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Chapter 8-Nervous System

Motor Control? Epilepsy, Phantom limb, deep brain stim Movie : Introduction to the Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System: Detect the Environment (Sensory) Integrate Information (Control Center) Maintain homeostasis (Control Center) Control muscles and glands (Effector) Mental activity: thinking, feeling, remembering, learning (Effector

Deep Brain Stim for Parkinsons: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFtgV1vqwiE and Alzheimers brain tutorial: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_4719.asp Life without pain receptors: http://www.uth.tmc.edu/nba/neuroscience/s2/ii6-1.html Phantom Limb Pain: http://www.ted.com/index.php/speakers/vilayanur_ramachandran.html

Divisions of the Nervous System



Nervousparts: System Nervous system is divided in 2 main

Central Nervous System (CNS): brain & spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerves to and from the CNS

Brain and Spinal Cord are protected by bone and connective tissue meninges. Both float and are cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Protective Covering: Skull and Meninges

Dura mater consists of an outer periosteal layer and an inner (meningeal layer) In a few places, between the layers there are dural sinuses Dural septa (flat partitions) Falx cerebri Falx cerebelli Tentorium cereblli Arachnoid mater covers the surface of the brain and has CSF - filled subarachnoid space (with blood vessels) Pia mater is anchored to the brain (penetrates sulci)

Arachnoid villus

Periosteal layer

Meningeal layer

Arachnoid Superior sagittal sinus Pia matter Subarachnoid space


http://neurosurgery.seattlechildrens.org/conditions_treat ed/hydrocephalus.asp


The Central Nervous System

Surface anatomy includes cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla) and spinal cord Contains almost 98% of the bodys nervous tissue: Trillions of connections between neurons Cortical regions have different processing functions
1010 to 1011 neurons (10%) 1013 glia (90%)



Processes Sensory

Visual spatial cognition


Aggression Visual Plannin g

Hearing Learning Memory

Fifth Lobe: Insula

Understanding Speech



Introduction to Functional Regions of Brain:

Left half of the brain controls the right side of body (sensory and motor) Some functions are lateralized (e.g. language is on the left in most people)

Introduction to Functional Regions of Brain Right half of the brain controls the left side of body (sensory and motor) Some functions are lateralized (e.g. visual - spatial tasks are on the right in most people)

Reference: http://members.shaw.ca/hidden-talents/brain/jpg/b-right.jpg and http://hiddentalents.org/index.htm

3D representation of sensory and motor body maps = homonculus


Body Map on Sensory Cortex

Primary Somatosensory Cortex


Topographic map of body on Motor cortex

Primary Motor Cortex


CNS: Spinal Cord

Spinal cord is enclosed within the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to L2 Organization of the spinal cord provides for two-way communication to and from the brain Dorsal roots contain sensory nerves bring info in Ventral roots contain motor nerves taking info out to muscles Cervical and Lumbar Enlargements Peripheral Nervous System: Spinal nerves (31 pairs) enter and exit through intervertebral foramen Somatic (to skeletal muscles) Autonomic Nervous System (to glands, organs, blood vessels)

Peripheral Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Automatic Not Voluntary? EX: Control of heart rate, respiration rate

Article about monks changing body temperature: http://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/09/science/science-watch-heat-from-meditation.html Movie Relaxation response: http://www.pbs.org/saf/1310/video/watchonline.htm Benson and Monk Movie in Tibet (starts with Alan Alda in lab) : http://vvi.onstreammedia.com/cgi-bin/visearch?user=pbssaf&template=play220asf.html&query=*&squery=%2BClipID%3A5+%2BVideoAsset%3Apbssaf1 310&inputField=%20&entire=No&ccstart=2069479&ccend=3318395&videoID=pbssaf1310

ANS: Two Divisions (Fight or Flight AND Rest and Digest)

Eye Stomach

Constricts Pupils Increase digestion, motility, elimination Increase saliva production Decrease heart rate Constrict airways Erection

Constricts pupils Decrease digestion, motility, elimination Decrease saliva production Increase heart rate Dilate airways Ejaculation, orgasm

Salivary Gland Heart Lungs Genitals

Cells of Nervous Tissue: Neurons and Glia

FUNCTIONS Neurons excitable cells that transmit electrical signals, connect with each other to form circuits, detect, integrate and respond to signals. Major players of nervous system (10% of cells) Glia supporting cells that fill space around neurons and do many other jobs (e.g. maintain ion concentrations especially [K+ ]in extracellular fluid, serve as a scaffold for neuron migration during development, wrap axons and so much more (90% of cells).



Neuron Anatomy

Classification of Neurons

Shape Location Function:

Motor neurons sensory neurons interneurons



Glia: Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in nervous tissue

Glue old idea when not much was known Control regional blood flow in the brain at blood brain barrier

Promote neurogenesis of stem cells http://www.hhmi.org/news/stevens2. html

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/3 4048/title/Astrocytes_are_rising_stars AND http://power.healingmindn.com/2009/01/2 0/fmri-neuroscience-advances-in-mindreading-scans/

Blood Brain Barrier

Form network that propagates slow calcium waves throughout the brain (through gap junctions) Wrap neurons and their synaptic endings Act as scaffolds for migration of developing neurons (e.g. Bergmann) Protect cells during brain ischemia (from cardiac arrest, stroke, trauma) by sopping up waste (K+, glutamate) Act as phagocytes

Scaffold for Neurons (Bergmann glia in cerebellum)

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are glia that wrap and insulate axons

Oligodendrodrocytes: Wrap axons in the CNS

Schwann cells: Make myelin sheath in the PNS

Sheath is the insulation that makes AP propagation fast ( 150 m/s vs. 1 m/s) Sheath acts as a bridge for regeneration of axons
Myelinated nerve bundle of axons

Resting Potential Excitation Secretion Coupling (calcium) Graded Synaptic Potentials

Excitatory Inhibitory

Neurophysiology: Concepts to Understand

Threshold Action Potentials Propagation Circuits Wiring of cells to each other matters!


Resting Potential

+100 mV

-100 time

DEF: An anatomically, chemically and functionally specialized region between two cells that mediates information transfer. Cells in the CNS receive as many as 10,000 synapses


**** Information transfer can be excitatory or inhibitory

How is this different from the neuromuscular junction?

Chemical Synapses A closer look

Anatomical/Chemical Specializations of Chemical Synapses include: Presynaptic terminal filled with synaptic vesicles and Ca channels Postsynaptic specializations including high density of transmitter receptors Fluid-filled space called synaptic cleft often filled with special molecules which may include enzymes to breakdown transmitter, synapse-stabilizer molecules, and other interesting


Synaptic Potentials: Excitation Secretion (calcium)

+100 mV

-100 time

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthew s/neurotrans.html

More than 50 different neurotransmitters have been identified. NT classified according to 1. Functional effects 2. Chemical structure
1. Excitatory 2. Inhibitory
1. Acetylcholine Alzheimers? 2. Amino acids MSG ? 3. Neuropeptides Opiates, Oxycontin? 4. Biogenic amines Cocaine? Prozac, Milk? 5. Purines Caffeine, Chocalate? 6. Hormones Testosterone? 7. Gases Nitrous? 8. Lipids Cannabinoids like marijuana?

Mouse party: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html NT, Drugs INFO: http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/flash/stimulants_draft.swf http://www.nationalfamilies.org/brain/index.html

EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potentials are graded potentials that depolarize cell.

2 Types of Post-synaptic Potentials (PSPs)

IPSP inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are graded potentials hyperpolarize the cell.

EPSPs and IPSPS add together

Integrating Synaptic Information AP or no AP?

EPSP + EPSP can add to reach threshold for AP generation IPSP + EPSP can cancel each other out

Spatial and temporal summation allow integration of neuronal signaling

Synapses IMPACT Behavior!!!

Tabuchi et al., 2007. A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice. Science. 318: 71-76.


Digression For Fun (NT and DRUGS)


More than 50 different neurotransmitters have been identified. NT classified according to 1. Functional effects 2. Chemical structure
1. Excitatory 2. Inhibitory
1. Acetylcholine Alzheimers? 2. Amino acids MSG ? 3. Neuropeptides Opiates, Oxycontin? 4. Biogenic amines Cocaine? Prozac, Milk? 5. Purines Caffeine, Chocalate? 6. Hormones Testosterone? 7. Gases Nitrous? 8. Lipids Cannabinoids like marijuana?

Mouse party: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html NT, Drugs INFO: http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/flash/stimulants_draft.swf http://www.nationalfamilies.org/brain/index.html

Reward (Dopamine and Cocaine) and Mood Pathways (Serotonin and Prozac)

Transmitters are released by neurons that make connections with many parts of the brain and can have wide-reaching effects on lots of information processing.


For FUN: A closer look at Amines made from amino acids

Biogenic Amines: Derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Actions: Produce rewarding and pleasurable feelings Dopamine To LOW: Parkinsons disease: Dopamine neurons in a part of the brain called substantia nigra die. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFtgV1vqwiE Too HIGH: Schizophrenia, Cocaine and here Norepinephrine (and epinephrine) Too HIGH: Drugs: Amphetamines (act as NE,DA), Tricyclic antidepressants (decrease breakdown), Cocaine (decreases breakdown) Stress: (Fight or flight response) leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, infertility)

Indoleamines: Derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Feeling

depressed? Amino acid tryptophan is precursor for 5HT and can be low in diet.

Serotonin (5HT) Eat more chocolate, oats, bananas, durians, mangoes, dried dates, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, red meat, eggs, fish, poultry, sesame, chickpeas, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, spirulina, and peanuts. To LOW: depression Too High (Drugs that increase levels): LSD Ecstasy: increases 5HT followed by depletion SSRIs e.g. Prozac: antidepressant increases serotonin by blocking re-uptake Melatonin (circadian rhythms and sleep)

For Fun: A closer look at Amino Acids

Glutamate- main excitatory transmitter in brain, role in memory and learning Direct and indirect actions depending on receptor type Increase (Drug that mimics) monosodium glutamate (MSG) Decrease problems learning? GABA- main inhibitory transmitter in brain Coupled to K channel in some places Disease that decreases (Epilepsy has too little GABA leads to convulsions) Glycine main inhibitory transmitter in spinal cord Direct: Cl- channel generates fast IPSP Disease or drugs that decrease - seizures
Increase: Drugs that mimic - valium and barbituates act here

For Fun: More NT

Purines: (ATP, adenosine) Decrease inhibitory actions of adenosine to change arousal: caffeine, theobromine (chocolate) Peptides: (e.g. endorphins) blocks pain sensation via indirect activation of K channels. Natural opiates give runners high. Increase (drugs that mimic actions): morphine, heroin, codeine

Dissolved gases: (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide). Increase: Viagra increases NO > caues vasodilation> penile erection (normally mediated by ANS)

Serotonin levels Designer Drugs to change moods?


Neurotransmitters: Disease/Health
Deep Brain Stim for Parkinsons: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFtgV1vqwiE Plus/minus cocaine cellular model: http://www.thirteen.org/closetohome/animation/coca-anim-main.html and more info: http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/cocaine.html Recreational Drugs (Mouse Party): http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/ http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/flash/stimulants_draft.swf Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupt the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. In the U.S., about 2.5 million people are affected by epilepsy and seizures. About 10% of the American population will experience at least one seizure during their lifetime.Drugs that help relieve symptoms either increase inhibition or decrease excitation:


Sequence of events Action Potential reaches the axonal terminal of the presynaptic neuron Depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic cell Calcium moves down its electrochemical gradient into the cell where it serves to depolarize the cell and more importantly act as a signaling molecule. Calcium triggers vesicle fusion with the cell membrane and release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter diffuses in the cleft. This is the rate limiting step in signal transmission (.3 5 ms) Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the post-synaptic cell to effect a response Often (but not always) the response to transmitter binding is opening of an ion channel via either direct or indirect transmission (more soon). If the channel provides a path for positive ions to move into the cell (down electrochemical gradients) the transmitter is excitatory, depolarizes the cell to produce an EPSP excitatory post-synaptic potential. If the transmitter provides a path for positive ions to leave the cell or negative ions to enter the cell, resulting in a net hyperpolarization or IPSP (inhibitory post-synaptic potential), the transmitter is inhibitory. The response ends when transmitter unbinds from the receptor as a result of falling concentrations of the transmitter in the cleft Transmitter degraded by enzymes (like acetylchloinesterase at the NMJ) Transmitter is taken up by re-uptake proteins into the presynaptic neuron, astrocytes Transmitter diffuses away from cleft

Summary Chemical Synaptic Transmission


EPSPs and IPSPS add together

Integrating Synaptic Information AP or no AP?

EPSP + EPSP can add to reach threshold for AP generation IPSP + EPSP can cancel each other out

Label: EPSP, Threshold, Depolarization, Overshoot, Repolarization,

resting potential How long are action potentials?

Draw an Action Potential

+100 mV

-100 time


Check your Drawing

Actions Potentials are used to send messages quickly (2 300 miles/hour)

Different Axons Conduct APs at Different Speeds

Factors that determine speed: Diameter of the axon (the larger the diameter, the faster the AP travels) Insulated or NOT (Myelination/Unmyelinated): myelination dramatically increases impulse speed. Classification of Axons: Biggest myelinated conduct APs the fastest: 300 mph (150 meters/second) EX: MOTOR AXONS (Ia) Smallest, unmyelinated fibers conduct APs the slowest:2 mph (1 meter/second) EX: PAIN FIBERS (C fibers)

Slow AP Propagation: Continuous

Properties: An new action potential occurs in each little patch of membrane Speed: 1 meter/second

Faster AP Propagation: Saltatory

Speed = 15 - 120 meters/second

MS is an autoimmune disease Glial cells that form myelin in the CNS and PNS are attacked by the immune system and killed AP propagation is disrupted > many APs fail to reach axon terminal therefore communication is disrupted Symptoms: Vision and hearing problems, muscle weakness, and urinary incontinence
Treatments: Drugs that block immune system (like interferon beta-1a and -1b, Avonex, Betaseran, and Copazone) Web Info:
Multiple Sclerosis: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgySDmRRzxY Montel Williams on Oprah: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgS4H-hTo0Q&feature=related NYT Patient Stories: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/12/03/health/healthguide/TE_MULTIPLESCLEROSIS.html http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/index.aspx

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) effects AP propagation:

Interpreting Action Potentials Key Concept: AP Frequency codes Stimulus Intensity (Loud sound vs. soft sound, bright light vs. dim light)

Key Concept: Pathway that fires APs determines quality of information. Is the signal from the environment a green light, a gentle touch to your arm or to your face, a painful pinch, or a soothing sound?

Interpreting APs

converge, taking info to different parts of the brain for processing e.g. smells trigger memories and emotions (e.g. scent of a rose reminds you of your mother)

Key Concept: Pathways carrying information can diverge and

Interpreting APS


Generating Behaviors: Reflex Arc Simple Circuit

There are five components of a reflex arc Receptor site of stimulus Sensory neuron transmits the afferent impulse to the CNS Integration center within the CNS Motor neuron conducts efferent APS from the integration center to an effector Effector muscle fiber or gland that responds to the APs

Review the details of the reflex here: http://www.uth.tmc.edu/nba/neuroscience/s1/i6-1.html