)
neighbourhood of a 1:1 resonant manifold were per
formed. For the MDOF NES, there were no detectable
resonance capture cascades, but simultaneous multi
modal resonant interactions were found instead,
which suggested robust and wide applicability of TET
to many engineering problems such as vibration and
shock isolation, packaging, seismic mitigation, distur
bance isolation of sensitive devices during launch of
payloads in space, utter suppression, and so forth.
Similar work can be found in reference [91], where
instantaneous frequencies of the primary structure
and NES displacements were, respectively, estimated
through the Hilbert transform.
Broadband energy exchanges between a dissipative
elastic rod and a lightweight ungrounded SDOF NES
[92, 93], as well as an MDOF NES [94], were inves
tigated rigorously. In particular, simultaneous (but
not necessarily sequential) TRCs with the MDOF NES
were demonstrated on a FEP utilizing empirical mode
decomposition (EMD[95]). Contrary to an SDOF NES,
which is sensitive to the external shock (or input
energy) level, the MDOF NES in the parameter ranges
of its high efciency exhibits robustness to changes
in the amplitude of the applied shock, the coupling
stiffness, and the nonlinear springs.
2.2.3 Experimental studies
An experimental study of nonlinear TET occurring at
a single fast frequency in the systemconsidered under
impulsive excitationonthe primary structure was per
formed in reference [96]. All the previously predicted
analytical aspects were veried through experiments;
in particular, an input energy threshold to bring about
energy pumping was clearly depicted on the plot of
energy dissipation in the NES versus input energy.
Kerschen et al. [97] also experimentally showed that
nonlinear energy pumping caused by 1:1 resonance
captureis triggeredbytheexcitationof transient bridg
ing orbits compatible with the NES being initially at
rest, a common feature in most practical applica
tions [41]. Some interesting observations were made
through a parametric study of the energy exchanges
between the primary structure and the (grounded)
NES: (i) the nonlinear coefcient does not inuence
the energy pumping (see also the bifurcation analy
sis [98]); (ii) the linear coupling spring must be weak
in order to have an almost complete energy transfer
to the NES along the 1:1 resonance manifold; (iii) the
stiffness should be chosen high enough to transfer a
sufcient amount of energy to the NES during non
linear beating; and (iv) relatively large mass for the
NES should be considered for better energy transfers
(see reference [82]). An indirect analytical compar
ison via coordinate transformation suggested that
the ungrounded NES conguration can eliminate the
restriction on the large mass requirement of the non
linear attachments, which was also experimentally
demonstrated in reference [99].
Transient resonance captures were experimentally
demonstrated [100] by means of EMD [95]. In par
ticular, the EMD is a very useful tool for experimental
studies (i.e. systemidentication[101, 102]) where the
system information is not given a priori.
The theoretical work for a twoDOF primary struc
ture coupled to an unground SDOF NES [87] was
experimentally veried by comparison with numer
ical simulations. Experimental studies demonstrated
the usefulness of the FEP for interpreting TET mech
anisms; moreover, isolated resonance captures and
resonance capture cascades were also observed.
2.2.4 Applications
Application of NESs to shock isolation was rst
demonstrated in references [103] and [104]. Essen
tially nonlinear stiffness elements were used for
robust energy pumping at a sufciently fast time
scale, because fast energy pumping at the early stage
is crucial for shock isolation purposes. In particular,
adding two symmetrically placed NESs makes it pos
sible to achieve dual mode shock isolation to reduce
unwanted disturbances generated at different ends of
the primary system. It was noted that, due to their
modular form, the NESs can be added locally in an
otherwise linear system in order to globally alter the
dynamics inaway compatible tothe designobjectives.
Dual mode nonsmooth (piecewise linear) NESs were
also utilized for the purpose of shock isolation [105].
Furthermore, steadystate TET from an SDOF lin
ear primary structure under sinusoidal excitation to
an attached NES was demonstrated theoretically and
experimentally [106]. A linear oscillator coupled to an
ungrounded NES was considered in references [107]
and [108], and was transformed by proper change of
variables to a system similar as the one studied in
reference [106]. It was shownthat the dampeddynam
ics exhibits a quasiperiodic vibration regime rather
thana steadystate sinusoidal response, a regime asso
ciated with attraction of the dynamical ow to a
dampedforced NNM manifold (for a more advanced
analysis, refer to references [109] and [110]). Experi
ments were also performed on an equivalent electric
circuit (see also reference [111] for energy pumping
under transient forcing).
Application of TET for suppressing selfexcited
instabilities was examined. Suppression of limit cycle
oscillations (LCOs) in the van der Pol (VDP) oscil
lator by means of nonlinear TET was studied in
reference [112]. The VDP oscillator exhibits dynamics
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 83
analogous to nonlinear aeroelastic instability. By
studying the slowow dynamics, extracted through
the complexicationaveraging technique, and per
forming numerical continuation of equilibria and
limit cycles, bifurcation structures of LCOs and the
possibility of robust LCOsuppression were parametri
cally investigated. It was concluded that a steadystate
is reached through a series of TRCs that can be clearly
representedinaFEP. Inparticular, it was demonstrated
that, in order to suppress instability in the VDP oscil
lator, a sequence of superharmonic and subharmonic
resonant interactions between the VDP oscillator and
the NES must take place.
The triggering mechanism of aeroelastic instabil
ity in a twoDOF (heave and pitch), twodimensional
rigid wing under subsonic quasisteady aerodynam
ics was examined in reference [113]. It was found that
the LCOtriggering mechanism consists of three dif
ferent dynamic phenomena: a series of TRCs, escapes
from these captures and, nally, entrapment into per
manent resonance capture (PRC). An initial excitation
of the heave mode by the ow acts as the trigger of
the pitch mode through a series of nonlinear modal
interactions. Moreover, both the initial triggering and
full development of LCOs are transient phenomena,
so that one can properly design an NES attachment to
the wing for their suppression.
Based on these observations, an ungrounded SDOF
NES was applied to the twoDOF rigid wing, and
suppression of aeroelastic instability through passive
TETs was investigatedboththeoretically[114, 115] and
experimentally [98]. Three distinct suppressionmech
anisms were identied: (i) recurring suppressedburst
outs, (ii) intermediate, and (iii) complete elimination
of aeroelastic instability. Those suppression mecha
nisms were identied with the bifurcation structure
of LCOs obtained through a numerical continuation
technique. Furthermore, the robustness of the aeroe
lastic instability suppression was examined. In order
to enhance robustness of aeroelastic instability sup
pression, the MDOF NES rst consideredinreferences
[89] and [94] was considered instead of the SDOF
NES. Bifurcation analysis showed that robustness of
instability suppression by means of simultaneous
multimodal resonant interactions due to the MDOF
NES can be greatly enhanced, with a much smaller
total mass of the MDOF NES. Nonlinear modal
energy exchanges were studied for various parameter
conditions.
Seismic mitigation of a reduced twoDOF model
[86, 111] and of an MDOF model [71], with an NES on
the top oor, was studied. Since an NES with smooth
stiffness nonlinearities is not suited to suppress the
peak seismic responses at the critical early regime of
themotion, alternativenonsmoothVI NESs werecon
sidered in references [116] to [118]. Effective seismic
mitigation through the use of VI NESs was demon
strated both numerically and experimentally in these
works.
Other applications of passive TETs include suppres
sionof stickslipselfexcited vibrations ina drillstring
problem [119], and acoustic energy pumping [120].
2.3 Useful denitions
In this section, concepts of resonance captures asso
ciated with the averaging theorem are reviewed to
support the discussion of nonlinear TET that follows.
Denition 1 (Resonance Manifold [121])
Consider the system in polar form with multiphase
angles
r
= R(, r),
= (r) (1)
where r R
p
, T
q
(generally, q p), (r) =
(
1
(r), . . . ,
q
(r)), and the dimension of r may be
greater than that of the original dynamical system
depending on frequency decompositions. The set of
points in D R
p
where
i
(r) = 0, i = 1, . . . , q is called
the resonance manifold. This resonance condition
is not sufcient; that is, if each
i
(r), i = 1, . . . , q is
away from zero, the IR manifold is dened as the set
{r R
p
:< k, (r) 0, k Z
q
} where the correspond
ing Fourier coefcients fromR(, r) are not identically
zero.
Assume that the averaged system of equation (1)
intersects transversely the resonant manifold. Then,
capture into resonance may occur for some phase
relations satisfying the condition that an orbit of
the dynamical system reaching the neighbourhood of
the resonant manifoldcontinues insucha way that the
commensurable frequency relation is approximately
preserved. In this situation, not all phase angles are
fast (timelike) variables, so classical averaging cannot
be performed with regard to these angle variables. As
a result, over the timescale
1
the exact and aver
aged solutions for equation (1) diverge up to O(1)
[60, 122, 123].
Denition 2 (Sustained and transient resonances
[124])
Suppose that (internal) resonance occurs at a time
instant t = t
0
, withthe nontrivial frequency combina
tion = k
1
1
+k
2
2
+. . . +k
q
q
, k
i
Z, i = 1, . . . , q,
vanishing at that time instant (t = t
0
). Then, sustained
resonance is dened to occur when 0 persists for
times t t
0
= O(1). On the other hand, transient res
onance refers to the case when makes a single slow
passage through zero.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
84 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Denition 3 (Capture, escape, and passthrough [64])
The possible behaviour of trajectories near the res
onance manifold on the timescale
1
is described
according to the following three cases: (i) capture:
solutions are unbounded in backward time. How
ever, captured trajectories remain bounded for for
ward times of O(
1
), i.e. a sustained resonance
exists in forward time; (ii) escape: solutions grow
unbounded in forward time. However, in backward
time, solutions remain bounded for times of O(
1
),
i.e. a sustained resonance exists in backward time;
(iii) passthrough: solutions do not remain in the
neighbourhood of the resonance manifold in either
forward or backward time. No sustained resonance
exists.
A mechanism for resonance capture in perturbed
twofrequency Hamiltonian systems was studied by
Burns and Jones [61] where the most probable mech
anisms for resonance capture were shown to involve
an interaction between the asymptotic structures of
the averaged system and a resonance. It was further
shown that, if the system satises a less restrictive
condition (or Condition N [125]) regarding transver
sal intersectionof the averagedorbits to the resonance
manifold, resonance capture can be viewed as an
event with low probability, and passage through res
onance is the typical behaviour on the timescale
O(
1
).
Necessary conditions were proved by Kath [56]
both for entrainment to sustained resonance and for
its continuance (and thus the possible indication of
unlocking or escape from the sustained resonance
after a nite time) by successive nearidentity trans
formations; a sufcient condition was also derived
for continuation of sustained resonance by means of
matched asymptotic expansions [57].
On the other hand, transition to escape was stud
ied by Quinn [65] in a coupled Hamiltonian sys
tem consisting of two identical oscillators possessing
a homoclinic orbit when uncoupled. Focusing on
intermediate energy levels at which sustained reso
nant motion occurs, the existence and behavior of
those motions were analysedinequipotential surfaces
whose trajectories are shown to remain in the tran
siently stochastic region for long times and, nally,
to escape or leak out of the opening in the equipo
tential curves and proceeding to innity. Regarding
passage through resonance, one may refer to refer
ences [126] to [128]. The phenomenon of passage
through resonance is sometimes referred to as non
stationary resonances caused by excitations having
timedependent frequencies and amplitudes [129].
Finally, the following denitions for nonlinear res
onant interactions between modes are introduced
whenthe multifrequency components of a systemare
taken into account.
Denition 4 (IR, TRC, and PRC [61])
Consider anunforcednDOFsystemwhose linear nat
ural frequencies are
k
, k = 1, . . . , n. The author (i) IR
as motions for which there exist k
i
Z, i = 1, . . . , n,
such that k
1
1
+k
2
2
+ +k
n
n
0, i.e. some com
bination of linear natural frequencies satisfy com
mensurability; (ii) TRC as capture into a resonance
manifold which occurs and continues for a certain
period of time (e.g. on the timescale
1
) and then
nally involves transition to escape. This includes sus
tained resonance captures involving escape; (iii) PRC
as sustainedresonance captures that will never escape
for increasing time.
Both TRC and PRC may occur along the IR man
ifold and are distinguished by whether or not they
involve an escape. Both IR and PRC may show sim
ilar steadystate behaviours, which differ from the
commensurability condition between linear natural
frequencies. Hereafter, a m : n IR refers to a condition
on the slowow averaged system unless noted other
wise. For more details on the averaging theorem and
resonance captures in multifrequency systems, one
can also refer to references [60], [62], [63], [125], [130],
and [131].
2.4 Analytical and numerical tools
2.4.1 Perturbation methods
There are many perturbation techniques to compute
periodic solutions of a nonlinear system: the meth
ods of multiplescales, of averaging, and of harmonic
balance [132]. Although each of these methods has
its own features, they are fundamentally equivalent to
each other. One restriction to their application is the
assumption of weak nonlinearity; that is, the derived
analytical solutions of the nonlinear system lie close
to those of the corresponding linearized system. The
averaging theoremprovides validity of the approxima
tion, generally up to the timescale
1
. Although the
harmonic balance method (HBM) can be applied to
strongly nonlinear systems, it approximates only the
steadystate responses. On the other hand, the meth
ods of averaging and of multiplescales can be applied
to the study of transient dynamic behaviour, which
is suitable for understanding nonlinear TET phenom
ena. An application of the averaging method to the
resonance capture problem can be found in reference
[133] (and see [134] for the HBM).
Since the essentially nonlinear coupling between a
primary systemand an ungrounded NES is not neces
sarily weak, the complexicationaveraging technique
rst introduced by Manevitch [135] will be utilized
in the following analysis as an analytical tool for
understanding resonance capture phenomena. Use of
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 85
complex variables renders relatively easier manipula
tion of the resulting modulation equations (particu
larly, inthe presence of multifrequency components).
In addition, this method is applicable to strongly
nonlinear systems. For some analyses, the multiple
scale method is utilized instead of averaging (e.g.
[49, 73, 74]).
2.4.2 Nonsmooth temporal transformations
Nonsmooth time transformations (NSTTs) can also
be utilized to compute periodic solutions of a
(strongly) nonlinear system[72, 136139]. Unlike the
usual perturbation methods that implement the basis
of sine and cosine functions (or elliptic functions in
some cases), the NSTTs employ sawtooth and square
wave functions as the basis (see reference [140] for
other types of nonsmooth basis functions and their
applications). Any periodic solutions canbe expressed
in terms of asymptotic series expansion of these two
nonsmooth functions; moreover, this technique can
be appliedtosolutions of a discontinuous systemsuch
as a VI oscillator.
Application of NSTTs to the problem of computing
the periodic solutions of a dynamical system yields
NLBVPs, which are solved by means of numerical
schemes such as the shooting method [141].
2.4.3 Stability evaluation and bifurcation analysis
Once periodic solutions are obtained, their stability
can be evaluated: (i) by direct numerical integration of
equations of motion; (ii) by computing their Floquet
multipliers [142]; or (iii) by studying the topological
structure of numerical Poincar maps [143]. Then,
bifurcation diagrams can be constructed with respect
to control parameters, or other induced parameters
such as the total energy of the system.
Bifurcation analysis [144] of periodic solutions in
a coupled oscillator is crucial in order to understand
transitions that occur in the damped dynamics or
to enhance robustness of instability suppression by
means of passive TETs. Methods of numerical contin
uation of equilibria and limit cycles can be utilized. In
particular, AUTO [145] and MatCont [146] can easily
be employed.
2.4.4 Timefrequency analysis
Understanding transient modal interactions during
nonlinear TET requires an integrated timefrequency
analysis [147151]. The most popular techniques
include the EMD method and the WT. WTs have
found applications in nonlinear system identica
tion, e.g. characterization of structural nonlinearities
and prediction of LCOs of aeroelastic systems [152];
free vibration analysis of nonlinear systems [153];
damage size estimationor fault detectioninstructures
[154, 155].
TheWTcanbeviewedas abasis for functional repre
sentation but is at the same time a relevant technique
for timefrequency analysis. In contrast to the Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT), which assumes signal sta
tionarity, theWTinvolves a windowing technique with
variablesized regions. Small time intervals are con
sidered for highfrequency components, whereas the
size of the interval is increased for lower frequency
components, thereby giving better time andfrequency
resolutions than the FFT.
The Matlab
_
y
1
_
_
t
__
,
x(t) = e
_
t
_
y
2
_
_
t
__
(3)
where = T/4 represents the (yet unknown) quarter
period. The nonsmooth functions (u) and e(u) are
dened according to the expressions
(u) =
2
sin
1
_
sin
2
u
_
, e(u) =
(u) (4)
and are used to replace the independent time variable
from the equations of motion; their graphic depiction
is given in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 The nonsmooth functions (u) and e(u)
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 87
Setting
1
=
2
= 0, and substituting equation (3)
into equation (2), smoothening conditions [72] are
imposedtoeliminate singular terms fromthe resulting
equations, such as terms proportional to
e
(x) =
(x) =2
k=
[(x +1 4k) (x 1 4k)]
Setting to zero, the component of the transformed
equations that is multiplied by the nonsmooth vari
able e, the following twopoint NLBVP is formulated
in terms of the nonsmooth variable , in the inter
val 1 +1
y
1
= y
3
, y
2
= y
4
, y
3
=
C
2
( y
1
y
2
)
3
,
y
4
=
2
0
2
y
2
C
2
( y
2
y
1
)
3
(5)
with the boundary conditions, y
1
(1) = y
2
(1) = 0,
where primes denote differentiation with respect to
the nonsmooth variable , and a state formulation is
utilized. The boundary conditions above result from
the aforementioned smoothing conditions.
Hence, the problemof computing the periodic solu
tions of the undampedsystem(2) is reducedto solving
the NLBVP (5) formulated in terms of the bounded
independent variable [1, 1], with the quarter
period playing the role of the nonlinear eigenvalue.
It is noted that the solutions of the NLBVP can be
approximated analytically through regular perturba
tion series [72]; however, this will not be attempted
herein where only numerical solutions will be consid
ered. It is merely mentioned here that equation (5) is
amenable to direct analytical study in terms of simple
mathematical functions.
It is noted that the NLBVP (5) provides the solu
tion only in the normalized halfperiod 1 t/ 1
1 1. To extend the result over a full nor
malized period equal to four, one needs to add the
component of the solution in the interval 1 t/ 3;
to perform this one takes into account the symme
try properties of the nonsmooth variables and e
by adding the antisymmetric image of the solution
about the point ( y
i
, t/) = (0, 1), as shown in Fig. 4.
It follows by construction that the computed peri
odic solutions satisfy the initial conditions, x() =
v() = 0 and v() = y
1
(1)/, x() = y
2
(1)/.
It is noted at this point that since equation (2) is an
autonomous dynamical system these initial condi
tions can be shifted arbitrarily in time; for example,
they can be applied to the initial time t = 0 instead
of t = = T/4. However, in what follows the for
mulation of the NLBVP (5) will be respected, and the
initial conditions at t = T/4 are retained.
Considering the general shape of the periodic orbits
depicted in Fig. 4, the following classication of
Fig. 4 Construction of the periodic solutions
v(t) = e(t/)y
1
((t/)), x(t) = e(t/)y
2
((t/))
over an entire normalized period 1 t/ 3
from the solutions y
i
((t/)), i = 1, 2 of the
NLBVP (5) computed over the halfnormalized
period 1 t/ 1
periodic solutions is introduced.
1. Symmetric solutions Snm correspond to orbits
that satisfy the conditions
v
_
T
4
_
= v
_
+
T
4
_
y
1
(1) = y
1
(+1)
x
_
T
4
_
= x
_
+
T
4
_
y
2
(1) = y
2
(+1)
with n being the number of halfwaves in y
1
(v),
and m the number of halfwaves in y
2
(x) in the
halfperiod interval T/4 t +T/4 1
+1.
2. Unsymmetric solutions Unm are orbits that do
not satisfy the conditions of the symmetric orbits.
Orbits U(m+1)m bifurcate from the symmet
ric solution S11 at T/4 m/2, and exist
approximately within the intervals m/2 < T/4 <
(m+1)/2, m = 1, 2, . . . .
The numerical solution of the twopoint NLBVP
(5) is constructed utilizing a shooting method pro
grammed in Mathematica
1
(1)/ and x(T/4) = y
2
(1)/ cor
responding to a periodic orbit as functions of the
quarterperiod = T/4 or the (conserved) energy
of that orbit are depicted
h =
1
2
_
v
2
_
T
4
_
+ x
2
_
T
4
__
=
1
2
2
[y
1
2
(1) +y
2
2
(1)]
In the third type of plots, the frequencies of the
periodic orbits are depicted as functions of their
energies h. These plots clarify the bifurcations
that connect, generate, or eliminate the different
branches (families) of periodic solutions.
3. The stability of the computed periodic orbits was
determined numerically by three different meth
ods: application of Floquet theory; construction of
twodimensional Poincar maps on the isoener
getic manifolds of the twoDOF undamped system
(2); and direct numerical simulation of the equa
tions of motion using as initial conditions those
estimated by the solution of the NLBVP (5).
In the following, the numerical results correspond
to the twoDOF undamped system with parameters
= 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1.0intheenergyrange0 < h < 1.
The bifurcation diagrams of the initial velocities and
for varying quarterperiod are depicted in Fig. 5. Some
general and preliminary observations on the com
puted periodic orbits are made at this point, and the
dynamical behaviour of the system on the various
branches will be discussed in the next section.
Considering the branches Snn, they exist in the
quarterperiod intervals 0 < < n/2, and their ini
tial conditions satisfy the limiting relationships (Fig. 5)
lim
0
{ v(),  x()} = ,
lim
n/2
{ v(),  x()} = 0
These symmetric branches exist throughout the exam
ined energy domain 0 < h < 1. It is noted that
branches Snnare, in essence, identical to the branch
S11, since they are identied over the domain of
their common minimal period (the Snn branches
are branches S11repeatedn times); similar remarks
can be made regarding the branches S(kn)(km), k
integer, which are identied with Snm.
Focusing in the neighbourhood of branches S11
and referring to Fig. 5, at the point = /2 where
Fig. 5 Normalized initial velocities of periodic orbits
y
i
(1), i = 1, 2 as functions of the quarterperiod
; solid (dashed) lines correspond to positive
(negative) initial velocities (S11 (), S13 (), S15
(), S31 (), S21 () withinphase as lledin, and
branches U without symbol) [83]
S11disappears thebranches S11+andU21bifurcate
out (similar behaviour is exhibited by the branches
S31, S21, . . .). For /2 , a bifurcation from
S11+ to S13+ takes place without change of phase;
similar bifurcations take place at higher values of for
branches S15+, S17+, . . .. For 3/2, the branches
S13+ and S13 coalesce into the branch S11, with
similar coalescences into S11 taking place at higher
values of for the pairs of branches S15+, S17+, . . ..
The unsymmetric branches U(m+1)m bifurcate
from the symmetric branches S(m+1)(m+1) at
quarterperiods equal to = m/2. It turns out that
certain orbits (termed SPOs) on these branches
are of particular importance concerning the passive
and irreversible energy transfer from the linear to
the nonlinear oscillator. The special orbits satisfy
the additional initial condition y
1
(1) = v() = 0,
and correspond to zero crossings of the branches
U(m+1)m in the bifurcation diagram (the upper
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 89
Fig. 6 Special periodic orbits on the Ubranches with initial conditions y
1
(1) = y
2
(1)
= 0, y
1
(1) = 0, y
2
(1) = 0; Unm(a) and Unm(b) denote the unstable and stable SPOs,
respectively ( y
1
() is represented by a solid line and y
2
() by a dashed line; xaxis
represents )
plot); some of these special orbits (either stable or
unstable) aredepictedinFig. 6. Takingintoaccount the
formulationof the NLBVP(5), it follows that the special
orbits satisfy initial conditions v(T/4) = v(T/4) =
x(T/4) = 0, and x(T/4) = 0, which happen to be
identical to the state of the undamped system (2)
(being initially at rest) after application of an impulse
of magnitude x(T/4) = y
2
(1)/ on the linear oscil
lator.
Moreover, comparing the relative magnitudes of
the linear and nonlinear oscillators for the special
orbits of Fig. 6, it is concluded that certain stable
special orbits are localized to the nonlinear oscil
lator. This implies that if the system is initially at
rest and is forced impulsively, and one of the stable,
localized special orbits is excited, a major portion
of the induced energy is channeled directly to the
invariant manifold of that special orbit, and, hence,
the motion is rapidly and passively transferred from
the linear to the nonlinear oscillator. Moreover, this
energy transfer is irreversible because of the invari
ance properties of the stable special orbit, and, as
a result, after the energy is transferred, it remains
localized and is passively dissipated at the nonlinear
attachment. Therefore, it is assumed that the impul
sive excitation of one of the stable special orbits is
one of the triggering mechanisms initiating (direct)
passive TET. This conjecture will be proven to be cor
rect by numerical simulations presented in a later
section.
Similar classes of special orbits can also be real
ized in a subclass of Sbranches. In particular, this
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
90 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 7 Frequencyenergy plot of the periodic orbits; for the sake of clarity no stability is indicated,
special orbits are denoted by lled circles (; some appear unlled due to the overlap
ping symbols) and are connected by dasheddot lines; other symbols indicate bifurcation
points (stabilityinstability boundaries): () four Floquet multipliers at +1; () two Floquet
multipliers at +1 and the other two at 1 [83]
type of orbit can be realized on branches S(2k +1)
(2p +1), k = p, but not on periodic orbits that do
not pass through the origin of the conguration plane
(such as S21, S12, . . .). The branch S11is a particular
case, where the special orbit is realized only asymp
totically as the energy tends to zero, and the motion is
localized completely in the linear oscillator.
In Fig. 7, the various branches of solutions are pre
sented in a FEP. For clarity, the following convention
regarding the placement of the various branches in
the frequency domain is adopted: a specic branch of
solutions is assigned with a frequency index equal to
the ratio of its two indices, e.g. S21 is represented
by the frequency index = 2/1 = 2, as is U21; S13
is represented by = 1/3, and so forth. This con
vention holds for every branch except S11, which,
however, are particular branches. On the energy axis,
the (conserved) total energy of the system is depicted
when it oscillates in a specic mode. Necessary (but
not sufcient) conditions for bifurcationandstability
instability exchanges are satised when two Floquet
multipliers of the corresponding variational problems
coincide at +1 or 1 (since periodic orbits of a Hamil
tonian twoDOF system are considered, two Floquet
multipliers of the variational problemare always equal
to +1, whereas the other two form a reciprocal pair),
and these are indicated at the solution branches of
Fig. 7.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 91
Fig. 8 Closeups of particular branches in the frequency indexlogarithm of energy plane: (a)
S11; (b) S11+; (c) S13; (d) U43 (double branch). Stabilityinstability boundaries are
represented as in Fig. 7; some representative periodic orbits are also depicted in insets in
the format x(v) (conguration plane of the system); SPOs on the U and Sbranches are
indicated by triple asterisks. Arrowed lines indicate the intervals of instability [83]
To understand the types of periodic motions that
take place indifferent frequencyenergy domains, cer
tain branches are depicted in detail in Fig. 8, together
with the corresponding orbits realized in the con
guration plane of the system. The horizontal and
vertical axes in the plots in the conguration plane are
the nonlinear (v) and linear oscillator (x) responses,
respectively; the aspect ratios in these plots are set so
that the tick mark increments on the horizontal and
vertical axes are equal in size, enabling one to directly
deduce whether the motionis localizedinthe linear or
the nonlinear oscillator. The plot for U43 (Fig. 8(d)) is
composed of two very close branches; for the sake of
clarity only one of the two branches is presented. The
motionis nearly identical onthe two branches, so only
the oscillations inthe congurationplane of one of the
two branches are considered.
Since a systematic analytical study of the various
types of periodic solutions of the system is presented
in the next section, the following preliminary remarks
are made.
1. The main backbone of the FEP is formed by the
branches S11whichrepresent in or outofphase
synchronous vibrations of the two particles pos
sessing one halfwave per halfperiod. Moreover,
the natural frequency of the linear oscillator
0
= 1
(which is identied with a frequency index equal
to unity, = 1) naturally divides the periodic solu
tions into higher andlower frequency modes. There
are twosaddlenodetype bifurcations inthe higher
frequency, outofphase branch S11, and the sta
ble solutions become localized to x or v as 1
+
or 1, respectively (see Fig. 8(a)). The lower fre
quency, inphase branch S11+ becomes unstable
at higher energies, and the stable solutions localize
to the nonlinear attachment as decreases away
from = 1 (see Fig. 8(b)).
2. There is a sequence of higher and lower frequency
periodic solutions bifurcating or emanating from
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
92 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
branches S11. Considering rst the symmetric
solutions, the branches S1(2k +1), k = 1, 2, . . .
appear in the neighbourhoods of frequencies =
1/(2k +1), e.g. at progressively lower frequencies
with increasing k. For xed k, each of the two
branches S1(2k +1) is linked through a smooth
transition with its neighbouring branches S1
(2k 1) or S1(2k +3), and exists over a nite
interval of energy. The pair S1(2k +1) is elim
inated through a saddlenodetype bifurcation at
a higher energy value (see Fig. 8(c) for branches
S13). The pairs of branches S1(2k), k = 1, 2, . . .
bifurcate out of S1(2k +1), and exist over nite
energy intervals. All branches S1n and Sn1, n
Z
+
seem to connect with S11 through jumps in
the FEP, but in actuality no such discontinuities
occur if one takes into account that due to the
previous frequency convention solutions Spp+ are
identied with the solution S11+, S(2p)(1p) with
S21, etc.
3. Focusing now on the unsymmetrical branches, a
family of U(m+1)m branches bifurcating from
branch S11 exists over nite energy levels and
are eliminated through saddlenodetype bifur
cations with other branches of solutions. Again,
the transitions of branches U21 and U32 to
S11+ seem to involve jumps, but this is only
due to the frequency convention adopted, and
no actual discontinuities in the dynamics occur.
An additional interesting family of unsymmet
rical solutions is Um(m+1), m = 1, 2, . . . which,
due to the previous frequency convention, is
depicted for frequency indices < 1; the shapes
of these orbits in the conguration plane are
similar to those of U(m+1)m, m = 1, 2, . . . , but
rotated by /2. An important class of periodic
orbits realized on the unsymmetrical branches
(but also in certain of the symmetric branches)
is that corresponding to all initial conditions
zero, with the exception of the initial veloc
ity of the linear oscillator. These special orbits
provide one of the mechanisms for passive
TET from the linear oscillator to the nonlinear
attachment [84].
The previous discussion indicates that the twoDOF
undamped system possesses complicated structures
of symmetric and unsymmetrical periodic orbits. The
next section will focus on the analysis of the com
puted periodic orbits in detail in an effort to better
understand the dynamics and localization properties
of the system over different frequencyenergy ranges.
Indeed, understanding the periodic dynamics of the
undamped system paves the way to explain passive
TETphenomenaandcomplicatedtransitions between
different types of motion in the transient dynamics of
the damped system.
3.1.2 Analytical approach
The dynamics of the undamped system and all the
different branches of solutions can be studied analyt
ically. As representative examples of this analysis, the
periodic orbits on a particular branch, namely S11,
are investigated in detail.
To study the periodic orbits of equation (2) for 0 <
1, the complexicationaveraging method rst
introduced by Manevitch [135] is applied, which not
only enables the study of the steadystate motions, but
also can be applied to analyse the damped, transient
dynamics [50].
The S11branch is composed of synchronous peri
odic motions where the two particles oscillate with
identical frequencies. The analytical study of these
solutions is performed by introducing the new com
plex variables
1
= x +jx and
2
= v +jv where
j
2
= 1, and expressing the displacements and accel
erations of the two particles of the system as (the
asterisk denotes complex conjugatation)
x =
1
2j
(
1
1
), x =
j
2
(
1
+
1
)
v =
1
2j
(
2
2
), v =
j
2
(
2
+
2
)
(6)
Since nearly monochromatic periodic solutions of the
equations of motion are sought and the two particles
oscillate with the identical frequencies, the previ
ous complex variables are approximately expressed
in terms of fast oscillations of frequency , e
jt
,
modulated by slow (complex) modulations
i
(t)
1
=
1
e
jt
,
2
=
2
e
jt
(7)
This amounts to a partition of the dynamics into
slow and fastvarying components, and the interest
ing dynamics is reduced to the slow ow. Note that
no a priori restrictions are posed on the frequency
of the fast motion. Substituting equations (6) and
(7) into the equations of motion (2) with
1
=
2
= 0,
and performing averaging over the fast frequency, to
a rst approximation only terms containing the fast
frequency are retained
1
+j
1
2
1
j
1
2
1
+j
3C
8
3
(
1

2
1
+
2
1
2
2
1
+
2

2
2
+2
1

2
2
2
2

2
1
) = 0
2
+j
2
2
j
3C
8
3
(
1

2
1
+
2
1
2
3
2
2
1
+
2

2
2
+2
1

2
2
2
2

2
1
) = 0
(8)
These complex modulation equations govern the slow
evolutions of the complex amplitudes
i
, i = 1, 2 in
time.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 93
Introducing the polar representations
1
= Ae
j
and
2
= Be
j
where A, B, , R in equation (8), and
separately setting the real and imaginary parts of the
resulting equations equal to zero, the following real
modulation equations that govern the slow evolution
of amplitudes and phases of the two responses of the
system are obtained as
A +
BC
8
3
[(3A
2
+3B
2
) sin( )
+3AB sin(2 2)] = 0
A +
A
2
A
2
3CA
3
8
3
6AB
2
C
8
3
BC
8
3
[(9A
2
3B
2
) cos( )
+3AB cos(2 2)] = 0
B
AC
8
3
[(3B
2
+3A
2
) sin( )
+3AB sin(2 2)] = 0
B
+
B
2
3B
3
C
8
3
6A
2
BC
8
3
AC
8
3
[(9B
2
3A
2
) cos( )
+3AB cos(2 2)] = 0
(9)
The rst and third (amplitude modulation)
equations are combined, giving
A
A +B
B = 0 A
2
+B
2
= N
2
where N is a constant of integration. Clearly, the
above is an energy conservation relation reecting the
conservation of the total energy of the undamped sys
tem (2) during its oscillation. Hence, the modulation
equation (9) can be reduced by one, by imposing the
above energy conservation algebraic relation.
The periodic solutions on the branches S11 are
studied by setting the derivatives with respect to time
in equation (9) equal to zero; i.e. by imposing station
arityconditions onthemodulationequations. Therst
and third equations are trivially satised if = , and
the second and fourth equations become
A
A
3C
4
3
(A B)
3
= 0,
B +
3C
4
3
(A B)
3
= 0
(10)
These equations can be solved exactly for the ampli
tudes AandB, leading tothe following approximations
for the periodic solutions on the branches S11
x(t) X cos t =
1
1
2j
=
A
cos t
=
2
2
1
_
4
2
(
2
1)
3
3C((1 +)
2
1)
3
cos t
v(t) V cos t =
2
2
2j
=
B
cos t
=
_
4
2
(
2
1)
3
3C((1 +)
2
1)
3
cos t
(11)
Considering the original nonlinear problem (2), note
that relations (11) are approximate since a single fast
frequency was assumed in the slowfast partitions (7),
and only terms containing this fast frequency were
retained after performing averaging in the complex
equations (8).
It is interesting to note that the ratio of the ampli
tudes of the linear and nonlinear oscillators on
branches S11is given by the following simple form
X
V
=
2
2
1
(12)
This relation shows that if the mass of the nonlinear
oscillator is small (as is assumed), and if the frequency
is not inthe neighbourhoodof the eigenfrequency of
the linear oscillator
0
= 1, the motion is always local
ized to the nonlinear oscillator (in agreement with
the numerical results); however, sufciently close to
0
= 1, the oscillation localizes on the linear oscillator
(as one would expect intuitively).
There is a region in the frequency domain,
2
0
= 1, C = 1, and
1
=
2
= 0.0015. Small damping
is considered in order to better highlight the TET
phenomenon, and the motion is initiated near the
boxed point of Fig. 8(b). Comparing the transient
responses shown in Figs 11(a) and (b), it is noted
that the response of the primary system decays faster
than that of the NES. The percentage of instantaneous
energy captured by the NES versus time is depicted
in Fig. 11(e), and the assertion that continuous and
irreversible transfer of energy from the linear oscilla
tor to the NES takes place is conrmed. This is more
evident by computing the percentage of total input
energy that is eventually dissipated by the damper of
the NES (see Fig. 11(f )), which in this particular simu
lation amounts to 72 per cent; the energy dissipated at
the NES is computed by the relation
E
NES
(t) =
2
t
0
[ v() y()]
2
d
The evolution of the frequency components of the
motions of the two oscillators as energy decreases
can be studied by numerical WTs of the transient
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
96 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 11 Fundamental TET. Shownarethetransient responses of the(a) linear oscillator and(b) NES;
WTs of the motion of (c) NES and (d) linear oscillator; (e) percentage of instantaneous total
energy in the NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy dissipated by the NES; transition
of the motion from S11+ to S13+ at smaller energy levels using the (g) NES (observe the
settlement of the motion at frequency 1/3) and (h) linear oscillator [84]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 97
responses, as depictedinFigs 11(c) and(d). Theseplots
demonstrate that a 1:1 resonance capture is indeed
responsible for TET. Below the value of 4 of the loga
rithmof energylevel, themotionof thelinear oscillator
is too small to be analysed by the particular windows
used in the WT; however, a more detailed WT over
smaller energy regimes (see Figs 11(g) and (h)) reveals
a smoothtransitionfromS11+to S13+, inaccordance
withthe FEPof Fig. 7. This transitionmanifests itself by
the appearance of two predominant frequency com
ponents in the responses (at frequencies 1 and 1/3) as
energy decreases.
The complexicationaveraging method is utilized
to perform an analytical study of the resonance cap
ture phenomenon in the fundamental TET mecha
nism. System (2) is again considered, and the new
complex variables are introduced
1
(t) = v(t) +jv(t)
1
(t) e
jt
,
2
(t) = y(t) +jy(t)
2
(t) e
jt
(14)
where
i
(t), i = 1, 2, represent slowly varying com
plex amplitudes and j
2
= 1. By writing equation (14),
a partition of the dynamics into slow and fast com
ponents is introduced, and slowly modulated fast
oscillations at frequency =
0
= 1 are sought. As
discussed previously, fundamental TET is associated
with this type of motion in the neighbourhood of
branch S11+ in the FEP of the undamped dynam
ics. Expressing the system responses in terms of the
new complex variables, y = (
2
2
)/(2j), v = (
1
1
)/(2j) (where (*) denotes complex conjugate), sub
stituting into equation (2), and averaging over the
fast frequency, a set of approximate, slow modulation
equations that govern the evolutions of the complex
amplitudes is derived
1
= j
2
(
1
2
) +j
3C
8

1
2

2
(
1
2
)
2
=
2
+
2
(
1
2
) +j
3C
8

2
1

2
(
2
1
)
(15)
For the sake of simplicity, assume that
1
=
2
=
in equation (2). To derive a set of real modulation
equations, the complex amplitudes are expressed in
polar form,
i
(t) = a
i
(t)e
j
i
t
, which is substituted into
equation (15), and the real and imaginary parts are
separately set equal to zero. Then, equation (15) is
reduced to an autonomous set of equations that gov
ern the slowevolution of the two amplitudes a
1
(t) and
a
2
(t) and the phase difference (t) =
2
(t)
1
(t)
a
1
=
2
a
1
+
2
a
2
cos
+
3C
8
a
2
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos ) sin
a
2
=
2
a
1
cos a
2
3C
8
a
1
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos ) sin
a
1
a
2
=
1
2
a
1
a
2
2
(a
1
+a
2
) sin
3C
8
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos )
[(1 )a
1
a
2
+(a
1
a
2
) cos ]
(16)
This reduced dynamical system governs the slowow
dynamics of fundamental TET. In particular, 1:1 reso
nance capture (the underlying dynamical mechanism
of fundamental TET) is associated with nontimelike
behaviour of the phase variable or, equivalently, fail
ure of the averaging theorem in the slow ow (16).
Indeed, when exhibits timelike, nonoscillatory
behaviour [166], one can apply the averaging theorem
over and prove that the amplitudes a
1
and a
2
decay
exponentially with time and no signicant energy
exchanges (TET) can take place. Figure 12(a) depicts
1:1 resonance capture in the slowowphase plane
(,
) for system (16) with = 0.05, = 0.01, C = 1,
0
= 1 and initial conditions a
1
(0) = 0.01, a
2
(0) =
0.24, (0) = 0. The oscillatory behaviour of the phase
variable in the neighbourhood of the inphase limit
= 0
+
indicates 1:1 resonance capture (on branch
S11+of theFEPof Fig. 7), andleads toTETfromthelin
ear oscillator to the NES as evidenced by the buildup
of amplitude a
1
(see Fig. 12(b)). Escape from reso
nance capture is associated with timelike behaviour
of and rapid decrease of the amplitudes a
1
and a
2
(as predicted by averaging in equation (16)). A com
parison of the analytical approximation (14)(16) and
direct numerical simulation for the previous initial
conditions conrms the accuracy of the analysis.
3.2.2 Subharmonic TET
Subharmonic TET involves excitation of a low
frequency Stongue. As mentioned earlier, low
frequency tongues are the particular regions of the FEP
where the NES engages in m:n (m, n are integers such
that m < n) resonance captures with the linear oscil
lator. A feature of the lower tongues is that on them
the frequency of the motion remains approximately
constant with varying energy. As a result, the tongues
are represented by horizontal lines in the FEP, and the
response of system (2) on a tongue locally resembles
that of a linear system. In addition, at each specic
m:n resonance capture, there appear a pair of closely
spacedtongues correspondingtoin andoutofphase
oscillations of the two subsystems.
Regarding the dynamics of subharmonic TET, a
particular pair of lower tongues are focused, say
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
98 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 12 Fundamental TET: (a) 1:1 resonance capture in the slow ow; (b) amplitude modulations;
(c) comparison between analytical approximation (dashed line) and direct numerical
simulation (solid line) for v(t); (d) transient responses of the system [84]
S13 (Fig. 8(c)). At the extremity of a lower pair
of tongues, the curve in the conguration plane is
strongly localized to the linear oscillator. However, as
for the fundamental mechanism for TET, the decrease
of energy by viscous dissipation leads to curves in the
conguration plane that are increasingly localized to
the NES, and nonlinear TET to the NES occurs. In this
case, the underlying dynamical phenomenon causing
TET is resonance capture in the neighbourhood of a
m:n resonance manifold of the dynamics. Specically,
for the pair of tongues S13, a 1:3 resonance capture
occurs that leads to subharmonic TET with the linear
oscillator vibrating witha frequency three times that of
theNES. It is emphasizedthat duetothestability prop
erties of the tongues S13, subharmonic TET involves
excitation of S13, but not S13+.
The transient dynamics when the motion is initi
ated at the extremity of S13(see the initial condition
denoted by the box on the right part in Fig. 8(d))
is displayed in Fig. 13. The same parameters as in
the previous section are considered. Until t = 500 s,
subharmonic TET takes place. Despite the presence
of viscous dissipation, the NES response grows con
tinuously, with simultaneous rapid decrease of the
response of the linear oscillator. A substantial amount
of energy is transferred to the NES (see Fig. 13(e)), and
eventually nearly 70 per cent of the energy is dissi
pated by the NES damper (see Fig. 13(f )). A prolonged
1:3 resonance capture is nicely evidenced by theWT of
Figs 13(c) and (d), and the motion follows the whole
lower tongue S13 from the right to the left. Once
escape from resonance capture occurs (around t =
620630 s), energy is no longer transferred to the NES.
For analytical study of subharmonic TET, TET in
the neighbourhood of tongue S13 will be the focus
(similar analysis canbe appliedfor other orders of sub
harmonic resonance captures). Due to the fact that
motions in the neighbourhood of S13 possess two
mainfrequency components, at frequencies 1 and1/3,
the responses of system (2) can be expressed as
y(t) = y
1
(t) +y1
3
(t), v(t) = v
1
(t) +v1
3
(t) (17)
where the indices represent the frequency of each
term. As in the previous case, new complex variables
are introduced
1
(t) = y
1
(t) +jy
1
(t)
1
(t) e
jt
,
3
(t) = y1
3
(t) +j
3
y1
3
(t)
3
(t) e
j
t
3
2
(t) = v
1
(t) +jv
1
(t)
2
(t) e
jt
,
4
(t) = v1
3
(t) +j
3
v1
3
(t)
4
(t) e
j
t
3
(18)
where
i
(t), i = 1, . . . , 4 represent slowly varying mod
ulations of fast oscillations of frequencies 1 or 1/3.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 99
Fig. 13 Subharmonic TET initiated on S13: shown are the transient responses of the (a) linear
oscillator and (b) NES; WTs of the motion of (c) the NES and (d) the linear oscillator; (e)
percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy
dissipated by the NES [84]
Expressing the system responses in terms of the new
complex variables
y =
1
1
2j
+
3
3
2j(/3)
, v =
2
2
2j
+
4
4
2j(/3)
(19)
substituting into equation (2), and averaging over
each of the two fast frequencies, the slow modulation
equations that govern the evolutions of the complex
amplitudes are derived as
1
= j
1
2
_
1
2
(2
1
2
)
j
9C
8
3
[3
3
3
9
2
3
4
3
3
4
+9
3
2
4
(
1
2
)
1
2

2
6(
1
2
)
3
4

2
]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
100 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
2
= j
2
(
2
1
) +j
9C
8
3
[3
3
3
9
2
3
4
3
3
4
+9
3
2
4
(
1
2
)
1
2

2
6(
1
2
)
3
4

2
]
3
= j
1
2
_
3
3
2
(2
3
4
)
+j
9C
8
3
[
1
(2(
3
4
)(
1
2
) 3(
4
)
2
)
+
2
(2(
4
3
)(
1
2
) +3(
4
)
2
)
+9(
3
4
)
3
4

2
]
4
= j
2
(
4
3
) j
9C
8
3
[
1
(2(
3
4
)(
1
2
) 3(
4
)
2
)
+
2
(2(
4
3
)(
1
2
) +3(
4
)
2
)
+9(
3
4
)
3
4

2
]
(20)
where again it was assumed that
1
=
2
= in
equation (2). To derive a set of real modulation equa
tions, the complex amplitudes are expressed in polar
form
i
(t) = a
i
(t)e
j
i
(t)
, and an autonomous set of
sevenslowowmodulationequations that governthe
amplitudes a
i
= 
i
, i = 1, . . . , 4 and the phase differ
ences
12
=
1
2
,
13
=
1
3
3
, and
14
=
1
3
4
are derived.
The equations of the autonomous slow ow will not
be reproduced here, but it sufces to state that they
are of the form
a
1
=
2
(2a
1
a
2
) +g
1
(a, ),
a
2
=
2
(a
2
a
1
) +g
2
(a, )
a
3
=
2
(2a
3
a
4
) +g
3
(a, ),
a
4
=
2
(a
4
a
3
) +g
4
(a, )
12
= f
12
(a) +g
12
(a, ; ),
13
= f
13
(a) +g
13
(a, )
14
= f
14
(a) +g
14
(a, ; )
(21)
where the functions g
i
and g
ij
are 2periodic in
terms of the phase angles = (
12
,
13
,
14
)
T
, and
a = (a
1
, . . . , a
4
)
T
.
In this case (as for the fundamental TET mecha
nism), strong energy transfer between the linear and
nonlinear oscillators can occur only when a subset of
phase angles
kl
does not exhibit timelike behaviour;
that is, when some phase angles possess oscillatory
(nonmonotonic) behaviour with respect to time. This
can be seen from the structure of the slow ow (21)
where, if the phase angles exhibit timelike behaviour
and the functions g
i
are small, averaging over these
phase angles canbe performedtoshowthat the ampli
tudes decrease monotonically with time; in that case,
no signicant energy exchanges between the linear
and nonlinear components of the system can take
place. It follows that subharmonic TET is associated
with nontimelike behaviour of (at least) a subset of
the slowphase angles
kl
in equation (21).
Figure 14 presents the results of the numerical inte
gration of the slowow equations (20) and (21) for
the system with parameters = 0.05, = 0.03, C = 1,
and
0
= 1. The motion is initiated on branch S13
with initial conditions v(0) = y(0) = 0 and v(0) =
0.01 499, and y(0) = 0.059 443(it corresponds exactly
to the simulation of Fig. 13). The corresponding ini
tial conditions and the value of the frequency of
the reduced slowow model were computed by min
imizing the difference between the analytical and
numerical responses of the system in the interval
t [0, 100]:
1
(0) = 0.0577,
2
(0) = 0.0016,
3
(0) =
0.0017,
4
(0) = 0.0134, and = 1.0073.
This result indicates that, initially, nearly all energy
is stored in the fundamental frequency component of
the linear oscillator, with the remainder conned to
the subharmonic frequency component of the NES.
Figures 14(a) and (b) depict the temporal evolutions of
the amplitudes a
i
, fromwhichit is concludedthat sub
harmonicTETinthe systemis mainly realizedthrough
energy transfer fromthe (fundamental) component at
frequency of the linear oscillator, to the (subhar
monic) component at frequency /3 of the NES (as
judged from the buildup of the amplitude a
3
and the
diminishingof a
1
). Asmaller amount of energyis trans
ferred fromthe fundamental frequency component of
the linear oscillator to the corresponding fundamental
component of the NES (as judged by the evolution of
the amplitude a
2
).
These conclusions are supported by the plots of
Figs 14(c) to (e), where the temporal evolutions of the
phase differences
12
=
1
2
,
13
=
1
3
3
, and
14
=
1
3
4
are shown. Absence of strong energy
exchange betweenthe fundamental and subharmonic
frequency components of the linear oscillator is asso
ciated with the timelike behaviour of the phase
difference
13
, whereas TET from the fundamental
component of thelinear oscillator tothetwofrequency
components of the NES is associated with oscillatory
early time behaviour of the phase differences
12
and
14
. Oscillatory responses of
12
and
14
correspond to
1:1 and 1:3 resonance captures, respectively, between
the corresponding frequency components of the lin
ear oscillator and the NES; as time increases, timelike
responses of the phase variables are associated with
escapes fromthe corresponding regimes of resonance
capture. In addition, it is noted that the oscillations of
the angles
12
and
14
take place inthe neighbourhood
of , which conrms that, in this particular example,
subharmonic TET is activated by the excitation of
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 101
Fig. 14 Subharmonic TET: (a) amplitude modulations; (b)(d) phase modulations [84]
Fig. 15 Transient response of NES for 1:3 subharmonic
TET; comparison between analytical approx
imation (dashed line) and direct numerical
simulation (solid line)
an antiphase branch of periodic solutions (such as
S13). The analytical results are in full agreement
with the WTs depicted in Figs 5(c) and (d), where the
response of the linear oscillator possesses a strong
frequency component at the fundamental frequency
0
= 1, whereas the NES oscillates mainly at frequency
0
/3.
The accuracy of the analytical model (20) and (21)
incapturing the dynamics of subharmonicTETis con
rmedby the plot depictedinFig. 15 where the analyt
ical response of the NES is found to be in satisfactory
agreement with the numerical response obtained by
the direct simulation of equation (2). Interestingly,
the reduced analytical model is capable of accurately
modelling the strongly nonlinear, damped, transient
response of the NES in the resonance capture region.
The analytical model fails, however, during the escape
from resonance capture since the ansatz (17) and (18)
is not valid in that regime of the motion. Indeed,
after escape from resonance capture, the motion
approximately evolves along the backbone curve of
the FEP; eventually S15 is reached whose motion can
not be described by the ansatz (17) and (18), thereby
leading to the failure of the analytical model.
3.2.3 TET initiated by nonlinear beating
The previous two mechanisms cannot be activated
with the NES at rest, since in both cases the motion
is initialized from a nonlocalized state of the system.
This means that these energy pumping mechanisms
cannot be activated directly after the application of an
impulsive excitation to the linear oscillator with the
NES initially at rest. Such a forcing situation, however,
is important from a practical point of view; indeed,
this is the situation where local NESs are utilized to
conne and passively dissipate unwanted vibrations
from linear structures that are forced by impulsive (or
broadband) loads.
Hence, it is necessary to discuss an alternative, third
energy pumping mechanismcapable of initiating pas
sive energy transfer with the NES initially at rest. This
alternative mechanism is based on the excitation of
a special orbit that plays the role of a bridging orbit
for activation of either fundamental or subharmonic
TET. Excitation of a special orbit results in the trans
fer of a substantial amount of energy from the initially
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
102 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
excited linear oscillator directly to the NES through a
nonlinear beat phenomenon. Inthat context, the spe
cial orbit may be regarded as an initial bridging orbit
or trigger, which eventually activates fundamental or
subharmonic TET once the initial nonlinear beat ini
tiates the energy transfer. Indeed, as shown below, the
third mechanism for TET represents an efcient ini
tial (triggering) mechanismfor rapidtransfer of energy
from the linear oscillator to the NES at the crucial ini
tial stage of the motion, before activating either one of
the (fundamental or subharmonic) main TET mech
anisms through a nonlinear transition (jump) in the
dynamics.
To study the dynamics of this triggering mecha
nism, the following conjecture is formulated: Due
to the essential (nonlinearizable) nonlinearity, the
NES is capable of engaging in a m:n resonance cap
ture with the linear oscillator, m and n being a set
of integers. Accordingly, in the undamped system,
there exists a sequence of special orbits (correspond
ing to nonzero initial velocity of the linear oscillator
and all other initial conditions zero), aligned along a
onedimensional smooth manifold in the FEP.
As a rst step to test this conjecture, a NLBVP was
formulated to compute the periodic orbits of system
(2) with no damping, and the additional restriction
for the special orbits was imposed. The numerical
results in the frequencyenergy plane are depicted
in Fig. 16 for parameters = 0.05,
0
= 1, and C = 1.
Each triangle in the plot represents a special orbit, and
a onedimensional manifold appears to connect the
special orbits; a rigorous proof of the existence of this
manifold can be found in reference [85]. In addition, it
appears that there exist a countable innity of special
orbits, occurring in the neighbourhoods of the count
able innities of IRs m:n (m, n integers) of the system.
It is noted that a subset of highfrequency branches
(for > 1) possesses two special orbits instead of one
(for example, all U(p +1)p branches with p 3). To
distinguish between the two special solutions in such
highfrequency branches, they are partitioned into
two subclasses: the aspecial orbits that exist in the
neighbourhoodof =
0
= 1, andthe bspecial orbits
that occur away fromthis neighbourhood(see Fig. 16).
It was proven numerically that the aspecial orbits are
unstable, whereas the bspecial orbits are stable [83].
Fig. 16 Manifold of special orbits (represented by triangles) in the FEP [84]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 103
As shown below it is the excitation of the stable
bspecial orbits that activates the third mechanismfor
TET.
By construction, all special orbits have a common
feature; namely, they pass with vertical slope through
the origin of the conguration plane (v, y). This fea
ture renders themcompatible withanimpulse applied
to the linear oscillator, which corresponds to a non
zero velocity of the linear oscillator and all other
initial conditions zero. The curves corresponding to
the special orbits in the conguration plane can be
either closed or open depending upon the differences
between the two indices characterizing the orbits;
specically, odd differences between indices corre
spond to closed curves in the conguration plane and
lie on Ubranches, whereas even differences between
indices correspond to open curves on Sbranches.
In addition, higher frequency special orbits (with
frequency index >
0
) in the upper part of the FEP
(i.e. m > n) are localized to the nonlinear oscilla
tor; conversely, special orbits in the lower part of the
FEP (with frequency index <
0
) tend to be local
ized to the linear oscillator. This last observation is
of particular importance since it directly affects the
transfer of a signicant amount of energy from the
linear oscillator to the NES through the mechanism
discussed in this section. Indeed, there seems to be
a welldened critical threshold of energy that sepa
rates high fromlowfrequencyspecial orbits; i.e. those
that do or do not localize to the NES, respectively (see
Fig. 16).
The third mechanism for TET can only be acti
vated for input energies above the critical threshold,
since belowthat the (lowfrequency) special orbits are
incapable of transferring signicant amounts of input
energy from the linear oscillator to the NES; in other
words, the critical level of energy represents a lower
bound below which no signicant TET can be initi
ated through activation of a special orbit. Moreover,
combining this result with the topology of the one
dimensional manifold of special orbits of Fig. 16, it
follows that it is the subclass of stable bspecial orbits
that is responsible for activating the third TET mecha
nism, whereas thesubclass of unstableaspecial orbits
does not affect TET. This theoretical insight will be fully
validated by the numerical simulations that follow.
When the NES engages in a m:n resonance cap
ture with the linear oscillator, a nonlinear beat
phenomenon takes place. Due to the essential (non
linearizable) nonlinearity of the NES and the lack
of any preferential frequency, this nonlinear beat
phenomenon does not require any a priori tuning
of the nonlinear attachment, since at the specic
frequencyenergy range of the m:n resonance cap
ture, the nonlinear attachment adjusts its amplitude
(tunes itself ) to full the necessary conditions of
IR. This represents a signicant departure from the
classical nonlinear beat phenomenon observed in
coupled oscillators with linearizable nonlinear stiff
nesses (e.g. springpendulum systems [129]), where
the dened ratios of linearized natural frequencies of
the component subsystems dictate the type of IRs that
can be realized [14, 167].
As an example, Fig. 17 depicts the exchanges of
energy during the nonlinear beat phenomenon cor
responding to the special orbits of branches U21
and U54 for parameters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1, and
no damping. As expected, energy is continuously
exchanged between the linear oscillator and the NES,
so the energy transfer is not irreversible as is required
for TET; it canbe concluded that excitationof a special
orbit can only initiate (trigger) TET, but not cause it in
itself. The amount of energy transferred during each
cycle of the beat varies with the special orbit consid
ered; for U21 and U54, as much as 32 per cent and
86 per cent of energy can be transferred to the NES,
respectively. It can be shown that, for increasing inte
gers m and n with corresponding ratios m/n 1
+
,
the maximum energy transferred during a cycle of the
special orbit tends to 100 per cent. At the same time,
however, the resulting period of the cycle of the beat
(and, hence, of the time needed to transfer the max
imum amount of energy) should increase as the least
common multiple of m and n.
Note, at this point, that the nonlinear beat phe
nomenon associated with the excitation of the spe
cial orbits can be studied analytically using the
complexicationaveraging method [135]. To demon
strate the analytical procedure, the special orbit on
branch U21 of the system with no damping is anal
ysed in detail. In the previous section, the periodic
motions on this entire branch were studied, and it
was shown that the responses of the linear oscillator
and the nonlinear attachment can be approximately
expressed as
y(t) Y
1
sint +Y
2
sin2t y
1
(t) +y
2
(t)c
v(t) V
1
sint +V
2
sin2t v
1
(t) +v
2
(t)
(22)
where the amplitudes are
Y
1
=
A
, V
1
=
B
, Y
2
=
D
2
, V
2
=
G
2
and A, B, D, and G are computed fromthe stationarity
conditions in the slowow equations as
B =
_
4
4
(Z
2
8Z
1
)
9CZ
3
1
Z
2
,
G =
_
32
4
(2Z
1
Z
2
)
9CZ
3
2
Z
1
A =
2
2
0
2
B,
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
104 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 17 Exchanges of energy during nonlinear beat phenomena corresponding to special orbits
on (a), (b) U21, and (c) and (d) U54
D =
4
2
2
0
4
2
G
Z
1
=
2
2
0
2
1, Z
2
=
4
2
2
0
4
2
1
Hence, a twofrequency approximation is satisfactory
for this family of periodic motions. The frequency
SO
at which the special orbit appears is computed by
imposing the initial conditions y(0) = v(0) = v(0) = 0,
which leads to the relation
B = 2G (special orbit)
The instantaneous fraction of total energy in the lin
ear oscillator during the nonlinear beat phenomenon
is estimated to be
E
linear
(t)
=
[(
2
0
4
2
SO
) sin
SO
t 2(
2
0
2
SO
) sin2
SO
t]
2
9
2
SO
2
0
+
_
(
2
0
4
2
SO
) cos
SO
t
4(
2
0
2
SO
) cos 2
SO
t
_
2
9
4
0
(23)
The nonlinear coefcient C has no inuence on the
fraction of total energy transferred to the NES dur
ing the nonlinear beat; this means that, during the
beat, the instantaneous energies of the linear oscil
lator and the NES are directly proportional to the
nonlinear coefcient. Moreover, as the mass of the
NES tends to zero, the frequency where the special
orbit is realized tends to the limit
SO
, and, as a
result, E
linear
(t) 1, and the energy transferred to the
NES during the beat tends to zero. However, it is noted
that this is a result satised only asymptotically since,
as indicated by the results depicted in Fig. 17, even
for very small mass ratios, e.g. = 0.05, as much as
86 per cent of the total energy canbe transferred to the
NES during a cycle of the special orbit of branch U54.
Considering now the damped system, it will be
shown that following an initial nonlinear beat phe
nomenon, either oneof themain(fundamental or sub
harmonic) TET mechanisms can be activated through
a nonlinear transition (jump) in the dynamics. It
was previously mentioned that the two main TET
mechanisms are qualitatively different from the third
mechanism, which is based on the excitation of a
nonlinear beat phenomenon (special orbit). Indeed,
damping is a prerequisite for the realization of the two
main mechanisms, leading to an irreversible energy
transfer from the linear oscillator to the NES, whereas
a special orbit is capable of transferring energy with
out dissipation, though this transfer is not irreversible
but periodic. This justies the earlier assertionthat the
third mechanism does not represent an independent
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 105
Fig. 18 TET by nonlinear beat, transition to S11+. Shown are the transient responses of the (a)
linear oscillator and (b) NES; WTs of the motion of (c) the NES and (d) the linear oscillator;
(e) percentage of instantaneous total energy inthe NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy
dissipated by the NES [84]
mechanism for energy pumping, but rather triggers
it, and through a nonlinear transition activates either
one of the two main mechanisms. This will become
apparent in the following numerical simulations.
The following simulations concern the transient
dynamics of the damped system (2) with parame
ters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1,
1
=
2
= 0.0015, and an
impulse of magnitude Y appliedtothe linear oscillator
(corresponding to initial conditions y(0
+
) = v(0
+
) =
v(0
+
) = 0, y(0
+
) = Y ). By varying the magnitude of
the impulse, the different nonlinear transitions which
take place in the dynamics and their effects on TET
are studied. The responses of the system to the rela
tively strong impulse Y = 0.25 are depicted in Fig. 18.
Inspection of the WTs of the responses (see Figs 18(c)
and (d)), and of the portion of total instantaneous
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
106 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 19 Percentage of input energy eventually dissi
pated at the NES for varying magnitude of the
impulse (the positions of certain special orbits
are indicated) [84]
energy captured by the NES (see Fig. 18(e)), reveals
that at the initial stage of the motion (until approxi
mately t = 120 s) the (stable) bspecial orbit onbranch
U32 is excited (since the NES response possesses two
main frequency components at 1 and 3/2 rad/s), and
a nonlinear beat phenomenon takes place. (Note
the continuous exchange of energy between the two
subsystems, demonstrating reversibility in this ini
tial stage of the motion.) For t > 120 s, the dynamics
undergoes a transition (jump) to branch S11+, and
fundamental TET to the NES occurs on a prolonged
1:1 resonance capture (see Figs 18(c) and (d)); eventu
ally, 84 per cent of the input energy is dissipated by the
damper of the NES (see Fig. 18(f )).
3.2.4 Critical energy threshold necessary for
initiating TET
To demonstrate more clearly the effect of the bspecial
orbits on TET, Fig. 19 depicts the percentage of input
energy eventually dissipated at the NES for varying
magnitude of the impulse for the systemwithparame
ters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1, and
1
=
2
= 0.01. In the
same plot, the positions of the special orbits of the
undampedsystemandthe critical thresholdpredicted
in Fig. 16 are depicted.
It is concluded that strong TET is associated with
the excitation of bspecial orbits of the branches
U(p +1)p in the neighbourhood above the critical
threshold, whereas excitationof aspecial orbits below
the critical threshold does not lead to rigorous energy
pumping. As mentioned previously, in the neighbour
hood of the critical threshold, the bspecial orbits are
strongly localized to the NES, whereas aorbits are
nonlocalized. The deterioration of TET is also noted
from Fig. 19 as the magnitude of the impulse well
Fig. 20 Contours of percentage of input energy even
tually dissipated at the NES for the case when
both oscillators excited by impulses; superim
posed are contours of high and lowfrequency
branches of the undamped system (solid line:
inphase, dashed line: outofphase branches);
special orbits in high and lowfrequency
branches are denoted by circles and triangles,
respectively [84]
above the critical threshold increases, where high
frequency special orbits are excited; this is a conse
quenceof thefact that well abovethecritical threshold,
the special orbits are weakly localized to the NES.
Extending the previous result, Fig. 20 depicts the
contours of energy eventually dissipated at the NES,
but for the case of two impulses of magnitudes y(0)
and v(0) applied to both the linear oscillator and
the NES, respectively. The system parameters used
were identical to those of the previous simulation of
Fig. 19. Superimposed on contours of energy dissi
pated at the NES are certain high and lowfrequency
U and Sbranches of the undamped system together
with their special orbits, in order to conrm for this
case the essential role of the highfrequency special
orbits in TET. Indeed, high levels of energy dissipa
tion are encountered in neighbourhoods of contours
of highfrequency Ubranches, whereas lowvalues are
noted in the vicinity of lowfrequency branches. These
results agree qualitatively with the earlier theoretical
and numerical ndings, and enable one to assess and
establish the robustness of TET when the NES is not
initially at rest.
The results presented thus far provide a measure
of the complicated dynamics encountered in the
twoDOF system under consideration. It is logical to
assume that by increasing the number of DOFs of
the system, the dynamics will become even more
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 107
complex. That this is indeed the case is revealed by the
numerical simulations presented in the next section
where resonance capture cascades are reported in
MDOF linear systems with essentially nonlinear end
attachments. By resonance capture cascades, compli
cated sudden transitions between different branches
of solutions (modes), which are accompanied by sud
den changes in the frequency content of the system
responses, are denoted. As shown in previous works
[78], such multifrequency transitions can drastically
enhance TET from the linear system to the essentially
nonlinear attachment.
3.3 MDOF and continuous oscillators
To gain additional insight into the dynamics of TET,
the case of combinations of MDOF systems com
posed of linear primary systems with attached SDOF
or MDOF ungrounded NESs is considered. Results
on this specic problem can also be found in ref
erences [7780, 89]. Consider, rst, the case of the
twoDOF linear primary system with attached SDOF
ungrounded NES
y
2
+
2
0
y
2
+
2
y
2
+d( y
2
y
1
) = 0
y
1
+
2
0
y
1
+
1
y
1
+
3
( y
1
v) +d( y
1
y
2
)
+C( y
1
v)
3
= 0
v +
3
( v y
1
) +C(v y
1
)
3
= 0
(24)
Thesystemparameters arechosenas
0
= 136.9 (rad/s),
1
=
2
=0.155,
3
=0.544, d =1.2 10
3
, = 1.8, and
C = 1.63 10
7
, with linear natural frequencies
1
=
11.68 and
2
= 50.14 (rad/s).
Figure21(a) depicts therelativeresponsev(t) y
1
(t)
of the system for initial displacements y
1
(0) = 0.01,
y
2
(0) = v(0) = 0.01, and zero initial velocities. The
multifrequency content of the transient response is
evident and is quantied in Fig. 21(b), where the
instantaneous frequency of the time series is com
puted by applying the numerical Hilbert transform
[95].
As energy decreases because damping dissipation, a
series of eight resonance capture cascades is observed;
i.e. of transient resonances of the NES with a number
of nonlinear modes of the system. The complexity
of the nonlinear dynamics of the system is evi
denced by the fact that of these eight captures only
two (labelled IV and VII in Fig. 21(b)) involve the
linearized inphase and outofphase modes of the
linear oscillator, with the remaining involving essen
tially nonlinear interactions of the NES with different
low and highfrequency nonlinear modes of the sys
tem. On the average, during these resonance captures,
the NES passively absorbs energy from the nonlinear
Fig. 21 Resonance capture cascades in the twoDOF
system with nonlinear end attachment: (a)
relative transient response v(t) y
1
(t); (b)
instantaneous frequency (resonance cap
tures indicated). The two natural frequencies
are computed as f
1
=
1
/2 = 1.86 Hz and
f
2
=
2
/2 = 7.98 Hz where
1
= 11.68 and
2
= 50.14 (rad/s) [84]
mode involved, before escape fromresonance capture
occurs andthe NES transiently resonates withthe next
mode in the series.
In essence, the NES acts as a passive, broadband
boundary controller, absorbing, conning, and elimi
nating vibrationenergy fromthe linear oscillator. Sim
ilar types of resonance capture cascades were reported
in previous works where grounded NESs, weakly cou
pled to the linear structure, were examined [78]. The
capacity of the NES to resonantly interact with linear
and nonlinear modes in different frequency ranges
is due to its essential nonlinearity (i.e. the absence
of a linear term in the nonlinear stiffness charac
teristic), which precludes any preferential resonant
frequency.
3.3.1 Analysis of a twoDOF linear primary system
with an SDOF NES
The rst system which is considered here is a two
DOF linear primary system with an attached SDOF
NES (Fig. 22), in which the effect that the increase in
DOF of the primary system has on the TET dynamics
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
108 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 22 TwoDOF primary system coupled to an
ungrounded NES
is studied. Equations of motion assume the form
m
1
y
1
+
1
y
1
+k
1
y
1
+k
12
( y
1
y
2
) = 0
m
2
y
2
+
2
y
2
+( y
2
v) +k
2
y
2
+k
12
( y
2
y
1
)
+C( y
2
v)
3
= 0
v +( v y
2
) +C(v y
2
)
3
= 0
(25)
wherey
1
, y
2
, v refer tothedisplacements of theprimary
systemandthe NES, respectively. For obvious practical
reasons, a lightweight NES is specied by requiring
that 1; in this way, weak damping is also assured.
All other variables are treated as O(1) quantities.
As shown in the previous section, understanding
the topological structure of the FEP of the underlying
Hamiltonian system is a prerequisite for interpreting
(even complex) damped transitions in the damped
and forced system. Hence, the analysis focuses on the
analytical computation of the FEP of the undamped
and unforced system. The complexicationaveraging
technique is utilized for the analytical approximation
of the main backbone curves on the FEP, which cor
respond to 1:1 resonant oscillations of the primary
system and the NES (i.e. the dominant frequencies
of these two system are identical). At this point, the
complex variables are introduced
1
= y
1
+jy
1
,
2
= y
2
+jy
2
,
3
= v +jv
(26)
whicharethensubstitutedintoequation(25). Express
ing the complex variables in polar form
i
=
i
e
jt
,
i = 1, 2, 3 and performing averaging over the fast fre
quency, the complexvalued slowow modulation
equations are obtained
m
1
1
+
j
1
2
(m
1
2
k
1
k
12
) +
j
2
2
k
12
= 0
m
2
2
+
j
2
2
(m
2
2
k
2
k
12
) +
j
1
2
k
12
+
3jC
8
3
(
2
3
2
2
2
3

3

2
3
+
2

2
2
+2
3

2
2
2
2

2
3
) = 0
3
+
j
2
3
3jC
8
3
(
2
3
2
2
2
3

3

2
3
+
2

2
2
+2
3

2
2
2
2

2
3
) = 0
(27)
The complex amplitudes
i
can be expressed in polar
form as
i
= a
i
e
j
i
, a
i
,
i
R for i = 1, 2, 3. Then, by
imposing stationarity conditions on the slowow
equations and considering trivial phase differences
such that
1
2
=
1
3
= 0, an approximation of
the NNMs on the main backbone is obtained
y
1
= a
1
sint, y
2
= a
2
sint, v = a
3
sint (28)
where the amplitudes a
i
, i = 1, 2, 3 can be found as a
function of frequency by solving the algebraic equa
tions resulting from the steadystate conditions of the
realvalued slowow equations.
The main backbone branches can now be con
structed by varying the frequency and represent
ing a NNM at a point (h, ) on the FEP where the
total energy h =
2
/2[m
1
a
1
()
2
+m
2
a
2
()
2
+a
3
()
2
]
is conserved when the system oscillates in a spe
cic mode. Figure 23 depicts the backbone branch,
named S111, of the system with parameters m
1
=
m
2
= 1, k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C = 1, and = 0.05. NNMs
depicted as projections of the threedimensional con
guration space (v, y
1
, y
2
) of the system are superim
posed to demonstrate mode localization behaviours
with respect to the total energy of the system; the
horizontal and vertical axes in these plots are the non
linear and primary system responses, respectively.
Four characteristic frequencies, f
1L
, f
2L
, f
1H
, and f
2H
,
are denedinthis plot. At highenergy levels andnite
frequencies, the essential nonlinearity behaves as a
rigid link, and the systemdynamics is governed by the
equations
m
1
y
1
+k
1
y
1
+k
12
( y
1
y
2
) = 0
(m
2
+) y
2
+k
2
y
2
+k
12
( y
2
y
1
) = 0
(29)
The natural frequencies of this system are f
1H
=
0.9876 and f
2H
= 1.7116 rad/s for the above parame
ters. At lowenergy levels, the equivalent stiffness of
the essential nonlinearity tends to zero, and the sys
temdynamics is that of theprimarysystem, thenatural
frequencies of which are f
1L
= 1 and f
2L
=
3 rad/s.
From Fig. 23, it is observed that the two frequencies
f
1L
and f
2L
divide the FEP into three distinct regions.
1. The rst region, for which f
2L
, comprises the
branch S111 ++ (the signs indicate whether
the initial condition of the corresponding oscillator
is positiveor negative, respectively). Onthis branch,
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 109
Fig. 23 Analytic approximation of the main back
bone branches of the system m
1
= m
2
= 1,
k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C =1, =0.05. NNMs
depicted as projections of the threedimen
sional conguration space (v, y
1
, y
2
) of the
system are superimposed; the horizontal and
vertical axes in these plots are the nonlinear
and primary system responses, respectively
(top plot: (v, y
1
); bottom plot: (v, y
2
); see legend
in the bottom right corner). The aspect ratio is
set so that increments on the horizontal and
vertical axes are equal in size, enabling one to
directly deduce whether the motion is localized
to the primary system or to the nonlinear
oscillator [87]
the primary system vibrates in an antiphase fash
ion, and the motion is more and more localized to
the primary system or to the NES as the frequency
approaches f
2L
or , respectively.
2. The second region, for which f
1L
f
2H
, com
prises two different branches, namely S111 +
and S111 ++. These branches coalesce at a point
S111 +0 (see the grey dot in Fig. 23), where the
NNMis such that the initial condition on the veloc
ity of the oscillator m
2
is zero. On S111 +, the
primary system vibrates in an antiphase fashion,
and the motion localizes to the NES as the fre
quency goes away from f
2H
. On S111 ++, there
is an inphase motion of the primary system, and
the motion localizes to the primary system, as the
frequency converges to f
1L
.
Fig. 24 Numerical computation of the FEP (back
bone and loci of special orbits) of a twoDOF
primary coupled to an NES (m
1
= m
2
= 1,
k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C = 1, = 0.05); black dots
and squares denote antiphase and inphase
special orbits, respectively [87]
3. The third region, for which f
1H
, comprises the
branch S111 +++. On this branch, the primary
system vibrates in an inphase fashion, and the
motion localizes to the NES as the frequency goes
away from f
1H
.
Owing tothe energy dependence of the NNMs along
S111, interesting and vigorous energy exchanges may
occur between the primary system and the NES. In
particular, an irreversible channeling of vibrational
energy from the primary system to the NES takes
place on S111 + and S111 +++. Because the
NES has no preferential resonance frequency, fun
damental TET can be realized either for inphase or
antiphasemotionof theprimarysystem, whichshows
the adaptability of the NES.
The SPOs, determined from accommodating spe
cic initial conditions y
1
(0) = 0, y
2
(0) = 0 with all the
others zero, can also be computed for the MDOF sys
tem. The role of special orbits is to transfer as quickly
as possible a signicant portion of the induced energy
to the NES, initially at rest, which should trigger TET.
Figure 24 depicts two different families of special
orbits for a twoDOF primary system.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
110 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
1. The rst family consists of inphase SPOs (++0)
located on inphase tongues; the masses of the
primary system move inphase. The locus of in
phase SPOs is a smooth curve on the FEP. When
the phase difference between the NES and the pri
mary is trivial, the motion in the conguration
space takes the form of a simple curve; in the case
of nontrivial phase differences, a Lissajous curve
is realized. For the SPO 1, the motion of the two
masses of the primary system is almost identical
and monochromatic. The NES has two dominant
harmonic components, one of which is at the fre
quency of oscillation of the primary system, the
other being three times smaller; a 1:3 IR between
the NES and the primary system is realized. The
nonlinear beating characteristic of such a dynam
ical phenomenon can be clearly observed. For the
SPO 1, the energy exchange is insignicant as the
maximum percentage of total energy of the NES
never exceeds 0.17 per cent. For the SPOs 2 and
3, the energy transfer is much more vigorous. To
obtain a global picture, the maximum percentage
of energy transferred to the NES during the non
linear beating is superposed on the FEP in Fig. 25.
This clearly depicts that there exists a critical energy
threshold above which the SPOs can transfer a
substantial amount of energy to the NES. More pre
cisely, the SPOs must lie above the frequency of the
inphase mode of the primary system f
1L
.
Fig. 25 Maximum percentage of energy transferred to
theNESduringnonlinear beating(dashed(dot
ted) line: inphase (antiphase) special orbits).
The backbone of the FEP (solid line) and the
loci of the special orbits are also superimposed
(square inphase; circle antiphase [87])
2. The second family consists of antiphase SPOs
(+0) located on antiphase tongues. Their locus
is also a smooth curve on the FEP. By inspecting
Fig. 25, one can conclude the existence of a critical
energy thresholdfor enhancedTETs; the SPOs must
lie above the frequency of the antiphase mode of
the primary system f
2L
.
The transient dynamics of the weakly damped sys
tem is now examined and is interpreted based on
the topological structure of the nonlinear modes of
the undamped system. Damping parameters are set
to
1
=
2
= 0.1, = 0.04, and others are the same as
those used in constructing the FEP in Fig. 23. In this
section, only the singlemode responses by impos
ing the inphase and antiphase impulsive forcing are
considered, and the multimode responses (i.e. res
onance capture cascades) will be demonstrated later
compared with the experimental system.
First, the motion initiated on S111 +++ (i.e. in
phase fundamental TET) is examined (Figs 26(a) and
(b)). In Fig. 26(c), the WT of v(t) y
2
(t) is superim
posed on the FEP to demonstrate transient dynamics
along the damped NNM manifold as the total energy
decreases due to damping. The dynamical owis cap
tured in the neighbourhood of a 1:1 resonance mani
fold, whichleads toaprolonged1:1resonancecapture.
Figure 26(d) depicts the trajectories of the phase dif
ferences between the NES and the two masses in
the primary structure. The phase variables were com
puted by utilizing the Hilbert transform (HT) of the
responses. Nontimelike behaviour of the two phase
variables is observed, as the evidence for resonance
capture. Figure 26(e) conrms that fundamental TET,
i.e. an irreversible energy transfer from the primary
structure to the NES, takes place along S111 +++.
Now the motion initiated on S111 + (i.e. out
ofphase fundamental TET) is examined. Figure 27(a)
and(b) depicts the time series where fundamental TET
is realized in a rst stage (t = 0 100 s) for an anti
phase motion of the primary structure. During this
regime, the envelope of all displacements decreases
monotonically, but the envelope of the NES seems to
decrease more slowly than that of the primary struc
ture; TET to the NES is observed (Fig. 27(e)). Around
t = 80 s, the displacement y
2
of the second mass m
2
becomes very small, and a transition from antiphase
(S111 +) to inphase (S111 ++) motion in the
primary structure occurs. When the inection point
on S111 ++ is reached (where a bifurcation elimi
nates the stable/unstable pair of NNMs), escape from
resonance capture occurs, which results in timelike
behaviour of the phase variables in Fig. 27(d). Fig
ures 27(b), (c), and (e) show that this is soon followed
by subharmonic TET on an inphase tongue; there is a
capture into 1:3 resonance manifold.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 111
Fig. 26 Fundamental TET for inphase motion of the primary system: (a) time series; (b) closeup
of the time series (square: y
1
(t); circle: y
2
(t); reversed triangle: v(t)); (c) WT superimposed
on the frequencyenergy plot; (d) trajectories of the phase modulation; (e) instantaneous
percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
A motion initiated from special orbits is examined
to verify the existence of a critical energy thresh
old above which the SPOs can trigger fundamental
TET. In Fig. 28, the motion is initiated from in
phase SPOs 1 and 2, located below and above the
threshold, respectively. The dynamic responses are
remarkably different for those two cases. For the
SPO 1, the NES cannot extract a sufcient amount
of energy from the primary system, and a transi
tion to S111 ++ is observed. On this branch, the
motion localizes to the primary system as the total
energy in the system decreases. For the SPO 2, thanks
to a nonlinear beating phenomenon, the motion is
directed towards the basin of attraction of S111 +++,
and fundamental TET from the inphase mode is
realized.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
112 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 27 Fundamental TETfor antiphasemotionof theprimary system: (a) timeseries; (b) closeup
of the time series (square: y
1
(t); circle: y
2
(t); reversed triangle: v(t)); (c) WT superimposed
on the frequencyenergy plot; (d) trajectories of the phase modulation; (e) instantaneous
percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
Likewise, if the motion is initiated from an anti
phase SPO located below the threshold (e.g. SPO 4),
there occurs a transition to S111 ++, on which
the motion localizes to the primary system with a
decrease inthe total energy. If the antiphase SPOlying
above the threshold (e.g. SPO 6) is excited, the branch
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 113
Fig. 28 Motion initiated from inphase special orbits: (a, b) time series; (c, d) WT superim
posed on the frequency energy plot; (e, f ) instantaneous percentage of total energy in the
NES [87]
S111 + is reached, resulting in the realization of
fundamental TET from the antiphase mode.
3.3.2 Analysis of an SDOF linear primary system
with an MDOF NES
Application of an MDOF NES is now considered. It is
showed that enhanced TET takes place in this case
because of the capacity of the essentially nonlinear
MDOF NES to engage in simultaneous resonance
captures with multiple modes of the linear system.
Consider the systeminFig. 29, where a twoDOFlinear
primary oscillator is connected through a weak linear
stiffness (which is the small parameter of the prob
lem), 0 < 1, to a threeDOF nonlinear attach
ment with the two essentially nonlinear stiffnesses,
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
114 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 29 Primary (linear) system with an MDOF
nonlinear attachment
C
1
and C
2
. The equations of motion for this systemcan
be written as
u
1
+ u
1
+(
2
0
+)u
1
u
2
= F
1
(t)
u
2
+ u
2
+(
2
0
+ +)u
2
u
1
v
1
= F
2
(t)
v
1
+( v
1
v
2
) +(v
1
u
2
) +C
1
(v
1
v
2
)
3
= 0
v
2
+(2 v
2
v
1
v
3
) +C
1
(v
2
v
1
)
3
+C
2
(v
2
v
3
)
3
= 0
v
3
+( v
3
v
2
) +C
2
(v
3
v
2
)
3
= 0
(30)
In the limit 0, the system decomposes into two
uncoupled oscillators: a twoDOF linear primary sys
tem with natural frequencies
1
=
_
2
0
+2 and
2
=
0
<
1
, corresponding to outofphase and inphase
linear modes, respectively; and a threeDOF essen
tially nonlinear oscillator with a rigidbody mode and
two exible NNMs.
Unlike the SDOF NES conguration, this MDOF
NESexhibits multifrequency simultaneousTETs from
multiple modes of the primary system; this means
that multiple nonlinear modes of the MDOF NES
engage in transient resonance interactions with mul
tiple modes of the linear system. Once again, complex
transitions in the damped dynamics can be related to
the topological structure of the periodic orbits of the
corresponding undamped system.
For practical purposes, the systemwith NES masses
of O() is considered with parameter values = 0.2,
= 1.0, C
1
= 4.0, C
2
2
C
2
= 0.05,
2
= 0.08,
and
0
= 1, where rescaling was applied to the NES
masses and the second essentially nonlinear cou
pling spring C
2
.
As performed in previous sections, the FEP of
the underlying Hamiltonian system was considered
rst. A numerical method was utilized to con
struct the FEP of the periodic solutions of the
underlying Hamiltonian system [87]. Denoting u(t) =
[u
1
(t)u
2
(t)v
1
(t)v
2
(t)v
3
(t)]
T
, the periodic solutions of
the undamped and unforced system(30) can be deter
mined by computing the values of u(0) for which
u(0) = 0 for a given period T. Numerically this is
performed by minimizing the expression
min
T
{[u(T) u(T)] [0 u(0)]}
Then, the total energy hof the underlying Hamiltonian
system, when it oscillates with a periodic solution of
frequency = 2/T, is expressed as
h =
1
2
[ u
1
(0)
2
+ u
2
(0)
2
+ v
1
(0)
2
+ v
2
(0)
2
+ v
3
(0)
2
]
Considering as aperturbationparameter, system(30)
with the rescaled parameter
2
is expected to
possess complicated dynamics as 0, because it is
essentially (or strongly) nonlinear, highdimensional,
and singular (since the highest derivatives in three
of its equations are multiplied by the perturbation
parameter squared).
In Fig. 30, the periodic orbits are presented in a
FEP. Note that it was difcult to capture the lowest
frequency branch through the numerical scheme. It
was analytically estimated and superimposed to the
numerical results [88]. From the FEP of Fig. 30, it is
noted that the backbone branches of periodic orbits
are dened over wider frequency and energy ranges
than for the system of the NES masses of O(1) [88],
and no subharmonic tongues exist inthis case (at least
none was detected in the numerical scheme). Hence,
it can be conjectured that a decrease in magnitude
of the masses of the NES results in the elimination
of the local subharmonic tongues (i.e. of the sub
harmonic motions at frequencies integrally related to
the natural frequencies f
1
= 1.8529, f
2
= 1.5259, and
f
3
= 0.9685 rad/s of the linear subsystem). For the limit
of high energy and nite frequency, the underlying
Hamiltonian system (30) reaches the linear limiting
Fig. 30 Frequencyenergy plot of the periodic orbits for
the MDOF system with the NES masses of O(
2
)
[88]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 115
Fig. 31 Damped responses for outofphase impulses Y = 0.1: (a) Cauchy WTs superimposed on
the FEP; (b) partition of instantaneous energy of the system [88]
system
u
1
+(
2
0
+)u
1
u
2
= 0
u
2
+(
2
0
+ +)u
2
u
1
v
1
= 0
3 v
1
+(v
1
u
2
) = 0
(31)
with limiting natural frequencies
f
1
= 1.7734,
f
2
=
1.1120, and
f
3
= 0.7960 rad/s.
The efciency of TETs is demoistrated numerically
by means of the MDOF NES conguration consid
ered herein, under the outofphase impulsive forcing
F
1
(t) = F
2
(t) = Y (t), withall other initial conditions
being zero.
Figure 31 depicts the damped responses for the
impulsive forcing amplitude Y = 0.1. Inthis case, both
the relative displacements v
1
(t) v
2
(t) and v
2
(t)
v
3
(t) betweenthe NES masses followregular backbone
branches. The relative displacement v
1
(t) v
2
(t) has a
dominant frequency component that approaches the
linearized natural frequency f
2
of the limiting system
for the limit of low energy and nite frequency, where
the equation for the NES part becomes
v
1
+(v
1
u
2
) = 0
with decreasing energy. In contrast, v
2
(t) v
3
(t) has
two strong harmonic components that approach the
linearized natural frequencies f
2
and f
3
for decreas
ing energy, indicating transfer of energy simultane
ously from two modes of the linear limiting system
for limit of low energy and nite frequency. More
over, the same regular backbone branches are tracked
by the response throughout the motion and strong
energy transfer occurs right fromthe early stage of the
response, which explains the strong eventual energy
transfer to the NES (90 per cent) that occurs for this
lowimpulse excitation.
By increasing the impulsive forcing to Y = 1.0 [88],
the overall energy transfer from the linear to non
linear subsystem decreases signicantly with delay,
and the steadystate energy dissipation by the NES is
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
116 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 32 Damped responses for outofphase impulses Y = 1.5: (a) Cauchy WTs superimposed on
the FEP; (b) partition of instantaneous energy of the system [88]
onlyabout 50per cent. This occurs becausethemotion
is mainly localized to the directly excited linear sub
systems by the strong initial outofphase resonance
capture, with a small portion of energy spreading out
to the NES.
Further increasing the impulse magnitude to Y =
1.5 enables the systemtoescape fromthe strong initial
outofphase resonance capture, leading to resumed
strong TETs (Fig. 32). The NES relative responses
possess multiple strong frequency components, indi
cating that strong TET occurs at multiple frequencies.
ThesteadystateenergydissipationbytheNESreaches
nearly 90 per cent of the input energy.
3.3.3 Analysis of a linear continuous system with
SDOF and MDOF attached NESs
A separate series of papers examined TET in con
tinuous systems with attached NESs. For example,
Fig. 33 depicts linear (dispersive) elastic rods coupled
to SDOF and MDOF NESs [9294]. In these works,
it was shown that appropriately designed NESs are
capable of passively absorbing and locally dissipat
ing signicant portions of the vibration energy of the
impulsively forced rod.
In Fig. 34, a representative WTs of the damped
responses of these two systems superimposed to the
FEPs of the underlying Hamiltonian (undamped and
unforced) systems are provided. Comparing the action
of the SDOFandMDOFNESs, notedit is that the SDOF
NES is capable of engaging in resonance capture with
only one mode of the linear rod at a time. Hence,
in Fig. 34(a), a resonance capture cascade where the
SDOF NES engages with a series of modes sequen
tially (i.e. it escapes from a resonance capture with
one mode before it can engage in similar resonance
capture with another one) is noted. In the case of the
MDOF NES (see Figs 34(b) to (d)), this does not hold,
as the NES engages in broadband resonance interac
tions with multiple modes of the rod; that is, different
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 117
Fig. 33 Linear elastic rod coupled to (a) an ungrounded SDOF NES; (b) an MDOF NES
Fig. 34 Wavelet spectra of the relative responses between the rod end and (a) an SDOF NES, (bd)
an MDOF NES, superimposed to the corresponding FEPs of each system [94]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
118 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
nonlinear modes of the MDOF NES engage in sepa
rate resonance captures with different linear modes of
the rod (this is revealed by the broadband character
of the nonlinear modal interactions between the rod
and the NES in this case). Hence, similar to previous
applications withdiscretecoupledoscillators, it is con
cludedthat aMDOFNESis moreversatileandeffective
compared with the SDOF NES, as it can extract vibra
tion energy simultaneously from a set of modes of the
linear system. For a more detailed analysis and discus
sionof these results, the reader is referredtoreferences
[92] to [94].
3.4 NonsmoothVI NES
A separate series of papers considered NESs with non
smooth stiffness characteristics. An NES with piece
wise linear springs was rst utilized for the purpose of
shock isolation in reference [105] (see also reference
[71]); this piecewise linear stiffness is relatively easy to
realize in practice [116118].
This section is concerned with NESs undergoingVIs
(hereafter, vibroimpact NESs can be termed as VI
NESs). As shown in the aforementioned references,
this type of nonsmooth NES possesses fast reac
tion time; i.e. a VI NES is capable of passive TET at
a fast timescale, which makes this type of device
ideal in applications where the NES needs to be acti
vated very early in the motion (within the initial one
or two cycles of vibration). The simplest primary sys
tem VI NES conguration, namely an SDOF linear
oscillator coupled to a VI NES (Fig. 35) is consid
ered. It will be demonstrated that a clear depiction of
the damped nonlinear transitions that govern energy
transactions in this system can be gained by study
ing the damped motion on the FEP of the underlying
VI conservative system (i.e. the identical system con
guration, but with purely elastic impacts and no
viscous damping elements). The premise is that, for
sufciently small damping, the damped nonlinear
dynamics are perturbations of the dynamics of the
underlying conservative system, so that damped non
linear transitions take place near branches of periodic
or quasiperiodic motions of the undamped system.
Hence, by studying the structure of periodic orbits of
the conservative system, the behaviour of the damped
dynamics should be understood as well, and phe
nomena such as TRCs and jumps between different
Fig. 35 An SDOF linear oscillator connected to aVI NES
branches of solutions that governTET in theVI system
should be identied.
The equations of motion in nondimensional form
between impacts can be written as
u
1
+(1 +)u
1
+u
2
= 0, u
2
+(u
2
u
1
) = 0
(32)
where = m
2
/m
1
, = k
2
/k
1
are the mass and stiff
ness ratios; the rescaling of time, =
_
k
1
/m
1
t, is
imposed, and the derivative with respect to the new
nondimensional time is denoted by the overdot.
Impact occurs whenever the absolute value of the
relative displacements satises u
2
u
1
 = e, where e
denotes the clearance; if u
2
u
1
 < e, then no impact
occurs and the system oscillates simply in a linear
combination of the two linear modes of system (32).
Setting the coefcient of restitution to 1 (i.e. assum
ing perfectly elastic impacts), and applying momen
tumconservation, the velocities of the two masses just
before and after impacts can be related; that is
v
1
=
(1 )v
1
+2v
2
1 +
, v
2
=
( 1)v
2
+2v
1
1 +
(33)
where v
i
= du
i
/d and the prime denotes the quantity
just after impact.
The periodic solutions of the VI conservative sys
tem were computed numerically and represented in
a FEP. This plot was constructed by depicting each
VI periodic orbit as a single point with the coordi
nates determined in the following way: consider the
eigenfrequency of the uncoupled linear oscillator as
reference frequency, f
0
= 0.1515; the frequency coor
dinate of the FEP is equal to (p/q)f
0
, where the rational
number p/q is the ratio of the basic frequency of
the linear oscillator to the basic frequency of the NES.
The energy coordinate is the (conserved) total energy
of the system when it oscillates in the specic peri
odic orbit considered. The parameters of the system
adopted for the FEP computation are = = 0.1 and
e = 0.1, and the resulting FEP is depicted in Fig. 36.
The complicated topology of the branches of peri
odic orbits depictedinthe FEPreects the wellknown
complexity of the dynamics of this seemingly sim
ple nonlinear dynamical system. It is exactly because
of the complexity of VI motions that it is necessary
to establish a careful notation in order to distinguish
between the different families of VI periodic motions
and study their dependence on energy and frequency.
To this end, each VI periodic orbit depicted in the
FEP is given the notation Lijkl. The capital letter
L is assigned either letters S or U, referring to sym
metric or unsymmetric periodic motions, respectively.
Symmetric periodic motions satisfy the conditions
u
k
() = u
k
( +T/2), R, k = 1, 2, where T is the
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 119
Fig. 36 Frequencyenergy plot for the system(32); dashed lines indicate the two linearized eigen
frequencies, and bullets, the maximum energy levels at which oscillations take place
without VIs [116]
period of the motion, whereas unsymmetric periodic
motions do not satisfy the conditions of the sym
metric motions. Regarding the four numerical indices
{ijkl}, index i refers to the number of left VIs occur
ring during the rst halfperiod; j to the number of
right impacts occurring during the rst halfperiod; k
tothe number of left impacts occurring during the sec
ond halfperiod; and l to the number of right impacts
occurring during the second halfperiod of a periodic
motion.
The (+) sign corresponds to inphase VI periodic
motions where, for zero initial displacements, the
initial velocities of the two particles have the same
sign at the beginning of both the rst and second
halfperiods of the periodic motion; otherwise, the
VI periodic motion is deemed to be antiphase and
the () sign is used. It can be shown that SVI peri
odic orbits correspond to synchronous motions of the
two oscillators, and thus are represented by curves
in the conguration plane of the system, (u
1
, u
2
); i.e.
these periodic motions are characterized as NNMs.
On the contrary, UVI periodic orbits correspond to
asynchronous motions of the two oscillators, and are
represented by Lissajous curves in the conguration
plane of the system.
Considering the FEP of Fig. 36, the two bullets indi
cate the maximum energy thresholds below which
oscillations occur without VIs, andthe dynamics of the
twoDOF system is exactly linear. The rst (inphase)
and second (outofphase) modes of the linear sys
tem (corresponding to the twoDOF system with no
rigid stops and clearance, e.g. e = ) exist below the
energy thresholds for VIs, namely, E
1
= 0.001 185 12
for the inphase mode and E
2
= 0.000 865 078 for the
outofphase one. Clearly, when the system oscillates
below these maximum energy thresholds, the relative
displacement between the two particles of the system
satises u
1
u
2
 < e.
As the energy is increased above the threshold VIs,
giving rise to two main branches of periodicVI NNMs:
the branch of outofphase VI NNMs S1001 which
bifurcates from the outofphase linearized mode,
and the branch of inphase VI NNMs S1001+ which
bifurcates from the inphase linearized mode. The
two branches S1001 will be referred to as backbone
(global) branches of theFEP; theyconsist ofVI periodic
motions duringwhichtheNESvibrates either inphase
or outofphasewiththelinear oscillator withidentical
dominant frequencies.
Moreover, both backbone branches exhibit a single
VI per halfperiodare denedover extendedfrequency
and energy ranges, and correspond to motions that
are mainly localized to the VI attachment (except
in the neighbourhoods of the two linearized eigen
frequencies of the system with e = , at f
1
= 0.136
and f
2
= 0.186). Both backbone branches satisfy the
condition of 1:1 IR between the linear oscillator and
the VI NES, with the oscillations of both subsys
tems possessing the same dominant frequency, as
well as weaker harmonics at integer multiples of the
dominant frequency.
A different class of VI periodic solutions of the FEP
lies on subharmonic tongues (local branches); these
are multifrequency periodic motions, with frequen
cies being rational multiples of one of the linearized
eigenfrequencies of the system. Eachtongue is dened
over a nite energy range and is composed of a pair
of branches of in and outofphase subharmonic
solutions. At a critical energy level, the two branches
of the pair coalesce in a bifurcation that signies
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
120 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 37 Representative VI impulse orbits: U3223 (upper) and U2222 (lower) [116]
the end of that particular tongue and the elimina
tion of the corresponding subharmonic motions for
higher energy values. Clearly, there exists a countable
innity of such tongues emanating from the back
bone branches, with each tongue corresponding to
symmetric or unsymmetric VI subharmonic motions
with different patterns of VIs during each cycle of the
oscillation.
Finally, there exists a third class of VI motions in
the FEP, which are denoted as VI impulsive orbits
(VI IOs). These are periodic solutions corresponding
to zero initial conditions, except for the initial veloc
ity of the linear oscillator. In essence, a VI IO is the
response of the system initially at rest due to a single
impulse applied to the linear oscillator at time = 0
+
.
Apart from the clear similarity of a VI IO to the Greens
function dened for the corresponding linear system,
the importance of studying this class of orbits stems
fromtheir essential role in passive TET fromthe linear
oscillator to the nonlinear attachment.
Indeed, for impulsively excited linear systems with
NESs having smooth nonlinearities, IOs (which are,
in essence, nonlinear beats) play the role of bridg
ing orbits that occur in the initial phase of TET, and
channel a signicant portion of the induced impulsive
energy fromthe linear systemto the NES at a relatively
fast timescale; this represents the most efcient sce
nario for passive TET. Although the aforementioned
results refer todampedIOs, thedynamics of theunder
lying conservative system determines, in large part,
the dynamics of the damped system as well, provided
that the damping is sufciently small. It follows that
the IOs of the conservative system govern the initial
phase of TET from the linear oscillator to the NES.
As shown in reference [85], impulsive periodic and
quasiperiodic orbits form a manifold in the FEP that
contains a countable innity of periodic IOs and an
uncountable innity of quasiperiodic IOs.
For theVI systemunder consideration, the manifold
of VI IOs was numerically computed and is depicted in
the FEP of Fig. 36; in general, the manifold appears
as a smooth curve, with the exception of a num
ber of outliers. Representative VI IOs are depicted in
Fig. 37. In general, the IOs become increasingly local
ized to the VI NES as their energy decreases, a result
which is in agreement with previous results for NESs
with smooth essential nonlinearities [85]. As energy
increases, the VI IOs tend to the inphase mode (i.e.
a straight line of slope /4 in the conguration plane
(u
1
, u
2
)). Moreover, there is no critical energy thresh
old for the appearance of VI IOs since there are no
lowenergy VI motions (the system is linear for low
energy levels), and the dominant frequency of a VI IO
depends ontheclearance, e. For thesystemunder con
sideration, the VI IOs start with a dominant frequency
of 0.152 (or a period of 6.58).
Apart from the compact representation of VI peri
odic motions, the FEP is again a valuable tool for
understanding the nonlinear resonant interactions
that govern energy transactions (such as TET) dur
ing damped transitions in the weakly dissipative
system. This is because, for sufciently weak dissi
pation (due to inelastic VIs or viscous damping), the
damped dynamics are expected to be perturbations
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 121
Fig. 38 Damped VI transitions initiated on the tongue
U8778: (a) WT superimposed on the FEP; (b)
instantaneous energy plot [116]
of solutions of the underlying conservative system. To
showthis, the dynamics of the systemof Fig. 35 for the
case of inelastic impacts is computed and analysed
the resulting transient responses by numerical WTs.
Thenthe resultingWTspectra are superimposedtothe
FEP in order to study the resulting damped transitions
and related them to the dynamics of the underlying
conservative system.
A damped transition is depicted in Fig. 38, corre
sponding to VI motion initiated on the VI IO U8778,
with a coefcient of restitution, 0.995. Three regimes
of the dampedVI transition can be distinguished.
In the initial phase of the motion, the oscillations
stay in the neighbourhood of the subharmonic tongue
S1221+ until approximately = 500 and logarithm of
energy equal to 2.15. There is efcient energy dissi
pation in this initial phase of the motion, as evidenced
by the energy plot of Fig. 38(b).
In the second regime, the dynamics makes a tran
sition to branch U0110 until the logarithm of
energy becomes equal to 2.5; in this regime of the
damped transition nonsymmetric oscillations take
place. An additional transition to the manifold of VI
IOs (e.g. IOs U2112+, U1111+, S1221+) occurs, before
the VI dynamics makes a nal transition to the back
bone branch S0110+for logarithm of the energy close
to 2.7.
By studying the instantaneous energy of the system
during the aforementioned transitions (see Fig. 38(b)),
it can be concluded that the most efcient energy
dissipation by the VI NES occurs during the initial
TRC on the subharmonic tongue S1221+. This result
demonstrates that TRC is a basic dynamical mech
anism governing effective passive TET, for example,
from a seismically excited primary structure to an
attached VI NES. It follows that by studying VI tran
sitions in the FEP and relating them to rates of energy
dissipation by VI NESs, one should be able to iden
tify the most effective damped transitions from a TET
point of view. The complicated series of VI transi
tions depicted in Fig. 38 demonstrates the poten
tial of the twoDOF system for exhibiting complex
dynamics, and the utility of the FEP as a tool for
representing and understanding complex transient
multifrequency transitions.
4 EXPERIMENTALVERIFICATIONS
In this section, the experimental work that validates
the previous theoretical results on passive TET will be
reviewed. For a general synopsis regarding the exper
imental study of TETs, refer to the literature review in
section 2.2.3.
4.1 Experiments with SDOF primary systems
Figure 39(a) depicts an experimental xture built
to examine the energy transfers in the twoDOF
system (Fig. 39(b) for its mathematical modelling)
described by
M y +
1
y +
2
( y v) +C( y v)
3
+ky = 0,
v +
2
( v y) +C(v y)
3
= 0
(34)
A schematic of the system is provided in Fig. 39(c),
detailing major components. The system parameters
were identied using modal analysis and the restor
ing force surface method(Fig. 40; [168]): M = 1.266 kg,
= 0.140 kg, k = 1143 N/m,
1
= 0.155 Ns/m,
2
=
0.4 Ns/m, C = 0.185 10
7
N/m
2.8
, and = 2.8, where
denotes the power of the essential nonlinearity.
Figure 39(e) is a schematic showing how cubic
(essential) nonlinearity is achieved through geomet
ric nonlinearity. Assuming zero initial tension along
the wire, a static force F with respect to a transverse
displacement x can be expressed as
F = kL
_
x
L
_
_
1
1
_
1 +(x/L)
2
_
(35)
where k = EA/L represents the axial stiffness constant
of the wire, L is the halflength of the span, E Youngs
modulus, and A the crosssectional area of the wire.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
122 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 39 Experimental setup for an SDOF linear primary structure coupled to an SDOF NES:
(a)(c) general conguration and schematics; (d) experimental force pulse (21 N);
(e) realization of the essential cubic nonlinearity through a system with geometric
nonlinearity [96, 99, 169]
Taylorseries expansion of the bracketed termabout
x = 0 assuming x/L 1 gives
F = EA
_
x
L
_
3
+O
_
x
5
L
5
_
(36)
from which the coefcient for the essentially non
linear term can be estimated as C = EA/L
3
. Note that
a noninteger power (close to three) is obtained via
system identication [169].
Two series of physical experiments were conducted
in which the primary system was impulsively loaded.
In the rst series of tests, the damping in the NES
was kept relatively low in order to highlight the dif
ferent mechanisms for TETs. Additional tests were
performed to investigate whether TETs can take place
with increased levels of damping.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 123
Fig. 40 Measured restoring force represented as a function of time (left) and relative displacement
v y (right)[99]
4.1.1 Case of low damping
In the lowdamping case, several force levels ranging
from 21 to 55 N were considered, but for conciseness,
only the results for the lowest and the highest force
levels are depicted in Fig. 41.
At 21 N of forcing, the acceleration and displace
ment of the NES are higher than those of the primary
system, which indicates that the NES participates in
the systemdynamics to a large extent. The percentage
of instantaneous total energy plot illustrates that vig
orous energy exchanges take place between the two
oscillators. However, it can also be observed that the
channeling of energy to the NES is not irreversible.
After 0.23 s, as much as 88 per cent of the total energy
is present in the NES, but this number drops down
to 1.5 per cent immediately thereafter. Hence, in this
case, energy quickly ows back and forth between the
two oscillators, which is characteristic of a nonlinear
beating phenomenon. Another indication for this is
that the envelope of the NES response undergoes large
modulations.
At the 55 N level, the nonlinear beating still dom
inates the early regime of the motion. A less vigor
ous but faster energy exchange is now observed as
63 per cent of the total energy is transferred to the NES
after 0.12 s. These quantities also hold for the interme
diate force levels [99]. It should be noted that these
observations are in close agreement with the analyti
cal and numerical studies [83, 84]; indeed, inthis case,
the special orbits are such that they transfer smaller
amounts of energy to the NES, but in a faster fashion
when the force level is increased.
A qualitative means of assessing the energy dissi
pation by the NES is to compare the response of the
primary system in the following two cases: (a) when
the NES is attached to the primary system(the present
case denoted by NES displacements at the bottom
of Fig. 41); (b) when the NES is disconnected, but its
dashpot is installed between the primary system and
ground (a SDOF linear oscillator with added damp
ing denoted by ground dashpot displacement in
Fig. 41). Case (b) was not realizedinthe laboratory, but
the system response was computed using numerical
simulation. The two bottom gures in Fig. 41 com
pare the corresponding displacements of the linear
oscillator in the aforementioned two different system
congurations. It can be observed that the NES per
forms much better than the grounded dashpot for the
21 N level, but this is less obvious for the 55 N level.
This might mean that, when the nonlinear beating
phenomenon is capable of transferring a signicant
portion of the total energy to the NES, it should be a
more useful mechanism for energy dissipation.
4.1.2 Case of high damping
Several force levels ranging from 31 to 75 N were
considered, and the results for 31 N are presented
herein. The damping coefcient was identied to be
1.48 Ns/m, which means that damping can no longer
be considered to be O(). The increase in damping is
alsoreectedinthemeasuredrestoringforceinFig. 42.
The system responses are almost entirely damped
out after ve to six periods. The NES acceleration and
displacement are still higher than the corresponding
responses of the primary system, meaning that TETs
may also occur in the presence of higher damping.
The percentage of instantaneous total energy in the
NES never reaches close to 100 per cent as in the
lower damping case. However, one may conjecture
that this is due to the increased damping value; as
soon as energy is transferred to the NES, it is almost
immediately dissipated by the dashpot.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
124 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 41 Experimental results for lowdamping (left column: 21 N; right column: 55 N; note differing
durations). The rst row depicts measured acceleration; the second, measured displace
ment; the third, percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES; and the fourth,
displacement of the primary structure (NES versus grounded dashpot) [99]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 125
Fig. 42 Experimental results for high damping (31 N). From the top left, measured accelerations,
measured displacements, percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES, measured
and simulated energy dissipated by the NES, displacement of the primary system (NES
versus grounded dashpot), and restoring force [99]
4.1.3 Frequencyenergy plot analysis
Utilizing the FEP on which the WT of the relative dis
placement betweenthe primary structure andthe NES
is superimposed, the dynamics of the systemfor high
level forcing with low damping, and for lowlevel forc
ing with high damping, can be investigated (Fig. 43).
There are strong harmonic components developing
during the nonlinear beating phenomenon. Once
these harmonic components disappear, the NES
engages in a 1:1 resonance capture with the linear
oscillator at a frequency approximately equal to the
natural frequency of the uncoupled linear oscillator.
4.2 Experiments with MDOF primary systems
In order to support the theoretical ndings in
section 3.3, physical experiments were carried out
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
126 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 43 Superposition of theWT of the relative displacement across the nonlinearity and the FEP:
(a) 55 N, low damping; (b) 31 N, high damping [99]
Fig. 44 Experimental setup for a twoDOF linear pri
mary structure coupled to an SDOF NES [169]
using the xture depicted in Fig. 44, which cor
responds to the schematic depicted in Fig. 22.
It realizes the system described by equation 25,
and the system parameters are identied using
modal analysis and the restoring force surface
method: m
1
= 0.6285 kg, m
2
= 1.213 kg, = 0.161 kg,
k
1
= 420 N/m, k
2
= 0 N/m, k
12
= 427 N/m, C =4.97
10
6
N/m
3
,
1
=0.05 0.1 Ns/m,
2
= 0.5 0.9 Ns/m,
12
= 0.2 0.5 Ns/m, = 0.3 0.35 Ns/m.
The mass ratio /(m
1
+m
2
) is equal to 8.7 per cent.
From these parameters, the natural frequencies of the
uncoupled linear subsystem are found to be 1.95 and
6.25 Hz, respectively. The damping coefcients range
over a certain interval, because damping estimation is
a difcult problem in this setup due to the presence
of several ball joints and bearings, and due to the air
track. It was foundthat dampingwas rather sensitiveto
the force level, which is why intervals rather than xed
values are given. In addition, at lowamplitude friction
appeared to play an important role in the dynamics of
the system.
In these experimental verications, the mass m
1
was loaded by impulses of different amplitudes and
of durations of approximately 0.01 s. Four cases of
increasing input energy were considered: case I,
0.0103 J; II, 0.0258 J; III, 0.0296 J; and IV, 0.0615 J. The
superposition of the WT of the relative displacement
across the nonlinear spring on the FEP is shown in
Fig. 45.
Starting with the case I, the lowest energy,
S111 +++ is excited from the beginning of the
motion. This means that the input energy is already
above the threshold for TET from the inphase mode,
but belowthe threshold for resonance with the outof
phase mode. For case II, S111 +++ is again excited,
but harmonic components are present. By slightly
increasing the imparted energy (case III), the thresh
old for interaction with the outofphase mode is
exceeded. As aresult, S111 +is excited, andshortly
after a jump to S111 +++ takes place. In case IV, the
transitions are similar to those of case III.
Further results for case IV, which bear strong resem
blance to those in Fig. 46, are displayed in Fig. 47.
During the rst few cycles, the NES clearly resonates
with the outofphase mode. As a result, after 2 s,
the NES can capture as much as 87 per cent of the
instantaneous total energy, and the participation of
the outofphase mode in the systemresponse is dras
tically reduced. Around t = 2 s, a sudden transition
takes place, and the NES starts extracting energy from
the inphase mode. The comparison of Figs 47(c) and
(e) with Figs 47(d) and (f ) shows that the predictions
of the model identied are in very close agreement
with the experimental measurements in the interval
04 s. Specically, the sequential interaction of the
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 127
Fig. 45 Frequencyenergy plot for the experimental xture for a peak duration around 0.01 s:
(a)(d) Cases IIV [87]
Fig. 46 Response following direct impulsive forcing of mass m
1
(40 N, 0.01 s): (a)(b) displace
ments; (c) FEP with the superimposed WT of the relative displacement between m
2
and
the NES; (d) instantaneous percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
128 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 47 Experimental results (case IV): (a)(c) measured displacements; (d) predicted NES dis
placement; (e)(f ) measured and predicted instantaneous percentage of total energy in
the NES [87]
NES with both modes is accurately reproduced by the
numerical model. Discrepancies occur after t = 4 s,
probably due to unmodelled friction in the bearings;
this explains why the TET predicted by the numerical
model between 4 and 8 s was not reproduced with the
experimental xture.
During this experiment, no attempt was made to
maximize energy dissipation in the NES. The purpose
was rather to examine the energy transfers in this sys
tem, tohighlight the underlying dynamic phenomena,
andto demonstrate that the NES is capable of resonat
ing with virtually any given mode of a structure.
5 CONCLUDINGREMARKS
Fundamental aspects of passive TET in systems of
coupled oscillators with essentially nonlinear attach
ments were reviewed in this work. The concepts,
methods, and results presented in this review article
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 129
can be applied to diverse engineering elds. To just
give an indication of the powerful applications that
passive TET can nd some recent applications of TET
and NES to some practical engineering problems.
Inaseries of papers [98, 114, 115] theabilityof SDOF
and MDOF NESs to robustly eliminate aeroelastic
instabilities occurring in inow wings is demon
strated both theoretically and experimentally. This
is a consequence of a series of transient or sus
tained resonance captures between the essentially
nonlinear NESs and aeroelastic (pitch and heave)
modes, which act to suppress the triggering mech
anism that yields to LCOs and assure instabilityfree
dynamics. The designs proposed in these papers hold
promise for using strongly nonlinear local elements
to achieve passive vibration reduction in situations
where this is not possible by weakly nonlinear or
linear methods.
Moreover, in an additional series of papers
[116118], NESs withsmoothand/or nonsmooth(VI)
characteristics are employed in frame structures to
mitigate the damaging effects of strong seismic exci
tations. In particular, the author demonstrated, both
theoretically and experimentally, that NESs with non
smooth stiffness characteristics can provide passive
reduction of the seismic response during the criti
cal initial cycles (i.e. immediately after application of
the earthquake excitation), where the motion is at
its highest energetic state. This is due to fastscale
TET from the structure to the nonsmooth NES. The
use of VI NESs in seismic mitigation designs has the
added advantages of spreading seismic energy to
higher structural modes, which leads to amplitude
reduction and to more efcient dissipation of seismic
energy.
The results, methods, and applications reviewed in
this paper hopefully demonstrate the potential ben
ets to be gained through intentional introduction
of nonlinearities in certain engineering applications.
Though this runs counter to the prevailing view that
nonlinearities in structural design should be avoided
when possible; but here it is shown that, for certain
applications, the intentional use of (even strong) non
linearities can yield benecial results that cannot be
obtained otherwise by weakly nonlinear or linear
designs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported in part by the US Air Force
Ofce of Scientic Research through Grants Num
ber FA95500410073 and F496200110208. Gatan
Kerschen is supported by a grant from the Bel
gian National Science Foundation, which is gratefully
acknowledged.
REFERENCES
1 Frahm, H. Device for damping vibrations of bodies. US
Pat. 989958, 1909.
2 Sun, J. Q., Jolly, M. R., and Norris, M. Passive, adaptive
and active tuned vibration absorbers a survey. Trans.
ASME, J. Mech. Des., 1995, 117 234242.
3 Housner, G., Bergman, L., Caughey, T., Chassiakos, A.,
Claus, R., Masri, S., Skelton, R., Soong, T., Spencer, B.,
and Yao, J. Structural control: past, present, and future.
ASCE J. Eng. Mech., 1997, 123, 897971.
4 Zuo, L. and Nayfeh, S. Minimax optimization of multi
degreeoffreedomtunedmass dampers. J. SoundVibr.,
2004, 272(35), 893908.
5 Krenk, S. Frequency analysis of the tunedmass damper.
Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 2005, 72, 936942.
6 ElKhatib, H., Mace, B., and Brennan, M. Suppresion
of bending waves in a beam using a tuned vibration
absorber. J. SoundVibr., 2005, 288, 11571175.
7 Zuo, L. and Nayfeh, S. The twodegreeoffreedom
tunedmass damper for suppression of singlemode
vibration under random and harmonic excitation.
Trans. ASME, J. Vibr. Acoust., 2006, 128, 5665.
8 Roberson, R. Synthesis of a nonlinear dynamic vibra
tion absorber. J. Franklin Inst., 1952, 254, 205220.
9 Pak, C., Song, S., Shin, H., and Hong, S. A study on the
behavior of nonlinear dynamic absorber (in Korean).
Korean Soc. Noise Vibr. Eng., 1993, 3, 137143.
10 Wagg, D. Multiple nonsmooth events in multidegree
offreedom vibroimpact systems. Nonlinear Dyn.,
2006, 43, 137148.
11 Pun, D. and Liu, Y. B. On the design of the piecewise
linear vibration absorber. Nonlinear Dyn., 2000, 22(4),
393413.
12 Shaw, S. andWiggins, S. Chaotic motions of a torsional
vibration absorber. Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1988,
55, 952958.
13 Tondl, A., Ruijgrok, M., Verhulst, F., and Nabergoj, R.
Autoparametric resonance in mechanical systems, 2003
(Cambridge University Press, NewYork).
14 Golnaraghi, M. Vibration suppression of exible struc
tures using internal resonance. Mech. Res. Commun.,
1991, 18, 135143.
15 Vilallonga, E. and Rabitz, H. Vibrational energy transfer
at the gassolid interface: the role of collective and of
localized vibrational modes. J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 85,
23002314.
16 Vilallonga, E. and Rabitz, H. A hybrid model for vibra
tional energy transfer at the gassolidinterface: discrete
surface atoms plus a continuous elastic bulk. J. Chem.
Phys., 1990, 92, 39573976.
17 Sievers, A. and Takeno, S. Intrinsic localized modes in
anharmonic crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1988, 61, 970973.
18 Shepelyansky, D. Delocalization of quantum chaos
by weak nonlinearity. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1993, 70,
17871790.
19 Sokoloff, J. Reductionof energy absorptionby phonons
andspinwaves ina disorderedsoliddue to localization.
Phys. Rev. B, 2000, 61, 93809386.
20 Khusnutdinova, K. and Pelinovsky, D. Onthe exchange
of energy in coupled KleinGordon equations. Wave
Motion, 2003, 38, 110.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
130 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
21 Morgante, A., Johansson, M., Aubry, S., and
Kopidakis, G. Breatherphonon resonances in nite
size lattices: phantom breathers? J. Phys. A., 2002, 35,
49995021.
22 Kopidakis, G., Aubry, S., and Tsironis, G. Targeted
energy transfer through discrete breathers in nonlinear
systems. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2001, 87, 165501.14.
23 Aubry, S., Kopidakis, G., Morgante, A., and Tsiro
nis, G. Analytic conditions for targeted energy transfer
between nonlinear oscillators or discrete breathers.
Phys. B, 2001, 296, 222236.
24 Maniadis, P., Kopidakis, G., and Aubry, S. Classical and
quantum targeted energy transfer between nonlinear
oscillators. Phys. D, 2004, 188, 153177.
25 Memboeuf, A. and Aubry, S. Targeted energy trans
fer between a rotor and a Morse oscillator: a model
for selective chemical dissociation. Phys. D, 2005, 207,
123.
26 Hodges, C. Connement of vibration by structural
irregularity. J. SoundVibr., 1982, 82, 411424.
27 Pierre, C. and Dowell, E. Localization of vibrations by
structural irregularity. J. SoundVibr., 1987, 114, 549564.
28 Bendiksen, O. Mode localization phenomena in large
space structures. AIAA J., 1987, 25, 12411248.
29 Cai, C., Chan, H., and Cheung, Y. Localized modes in a
twodegreecoupling periodic system with a nonlinear
disorderedsubsystem. Chaos Solitons Fractals, 2000, 11,
14811492.
30 Anderson, P. Absence of diffusion in certain random
lattices. Phys. Rev., 1958, 109, 14921505.
31 Hodges, C. and Woodhouse, J. Vibration isolation from
irregularity in a nearly periodic structure: theory and
measurements. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1983, 74, 894905.
32 Vakakis, A. Dynamics of a nonlinear periodic structure
with cyclic symmetry. Acta Mech., 1992, 95, 197226.
33 Vakakis, A. and Cetinkaya, C. Mode localization in
a class of multidegreeoffreedom nonlinear systems
with cyclic symmetry. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1993, 53,
265282.
34 Vakakis, A., Raheb, M., and Cetinkaya, C. Free and
forced dynamics of a class of periodic elastic systems.
J. SoundVibr., 1994, 172, 2346.
35 King, M. andVakakis, A. Avery complicatedstructureof
resonances ina nonlinear systemwithcyclic symmetry:
nonlinear forced localization. Nonlinear Dyn., 1995, 7,
85104.
36 Aubrecht, J. and Vakakis, A. Localized and non
localized nonlinear normal modes in a multispan
beam with geometric nonlinearities. Trans. ASME,
J. Appl. Mech., 1996, 118, 533542.
37 Salenger, G. and Vakakis, A. Discretenes effects in the
forced dynamics of a string on a periodic array of
nonlinear supports. Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 1998, 33,
659673.
38 Fang, X., Tang, J., Jordan, E., and Murphy, K. Crack
inducedvibrationlocalizationinsimpliedbladeddisk
structures. J. SoundVibr., 2006, 291, 395418.
39 Campbell, D., Flach, S., and Kivshar, Y. Localizing
energy through nonlinearity and discreteness. Phys.
Today, 2004, 57(1), 4349.
40 Sato, M., Hubbard, B., and Sievers, A. Colloquium:
nonlinear energy localization and its manipulation in
micromechanical oscillator arrays. Rev. Mod. Phys.,
2006, 78, 137157.
41 Gendelman, O., Manevitch, L., Vakakis, A., and
MCloskey, R. Energy pumping in coupled mechanical
oscillators, part I: dynamics of the underlying Hamil
tonian systems. Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 2001, 68,
3441.
42 Nayfeh, A. and Pai, P. Nonlinear nonplanar paramet
ric responses of an inextensional beam. Int. J. Non
Linear Mech., 1989, 24, 139158.
43 Pai, P. and Nayfeh, A. Nonlinear nonplanar oscilla
tions of acantilever beamunder lateral baseexcitations.
Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 1990, 25, 455474.
44 Nayfeh, A. and Mook, D. Energy transfer from high
frequency to lowfrequency modes in structures. Trans.
ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1995, 117, 186195.
45 Malatkar, P. and Nayfeh, A. On the transfer of energy
between widely spaced modes in structures. Nonlinear
Dyn., 2003, 31, 225242.
46 Cusumano, J. Lowdimensional, chaotic, nonplanar
motions of the elastica: experiment and theory. PhD
Thesis, Cornell University, 1990.
47 Gendelman, O. and Vakakis, A. F. Transitions from
localization to nonlocalization in strongly nonlinear
damped oscillators. Chaos Solitons Fractals, 2000, 11,
15351542.
48 Vakakis, A. Inducing passive nonlinear energy sinks in
vibrating systems. Trans. ASME, J. Vibr. Acoust., 2001,
123, 324332.
49 Gendelman, O. Transition of energy to a nonlinear
localized mode in a highly asymmetric system of two
oscillators. Nonlinear Dyn., 2001, 25, 237253.
50 Vakakis, A. andGendelman, O. Energy pumping incou
pled mechanical oscillators, part ii: resonance capture.
Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 2001, 68, 4248.
51 Panagopoulos, P., Gendelman, O., and Vakakis, A.
Robustness of nonlinear targeted energy transfer in
coupled oscillators to changes of initial conditions.
Nonlinear Dyn., 2007, 47(4), 377387.
52 Bohr, T., Bak, P., and Jensen, M. Transition to chaos
by interaction of resonances in dissipative systems. ii.
Josephson junctions, chargedensity waves, and stan
dard maps. Phys. Rev. A, 1984, 30, 19701981.
53 Itin, A., Neishtadt, A., and Vasiliev, A. Captures into
resonance and scattering on resonance in dynam
ics of a charged relativistic particle in magnetic
eld and electrostatic wave. Phys. D, 2000, 141,
281296.
54 Vainchtein, D., Rovinsky, E., Zelenyi, L., and
Neishtadt, A. Resonances and particle stochastization
in nonhomogeneous electromagnetic elds. J. Nonlin
ear Sci., 2004, 14, 173205.
55 Haberman, R. Energy bounds for the slow capture by
a center in sustained resonance. SIAM J. Appl. Math.,
1983, 43, 244256.
56 Kath,W. Necessary conditions for sustained reentry roll
resonance. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1983, 43, 314324.
57 Kath, W. Conditions for sustained resonance. II. SIAM
J. Appl. Math., 1983, 43, 579583.
58 Haberman, R., Rand, R., and Yuster, T. Resonant cap
ture and separatrix crossing in dualspin spacecraft.
Nonlinear Dyn., 1999, 18, 159184.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 131
59 Belokonov, V. and Zabolotnov, M. Estimation of the
probability of capture into a resonance mode of motion
for a spacecraft during its descent in the atmosphere.
Cosmic Res., 2002, 40, 467478.
60 Arnold, V. Dynamical systems III (encyclopaedia of
mathematical sciences), 1988 (SpringerVerlag, Berlin
Heidelberg, Germany).
61 Burns, T. and Jones, C. A mechanisms for capture into
resonance. Phys. D, 1993, 69, 85106.
62 Neishtadt, A. Scattering by resonances. Celest. Mech.
Dyn. Astron., 1997, 65, 120.
63 Neishtadt, A. On adiabatic invariance in twofrequency
systems. Hamiltonian systems with three or more
degrees of freedom, NATO ASI Series C 533, 1999, pp.
193212.
64 Quinn, D. Resonance capture in a three degreeof
freedom mechanical system. Nonlinear Dyn., 1997, 14,
309333.
65 Quinn, D. Transition to escape in a system of cou
pled oscillators. Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 1997, 32,
11931206.
66 Zniber, A. and Quinn, D. Frequency shifting in nonlin
ear resonant systems with damping. In the ASME 2003
International Design Engineering Technical Confer
ences and Computers and Information in Engineering
Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 2003, DETC2003/VIB
48444.
67 Gendelman, O. and Lamarque, C. Dynamics of lin
ear oscillator coupled to strongly nonlinear attachment
with multiple states of equilibrium. Chaos Solitons
Fractals, 2005, 24(2), 501509.
68 Musienko, A. and Manevitch, L. Comparison of passive
and active energy pumping in mechanical nonlinear
system. In the ASME 2005 International Design Engi
neering Technical Conferences and Computers and
Information in Engineering Conference, Long Beach,
California, 2005, DETC200584806.
69 Thorp, J., Seyler, C., and Phadke, A. Electromechani
cal wave propagation in large electric power systems.
IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundam. Theory Appl., 1998,
45(6), 61422.
70 Vakakis, A. Analysis and identication of linear and
nonlinear normal modes in vibrating systems. PhD
Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1991.
71 Gourdon, E. and Lamarque, C. H. Energy pumping
withvarious nonlinear structures: numerical evidences.
Nonlinear Dyn., 2005, 40(3), 281307.
72 Pilipchuk, V., Vakakis, A., and Azeez, M. Study of a
class of subharmonic motions using a nonsmooth
temporal transformation (NSTT). Phys. D, 1997, 100,
145164.
73 Gendelman, O., Manevitch, L., Vakakis, A., and
Bergman, L. A degenerate bifurcation structure in the
dynamics of coupled oscillators with essential stiffness
nonlinearities. Nonlinear Dyn., 33, 2003, 110.
74 Gendelman, O. V. Bifurcations of nonlinear normal
modes of linear oscillator with strongly nonlinear
damped attachment. Nonlinear Dyn., 2004, 37(2),
115128.
75 Gourdon, E. and Lamarque, C. H. Nonlinear energy
sink with uncertain parameters. J. Comput. Nonlinear
Dyn., 2006, 1(3), 187195.
76 Musienko, A. I., Lamarque, C. H., and Manevitch, L. I.
Design of mechanical energy pumping devices. J. Vibr.
Control, 2006, 12(4), 355371.
77 Vakakis, A. Designing a linear structure with a local
nonlinear attachment for enhanced energy pumping.
Meccanica, 2003, 38, 677686.
78 Vakakis, A., Manevitch, L., Gendelman, O., and
Bergman, L. Dynamics of linear discrete systems con
nected to local, essentially nonlinear attachments.
J. SoundVibr., 2003, 264, 559577.
79 Vakakis, A., McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L.,
Manevitch, L., and Gendelman, O. Isolated resonance
captures and resonance capture cascades leading to
single or multimode passive energy pumping in
damped coupled oscillators. Trans. ASME, J. Vibr.
Acoust., 2004, 126, 235244.
80 Manevitch, L., Gendelman, O., Musinko, A.,Vakakis, A.,
andBergman, L. Dynamic interactionof a semiinnite
linear chain of coupled oscillators with a strongly
nonlinear end attachment. Phys. D, 2003, 178, 118.
81 Vakakis, A., Manevitch, L., Musienko, A., Kerschen,
G., and Bergman, L. Transient dynamics of a disper
sive elastic wave guide weakly coupled to an essentially
nonlinear end attachment. Wave Motion, 2005, 41,
109132.
82 Gendelman, O., Gorlov, D., Manevitch, L., and
Musienko, A. Dynamics of coupled linear and essen
tially nonlinear oscillators with substantially different
masses. J. SoundVibr., 286, 2005, 119.
83 Lee, Y., Kerschen, G., Vakakis, A., Panagopoulos, P.,
Bergman, L., and McFarland, D. M. Complicated
dynamics of a linear oscillator with a light, essentially
nonlinear attachment. Phys. D, 2005, 204(12), 4169.
84 Kerschen, G., Lee, Y., Vakakis, A., McFarland, D. M.,
and Bergman, L. Irreversible passive energy transfer
in coupled oscillators with essential nonlinearity. SIAM
J. Appl. Math., 2006, 66(2), 648679.
85 Kerschen, G., Gendelman, O., Vakakis, A. F.,
Bergman, L. A., and McFarland, D. M. Impulsive peri
odic and quasiperiodic orbits of coupled oscillators
with essential stiffness nonlinearity. Commun. Nonlin
ear Sci. Numer. Simul., 2008, 13(5), 959978.
86 Manevitch, L., Gourdon, E., and Lamarque, C. Param
eters optimization for energy pumping in strongly non
homogeneous 2 DOF system. Chaos Solitons Fractals,
2007, 31(4), 900911.
87 Kerschen, G., Kowtko, J., McFarland, D. M.,
Bergman, L., and Vakakis, A. Theoretical and experi
mental study of multimodal targeted energy transfer in
a system of coupled oscillators. Nonlinear Dyn., 2007,
47(1), 285309.
88 Tsakirtzis, S., Panagopoulos, P., Kerschen, G.,
Gendelman, O., Vakakis, A., and Bergman, L. Complex
dynamics and targeted energy transfer in linear oscil
lators coupled to multidegreeoffreedom essentially
nonlinear attachments. Nonlinear Dyn., 2007, 48(3),
285318.
89 Panagopoulos, P. N., Vakakis, A. F., and Tsakirtzis, S.
Transient resonant interactions of nite linear chains
with essentially nonlinear end attachments leading to
passive energy pumping. Int. J. Solids Struct., 2004,
41(2223), 65056528.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
132 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
90 Vakakis, A. and Rand, R. Nonlinear dynamics of a
system of coupled oscillators with essential stiffness
nonlinearities. Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 2004, 39,
10791091.
91 Gourdon, E. and Lamarque, C. Energy pumping for
a larger span of energy. J. Sound Vibr., 2005, 285(3),
711720.
92 Georgiades, F., Vakakis, A. F., and Kerschen, G. Broad
band passive targeted energy pumping from a linear
dispersive rod to a lightweight essentially nonlinear
end attachment. Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 2007, 42(5),
773788.
93 Panagopoulos, P., Georgiades, F., Tsakirtzis, S.,
Vakakis, A. F., and Bergman, L. A. Multiscaled analysis
of the dampeddynamics of anelastic rodwithanessen
tially nonlinear end attachment. Int. J. Solids Struct.,
2007, 44(1), 62566278.
94 Tsakirtzis, S., Vakakis, A. F., and Panagopoulos, P.
Broadband energy exchanges between a dissipative
elastic rod and a multidegreeoffreedom dissipative
essentially nonlinear attachment. Int. J. NonLinear
Mech., 2007, 42(1), 3657.
95 Huang, N., Shen, Z., Long, S., Wu, M., Shih, H.,
Zheng, Q., Yen, N.C., Tung, C., and Liu, H. The empir
ical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for
nonlinear andnonstationary time series analysis. Proc.
R. Soc. Lond. A., Math. Phys. Sci., 1998, 454, 903995.
96 McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L., and Vakakis, A. Exper
imental study of nonlinear energy pumping occurring
at a single fast frequency. Int. J. NonLinear Mech., 2005,
40, 891899.
97 Kerschen, G., Vakakis, A., Lee, Y., McFarland, D. M.,
Kowtko, J., and Bergman, L. Energy transfers in a
systemof two coupled oscillators with essential nonlin
earity: 1:1 resonance manifold and transient bridging
orbits. Nonlinear Dyn., 2005,42(3), 283303.
98 Lee, Y., Kerschen, G., McFarland, D. M., Hill, W.,
Nichkawde, C., Strganac, T., Bergman, L., and
Vakakis, A. Suppressing aeroelastic instability using
broadband passive targeted energy transfers, part 2:
experiments. AIAA J., 2007, 45(10), 23912400.
99 McFarland, D. M., Kerschen, G., Kowtko, J., Lee, Y.,
Bergman, L., and Vakakis, A. Experimental investiga
tion of targeted energy transfers in strongly and nonlin
early coupled oscillators. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 2005, 118,
791799.
100 Kerschen, G., McFaland, D. M., Kowtko, J., Lee, Y.,
Bergman, L., andVakakis, A. Experimental demonstra
tion of transient resonance capture in a system of two
coupled oscillators with essential stiffness nonlinearity.
J. SoundVibr., 2007, 299, 822838.
101 Kerschen, G., Vakakis, A., Lee, Y., McFarland, D. M.,
and Bergman, L. Toward a fundamental understand
ingof the HilbertHuangtransform. Inthe International
Modal Analysis Conference XXIV, St. Louis, Missouri, 30
January2 February 2006.
102 Kerschen, G., Vakakis, A., Lee, Y., McFarland, D. M.,
and Bergman, L. Toward a fundamental understanding
of the HilbertHuang transform in nonlinear structural
dynamics. J. Vibr. Control, 2008, 14(12), 77105.
103 Vakakis, A. Shock isolationthroughthe use of nonlinear
energy sinks. J. Vibr. Control, 2003, 9, 7993.
104 Jiang, X. and Vakakis, A. F. Dual mode vibration iso
lation based on nonlinear mode localization. Int.
J. NonLinear Mech., 2003, 38(6), 837850.
105 Georgiadis, F., Vakakis, A., McFarland, D. M., and
Bergman, L. Shock isolation through passive energy
pumping caused by nonsmooth nonlinearities. Int.
J. Bifurcation Chaos, 2005, 15(6), 19892001.
106 Jiang, X., McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L., and
Vakakis, A. Steadystate passive nonlinear energy pum
ping in coupled oscillators: theoretical and experimen
tal results. Nonlinear Dyn., 2003, 33, 87102.
107 Gendelman, O. V. and Starosvetsky, Y. Quasiperiodic
response regimes of linear oscillator coupled to non
linear energy sink under periodic forcing. Trans. ASME,
J. Appl. Mech., 2007, 74(2), 325331.
108 Gendelman, O., Gourdon, E., and Lamarque, C.
Quasiperiodic energy pumping in coupled oscillators
under periodic forcing. J. Sound Vibr., 2006, 294(45),
651662.
109 Gendelman, O., Starosvetsky, Y., and Feldman, M.
Attractors of harmonically forced linear oscillator
with attached nonlinear energy sink I: description
of response regimes. Nonlinear Dyn., 2008, 51(12),
3146.
110 Starosvetsky, Y. and Gendelman, O. Attractors of har
monically forced linear oscillator with attached nonlin
ear energy sink. II: optimizationof a nonlinear vibration
absorber. Nonlinear Dyn., 2008, 51(12), 4757.
111 Gourdon, E., Alexander, N., Taylor, C., Lamarque, C.,
and Pernot, S. Nonlinear energy pumping under tran
sient forcing with strongly nonlinear coupling: theo
retical and experimental results. J. Sound Vibr., 2007,
300(35), 522551.
112 Lee, Y., Vakakis, A., Bergman, L., and McFarland, D. M.
Suppression of limit cycle oscillations in the van der
Pol oscillator by means of passive nonlinear energy
sinks (NESs). Struct. Control Health Monit., 2006, 13(1),
4175.
113 Lee, Y., Vakakis, A., Bergman, L., McFarland, D. M.,
and Kerschen, G. Triggering mechanisms of limit cycle
oscillations in a twodegreeoffreedom wing utter
model. J. Fluids Struct., 2005, 21(57), 485529.
114 Lee, Y., Vakakis, A., Bergman, L., McFarland, D. M., and
Kerschen, G. Suppressing aeroelastic instability using
broadband passive targeted energy transfers, part 1:
theory. AIAA J., 2007, 45(3), 693711.
115 Lee, Y., Vakakis, A., Bergman, L., McFarland, D. M.,
and Kerschen, G. Enhancing robustness of aeroelastic
instability suppression using multidegreeoffreedom
nonlinear energy sinks. AIAA J., 2008 (in press).
116 Nucera, F., Vakakis, A., McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L.,
and Kerschen, G. Targeted energy transfers in vibro
impact oscillators for seismic mitigation. Nonlinear
Dyn., 2007, 50(3), 651677.
117 Nucera, F., McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L., and
Vakakis, A. Application of broadband nonlinear tar
geted energy transfers for seismic mitigation of a
shear frame: computational results. J. SoundVibr., 2008
(in press).
118 Nucera, F., Iacono, F. L., McFarland, D. M., Bergman,
L., and Vakakis, A. Application of broadband nonlin
ear targeted energy transfers for seismic mitigation of a
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive nonlinear TET and its applications 133
shear frame: experimental results. J. Sound Vibr., 2008,
313(12), 5776.
119 Vigui, R., Kerschen, G., Golinval, J.C.,
McFarland, D. M., Bergman, L., Vakakis, A., and
van de Wouw, N. Using targeted energy transfer to
stabilize drillstring systems. In the International
Modal Analysis Conference XXV, Orlando, Florida,
1922 February 2007.
120 Bellizzi, S., Cochelin, B., Herzog, P., and Mattei, P.O.
Aninsight of energy pumping inacoustic. Inthe Second
International Conference on Nonlinear Normal Modes
and Localization in Vibrating Systems, Samos, Greece,
1923 June 2006.
121 Sanders, J. and Verhulst, F. Averaging methods in
nonlinear dynamical systems, 1985 (SpringerVerlag,
NewYork).
122 Keener, J. On the validity of the twotiming method for
large times. SIAM J. M. Anal., 1977, 8, 10671091.
123 Sanders, J. Asymptotic approximations and extension
of timescales. SIAM. Math. Anal., 1980, 11, 758770.
124 Bosley, D. and Kevorkian, J. Adiabatic invariance and
transient resonance in very slowly varying oscillatory
Hamiltonian systems. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1992, 52,
494527.
125 Lochak, P. and Meunier, C. Multiphase averaging
for classical systems: with applications to adiabatic
theorems, 1988 (SpringerVerlag, New York, Berlin,
Heidelberg).
126 Kevorkian, J. Passage through resonance for a one
dimensional oscillator with slowly varying frequency.
SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1971, 20, 364373.
127 Neishtadt, A. Passage through a separatrix in a reso
nance problem with a slowlyvarying parameter. Prikl.
Mat. Mekh, 1975, 39, 621632.
128 Sanders, J. On the passage through resonance. SIAM
J. Math. Anal., 1979, 10, 12201243.
129 Nayfeh, A. and Mook, D. Nonlinear oscillations, 1979
(JohnWiley & Sons, NewYork).
130 Bakhtin, V. Averaging in multifrequency systems.
Funktsionalnyi Analiz i Ego Prilozheniya, 1986, 20, 17
(translated).
131 Dodson, M., Rynne, B., and Vickers, J. Averaging in
multifrequency systems. Nonlinearity, 1989, 2, 137148.
132 Nayfeh, A. Introduction to perturbation techniques,
1980 (JohnWiley & Sons, NewYork).
133 Bourland, F., Haberman, R., and Kath, W. Averaging
methods for the phase shift of arbitrarily perturbed
strongly nonlinear oscillators with an application to
capture. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1991, 51, 11501167.
134 Nandakumar, K. and Chatterjee, A. The simplest reso
nance capture problem, using harmonic balance based
averaging. Nonlinear Dyn., 2004, 37, 271284.
135 Manevitch, L. The description of localized normal
modes in a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators using
complex variables. Nonlinear Dyn., 2001, 25, 95109.
136 Pilipchuk, V. Analytical study of vibrating systems with
strong nonlinearities by employing sawtooth time
transformation. J. SoundVibr., 1996, 192, 4364.
137 Pilipchuk, V., Vakakis, A., and Azeez, M. Sensitive
dependence on initial conditions of strongly nonlinear
periodic orbits of the forcedpendulum. Nonlinear Dyn.,
1998, 16, 223237.
138 Pilipchuk, V. Application of special nonsmooth tem
poral transformations to linear and nonlinear systems
under discontinuous and impulsive excitation. Nonlin
ear Dyn., 1999, 18, 203234.
139 Pilipchuk,V. Nonsmoothtime decompositionfor non
linear models driven by random pulses. Chaos Solitons
Fractals, 2002, 14, 129143.
140 Pilipchuk, V. Temporal transformations and visualiza
tion diagrams for nonsmooth periodic motions. Int.
J. Bifurcation Chaos, 2005, 15(6), 18791899.
141 Roberts, S. and Shipman, J. Twopoint boundary value
problems: shooting methods, 1972 (American Elsevier
Publishing Company, Inc., NewYork).
142 Meirovitch, L. Methods of analytical dynamics, 1970
(McGrawHill, Inc., NewYork).
143 Guckenheimer, J. and Holmes, P. Nonlinear oscilla
tions, dynamical systems, and bifurcations of vector
elds, 1983 (SpringerVerlag, NewYork).
144 Kuznetsov, Y. Elements of applied bifurcation theory,
1995 (SpringerVerlag, NewYork).
145 Doedel, E., Champneys, A., Fairgrieve,T., Kuznetsov,Y.,
Sandstede, B., andWang, X. AUTO97: continuation and
bifurcationsoftware for ordinary differential equations,
1997.
146 Dhooge, A., Govaerts, W., and Kuznetsov, Y. MATCONT:
a Matlab Package for numerical bifurcation analysis of
ODEs. ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 2003, 29(2), 141164.
147 Boashash, B. Time frequency signal analysis and pro
cessing, a comprehensive reference, 2003 (Elsevier Ltd,
Amsterdam, Boston).
148 Laskar, J. Introduction to frequency map analysis.
Hamiltonian systems with three or more degrees of
freedom, NATO ASI Series C 533, 1999, pp. 134150.
149 Laskar, J. Frequency analysis for multidimensional
systems. Global dynamics and diffusion. Phys. D, 1993,
67, 257281.
150 Chandre, C., Wiggins, S., and Uzer, T. Timefrequency
analysis of chaotic systems. Phys. D, 2003, 181, 171196.
151 VelaArevalo, L. and Marsden, J. Timefrequency analy
sis of the restricted threebody problem: transport and
resonance transitions. Class. Quantum Gravity, 2004,
21, S351S375.
152 Lind, R., Snyder, K., and Brenner, M. Wavelet analysis to
characterise nonlinearities and predict limit cycles of
an aeroelastic system. Mech. Syst. Signal Process., 2001,
15, 337356.
153 Feldman, M. Nonlinear free vibration identication
via the Hilbert transform. J. Sound Vibr., 1997, 208,
475489.
154 Kim, I. and Kim, Y. Damage size estimation by the
continuous wavelet ridge analysis of dispersive bend
ing waves in a beam. J. Sound Vibr., 2005, 287,
707722.
155 Staszewski, W. Identication of nonlinear systems
using multiscale ridges and skeletons of the wavelet
transform. J. SoundVibr., 1998, 214, 639658.
156 Huang, N., Shen, Z., and Long, S. A newviewof nonlin
ear water waves: the Hilbert spectrum. Annu. Rev. Fluid
Mech., 1999, 31, 417457.
157 Huang, N., Wu, M.L., Long, S. R., Shen, S., Qu, W.,
Gloersen, P., and Fan, K. A condence limit for the
empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics
134 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
analysis. Proc. R. Soc. London, A. Math. Phys. Sci., 2003,
459, 23172345.
158 Cheng, J., Yu, D., and Yang, Y. Application of support
vector regression machines to the processing of end
effects of HilbertHuang transform. Mech. Syst. Signal
Process., 2007, 21(3), 11971211.
159 Cheng, J., Yu, D., and Yang, Y. Research on the intrinsic
mode function (IMF) criterion in EMD method. Mech.
Syst. Signal Process., 2006, 20, 817824.
160 Zhang, R., King, R., Olson, L., and Xu, Y.L. Dynamic
response of the trinity river relief bridge to con
trolled pile damage: modeling and experimental data
analysis comparing Fourier and HilbertHuang tech
niques. J. SoundVibr., 2005, 285, 10491070.
161 Cheng, J., Yu, D., and Yang, Y. Application of EMD
method and Hilbert spectrum to the fault diagnosis
of roller bearings. Mech. Syst. Signal Process., 2005, 19,
259270.
162 Rilling, G., Flandrin, P., and Gon oalvs, P. On empir
ical mode decomposition and its algorithms. In the
IEEEEurasipWorkshop onNonlinear Signal and Image
Processing, Grado, Italy, June 2003.
163 Pilipchuk, V. The calculation of strongly nonlinear sys
tems close to vibrationimpact systems. Prikl. Mat.
Mekh., 1985, 49, 572578.
164 Schaaf, R. Global solution branches of two point bound
ary value problems, lecture notes in mathematics,
vol. 1458, 1990 (SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg, NewYork).
165 Vakakis, A., Manevitch, L., Mikhlin, Y., Pilipchuk, V.,
and Zevin, A. Normal modes and localization in non
linear systems, 1996 (JohnWiley &Sons, Inc., NewYork).
166 Verhulst, F. Nonlinear differential equations and
dynamical systems, 2nd edition, 1990 (SpringerVerlag
Inc., NewYork)
167 Salemi, P., Golnaraghi, M., and Heppler, G. Active con
trol of forcedandunforcedstructural vibration. J. Sound
Vibr., 1997, 208, 1532.
168 Masri, S. and Caughey, T. A nonparametric identica
tion technique for nonlinear dynamic systems. Trans.
ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1979, 46, 433441.
169 Kowtko, J. Experiments with nonlinear energy sinks:
a novel approach to vibrational energy dissipation.
Masters Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, 2005.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multibody Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008