western side of Bandra is one of the busier suburbs in the city and caters to various business houses, educational institutions and residential
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complexes. In view of the vehicular movement, especially during the peak hours, I am sure this skywalk will be a great help to school-college going kids, professionals and not-so-young people alike, said Ms.Bhide.

SANTACRUZ WEST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 2221.4 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 2567.97 (in lakhs) The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has thrown open another skywalk for the public at Santacruz (W). This skywalk runs from Santacruz railway station to Navratna Hotel on K.K.Road and eventually joins the S.V. Road. An official from the MMRDA said, The sky-walk is going to be great boon for pedestrian of Santacruz (W) because the hawkers have completely overtaken the footpaths and major portion of the road leading to the railway station. Podar School complex is situated near the sky-walk location. It is a big education institute with more than 1000 school students. Many of them travel by train and it would be easier for them to walk to the station by sky-walk, added the official. The MMRDA also has plans to extend the sky-walk upto Juhu chowpatty, because a large number of tourist visit this place from Santacruz.

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Skywalks connecting the railway stations to the main arterial roads will become even more commuter friendly as the MMRDA has offered to construct booking offices on the projects being carried out by the Central and Western Railway, the official said

SANTACRUZ EAST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 2250 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 2923 (in lakhs) Soon, commuters and pedestrians will be able to walk from vakola police station in santacruz (east) to Linking Road in Santacruz (west) without even buying a platform ticket to cross the railway tracks. This will be made possible by Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority that has plans to connect the two extreme ends and make it one of the longest skywalks in the city. The distance between vakola police station and Linking road is nearly 2.5 km. Clubbing both the skywalks including the public rail over bridge, the santacruz skywalk would become one of the longest skywalks constructed by MMRDA. Mr. Ratnakar, Metropolitan Commissioner of MMRDA said We have plans to extend skywalks on both the eastern and western sides of santacruz Currently, MMRDA has constructed two skywalks, one on either side of the santacruz railway station. The one in the east connects the station to the Western express highway. On the other side, the skywalk passes from the station road and ends at SV Road. Here, the skywalk will pass Saraswati Road to end at Linking Road.

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PUBLIC REVIEWS ABOUT THE SKYWALK


By Mr. Rakesh Sawant, who is a regular user of this particular skywalk The skywalk at santacruz east links the station on the eastern side to the Western Express Highway (WEH). There are no exists on the skywalk and once you start walking from the station, your next exit will be the Western Express Highway. When I started walking, I thought the walk would be endless, but you will be surprised that the entire stretch took me 5 minutes at a normal walking pace When the skywalks were built, I did think to myself if they were really worth it, but today they are totally worth it, because if there were no skywalks, Todays walk around have been atleast 15 minutes, not to forget with the heavy rains, there would be water all around and would be very mucky.

DAHISAR EAST SKYWALK

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

Estimated Cost Rs. 1302 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 1446.23 (in lakhs) The Skywalk runs from Dahisar railway station to Sammelan Hotel on SV Road. Mumbai, February 2, 2009 The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development (MMRDA) has thrown open yet another skywalk open for public at Dahisar East, which runs from railway station to Sammelan Hotel. The 14.45-crore Dahisar-East skywalk is 400 meters long and four meters wide. The construction of the remaining 77-meter arm will soon be completed as MMRDA received permission from the railway authorities only a month back. The same too will be opened shortly, said Mr. Ratnakar Gaikwad, Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA.

MIRA ROAD EAST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 1707.8 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 2133.03 (in lakhs) The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) on Sunday partially opened the skywalk at Mira Road (E) for public use. The arm starts from Mira Road station on the eastern side to Sayyad Ashraf Hamid Chowk According to a MMRDA spokesperson, it opened 250-metre arm of the skywalk to ease the difficulties faced by commuters, especially during the monsoon. The remaining 275-metre arm of the skywalk will be completed and opened soon. The 21-crore skywalk is the fourth skywalk thrown open for the commuters. The skywalk from Bandra east station to Kalanagar was the first one to be constructed by the MMRDA. The second was opened at Kanjurmarg east followed by the extension of the Bandra (E) skywalk.

OBJECTIONS MADE BY THE RESIDENTS


Work on the construction of two skywalks in Mira Road and Bhayander has begun despite objections from residents. The skywalks, being constructed outside the railway stations in Bhayander (west) and Mira Road (east), are part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Regional
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Development Authority's (MMRDA) project of building elevated walkways across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). While bids for the construction work were invited in December last year, the target for completion of the project is six months. Residents had started objecting to the project though the MMRDA claimed to have invited suggestions before the plan was finalised. Owners of the Shanti Shopping Centre Premises Cooperative Society located outside the Mira Road (east) railway station, have written to the MMRDA and the Mira-Bhayander Municipal Corporation (MBMC), objecting to the passing of the skywalk between the southern side of the shopping centre and Shanti Enclave building. "Residents of the first and second floor will have no privacy if the skywalk is constructed here. The MMRDA should have at least considered our suggestions before finalising the plan,'' said secretary of the society Narendra Bhambwani. Society members said that instead of constructing the skywalk, the railways should open the Foot-over-Bridge, which will provide direct access to commuters through the shopping centre which has over 700 shops. "Not only is the skywalk too close to the residential building, if people start using it, the shopping centre's business will also be hit,'' added Bhambwani.

VASAI ROAD WEST SKYWALK

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Estimated Cost Rs. 1550 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 1825 (in lakhs) Mumbai, October 10, 2010 The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has thrown open one more skywalks, at Vasai Road. The total number of skywalks opened for public, as of today, is 26. The Authority is committed to open, in all, 36 skywalks in the city of Mumbai and its region. The remaining ten skywalks are scheduled to be opened by the year end, said Ms.Ashwini Bhide, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA. The 250 meter long arm, running from the Vasai Road Foot Over Bridge (FOB) to Vartak College, of the Vasai skywalk has been completed as part of the first phase. The remaining 365 meter long arm, running from Tungarashwar Chowk to Ambadi Chowk, is expected to be completed by this month end. The 615-meter long Vasai Road skywalk is an 18-crore project.

COTTON GREEN SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 2985 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 3777 (in lakhs) Contactor J. Kumar Mumbai, October 10, 2010 The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has thrown open one more skywalk, at Cotton Green. The total number of skywalks opened for public, as of today, is 26. The Authority is committed to open, in all, 36 skywalks in the city of Mumbai and its region. The remaining ten skywalks are scheduled to be opened by the year end, said Ms.Ashwini Bhide, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA. The Authority has also opened the 100 meter long Northern arm of the Cotton Green skywalk, which runs from Cotton Green Foot Over Bridge to Barrister Nath Pai Road near HKTC Enterprises. The other 390 meter long arm of the skywalk is also scheduled to be completed by October end. The 490-meter long Cotton Green skywalk is a 37-crore project.

THANE EAST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 3145.8 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 3145.83 (in lakhs) Contractor M/s NCC- SMC JV The skywalk is a 1.6 km long skywalk for railway commuters and pedestrians in the east. The project will have eight openings for pedestrians and railway commuters to converge to Thane Railway Station and vice versa. Besides connecting the east of the city to the west, an arm of the project will also land near the Thane Municipal Corporation (TMC) run Chhatrapait Shivaji Maharaj (CSM) Hospital on Kalva - Vitava road. The arm will eventually be connected to a skywalk coming from the Kalva Railway Station as well. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority's (MMRDA) Kopri skywalk was the topic of discussion last week in this newspaper. Now, the MMRDA plans on expanding the project for the greater benefit of the commuters of Thane as well as residents of Kopri. The mega expansion of the project is likely to send the project rising up to Rs 22 crore. The total length of the extended skywalk will go up to 2.5 kilometre from its original plan of keeping it 1.5 kilometres.

The MMRDA is now actively considering the expansion of the skywalk with an arm that will lead towards the CIDCO Naka junction on the edge of the creek through the public FOB on the
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Kalva end of the station. The public FOB would also be shifted to allow its connection to the skywalk. There is a proposal to extend this arm further towards the TMC run Chhattrapati Shivaji Hospital (CSM), Kalva in the form of a bridge over the creek. One more arm would be added to the skywalk. The arm will cross over the creek running parallel to the east of the existing railway tracks and land at vitava. The step has been taken to ensure that the pedestrians and the commuters of Thane wishing to go towards Vitava will have a ten minutes free walk to their destination.

ANDHERI EAST SKYWALK

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Estimated Cost Rs. 2301 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 3001 (in lakhs) The 20 crore skywalk runs from Agarkar Chowk near Andheri station ( E. ) towards Gokhale Bridge. Andheri being one of the most busy hubs in Mumbai, Thousands of Mumbaikars work in and around Andheri. Though a few finishing touches are still being given to it, the skywalk has been opened considering the approaching monsoon, said the officials from MMRDA. The wind in your face. Raindrops falling on your head. A doublehigh ceiling. An expanse of space unimaginable in most Mumbai homes. This is no luxury apartment, but a description of the citys many new skywalks, now home to the homeless. And the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA),which has constructed these skywalks and is responsible for their maintenance,is doing little to keep them away.

The Andheri (East) skywalk turns into a shelter for 200-250 people every night. The Bandra (West) skywalk also provides housing to a group of handicapped beggars who seek alms at the Hill Road signal. A part of the Santa Cruz skywalk has been taken over by hawkers. At night, it
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is also used by homeless people as a shelter. At some places in the western suburbs, skywalks have been taken over by members of a tribal community.

The MMRDA has appointed security guards, who turn a blind eye. Rajesh Singh, a labourer who sleeps regularly on the Andheri skywalk, said, our family was very poor and we migrated to Mumbai two years ago. I first stayed in the hills of the national park, but we were evicted. We dont disturb pedestrians and occupy the skywalk only at night.

NET GAIN: The Andheri (E) skywalk,which connects the station to the east-west flyover, doubles up as a shelter for the homeless at night

BHANDUP WEST SKYWALK

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Estimated Cost Rs. 1215 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 1564 (in lakhs) The construction of the 18-crore Bhandup skywalk has encountered a roadblock because a politician does not want a flight of stairs built near his property. The Rs 18-crore public project would help 2.5 lakh commuters get in and out of the Bhandup railway station more easily. MMRDA has so far constructed a 240 metre arm of the skywalk and was hoping to throw it to the pedestrians by making a staircase near Patil Estate, owned by the family of National Congress Party. However, MMRDA officials allege they havent been able to make the landing as Patil has objected to the proposed staircase falling in an area close to his property. When contacted, Patil said he was not opposed to the skywalk and work on the project was held up because of clearances required form the railway authorities.

However, Patil said he was opposed to the landing coming up near the Patil Estate

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Where is the need to have a landing so close to the station? Will people climb stairs to cover a 150-metre distance? MMRDA officials are blaming me to hide their inefficiency, Patil added. The 630-metre skywalk connects Bhandup railway station and Tank Road. Having landings at short distances will benefit commuters who can get on and off at short distances. Now commuters will have to trudge all the way till Dream Mall if they want to get off the skywalk, Pahal added. MMRDA officials say Patil had been informed of the planned staircase and had initially supported the project. We received Mr Patils support when we started executing the project. There is a problem now on where the landing should be constructed. We hope to sort these issues out soon, MMRDAs Additional Chief Engineer Anand Pahal said.

BADLAPUR SKYWALK
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The Rs 18.5 cr worth project is totally funded by the MMRDA. The total length of the skywalk is 1822 meters, and will be 7 meters wide. A hawkers zone is demarcated measuring 7 x 4 meters along with shops admeasuring 4 ft x 5 ft shops for the people wanting to make purchases. The skywalks will haves a seating arrangement for the old to rest. The skywalk starts from Athiti Hotel and connects the Railway gate, Telone Tower, Railway gate and Navratna Hotel. In the West, it will connect the ST stand to the railway gate. As Badlapur is a growing suburb we want to provide the citizens with all the modern amenities so that in future we dont have to repent for the mistakes and put the citizens into trouble. Keeping in mind the future demands, we approached the MMRDA for this project and luckily our skywalk proposal was sanctioned, informs Ram Patkar, president of KBMC According to sources, the KBMC says that they have requested the MMRDA to increase the length of the skywalk and extend it to other areas. They have agreed and if sanctioned MMRDA will fund around Rs 42 cr totally including the present amount for the project, concludes Patkar. The news of the skywalk being completed has come as a welcome relief for the residents. The skywalk will be a boon for us senior citizens who take a morning or an evening walk to keep fit. As of now we neglect long walk and we have to be very cautious and alert of speeding bikes, rickshaws and other vehicles, sometime we are even knocked down. When skywalk well be commissioned we will be relieved and walk freely, reasons Mohan Gupte, a senior citizen from Badlapur east.

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As Badlapur is a scenic city, the skywalk will give me a pleasant view of the city with hills in the background. I am eagerly waiting for its opening soon, says 35-year-old Sonali Badlapukar, a housewife.

CHEMBUR SKYWALK
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Estimated Cost Rs. 480 (in lakhs) Contact Cost Rs. 591 (in laks) The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has thrown open one more skywalk partly at Chembur. The 80-meter long and 4-meter wide arm of the skywalk runs between the two existing FOBs at Chembur-W. The Authority will open the remaining 150-meter long arm of the Chembur skywalk in May 2010 as the work on the same has started recently after getting the required permission from the railway authorities, which came about a bit late, said Ms.Ashwini Bhide, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA. The cost for the entire skywalk, being constructed by M/s. Prime Engineering, is rupees 5.92 crores.

GHATKOPAR WEST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 1074 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 1393 (in lakhs) Over the last few years, couples in Ghatkopar, as the rest of this space-crunched concrete jungle had a dearth of parks and gardens to spend some time together. But now, they have suddenly stumbled upon a new hangout placethe skywalk recently constructed by the MMRDA connecting the northern end Ghatkopar and the station has become a hit among couples and college students for socializing. In Ghatkopar (W), which is mainly an industrial area, the only place where youngsters can hang out is a mall on LBS Marg, while the eastern part of Ghatkopar has all the greensLions Garden. They found a new place for their rendezvous when the skywalk was opened two months ago. With pedestrians hardly ever using the facility, couples, who regularly get harassed by the police and eunuchs, found this spot an ideal place to meet. Besides, many students from Jhunjhunwala College and coaching classes have also turned it into their favourite hault.

Said Ashutosh Shah , "As the skywalk is at least two-storey high, people walking along the station road cannot see what is happening up and those passing through the trains can barely see what people are doing on the skywalk. So, it has become a cosy nook for couples."

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VIRAR WEST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 680.93 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 915.85 (in lakhs) The 589 meter long and 4 meter wide virar west skywalk is thrown open skywalk runs from virar railway station to Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj statue Mumbai, March 22, 2009 The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has thrown open another skywalk for public at virar west, which runs from Virar Railway station to Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Statue. We are happy to open the 7th skywalk in the city completely which cost rupees 9.15 crore. Virar west skywalk is 589 metres long with 4 metres wide walkway. I am sure this skywalk will be useful for thousands of virar residents as many train services culminate at Virar, said, Mr. Ashwin Bhide, joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA.

KANJURMARG EAST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 777.46 (in lakhs) Contract Cost Rs. 975.4 (in lakhs) The Bhoomipujan ceremony of Mumbai's first skywalk cum shopping plaza at Kanjurmarg East was performed at the hands of Sowmya Raghavan, General Manager of Central Railway, Mumbai. PRK Murthy, Chief Transport & Communication, MMRDA and Managing Director of the Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation, PC Sehgal were also present on the occasion. The Skywalk at Kanjurmarg railway station (East) has been taken up for implementation by Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) with the cooperation of Central Railway (CR). The 222 metre long skywalk begins from Kanjurmarg Railway station (East) and ends near the Jogeshwari-Vikhroli Link Road. The width of the skywalk is 7 metres with four metres reserved for pedestrians and three metres for shops and the railings. The height of the skywalk is 6.5 metres from the ground. Nearly 74 commercial tenements will be constructed on this skywalk for the shopping connivance of the pedestrians. The design of this skywalk will be different from the Bandra skywalk and ceramic tiles have been used for flooring. The estimated cost of this skywalk is Rs58.5mn. The contract to construct the skywalk has been awarded to J Kumar infrastructure.

BORIVALI WEST SKYWALK


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Estimated Cost Rs. 3040 (in laks) Contract Cost Rs. 3373.82 (in lakhs) The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) threw open, partly, the skywalks at Borivli-W for public. The 330-meter long and 4-meter wide Borivli-W skywalk arm runs from platform number one up to Raj Mahal Hotel on the Chandavarkar Road. The Authority has opened the skywalk partly considering various difficulties faced by commuters, especially the kids and not-so-young ones. The remaining two arms of the Borivli-W skywalk will be completed and opened shortly, said Ms.Ashwini Bhide, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA.

KALYAN WEST SKYWALK

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

Estimated Cost Rs. 4298.2 (in lakhs) Contact Cost Rs. 5768.16 (in lakhs) The swanky new skywalk in Kalyan-west, the raised pathway for the commuters outside the overcrowded railway junction, designed to de-congest the traffic in the station area and bring relief to the commuters, is being openly used by the citys homeless and the marginalized sections. Inaugurated recently, one wing of the ambitious skywalk opening towards the Deepak hotel side has been taken over by the invisible of the metro, as the safest haven for the night. The presence of these vagabonds has put a scare among the solitary commuter coming home late in the night. Women are especially frightened to use the skywalk as an alternative route to the station road-choked with vehicles as well as hawkers most of the time and in monsoon, filled with filth and muck as well.

REVIEW BY Mrs. Smita Kadam I was really shocked to see these tramps sleeping on the bridge meant for the pedestrians only. It was late in the night and the bunch of drug addicts looked very dangerous and deranged. They were lost in a haze. The entire set up looked very creepy and unreal for me. I was accompanied by my husband and felt a bit safe. For lonely female commuters, it is not a safe place at all.
They should not allow the public space to be converted into a dormitory for the homeless of the city. Their presence makes the bridge a dangerous and lonely place. If not chased away, they can make it as their permanent nightly shelter. Chances of assault and mugging are also a possibility.
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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

This will deter the commuters from using it as a clean option to the citys dirty and dark slippery streets, says another angry commuter Ram Patil. Commuters say that the KDMC-appointed private security is a mute witness to this blatant encroachment. A source in KDMC informs that the security personnel deployed on the bridge have been assaulted by the drug addicts with blades in the past. This makes them nervous in shooing them off from the skywalk or taking any action against them. Criminals and other anti-social elements, if unchecked, will soon make this Rs 110-crore projectdelayed by more than a year and a half due to various reasonsan aerial nightmare for the pedestrians and a costly liability for the civic body. When contacted, police inspector R Awhad (crime), Mahatma Phule police station, Kalyan west, said, It is the sole responsibility of the KDMC and the security agency only. We have three constables manning the entire station area on 24-hour basis. We are badly understaffed so far. But I will ask the cops to do the patrolling on the skywalk also.

GRANT ROAD SKYWALK

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

Estimated Cost Rs. 3898 (in lakhs) Contact Cost Rs. 5048 (in lakhs) The skywalk slated at Grant Road is a unique structure with its 650-m-long and four-metre-wide circular shape and use of escalators. With a price tag of Rs 45 crore, the structure is set to become one of the architectural attractions of the area. This skywalk will showcase the vibrancy of the city, said Lt. Col (retd) Anand Kumar Pahal, additional chief engineer of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) who is in charge of the project. While the bridge design may be fancy, there is a strong functional requirement behind its circular shape, said Atul Bhobe, managing director of S N Bhobe and Associates, the architectural firm designing the bridge. "There were so many underground utilities like telephone lines, power cables and water lines at that spot, we had to conceptualise something quite different,'' he said. According to Bhobe, Nana Chowk, where the structure is to come up, can be approached from five different locations-Tardeo, Kemps Corner, Lamington Road, Girgaum Chowpatty and Opera House. "In order to avoid obstructing vehicular traffic, we had to create a unique design,'' said Bhobe.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

Eight escalators would be installed to help commuters use the skywalk. MMRDA officials said that, several skywalks that are coming up, will look like mini versions of cable stayed bridges, while some will have arches. MMRDA was criticized for the design of the skywalk at Bandra east which was described by critics as being plain and ordinary. Heritage lovers have demanded that the skywalks, which will come up in the Churchgate area, have to be designed in keeping with the heritage status of the area.

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EFFECTIVENESS

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SKYWALKS HAVING GOOD RESPONSE (60,000 TO 75,000 FOOTFALLS A DAY


Bandra east Mira Road Bandra west Santacruz east Santacruz west Vile Parle west Grant Road Kalyan west

SKYWALKS HAVING AVERAGE RESPONSE (20,000 TO 35,000 FOOTFALLS A DAY)


Bhayandar west Ulhasnagar west Borivli west Dahisar east Dahisar west Cotton Green Thane west Virar east

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

SKYWALKS HAVING POOR RESPONSE (5000 TO 8000 FOOTFALLS DAY)


Kanjurmarg

Vidyavihar east Vidyavihar west

Chembur Vasai Road Thane east Bhandup west Badlapur east Badlapur west Andheri east Ghatkopar west

(29TH NOVEMBER,2010 TIMES OF INDIA)

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BIG ON PROMISE SMALL ON DELIVERY


Aniket Gupta has a hard time tending to his shop in Kanjurmarg. So, whenever he wants to take a break from the steady stream of customers, off he climbs up the nearby skywalk. Here I can relax. Its calm up her; I can phone a friend in peace. Gupta says without saying any effort to hide the irony in his voice. This should have been the most crowded passagewayin this area, but there are simply no takers When the MMRDA announced its skywalk plan, it was met with skeptics from the public. A walk up an elevated corridor to ease congestion on the roads near crucial points like railway stations sounds perfect in theory, but is rarely practicable, the critics said. They are now being vindicated. The Kanjurmarg skywalk is symptomatic of the trend: feeble response is the reality also at Ghatkopar (W), Bhandup (W), Badlapur (W), Badlapur (W), Kalyan (W), Vidyavihar, Chembur, Thane (E) and Andheri (E) skywalks. The story is no different for the ones in Virar (W), Bhayander (W), Ulhasnagar (W), Borivli (W), Dahisar (E-W), Cotton Green and Thane (W). Kamal Bagchi, who commutes from Kalyan to Badlapur, says people favour the Kalyan (W) skywalk for morning walks, but not when they are in a hurry to catch a local. It is rarely used during the day. But MMRDA spokesman Dilip Kawathkar pooh-poohed the criticism with the best weapon government authorities can wieldstatistics. The likes of Gupta, however cannot bother less. The skywalk is where I get peace, he contentedly says.

A WALKING PATH AND SIGHTSEEING SPOT


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The story of Mumbais skywalk is not all disastrous. There have been instances when a skywalk, as was hoped, gave the citys pedestrians respite from the vagaries of its streets. Top among them is the foot over-bridge in Bandra (east). Built in 2008 at a cost of Rs. 10.76 crore, the Bandra (East) skywalks success paved the path for other over-bridges in the city. And, if official counts are anything to go by, it still clocks more than 50,000 foot-falls a day. I use the skywalk regularly and find it convenient, said Vikas Navre, a businessman who stays in Bandra (East), adding that it is difficult to walk along Anant Kanekar Marg because of heavy traffic. Other residents of the neighbourhood, too, said they preferred the 1.2 km long skywalk than dodging cars and trucks. The over-bridge is also popular among walkers who can be seen there every day early morning and in the evenings. It also has the vote of young couples, who take in the sights from the skywalk every day before making way back home. The skywalk had some teething problems when it was thrown open to the public. Pedestrians complained it was unstable, forcing the authorities to strengthen it with additional pillars. There were also instances of tiles crack up soon after opening. But the problems have been relegated to the past. The MMRDA is now considering plans to extend the skywalk from Bandra (East) to Bandra-Kurla Complex, giving residents a glimmer of more convenience in the future.

MMRDA TRIMS SKYWALKS ON PUBLIC DEMAND


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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

MUMBAI: Bowing to public demand, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has altered the routes and narrowed the widths of at least a dozen skywalks planned at Mulund East and West, Virar (E), Wadala (W), Vile Parle (E), Sewri (E), Kurla (E), two skywalks at Dadar (E), Bhandup (W) and the one at Naigaon. The width of all skywalks has now been reduced to four metres. According to the MMRDA sources, the width of few of these skywalks could be trimmed further to keep `reasonable and adequate' distance from the residential buildings close to them, especially in crowded narrow lanes like in Dadar (East). MMRDA decision comes following the Bombay high court directive not to allow hawkers on the skywalks. The directives were issued by the court after shopkeepers and residents in Dadar (W) and Grant Road filed a PIL challenging MMRDA's skywalk plans. According to Additional Chief Engineer Anand Kumar Pahal, Naigaon skywalk would be converted into a road bridge as demanded by the citizens there. Of the total 61 skywalks, MMRDA is constructing 49 skywalks while 13 skywalks are being implemented by the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC).

FROM PARKING LOT TO NEAREST STATION, JUST A SKYWALK AWAY


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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

The citys powers-that-be have decided to put the yellow monsters criss-crossing the citys skyline to better use. Ignoring the fact that most skywalks are rarely used, if at all, officials are planning to build new ones. These, of course, will come up alongside public parking spaces close to railway, metro and monorail stations. A state-appointed expert committee has decided to connect the two facilities to provide easy access to public transport for those parking their cars at these facilities. The committee had been appointed to ratify proposals for the creation of public parking space on private land. Last year, development control regulations were modified to permit private participation in creating public parking infrastructure. Accordingly, FSI incentives up to 50% of the built-up parking space were made available to private parties. The committee, comprising officials from the BMC, MMRDA, traffic police and town planning, has started insisting on construction of skywalks near public parking lots proposed to be built within 500m of existing or proposed railway stations and proposed metro and monorail stations. The onus of constructing the skywalk will lie with the private firm, a committee member said. A section among senior road department officials, however, felt skywalks would only burden road infrastructure and violate air space. We do not expect a high user count for these skywalks, one of them said On Wednesday, the skywalk condition was insisted upon for four of the five proposals approved. Three will come up along LBS Marg, along a proposed metro route, while another one will come up near Bhandup station.

MMRDAS PRIDE AND BLEMISH

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On the one hand, its skywalk project has made the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) proud. The Wall Street Journal has applauded it for the skywalk from Bandra station to the Kalanagar junction on the Western Express Highway. On the other hand, the skywalk project is giving the MMRDA the blushes. Right to information (RTI) queries by citizens regarding skywalks in the city have time and again seen MMRDA officials giving contradictory replies. Foremost, there is confusion over the exact number of skywalks the MMRDA plans to build across the city. The MMRDA has made an official announcement that there would be 57 skywalks. But a recent RTI application by Grant Road resident Arvind Dagha fetched a document from the authority listing 80 skywalks planned for the city. In February 2009, Vile Parle resident Ketan Gada asked the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC), which is constructing the Vile Parle (West) skywalk for the MMRDA, for copies of the consent letters it had obtained from the Member of Parliament (MP), the Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) and the corporator representing the locality. He got a reply stating that "oral" permissions had been obtained from the three. But Dagha's RTI application obtained a detailed list of meetings held with local representatives. Copies of both the RTI applications and replies are with DNA. The MMRDA has been vague in its reply to certain questions, such as who is responsible for the loss of money where a skywalk construction began, but was later cancelled. Another RTI application by a citizen had the MMRDA talking in riddles. His query was regarding the cost escalation of the skywalk project. Initially, 30 skywalks had been planned, and were to cost Rs600 crore. Later, the MMRDA increased the number of skywalks to 57 and the cost to Rs1,400 crore. Explaining the steep rise - an additional Rs800 crore for 27 more skywalks - the MMRDA officials cited the rising cost of steel, the need for aesthetic improvement, etc. as reasons. Surprisingly, the same officials had earlier said that the skywalk project would cost less thanks to the fall in steel prices. DNA pointed out the flip-flops to MMRDA spokesperson Dilip Kawathkar. But he strongly defended his officials. "All permissions related to each and every skywalk have been obtained as per requirements. There are no irregularities," he said.

SKYWALKS INDIAS CONGESTED STREETS

CURIOUS

ANSWER

TO
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EFFECTIVENESS OF SKYWALKS IN MUMBAI

Mumbai, known to face problems with overcrowding, has just developed an answer to its problem. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is building a series of elevated walkways to help combat congestion on the streets. Skywalks, nicknamed yellow caterpillars, are made out of concrete and steel and are being constructed across Mumbai. The MMRDA plans to create 36 skywalks within the bustling streets of Indias largest and most metropolitan city, with a popular of 21 million. According to a report on CNN, skywalks will connect major train stations throughout Mumbai and make commuting easier by providing less traffic on the ground-level streets.

QUESTIONNAIRE
DIMENSIONS Comfort
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Convenience Lighting Security

Q1. Do the citizens feel safe using the skywalk? a) Agree b) Strongly Agree c) Disagree Q2. Is it serving the purpose of the citizens? a) Agree b) Strongly Agree c) Disagree Q3. Are there enough lights being deployed on the skywalks? a) Agree b) Strongly Agree c) Disagree Q4. Do you find enough seating arrangements for senior citizens? a) Agree b) Strongly Agree c) Disagree

BEST SKYWALKS
DIMESNSIONS: Comfort Convenience
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Lighting Security

SKYWALKS WITH POOR FOOTFALLS

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F TF L ONS Y AL OO AL S KW K
ANDHERI GHATKOPAR WEST KANJURMARG CHEMBUR

POOR RESPONSE OF SKYWALKS

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SKYWALK FROM CST TO CHURCHGATE


Imagine walking between Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Churchgate without having to worry about the traffic whizzing past you in all directions.
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Impossible? Think again, for the metropolitan administration has appointed Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) to construct a one-kilometre long skywalk between the two stations.
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has asked MSRDC to plan and construct skywalks at nine stations, including the one between CST and Churchgate. Confirming this, MMRDA spokesman Dilip Kawathkar said that the remaining eight stations to have skywalks were Nalasopara, Vasai Road, Ambernath, Goregaon, Vile Parle and Kandivili (all on the western side), Masjid Bunder and Lower Parel.

While the other eight skywalks taken together are estimated to cost Rs25 crore, the one between CST and Churchgate would cost over Rs20 crore. Sources said that MSRDC would deal with cost estimation, planning and execution, with MMRDA acting as the nodal agency for funding. MMRDA is constructing a skywalk between Bandra station and BKC on an experimental basis. It is likely to cost nearly Rs13 crore. Work is expected to be over by April. The sudden move by MMRDA to hand over the skywalk project to MSRDC has come as a surprise. According to sources, the metropolitan administration was not happy with the costing and the progress of work at the Bandra-BKC skywalk, which it is building on its own.

BANDRA EAST SKYWALK REVIEW


AUTHOR: JOY DSOUZA

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After the routine movie plan I chose Bandra east for my Sunday walk. This time I started late so that I could look around the places without the heavy heat from sun. I started my walk at 4 o clock evening from Bandra station. Sunday Walk through sky walk, its a really great experience. Mumbai have started building sky walks for pedestrians to walk to the destination from railway stations without struggling through the traffic. If you take an Arial view you can see this sky walk lying like Great Wall of China. Its big enough to accommodate two cars side by side. There is a direct entrance to the skywalk from railway stations. On the start I could see big pipelines which I think should be the water supply for Mumbai city. Sky walk is so clean and calm that I recommend this for joggers.

This has only few exits at selected regions. There were guards for every straight stretch of the skywalk. They didnt allow me to stamp the scenic beauty around on my camera because of security reasons. This is the only option in Mumbai to enjoy aerial view of Mumbai. I was watching the people around. The people who were using the skywalk were rushing for their needs. Whereas I could see youngsters enjoying kite flying as if they are flying in the sky. I could even see the kites of disappointments hanging over the branches of trees.

I kept on walking because I didnt know where this is going to end. Walking over western express highway was one of best view in the skywalk. Instead of something flying over you, when you walk in a sky walk, you are walking above the cars.
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At last I found the end point of this skywalk at Bandra kurla complex. Its a newly developed commercial region to accommodate the increasing number of office population. This region was previously a marshy land. And this region still has a scope for development as the surrounding regions havent yet been acquired by someone as it is still marshy. Reliance building which are finished with high standards are found on the sides when we enter the Bandra kurla complex. Whole offices of reliance will be shifted here soon. Just opposite to this complex entrance I could see the offices of ONGC and Indian Oil. I returned the journey as I was late. As this whole skywalk is too lengthy for old or sick people they have provided seating on sides. I took a 5 min rest on a seat watching the sun setting on the west.

BASIC REASON FOR NON-USAGE OF SKYWALKS


Laziness Resistance to Change: One is habituated to its regular time table and their mode of transport
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THE ALTERNATIVE USAGE OF SKYWALKS COULD BE


Hangout Smoking : Not feasible as smoking is banned in public places Hawkers Trolleys : For carrying of goods OOH Walking and Jogging Social Awareness Programs

THE EXPECTATIONS FROM THE SKYWALKS ARE


Quality Pollution Free More Benches
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Cleanliness Entertainment

No Hoardings : Not feasible as it is a Source of Revenue, also the proportion of commuters who wants ads to be displayed are more

Less Congestion More Entry-Exit Points Good Lighting Escalators, Elevators, Conveyor Belts Security No Beggars

RECOMMENDATIONS
There are recommendations that came up in the process of filling the questionnaire, many of which are already implemented or taken care of, few are not feasible and others were fantasy. Feasible Recommendation:
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More benches for people who have their morning/evening walks and hangouts Dustbins for cleanliness Telephone Booths Trolleys for people to carry goods Promote as a safe and alternative mode of transport Space on the skywalk could be used to spread social awareness

CONCLUSION
There is a definite need for an alternative mode of transport to reduce the congestion. The skywalk is an excellent alternative for that. It has reduced the congestion and traffic near all the station areas.
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Even though most of the potential commuters are not using it, it has become a good source of revenue by selling the maintenance contract. And the best part is that the maintenance contract carries all the necessary activities that need to be done on a regular basis. The new skywalks that are coming up have space for hawkers, which will reduce the congestion near the station. Anyways, the hawkers near the stations are illegal. This will give them an opportunity to set up their stall legally. It will also motivate commuters who shop from the hawkers to use the skywalk. The MMRDA should go ahead with the concept because from our perspective there is nothing to lose, but from the MMRDA perspective there is a lot to gain.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
I was able to make this project on Skywalks with the help of the following websites

www.google.co.in www.wikipedia.com www.accommodationtimes.com


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www.dnaindia.com
In the end the Survey Questionnaire also helped me in getting relevant information about the skywalks performance.

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