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INVITEDREVIEW 77

Passive non-linear targeted energy transfer and its


applications to vibration absorption: a review
Y S Lee
1
, A FVakakis
2
, L A Bergman
1
, DMMcFarland
1
, GKerschen
3
, F Nucera
4
, S Tsakirtzis
2
, and P NPanagopoulos
2
1
Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illiois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
2
School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3
Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department (LTAS), Universit de Lige, Lige, Belgium
4
Department of Mechanics and Materials, Mediterranean University, Reggio Calabria, Italy
The manuscript was received on 26 July 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 3 March 2008.
DOI: 10.1243/14644193JMBD118
Abstract: This review paper discusses recent efforts to passively move unwanted energy from a
primary structure to a local essentially non-linear attachment (termed a non-linear energy sink)
by utilizing targeted energy transfer (TET) (or non-linear energy pumping). First, fundamen-
tal theoretical aspects of TET will be discussed, including the essentially non-linear governing
dynamical mechanisms for TET. Then, results of experimental studies that validate the TET
phenomenon will be presented. Finally, some current engineering applications of TET will be
discussed. The concept of TET may be regarded as contrary to current common engineering
practise, which generally views non-linearities in engineering systems as either unwanted or, at
most, as small perturbations of linear behaviour. Essentially non-linear stiffness elements are
intentionally introduced in the design that give rise to new dynamical phenomena that are very
benecial to the design objectives and have no counterparts in linear theory. Care, of course, is
taken to avoid some of the unwanted dynamic effects that such elements may introduce, such as
chaotic responses or other responses that are contrary to the design objectives.
Keywords: passive non-linear targeted energy transfer, vibration absorbtion
1 INTRODUCTION
Many studies have been made to suppress vibrational
energy from disturbances into a main system either
passively or actively since the seminal invention of the
tuned vibration absorber (TVA) by Frahm [1] (refer
to references [2] and [3] for a historical review of
passive/active TVAs and structural control methods,
respectively). With advances in electro-mechanical
devices, active control schemes are more likely to offer
the best performance interms of vibrationabsorption.
However, in addition to issues of cost and energy con-
sumption associated with active control, robustness
and stability need to be addressed.

Corresponding author: Department of Aerospace Engineering,


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801,
USA. email: lbergman@uiuc.edu
Passive dynamic absorbers represent an interest-
ing alternative. The classical TVA from Frahm [1]
has been extensively studied in the literature [47].
It is a simple and efcient device but is only effec-
tive in the neighbourhood of a single frequency.
Roberson [8] showed that broadening the suppres-
sion bandwidth is possible by employing a non-linear
system for the TVA. Since then, non-linear vibra-
tion absorbers have received increased attention in
the literature (e.g. continuously and discontinuously
non-linear [9, 10]; piecewise linear [11]; centrifu-
gal pendulum [12]; and autoparametric vibration
absorbers [13, 14]). Although non-linearities are usu-
ally considered to be detrimental, it is possible to
take advantage of the richness and complexity of non-
linear dynamics for the design of improved vibration
absorbers.
Passive transfers of vibrational energy through
mode localization have been of particular interest in
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
78 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
solid-state, condensed-matter, and chemical physics.
For example, there are vibrational energy transfers
at gassolid interfaces [15, 16]; thermally generated
localized modes and their delocalization in a strongly
anharmonic solid lattice such as quantum crystals
[1719]; linear and non-linear exchanges of energy
between different components in coupled Klein
Gordon equations [20]; and targeted energy transfer
(TET) between a rotor and a Morse oscillator present-
ing chemical dissociation [21]. A novel mechanism
was also proposed for inducing highly selective yet
very efcient energy transfers in certain discrete non-
linear systems where, under a precise condition of
non-linear resonance, when a specic amount of
energy is injected as a discrete breather at a donor
system it can be transferred as a discrete breather to
another weakly coupled acceptor system [2225].
In applications to mechanical systems, localization
or connement of vibrations, which is referred to as
normal mode localization, was studied in references
[26] to [29] by considering structural irregularity (or
disorder) in weakly coupled component systems. An
acoustical application of Anderson localization [30]
was demonstrated theoretically and experimentally
[31]. It was alsoshownthat (non-linear) modelocaliza-
tion can occur in a class of multi-degree-of-freedom
(MDOF) non-linear systems even with perfect sym-
metry and a weakly coupled structure [3238]. This
kind of standing wave localization, based on intrin-
sic localized modes (discrete breathers) or non-linear
normal modes (NNMS) whichexist duetodiscreteness
and system non-linearity [39, 40], can be classied
as static because it does not involve controlled spa-
tial transfer of energy through the system. It can be
realized through appropriate selection of the initial
conditions [41].
Internal resonances (IRs) under certain conditions
also promote energy transfer between non-linear
modes [14, 4245]. It was explained, both theoreti-
cally and experimentally, how a low-amplitude high-
frequency excitation can produce a large-amplitude
low-frequency response (called energy cascading
[46]). However, in these cases, non-linear energy
exchanges are caused by non-linear modal interac-
tions, and they do not necessarily involve controlled
TETs [41].
It is only recently that passively controlled spa-
tial (hence dynamic) transfers of vibrational energy
in coupled oscillators to a targeted point where the
energy eventually localizes were studied [41, 4750].
This phenomenon is called non-linear energy pump-
ing or TET. This paper summarizes recent efforts
towards understanding passiveTET. Some preliminar-
ies and literature reviews are presented in section 2;
then, theoretical and experimental fundamentals on
non-linear TET phenomena are summarized, respec-
tively, in sections 3 and 4.
2 TARGETEDENERGYTRANSFER (OR
NON-LINEAR ENERGY PUMPING)
2.1 Preliminaries
Non-linear energy pumping (or passive TETs) refers
to one-way targeted spatial transfers of energy from
a primary subsystem to a non-linear attachment; it
is realized through resonance captures and escapes
along the intrinsic periodic solution branches [41, 50].
Because of the invariance property of the resonance
manifold, the energy transfers become irreversible
once the dynamics is captured into resonance.
The non-linear device, which is attached to a pri-
mary systemfor passive energy localization into itself,
is called a non-linear energy sink (NES). An NES
generally requires two elements: an essentially non-
linear (i.e. non-linearizable) stiffness and a (usually,
linear viscous) damper. The former enables the NES
to resonate with any of the linearized modes of the
primary subsystem, whereas the latter dissipates
the vibrational energy transferred through resonant
modal interactions. The NES can be categorized
as grounded versus ungrounded, single-degree-of-
freedom (SDOF) versus MDOF, and smooth versus
non-smooth, depending on its design and use.
Figure 1 depicts a schematic of passive and broad-
band TETs utilizing an ungrounded SDOF NES. A
primary structure is given (usually a linear system
and, hence, the mass, damping, andstiffness matrices,
M, C, K, respectively). The primary structure, which
possesses a set of natural frequencies {
(k)
Primary
}
k=1,...,N
where N is the number of DOFs of the primary struc-
ture, can suffer various external disturbances such
as impact loading, periodic or random excitation,
uid-structure interaction, etc.
One seeks to (passively) eliminate such unwanted
external disturbances induced in the primary struc-
ture by attaching a simple non-linear device such
as an NES. Because an NES does not possess any
preferential resonance frequency (i.e. it has no linear
Fig. 1 Schematic of passive and broadband TETs
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 79
stiffness term), it can generate a countably innite
number of non-linear resonance conditions (i.e. IRs,
m
(k)
Primary
n
NES
where m, n are integers), through
which vigorous energy exchanges occur between the
two oscillators. Inparticular, energy localizationto the
NES is preferred for efcient mitigation of the distur-
bances inthe primary structure. During the non-linear
modal interactions, energy is dissipated in the NES
damper. As the total energy decreases, self-detuning
is possible with the dynamics escaping from one res-
onance manifold to another. There are at least three
different TET mechanisms, which occur through 1:1
and subharmonic resonance captures, and are initi-
ated by non-linear beat phenomena, respectively (see
section 3).
Although an NES device looks similar to a linear
dynamic absorber (or a TVA) in conguration (both
are passive and composed of a mass, a spring, and
a damper), they are totally different in nature. A TVA
operates effectively in a narrow band of frequencies,
and its effect is most prominent in the steady-state
regime. Therefore, even if the TVA is initially designed
(tuned) to eliminate resonant responses near the nat-
ural frequency of a primary system, the mitigating
performance may become less effective over time due
to aging of the system, temperature or humidity vari-
ations and so forth, thus requiring additional adjust-
ment or tuning of parameters (i.e. the robustness can
be questioned). Onthe other hand, the NESis basically
a device that interacts with a primary structure over
broad frequency bands; indeed, since the NES pos-
sesses essential stiffness non-linearity, it may engage
in (transient) resonance capture with any mode of the
primary system (provided, of course, that a node of
the mode is not at the point of attachment of the
NES). It follows that an NES can be designed to extract
broadband vibration energy from a primary system,
engaging in transient resonance with a set of most
energetic modes. Thus, the NES is more robust than
the TVA [51].
2.2 Literature review
Resonance capture (or capture into resonance), which
turns out to be a fundamental mechanism for
non-linear TET, has been studied in various elds
(e.g. physics [5254]; aerospace engineering [5559])
and originated as a consequence of the averaging
theorem[6063]. Applications of resonance capture to
mechanical oscillators can also be found in references
[64] to [66].
Recently, resonance capture was applied to sup-
press unwanted disturbances in practical engineer-
ing problems. In this section, efforts to understand
passive TET in coupled oscillators are summarized
chronologically and are grouped according to system
congurations (SDOF, MDOF or continuous primary
systems; grounded or ungrounded and SDOF or
MDOF NESs).
2.2.1 Grounded NES congurations
Gendelman and Vakakis [47] rst investigated how
non-linear localization in coupled oscillators is pro-
gressively eliminated by a dissipative force. A strongly
non-linear oscillator with symmetry was studied by
computing and then matching separate analytical
approximations for the early (localized) and late (non-
localized) responses (see alsoreference [67] for alinear
oscillator coupled to a strongly non-linear attachment
with multiple equilibrium states). It was shown that
a damped vibrational system can exhibit localization
phenomenaat least at theearlystages of themotion. In
later stages of the motion, non-linear effects diminish
andatransitionfromnon-linear localizedtolinearized
weakly non-linear oscillations occurs as energy is dis-
sipated. It was noted that, in a system with symmetry,
IRs between subsystems exist leading to linearized
beat phenomena which eliminate localization in the
linearized regime. Applicability of active control to
compensate for dissipation effects was addressed,
keeping the localized motion preserved in the system
as energy decreases (see, for example, reference [68],
which suggested a control algorithm for switching
mechanical components suchas springs anddampers
on and off during their work with minimal energy
consumption).
Inducing passive NESs in vibrating systems was
studied in reference [48], where a complexication-
averaging technique was introduced to obtain mod-
ulation equations for the slow-ow dynamics. It was
shown that, for an impulsively loaded MDOF chain
with an NES attached at the end, the response of the
NES after some initial transients is motion dominated
by a fast frequency identical to the lower bound of the
propagation zone of the linear chain, which reduces
the study of TET in the chain to a two-DOF equivalent
problem. This is because, after some initial transients,
the semi-innite chain in essence vibrates in an in-
phase mode at the lower frequency boundary of the
propagation zone of the innite linear chain. Possi-
ble applications of TETto electric power networks [69]
were suggested for passive fault arrest in the network,
preventing catastrophic failure due to uncheckedfault
propagation.
Similarly, energy transfer to a non-linear localized
mode in a highly asymmetric system was investi-
gated [49]. It was shown that excitation of a NNM
[70] occurs via the mechanism of subharmonic res-
onance. The conditions for TET were suggested: (i) a
localized resonant mode should be excited; and (ii)
the vibrations of a non-linear oscillator should be
damped faster than the primary systemwith the same
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
80 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
damping terms of the same order. The shortcomings
of this passive vibration absorber were noted; that
is, it is not activated below a critical amplitude, and,
moreover, its effectiveness is reduced as the ampli-
tude grows above the critical resonant regime because
the non-linear oscillator cannot absorb more than a
given amount of energy at a certain frequency. It was
observedthat cubicstiffness couplingbetweenthepri-
mary structure and the NES is much more effective
than linear coupling because the main mechanism of
energy transfer becomes a non-linear parametric res-
onance (see also reference [71] for numerical evidence
of TET phenomena in various structures).
Dynamics of the underlying Hamiltonian system
and non-linear resonance phenomena were investi-
gated to understand energy pumping in a two-DOF
non-linear coupled system with a linearly coupled
grounded NES being one of the DOF [41, 50]. Action-
angle formulation was utilized as a reduction method
at a xed energy level to obtain a single second-order
ordinary differential equation; then, non-smoothtem-
poral transformations (NSTTs [72]) of the reduced
equation were performed to compute its periodic
solutions. It was shown that a 1:1 stable subhar-
monic orbit of the underlying Hamiltonian system is
mainly responsible for theTETphenomenon, andthat
this orbit cannot be excited at sufciently low ener-
gies. Hence, a transient bridging orbit satisfying zero
initial conditions must be impulsively excited. Fur-
thermore, introducing action-angle transformations,
and applying the averaging theorem to get a two-
frequency dynamical system, it was shown that the
energy pumping phenomenon in the system studied
in that work is associated with resonance capture in a
neighbourhood of the 1:1 resonance manifold.
The degenerate bifurcation structure of a system
of coupled oscillators with an NES was studied [73],
where two types of bifurcations of periodic solu-
tions were observed: (i) a degenerate bifurcation at
high energy (i.e. bifurcation from innity); and (ii)
non-degenerate bifurcation near the exact 1:1 IR. It
was noted that the degeneracy occurs when the lin-
ear coupling stiffness approaches zero, in which case
the linear part of the equations of motion possesses a
double zero and a conjugate pair of purely imaginary
eigenvalues (i.e. a codimension-3 bifurcation occurs).
Bifurcation of damped NNMs for 1:1 resonance
was studied by combining the invariant manifold
approach and multiple-scales expansion [74]. It was
noted that there is a special asymptotical structure
distinct between three time-scales: (i) fast vibration;
(ii) evolution of the system towards the NNM; and (iii)
time evolution of the invariant manifold. It was also
found that time evolution of the invariant manifold
may be accompanied by bifurcations, and passage of
the invariant manifoldthroughbifurcations may bring
about destruction of the resonance regime and essen-
tial gain in the energy dissipation rate. The damping
coefcient should be chosen to ensure the possibility
of bifurcationof the NNMinvariant manifold, because
failure to do so will result in a loss of NES ability to
dissipate the vibrational energy.
Robustness of TET was examined by introducing
uncertain parameters (due to aging, imperfection
in design, and so on) to the NES [75]. Polynomial
chaos expansions were used to obtain information
about randomdisplacements, followedby a numerical
parametric study based on Monte Carlo simulation.
The design of mechanical TET devices was consid-
ered in reference [76], where the complexication-
averaging technique and the method of multiple-
scales were utilized for analysing TET. Also, the issue
of designing a linear structure (specically, a two-DOF
linear chain) linearly coupled to a grounded NES was
studied for enhancing TET [77]. Expressing the actual
DOFs connectedtothe NES as modal coordinates, and
assuming no IRs between uncoupled linear modes,
the physical aspects of non-linear TET were studied. It
was revealed that damping is a prerequisite for energy
pumping because non-linear TET is caused by the
excitation of a damped NNM invariant manifold that
is ananalytic continuationof a NNMof the underlying
undamped (i.e. Hamiltonian) system. A more general
linear substructure (an MDOF chain) was considered
in reference [78], where a similar modal expression
was utilized to obtain the rst version of a frequency
energy plot (FEP). For the MDOF primary structure
coupled to an NES, resonance capture cascades were
demonstrated when TET occurs.
Single- and multi-mode energy pumping phenom-
ena were investigated in a two-DOF primary structure
linearly coupledto a groundedNES [79]. Isolatedreso-
nance captures leading to single-mode energy pump-
ing occur in neighbourhoods of only one of the linear
modes of the primary structure and are dominated by
the corresponding linearized eigenfrequencies (which
act as fast frequencies of the dynamics). However,
multi-mode energy pumping is caused by resonance
capture cascades that involve more than one linear
mode, and pumping dynamics are partitioned into
different frequency regimes with each regime being
dominated by a different fast frequency close to an
eigenfrequency of the linear system. Such resonance
capture cascades can be clearly depicted in appropri-
ate FEPs, which follow the damped transitions close
to branches of the underlying Hamiltonian system as
energy decreases due to damping dissipation.
Dynamic interaction of a semi-innite linear chain
with an NES coupled at the end was investigated [80].
Energy propagationthroughtraveling waves, withpre-
dominant frequencies inside the propagation zone
exciting families of localized standing waves situated
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 81
inside the lower or upper attenuation zones, were
analysed. Transient dynamics of a dispersive semi-
innite linear rod weakly connected to a grounded
NES was investigated [81]. By means of a Greens func-
tion formulation, which reduces the dynamics to an
integro-differential equation in the form of an in-
nite set of ODEs using Neumannexpansions, resonant
interaction of the NES with incident traveling waves
propagatinginthepass-bandof therodwas examined.
Resonance capture phenomena were alsoinvestigated
where the NES engages in transient 1:1 IR with the
in-phase mode of the rod at the bounding frequency
of its pass and stop bands, which are similar to res-
onance capture cascades in nite-chain non-linear
attachment congurations.
2.2.2 Ungrounded NES congurations
Apart from reference [49], dynamics of coupled lin-
ear and essentially non-linear oscillators with sub-
stantially different masses was investigated [82]. Two
mechanisms of energy pumping were examined: (i)
through 1:1 resonance capture and (ii) non-resonant
excitation of high-frequency vibration of the NES. It
was noted that an ungrounded NES conguration can
be transformed to a grounded one through change
of variables, so no further analysis for the former is
required.
An ungrounded NES conguration with essential
(non-linearizable) cubic stiffness non-linearity cou-
pled to a primary structure was investigated more rig-
orously in references [83] and [84]. Unlike a grounded
NES, the ungrounded conguration eliminates the
restriction of relatively heavy mass of the non-linear
attachment, thus possessing the feature of simplicity.
Lee et al. [83] revealed a very complicated bifurca-
tionstructure of symmetric andunsymmetric periodic
solutions of the underlying undamped system on a
FEP by solving using a shooting method, the two-
point non-linear boundary value problem (NLBVP)
formulated through suitable NSTTs based on the
two eigenfunctions of a vibro-impact (VI) problem.
Some important solution branches of 1:1 and sub-
harmonic resonance manifolds, as well as of non-
linear beating, are examined analytically through
the complexication-averaging technique in terms of
mode localization. Then, the transient dynamics of the
lightly damped system was clearly shown on the FEP
by superimposing wavelet transforms (WTs) of the rel-
ative displacement betweenthe primary structure and
the NES.
Furthermore, three distinct pumping mechanisms
were identied [84]. The rst mechanism, fundamen-
tal TET, is realized when the dynamics takes place
along the in-phase, 1:1 resonance manifold occurring
at the frequency domain less than the lower bound
of the eigenfrequency of the linear mode. The second,
subharmonicTET, is similar tothe fundamental mech-
anism except that it occurs along the subharmonic
solution branches on the FEP. Finally, the third is initi-
ated by non-linear beating, leading to stronger TET by
exciting a special (or impulsive) periodic orbit.
Impulsive periodic orbits, as well as quasi-periodic
orbits, were analysed by separately considering low-,
moderate-, and high-energy impulsive motions [85].
Analytical approximations of impulsive periodic
orbits, which are separated by corresponding un-
countable innities of quasi-periodic impulsive orbits
(IOs), were performed. It was shown that the impul-
sive dynamics of the system is very complex due to
its high degeneracy as it undergoes a codimension-3
bifurcation (indeed, the equations of motion for the
ungrounded NES conguration can be transformed
to those for a grounded NES conguration as in
reference [73]).
Robustness of TETs in coupled oscillators due to
changes of initial conditions was examined in ref-
erence [51]. The problem of choosing appropriate
initial conditions for achieving efcient TET in a sys-
tem of coupled oscillators with an ungrounded NES
was investigated by adopting a simplied description
of the dynamic ow at the initial stage of motion.
The analysis is complementary to the invariant man-
ifold approach of reference [74]. Optimization of the
(grounded) NES parameters for TETwas consideredin
reference [86], where anexperimental vericationwas
performedfor areduced-scalebuildingmodel withthe
NES located at the top oor.
Similar to references [77] to [79], multi-modal TETs
from a two-DOF primary structure to an ungrounded
NES were studied theoretically [87]. The main back-
bone curves onthe FEPwere computedanalytically by
utilizing the complexication-averaging technique (or
numerically, using optimization techniques). Mode
localizationphenomena were depictedalong the three
main backbones, and transient dynamics of the lightly
damped system was investigated for in-phase and
out-of-phase impulsive forcing (not surprisingly, there
exist more one-dimensional manifolds of special peri-
odic orbits (SPOs)). Again, WT results were superim-
posed on the FEP to demonstrate branch transitions
as the total energy decreases. Complex dynamics in a
two-DOF primary structure coupled to an MDOF NES
were investigated in reference [88], where strong pas-
siveTETcapacity (uptoas muchas 90per cent of input
energy) was identied.
Transient resonance captures (TRCs) in nite lin-
ear chains, respectively, coupled to a grounded SDOF
NES and to an ungrounded MDOF NES were com-
pared in reference [89], where the dynamics gov-
erning the chain-NES interaction was reduced to a
single, non-linear integro-differential equation that
exactly describes the transient dynamics of the NES.
Approximations based on Jacobian elliptic functions
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
82 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
[90] yielded an approximate set of two non-linear
integro-differential modulation equations for ampli-
tude and phase, and perturbation analysis in a O(

)
neighbourhood of a 1:1 resonant manifold were per-
formed. For the MDOF NES, there were no detectable
resonance capture cascades, but simultaneous multi-
modal resonant interactions were found instead,
which suggested robust and wide applicability of TET
to many engineering problems such as vibration and
shock isolation, packaging, seismic mitigation, distur-
bance isolation of sensitive devices during launch of
payloads in space, utter suppression, and so forth.
Similar work can be found in reference [91], where
instantaneous frequencies of the primary structure
and NES displacements were, respectively, estimated
through the Hilbert transform.
Broadband energy exchanges between a dissipative
elastic rod and a lightweight ungrounded SDOF NES
[92, 93], as well as an MDOF NES [94], were inves-
tigated rigorously. In particular, simultaneous (but
not necessarily sequential) TRCs with the MDOF NES
were demonstrated on a FEP utilizing empirical mode
decomposition (EMD[95]). Contrary to an SDOF NES,
which is sensitive to the external shock (or input
energy) level, the MDOF NES in the parameter ranges
of its high efciency exhibits robustness to changes
in the amplitude of the applied shock, the coupling
stiffness, and the non-linear springs.
2.2.3 Experimental studies
An experimental study of non-linear TET occurring at
a single fast frequency in the systemconsidered under
impulsive excitationonthe primary structure was per-
formed in reference [96]. All the previously predicted
analytical aspects were veried through experiments;
in particular, an input energy threshold to bring about
energy pumping was clearly depicted on the plot of
energy dissipation in the NES versus input energy.
Kerschen et al. [97] also experimentally showed that
non-linear energy pumping caused by 1:1 resonance
captureis triggeredbytheexcitationof transient bridg-
ing orbits compatible with the NES being initially at
rest, a common feature in most practical applica-
tions [41]. Some interesting observations were made
through a parametric study of the energy exchanges
between the primary structure and the (grounded)
NES: (i) the non-linear coefcient does not inuence
the energy pumping (see also the bifurcation analy-
sis [98]); (ii) the linear coupling spring must be weak
in order to have an almost complete energy transfer
to the NES along the 1:1 resonance manifold; (iii) the
stiffness should be chosen high enough to transfer a
sufcient amount of energy to the NES during non-
linear beating; and (iv) relatively large mass for the
NES should be considered for better energy transfers
(see reference [82]). An indirect analytical compar-
ison via coordinate transformation suggested that
the ungrounded NES conguration can eliminate the
restriction on the large mass requirement of the non-
linear attachments, which was also experimentally
demonstrated in reference [99].
Transient resonance captures were experimentally
demonstrated [100] by means of EMD [95]. In par-
ticular, the EMD is a very useful tool for experimental
studies (i.e. systemidentication[101, 102]) where the
system information is not given a priori.
The theoretical work for a two-DOF primary struc-
ture coupled to an unground SDOF NES [87] was
experimentally veried by comparison with numer-
ical simulations. Experimental studies demonstrated
the usefulness of the FEP for interpreting TET mech-
anisms; moreover, isolated resonance captures and
resonance capture cascades were also observed.
2.2.4 Applications
Application of NESs to shock isolation was rst
demonstrated in references [103] and [104]. Essen-
tially non-linear stiffness elements were used for
robust energy pumping at a sufciently fast time-
scale, because fast energy pumping at the early stage
is crucial for shock isolation purposes. In particular,
adding two symmetrically placed NESs makes it pos-
sible to achieve dual mode shock isolation to reduce
unwanted disturbances generated at different ends of
the primary system. It was noted that, due to their
modular form, the NESs can be added locally in an
otherwise linear system in order to globally alter the
dynamics inaway compatible tothe designobjectives.
Dual mode non-smooth (piecewise linear) NESs were
also utilized for the purpose of shock isolation [105].
Furthermore, steady-state TET from an SDOF lin-
ear primary structure under sinusoidal excitation to
an attached NES was demonstrated theoretically and
experimentally [106]. A linear oscillator coupled to an
ungrounded NES was considered in references [107]
and [108], and was transformed by proper change of
variables to a system similar as the one studied in
reference [106]. It was shownthat the dampeddynam-
ics exhibits a quasi-periodic vibration regime rather
thana steady-state sinusoidal response, a regime asso-
ciated with attraction of the dynamical ow to a
damped-forced NNM manifold (for a more advanced
analysis, refer to references [109] and [110]). Experi-
ments were also performed on an equivalent electric
circuit (see also reference [111] for energy pumping
under transient forcing).
Application of TET for suppressing self-excited
instabilities was examined. Suppression of limit cycle
oscillations (LCOs) in the van der Pol (VDP) oscil-
lator by means of non-linear TET was studied in
reference [112]. The VDP oscillator exhibits dynamics
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 83
analogous to non-linear aeroelastic instability. By
studying the slow-ow dynamics, extracted through
the complexication-averaging technique, and per-
forming numerical continuation of equilibria and
limit cycles, bifurcation structures of LCOs and the
possibility of robust LCOsuppression were parametri-
cally investigated. It was concluded that a steady-state
is reached through a series of TRCs that can be clearly
representedinaFEP. Inparticular, it was demonstrated
that, in order to suppress instability in the VDP oscil-
lator, a sequence of superharmonic and subharmonic
resonant interactions between the VDP oscillator and
the NES must take place.
The triggering mechanism of aeroelastic instabil-
ity in a two-DOF (heave and pitch), two-dimensional
rigid wing under subsonic quasi-steady aerodynam-
ics was examined in reference [113]. It was found that
the LCO-triggering mechanism consists of three dif-
ferent dynamic phenomena: a series of TRCs, escapes
from these captures and, nally, entrapment into per-
manent resonance capture (PRC). An initial excitation
of the heave mode by the ow acts as the trigger of
the pitch mode through a series of non-linear modal
interactions. Moreover, both the initial triggering and
full development of LCOs are transient phenomena,
so that one can properly design an NES attachment to
the wing for their suppression.
Based on these observations, an ungrounded SDOF
NES was applied to the two-DOF rigid wing, and
suppression of aeroelastic instability through passive
TETs was investigatedboththeoretically[114, 115] and
experimentally [98]. Three distinct suppressionmech-
anisms were identied: (i) recurring suppressedburst-
outs, (ii) intermediate, and (iii) complete elimination
of aeroelastic instability. Those suppression mecha-
nisms were identied with the bifurcation structure
of LCOs obtained through a numerical continuation
technique. Furthermore, the robustness of the aeroe-
lastic instability suppression was examined. In order
to enhance robustness of aeroelastic instability sup-
pression, the MDOF NES rst consideredinreferences
[89] and [94] was considered instead of the SDOF
NES. Bifurcation analysis showed that robustness of
instability suppression by means of simultaneous
multi-modal resonant interactions due to the MDOF
NES can be greatly enhanced, with a much smaller
total mass of the MDOF NES. Non-linear modal
energy exchanges were studied for various parameter
conditions.
Seismic mitigation of a reduced two-DOF model
[86, 111] and of an MDOF model [71], with an NES on
the top oor, was studied. Since an NES with smooth
stiffness non-linearities is not suited to suppress the
peak seismic responses at the critical early regime of
themotion, alternativenon-smoothVI NESs werecon-
sidered in references [116] to [118]. Effective seismic
mitigation through the use of VI NESs was demon-
strated both numerically and experimentally in these
works.
Other applications of passive TETs include suppres-
sionof stick-slipself-excited vibrations ina drill-string
problem [119], and acoustic energy pumping [120].
2.3 Useful denitions
In this section, concepts of resonance captures asso-
ciated with the averaging theorem are reviewed to
support the discussion of non-linear TET that follows.
Denition 1 (Resonance Manifold [121])
Consider the system in polar form with multi-phase
angles
r

= R(, r),

= (r) (1)
where r R
p
, T
q
(generally, q p), (r) =
(
1
(r), . . . ,
q
(r)), and the dimension of r may be
greater than that of the original dynamical system
depending on frequency decompositions. The set of
points in D R
p
where
i
(r) = 0, i = 1, . . . , q is called
the resonance manifold. This resonance condition
is not sufcient; that is, if each
i
(r), i = 1, . . . , q is
away from zero, the IR manifold is dened as the set
{r R
p
:< k, (r) 0, k Z
q
} where the correspond-
ing Fourier coefcients fromR(, r) are not identically
zero.
Assume that the averaged system of equation (1)
intersects transversely the resonant manifold. Then,
capture into resonance may occur for some phase
relations satisfying the condition that an orbit of
the dynamical system reaching the neighbourhood of
the resonant manifoldcontinues insucha way that the
commensurable frequency relation is approximately
preserved. In this situation, not all phase angles are
fast (time-like) variables, so classical averaging cannot
be performed with regard to these angle variables. As
a result, over the time-scale
1
the exact and aver-
aged solutions for equation (1) diverge up to O(1)
[60, 122, 123].
Denition 2 (Sustained and transient resonances
[124])
Suppose that (internal) resonance occurs at a time
instant t = t
0
, withthe non-trivial frequency combina-
tion = k
1

1
+k
2

2
+. . . +k
q

q
, k
i
Z, i = 1, . . . , q,
vanishing at that time instant (t = t
0
). Then, sustained
resonance is dened to occur when 0 persists for
times t t
0
= O(1). On the other hand, transient res-
onance refers to the case when makes a single slow
passage through zero.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
84 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Denition 3 (Capture, escape, and pass-through [64])
The possible behaviour of trajectories near the res-
onance manifold on the time-scale
1
is described
according to the following three cases: (i) capture:
solutions are unbounded in backward time. How-
ever, captured trajectories remain bounded for for-
ward times of O(
1
), i.e. a sustained resonance
exists in forward time; (ii) escape: solutions grow
unbounded in forward time. However, in backward
time, solutions remain bounded for times of O(
1
),
i.e. a sustained resonance exists in backward time;
(iii) pass-through: solutions do not remain in the
neighbourhood of the resonance manifold in either
forward or backward time. No sustained resonance
exists.
A mechanism for resonance capture in perturbed
two-frequency Hamiltonian systems was studied by
Burns and Jones [61] where the most probable mech-
anisms for resonance capture were shown to involve
an interaction between the asymptotic structures of
the averaged system and a resonance. It was further
shown that, if the system satises a less restrictive
condition (or Condition N [125]) regarding transver-
sal intersectionof the averagedorbits to the resonance
manifold, resonance capture can be viewed as an
event with low probability, and passage through res-
onance is the typical behaviour on the time-scale
O(
1
).
Necessary conditions were proved by Kath [56]
both for entrainment to sustained resonance and for
its continuance (and thus the possible indication of
unlocking or escape from the sustained resonance
after a nite time) by successive near-identity trans-
formations; a sufcient condition was also derived
for continuation of sustained resonance by means of
matched asymptotic expansions [57].
On the other hand, transition to escape was stud-
ied by Quinn [65] in a coupled Hamiltonian sys-
tem consisting of two identical oscillators possessing
a homoclinic orbit when uncoupled. Focusing on
intermediate energy levels at which sustained reso-
nant motion occurs, the existence and behavior of
those motions were analysedinequipotential surfaces
whose trajectories are shown to remain in the tran-
siently stochastic region for long times and, nally,
to escape or leak out of the opening in the equipo-
tential curves and proceeding to innity. Regarding
passage through resonance, one may refer to refer-
ences [126] to [128]. The phenomenon of passage
through resonance is sometimes referred to as non-
stationary resonances caused by excitations having
time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes [129].
Finally, the following denitions for non-linear res-
onant interactions between modes are introduced
whenthe multi-frequency components of a systemare
taken into account.
Denition 4 (IR, TRC, and PRC [61])
Consider anunforcedn-DOFsystemwhose linear nat-
ural frequencies are
k
, k = 1, . . . , n. The author (i) IR
as motions for which there exist k
i
Z, i = 1, . . . , n,
such that k
1

1
+k
2

2
+ +k
n

n
0, i.e. some com-
bination of linear natural frequencies satisfy com-
mensurability; (ii) TRC as capture into a resonance
manifold which occurs and continues for a certain
period of time (e.g. on the time-scale
1
) and then
nally involves transition to escape. This includes sus-
tained resonance captures involving escape; (iii) PRC
as sustainedresonance captures that will never escape
for increasing time.
Both TRC and PRC may occur along the IR man-
ifold and are distinguished by whether or not they
involve an escape. Both IR and PRC may show sim-
ilar steady-state behaviours, which differ from the
commensurability condition between linear natural
frequencies. Hereafter, a m : n IR refers to a condition
on the slow-ow averaged system unless noted other-
wise. For more details on the averaging theorem and
resonance captures in multi-frequency systems, one
can also refer to references [60], [62], [63], [125], [130],
and [131].
2.4 Analytical and numerical tools
2.4.1 Perturbation methods
There are many perturbation techniques to compute
periodic solutions of a non-linear system: the meth-
ods of multiple-scales, of averaging, and of harmonic
balance [132]. Although each of these methods has
its own features, they are fundamentally equivalent to
each other. One restriction to their application is the
assumption of weak non-linearity; that is, the derived
analytical solutions of the non-linear system lie close
to those of the corresponding linearized system. The
averaging theoremprovides validity of the approxima-
tion, generally up to the time-scale
1
. Although the
harmonic balance method (HBM) can be applied to
strongly non-linear systems, it approximates only the
steady-state responses. On the other hand, the meth-
ods of averaging and of multiple-scales can be applied
to the study of transient dynamic behaviour, which
is suitable for understanding nonlinear TET phenom-
ena. An application of the averaging method to the
resonance capture problem can be found in reference
[133] (and see [134] for the HBM).
Since the essentially non-linear coupling between a
primary systemand an ungrounded NES is not neces-
sarily weak, the complexication-averaging technique
rst introduced by Manevitch [135] will be utilized
in the following analysis as an analytical tool for
understanding resonance capture phenomena. Use of
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 85
complex variables renders relatively easier manipula-
tion of the resulting modulation equations (particu-
larly, inthe presence of multi-frequency components).
In addition, this method is applicable to strongly
nonlinear systems. For some analyses, the multiple-
scale method is utilized instead of averaging (e.g.
[49, 73, 74]).
2.4.2 Non-smooth temporal transformations
Non-smooth time transformations (NSTTs) can also
be utilized to compute periodic solutions of a
(strongly) non-linear system[72, 136139]. Unlike the
usual perturbation methods that implement the basis
of sine and cosine functions (or elliptic functions in
some cases), the NSTTs employ saw-tooth and square
wave functions as the basis (see reference [140] for
other types of non-smooth basis functions and their
applications). Any periodic solutions canbe expressed
in terms of asymptotic series expansion of these two
non-smooth functions; moreover, this technique can
be appliedtosolutions of a discontinuous systemsuch
as a VI oscillator.
Application of NSTTs to the problem of computing
the periodic solutions of a dynamical system yields
NLBVPs, which are solved by means of numerical
schemes such as the shooting method [141].
2.4.3 Stability evaluation and bifurcation analysis
Once periodic solutions are obtained, their stability
can be evaluated: (i) by direct numerical integration of
equations of motion; (ii) by computing their Floquet
multipliers [142]; or (iii) by studying the topological
structure of numerical Poincar maps [143]. Then,
bifurcation diagrams can be constructed with respect
to control parameters, or other induced parameters
such as the total energy of the system.
Bifurcation analysis [144] of periodic solutions in
a coupled oscillator is crucial in order to understand
transitions that occur in the damped dynamics or
to enhance robustness of instability suppression by
means of passive TETs. Methods of numerical contin-
uation of equilibria and limit cycles can be utilized. In
particular, AUTO [145] and MatCont [146] can easily
be employed.
2.4.4 Timefrequency analysis
Understanding transient modal interactions during
non-linear TET requires an integrated timefrequency
analysis [147151]. The most popular techniques
include the EMD method and the WT. WTs have
found applications in non-linear system identica-
tion, e.g. characterization of structural non-linearities
and prediction of LCOs of aeroelastic systems [152];
free vibration analysis of non-linear systems [153];
damage size estimationor fault detectioninstructures
[154, 155].
TheWTcanbeviewedas abasis for functional repre-
sentation but is at the same time a relevant technique
for timefrequency analysis. In contrast to the Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT), which assumes signal sta-
tionarity, theWTinvolves a windowing technique with
variable-sized regions. Small time intervals are con-
sidered for high-frequency components, whereas the
size of the interval is increased for lower frequency
components, thereby giving better time andfrequency
resolutions than the FFT.
The Matlab

codes used for the WT computations


in this paper were developed at the Universit de
Lige (Lige, Belgium) by Dr V. Lenaerts in collab-
oration with Dr P. Argoul from the Ecole Nationale
des Ponts et Chausses (Paris, France). Two types
of mother wavelets
M
(t) are considered: (a) the
Morlet wavelet, which is a Gaussian-windowed com-
plex sinusoid of frequency
0
,
M
(t) = e
t
2
/2
e
j
0
t
; (b)
the Cauchy wavelet of order n,
M
(t) = [ j/(t +j)]
n+1
,
where j
2
= 1. The frequency
0
for the Morlet WT
and the order n for the Cauchy WT are user-specied
parameters which allow one to tune the frequency
and time resolutions of the results. It should be noted
that these two mother wavelets provide similar results
when applied to the signals considered in this paper.
Theplots shownrepresent theamplitudeof theWTas a
functionof frequency(vertical axis) andtime(horizon-
tal axis). Heavily shaded areas correspond to regions
where the amplitude of theWT is high, whereas lightly
shaded regions correspond to low amplitudes. Such
plots enable one to deduce the temporal evolutions
of the dominant frequency components of the signals
analysed.
Alternatively, the EMDgained popularity in the area
of signal processing and is also utilized in this work.
Originally introduced by Huang et al. [95, 156, 157],
it was shown to be applicable to strongly non-linear
and non-stationary signals with non-zero mean. In
an alternative numerical post-processing technique,
the EMD through a sifting process yields a collec-
tion of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which form
a complete, nearly orthogonal, local, and adaptive
basis. These properties render the EMD applicable
to decomposition of non-linear and non-stationary
signals.
Once EMD is performed, the obtained IMFs are
suitable for Hilbert transformation, which yields the
instantaneous amplitudeandphaseof eachIMFat any
given instant of time. By differentiating the instanta-
neous phase, one computes the temporal evolution
of the instantaneous frequency of each IMF which,
when compared with the overall WT of the time series,
enables one to judge the relative contribution of each
IMFinthetimeseries and, thus, its relativeimportance
in the decomposition of the signal.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
86 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Note that an IMF may have a signicant con-
tribution in certain time intervals of the signal, and
be less important in others. Hence, EMDcoupled with
theHilbert transformcanbeapowerful computational
tool for studying complicated non-linear resonance
interactions leading to complex dynamic phenomena
(such as TET) in coupled structures. Recently, a time
series forecasting method based on support vector
regressionmachines was proposed, its apparent supe-
riority attributed to the use of neural networks [158].
An effort was made to improve the quality (i.e. orthog-
onality) of the obtained IMFs by means of an energy
difference tracking method [159]. The EMD method
can also be applied to problems of fault diagnosis and
damage estimation [160, 161]. In this paper, Matlab

codes developed by Rilling et al.[162] are employed to


perform the described EMD analysis.
3 DYNAMICS OFTET
In order to establish a clear understanding of non-
linear energy pumping mechanisms, a SDOF pri-
mary oscillator coupled to an ungrounded SDOF NES
[83, 84] is considered in this section. For a SDOF pri-
mary structure coupled to a grounded SDOF NES, one
can refer to references [41], [50], and [97].
3.1 Undamped periodic solutions
The system under consideration is depicted in Fig. 2,
and consists of an oscillator of mass m
1
(the linear
oscillator) coupled through an essentially non-linear
stiffness to a mass m
2
(the non-linear attachment).
The equations of motion of this two-DOF system are
given by
m
1
x +k
1
x +c
1
x +c
2
( x v) +k
2
(x v)
3
= 0
m
2
v +c
2
( v x) +k
2
(v x)
3
= 0
x +
2
0
x +
1
x +
2
( x v) +C(x v)
3
= 0
v +
2
( v x) +C(v x)
3
= 0
(2)
where
2
0
= k
1
/m
1
, C = k
2
/m
1
, = m
2
/m
1
,
1
= c
1
/m
1
,
and
2
= c
2
/m
1
.
Before analysing non-linear TET phenomena in the
damped system, it is rst necessary to examine the
Fig. 2 The two-DOF system with essential stiffness
non-linearity
structure of the periodic orbits of the underlying
undamped system (with
1
=
2
0). Indeed, it will
be shown that this seemingly simple systempossesses
a very complicated topological structure of periodic
orbits, someof whichareresponsibleforTETphenom-
ena in the impulsively forced, damped system.
3.1.1 Numerical approach
The periodic orbits of the system will be computed
numerically utilizing the method of non-smooth
transformations rst developed by Pilipchuk [163]
and then applied to strongly non-linear oscillators by
Pilipchuk et al. [72]. This method can be applied to the
numerical and analytical study of the periodic orbits
(and their bifurcations) of strongly non-linear dynam-
ical systems. To apply the method, the sought periodic
solutions are expressed in terms of two non-smooth
variables, and e, as
v(t) = e
_
t

_
y
1
_

_
t

__
,
x(t) = e
_
t

_
y
2
_

_
t

__
(3)
where = T/4 represents the (yet unknown) quarter-
period. The non-smooth functions (u) and e(u) are
dened according to the expressions
(u) =
2

sin
1
_
sin

2
u
_
, e(u) =

(u) (4)
and are used to replace the independent time variable
from the equations of motion; their graphic depiction
is given in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 The non-smooth functions (u) and e(u)
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 87
Setting
1
=
2
= 0, and substituting equation (3)
into equation (2), smoothening conditions [72] are
imposedtoeliminate singular terms fromthe resulting
equations, such as terms proportional to
e

(x) =

(x) =2

k=
[(x +1 4k) (x 1 4k)]
Setting to zero, the component of the transformed
equations that is multiplied by the non-smooth vari-
able e, the following two-point NLBVP is formulated
in terms of the non-smooth variable , in the inter-
val 1 +1
y

1
= y
3
, y

2
= y
4
, y

3
=
C

2
( y
1
y
2
)
3
,
y

4
=
2
0

2
y
2
C
2
( y
2
y
1
)
3
(5)
with the boundary conditions, y
1
(1) = y
2
(1) = 0,
where primes denote differentiation with respect to
the non-smooth variable , and a state formulation is
utilized. The boundary conditions above result from
the aforementioned smoothing conditions.
Hence, the problemof computing the periodic solu-
tions of the undampedsystem(2) is reducedto solving
the NLBVP (5) formulated in terms of the bounded
independent variable [1, 1], with the quarter-
period playing the role of the non-linear eigenvalue.
It is noted that the solutions of the NLBVP can be
approximated analytically through regular perturba-
tion series [72]; however, this will not be attempted
herein where only numerical solutions will be consid-
ered. It is merely mentioned here that equation (5) is
amenable to direct analytical study in terms of simple
mathematical functions.
It is noted that the NLBVP (5) provides the solu-
tion only in the normalized half-period 1 t/ 1
1 1. To extend the result over a full nor-
malized period equal to four, one needs to add the
component of the solution in the interval 1 t/ 3;
to perform this one takes into account the symme-
try properties of the non-smooth variables and e
by adding the antisymmetric image of the solution
about the point ( y
i
, t/) = (0, 1), as shown in Fig. 4.
It follows by construction that the computed peri-
odic solutions satisfy the initial conditions, x() =
v() = 0 and v() = y

1
(1)/, x() = y

2
(1)/.
It is noted at this point that since equation (2) is an
autonomous dynamical system these initial condi-
tions can be shifted arbitrarily in time; for example,
they can be applied to the initial time t = 0 instead
of t = = T/4. However, in what follows the for-
mulation of the NLBVP (5) will be respected, and the
initial conditions at t = T/4 are retained.
Considering the general shape of the periodic orbits
depicted in Fig. 4, the following classication of
Fig. 4 Construction of the periodic solutions
v(t) = e(t/)y
1
((t/)), x(t) = e(t/)y
2
((t/))
over an entire normalized period 1 t/ 3
from the solutions y
i
((t/)), i = 1, 2 of the
NLBVP (5) computed over the half-normalized
period 1 t/ 1
periodic solutions is introduced.
1. Symmetric solutions Snm correspond to orbits
that satisfy the conditions
v
_

T
4
_
= v
_
+
T
4
_
y

1
(1) = y

1
(+1)
x
_

T
4
_
= x
_
+
T
4
_
y

2
(1) = y

2
(+1)
with n being the number of half-waves in y
1
(v),
and m the number of half-waves in y
2
(x) in the
half-period interval T/4 t +T/4 1
+1.
2. Unsymmetric solutions Unm are orbits that do
not satisfy the conditions of the symmetric orbits.
Orbits U(m+1)m bifurcate from the symmet-
ric solution S11 at T/4 m/2, and exist
approximately within the intervals m/2 < T/4 <
(m+1)/2, m = 1, 2, . . . .
The numerical solution of the two-point NLBVP
(5) is constructed utilizing a shooting method pro-
grammed in Mathematica

(see references [141] and


[164] for some details on the shooting method and
general characteristics of global solutions).
The NLBVP (5) is solved as follows.
1. For a given non-linear eigenvalue (quarter-
period), the solutions of the NLBVP are computed
at different energy levels; it is expected that at every
energy level there co-exist multiple non-linear peri-
odic solutions sharing the same minimal period.
Periodic orbits that correspond to synchronous
motions of the two particles of the system, and
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
88 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
pass through the origin of the conguration plane
( y
1
, y
2
), are termed NNMs [165].
2. The different families of computed periodic solu-
tions are depicted in three types of plots. In the rst
two types of plots, initial displacements x(T/4) =
v(T/4) = 0 are assumed, and the initial velocities
v(T/4) = y

1
(1)/ and x(T/4) = y

2
(1)/ cor-
responding to a periodic orbit as functions of the
quarter-period = T/4 or the (conserved) energy
of that orbit are depicted
h =
1
2
_
v
2
_

T
4
_
+ x
2
_

T
4
__
=
1
2
2
[y

1
2
(1) +y

2
2
(1)]
In the third type of plots, the frequencies of the
periodic orbits are depicted as functions of their
energies h. These plots clarify the bifurcations
that connect, generate, or eliminate the different
branches (families) of periodic solutions.
3. The stability of the computed periodic orbits was
determined numerically by three different meth-
ods: application of Floquet theory; construction of
two-dimensional Poincar maps on the isoener-
getic manifolds of the two-DOF undamped system
(2); and direct numerical simulation of the equa-
tions of motion using as initial conditions those
estimated by the solution of the NLBVP (5).
In the following, the numerical results correspond
to the two-DOF undamped system with parameters
= 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1.0intheenergyrange0 < h < 1.
The bifurcation diagrams of the initial velocities and
for varying quarter-period are depicted in Fig. 5. Some
general and preliminary observations on the com-
puted periodic orbits are made at this point, and the
dynamical behaviour of the system on the various
branches will be discussed in the next section.
Considering the branches Snn, they exist in the
quarter-period intervals 0 < < n/2, and their ini-
tial conditions satisfy the limiting relationships (Fig. 5)
lim
0
{| v()|, | x()|} = ,
lim
n/2
{| v()|, | x()|} = 0
These symmetric branches exist throughout the exam-
ined energy domain 0 < h < 1. It is noted that
branches Snnare, in essence, identical to the branch
S11, since they are identied over the domain of
their common minimal period (the Snn branches
are branches S11repeatedn times); similar remarks
can be made regarding the branches S(kn)(km), k
integer, which are identied with Snm.
Focusing in the neighbourhood of branches S11
and referring to Fig. 5, at the point = /2 where
Fig. 5 Normalized initial velocities of periodic orbits
y

i
(1), i = 1, 2 as functions of the quarter-period
; solid (dashed) lines correspond to positive
(negative) initial velocities (S11 (), S13 (), S15
(), S31 (), S21 () within-phase as lled-in, and
branches U without symbol) [83]
S11disappears thebranches S11+andU21bifurcate
out (similar behaviour is exhibited by the branches
S31, S21, . . .). For /2 , a bifurcation from
S11+ to S13+ takes place without change of phase;
similar bifurcations take place at higher values of for
branches S15+, S17+, . . .. For 3/2, the branches
S13+ and S13 coalesce into the branch S11, with
similar coalescences into S11 taking place at higher
values of for the pairs of branches S15+, S17+, . . ..
The unsymmetric branches U(m+1)m bifurcate
from the symmetric branches S(m+1)(m+1) at
quarter-periods equal to = m/2. It turns out that
certain orbits (termed SPOs) on these branches
are of particular importance concerning the passive
and irreversible energy transfer from the linear to
the non-linear oscillator. The special orbits satisfy
the additional initial condition y

1
(1) = v() = 0,
and correspond to zero crossings of the branches
U(m+1)m in the bifurcation diagram (the upper
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 89
Fig. 6 Special periodic orbits on the U-branches with initial conditions y
1
(1) = y
2
(1)
= 0, y

1
(1) = 0, y

2
(1) = 0; Unm(a) and Unm(b) denote the unstable and stable SPOs,
respectively ( y
1
() is represented by a solid line and y
2
() by a dashed line; x-axis
represents )
plot); some of these special orbits (either stable or
unstable) aredepictedinFig. 6. Takingintoaccount the
formulationof the NLBVP(5), it follows that the special
orbits satisfy initial conditions v(T/4) = v(T/4) =
x(T/4) = 0, and x(T/4) = 0, which happen to be
identical to the state of the undamped system (2)
(being initially at rest) after application of an impulse
of magnitude x(T/4) = y

2
(1)/ on the linear oscil-
lator.
Moreover, comparing the relative magnitudes of
the linear and non-linear oscillators for the special
orbits of Fig. 6, it is concluded that certain stable
special orbits are localized to the non-linear oscil-
lator. This implies that if the system is initially at
rest and is forced impulsively, and one of the stable,
localized special orbits is excited, a major portion
of the induced energy is channeled directly to the
invariant manifold of that special orbit, and, hence,
the motion is rapidly and passively transferred from
the linear to the non-linear oscillator. Moreover, this
energy transfer is irreversible because of the invari-
ance properties of the stable special orbit, and, as
a result, after the energy is transferred, it remains
localized and is passively dissipated at the non-linear
attachment. Therefore, it is assumed that the impul-
sive excitation of one of the stable special orbits is
one of the triggering mechanisms initiating (direct)
passive TET. This conjecture will be proven to be cor-
rect by numerical simulations presented in a later
section.
Similar classes of special orbits can also be real-
ized in a subclass of S-branches. In particular, this
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
90 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 7 Frequencyenergy plot of the periodic orbits; for the sake of clarity no stability is indicated,
special orbits are denoted by lled circles (; some appear unlled due to the overlap-
ping symbols) and are connected by dashed-dot lines; other symbols indicate bifurcation
points (stabilityinstability boundaries): () four Floquet multipliers at +1; () two Floquet
multipliers at +1 and the other two at 1 [83]
type of orbit can be realized on branches S(2k +1)
(2p +1), k = p, but not on periodic orbits that do
not pass through the origin of the conguration plane
(such as S21, S12, . . .). The branch S11is a particular
case, where the special orbit is realized only asymp-
totically as the energy tends to zero, and the motion is
localized completely in the linear oscillator.
In Fig. 7, the various branches of solutions are pre-
sented in a FEP. For clarity, the following convention
regarding the placement of the various branches in
the frequency domain is adopted: a specic branch of
solutions is assigned with a frequency index equal to
the ratio of its two indices, e.g. S21 is represented
by the frequency index = 2/1 = 2, as is U21; S13
is represented by = 1/3, and so forth. This con-
vention holds for every branch except S11, which,
however, are particular branches. On the energy axis,
the (conserved) total energy of the system is depicted
when it oscillates in a specic mode. Necessary (but
not sufcient) conditions for bifurcationandstability
instability exchanges are satised when two Floquet
multipliers of the corresponding variational problems
coincide at +1 or 1 (since periodic orbits of a Hamil-
tonian two-DOF system are considered, two Floquet
multipliers of the variational problemare always equal
to +1, whereas the other two form a reciprocal pair),
and these are indicated at the solution branches of
Fig. 7.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 91
Fig. 8 Close-ups of particular branches in the frequency indexlogarithm of energy plane: (a)
S11; (b) S11+; (c) S13; (d) U43 (double branch). Stabilityinstability boundaries are
represented as in Fig. 7; some representative periodic orbits are also depicted in insets in
the format x(v) (conguration plane of the system); SPOs on the U- and S-branches are
indicated by triple asterisks. Arrowed lines indicate the intervals of instability [83]
To understand the types of periodic motions that
take place indifferent frequencyenergy domains, cer-
tain branches are depicted in detail in Fig. 8, together
with the corresponding orbits realized in the con-
guration plane of the system. The horizontal and
vertical axes in the plots in the conguration plane are
the non-linear (v) and linear oscillator (x) responses,
respectively; the aspect ratios in these plots are set so
that the tick mark increments on the horizontal and
vertical axes are equal in size, enabling one to directly
deduce whether the motionis localizedinthe linear or
the non-linear oscillator. The plot for U43 (Fig. 8(d)) is
composed of two very close branches; for the sake of
clarity only one of the two branches is presented. The
motionis nearly identical onthe two branches, so only
the oscillations inthe congurationplane of one of the
two branches are considered.
Since a systematic analytical study of the various
types of periodic solutions of the system is presented
in the next section, the following preliminary remarks
are made.
1. The main backbone of the FEP is formed by the
branches S11whichrepresent in- or out-of-phase
synchronous vibrations of the two particles pos-
sessing one half-wave per half-period. Moreover,
the natural frequency of the linear oscillator
0
= 1
(which is identied with a frequency index equal
to unity, = 1) naturally divides the periodic solu-
tions into higher andlower frequency modes. There
are twosaddle-node-type bifurcations inthe higher
frequency, out-of-phase branch S11, and the sta-
ble solutions become localized to x or v as 1
+
or 1, respectively (see Fig. 8(a)). The lower fre-
quency, in-phase branch S11+ becomes unstable
at higher energies, and the stable solutions localize
to the non-linear attachment as decreases away
from = 1 (see Fig. 8(b)).
2. There is a sequence of higher and lower frequency
periodic solutions bifurcating or emanating from
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
92 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
branches S11. Considering rst the symmetric
solutions, the branches S1(2k +1), k = 1, 2, . . .
appear in the neighbourhoods of frequencies =
1/(2k +1), e.g. at progressively lower frequencies
with increasing k. For xed k, each of the two
branches S1(2k +1) is linked through a smooth
transition with its neighbouring branches S1
(2k 1) or S1(2k +3), and exists over a nite
interval of energy. The pair S1(2k +1) is elim-
inated through a saddle-node-type bifurcation at
a higher energy value (see Fig. 8(c) for branches
S13). The pairs of branches S1(2k), k = 1, 2, . . .
bifurcate out of S1(2k +1), and exist over nite
energy intervals. All branches S1n and Sn1, n
Z
+
seem to connect with S11 through jumps in
the FEP, but in actuality no such discontinuities
occur if one takes into account that due to the
previous frequency convention solutions Spp+ are
identied with the solution S11+, S(2p)(1p) with
S21, etc.
3. Focusing now on the unsymmetrical branches, a
family of U(m+1)m branches bifurcating from
branch S11 exists over nite energy levels and
are eliminated through saddle-node-type bifur-
cations with other branches of solutions. Again,
the transitions of branches U21 and U32 to
S11+ seem to involve jumps, but this is only
due to the frequency convention adopted, and
no actual discontinuities in the dynamics occur.
An additional interesting family of unsymmet-
rical solutions is Um(m+1), m = 1, 2, . . . which,
due to the previous frequency convention, is
depicted for frequency indices < 1; the shapes
of these orbits in the conguration plane are
similar to those of U(m+1)m, m = 1, 2, . . . , but
rotated by /2. An important class of periodic
orbits realized on the unsymmetrical branches
(but also in certain of the symmetric branches)
is that corresponding to all initial conditions
zero, with the exception of the initial veloc-
ity of the linear oscillator. These special orbits
provide one of the mechanisms for passive
TET from the linear oscillator to the non-linear
attachment [84].
The previous discussion indicates that the two-DOF
undamped system possesses complicated structures
of symmetric and unsymmetrical periodic orbits. The
next section will focus on the analysis of the com-
puted periodic orbits in detail in an effort to better
understand the dynamics and localization properties
of the system over different frequencyenergy ranges.
Indeed, understanding the periodic dynamics of the
undamped system paves the way to explain passive
TETphenomenaandcomplicatedtransitions between
different types of motion in the transient dynamics of
the damped system.
3.1.2 Analytical approach
The dynamics of the undamped system and all the
different branches of solutions can be studied analyt-
ically. As representative examples of this analysis, the
periodic orbits on a particular branch, namely S11,
are investigated in detail.
To study the periodic orbits of equation (2) for 0 <
1, the complexication-averaging method rst
introduced by Manevitch [135] is applied, which not
only enables the study of the steady-state motions, but
also can be applied to analyse the damped, transient
dynamics [50].
The S11branch is composed of synchronous peri-
odic motions where the two particles oscillate with
identical frequencies. The analytical study of these
solutions is performed by introducing the new com-
plex variables
1
= x +jx and
2
= v +jv where
j
2
= 1, and expressing the displacements and accel-
erations of the two particles of the system as (the
asterisk denotes complex conjugatation)
x =
1
2j
(
1

1
), x =

j
2
(
1
+

1
)
v =
1
2j
(
2

2
), v =

j
2
(
2
+

2
)
(6)
Since nearly monochromatic periodic solutions of the
equations of motion are sought and the two particles
oscillate with the identical frequencies, the previ-
ous complex variables are approximately expressed
in terms of fast oscillations of frequency , e
jt
,
modulated by slow (complex) modulations
i
(t)

1
=
1
e
jt
,
2
=
2
e
jt
(7)
This amounts to a partition of the dynamics into
slow- and fast-varying components, and the interest-
ing dynamics is reduced to the slow ow. Note that
no a priori restrictions are posed on the frequency
of the fast motion. Substituting equations (6) and
(7) into the equations of motion (2) with
1
=
2
= 0,
and performing averaging over the fast frequency, to
a rst approximation only terms containing the fast
frequency are retained

1
+j
1
2

1
j
1
2

1
+j
3C
8
3
(|
1
|
2

1
+
2
1

2
2

1
+|
2
|
2

2
+2|
1
|
2

2
2|
2
|
2

1
) = 0

2
+j

2

2
j
3C
8
3
(|
1
|
2

1
+
2
1

2
3
2
2

1
+|
2
|
2

2
+2|
1
|
2

2
2|
2
|
2

1
) = 0
(8)
These complex modulation equations govern the slow
evolutions of the complex amplitudes
i
, i = 1, 2 in
time.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 93
Introducing the polar representations
1
= Ae
j
and

2
= Be
j
where A, B, , R in equation (8), and
separately setting the real and imaginary parts of the
resulting equations equal to zero, the following real
modulation equations that govern the slow evolution
of amplitudes and phases of the two responses of the
system are obtained as

A +
BC
8
3
[(3A
2
+3B
2
) sin( )
+3AB sin(2 2)] = 0
A +
A
2

A
2

3CA
3
8
3

6AB
2
C
8
3

BC
8
3
[(9A
2
3B
2
) cos( )
+3AB cos(2 2)] = 0

B
AC
8
3
[(3B
2
+3A
2
) sin( )
+3AB sin(2 2)] = 0
B

+
B
2

3B
3
C
8
3

6A
2
BC
8
3

AC
8
3
[(9B
2
3A
2
) cos( )
+3AB cos(2 2)] = 0
(9)
The rst and third (amplitude modulation)
equations are combined, giving
A

A +B

B = 0 A
2
+B
2
= N
2
where N is a constant of integration. Clearly, the
above is an energy conservation relation reecting the
conservation of the total energy of the undamped sys-
tem (2) during its oscillation. Hence, the modulation
equation (9) can be reduced by one, by imposing the
above energy conservation algebraic relation.
The periodic solutions on the branches S11 are
studied by setting the derivatives with respect to time
in equation (9) equal to zero; i.e. by imposing station-
arityconditions onthemodulationequations. Therst
and third equations are trivially satised if = , and
the second and fourth equations become
A
A

3C
4
3
(A B)
3
= 0,
B +
3C
4
3
(A B)
3
= 0
(10)
These equations can be solved exactly for the ampli-
tudes AandB, leading tothe following approximations
for the periodic solutions on the branches S11
x(t) X cos t =

1

1
2j
=
A

cos t
=

2

2
1
_
4
2
(
2
1)
3
3C((1 +)
2
1)
3
cos t
v(t) V cos t =

2

2
2j
=
B

cos t
=
_
4
2
(
2
1)
3
3C((1 +)
2
1)
3
cos t
(11)
Considering the original non-linear problem (2), note
that relations (11) are approximate since a single fast
frequency was assumed in the slowfast partitions (7),
and only terms containing this fast frequency were
retained after performing averaging in the complex
equations (8).
It is interesting to note that the ratio of the ampli-
tudes of the linear and non-linear oscillators on
branches S11is given by the following simple form
X
V
=

2

2
1
(12)
This relation shows that if the mass of the non-linear
oscillator is small (as is assumed), and if the frequency
is not inthe neighbourhoodof the eigenfrequency of
the linear oscillator
0
= 1, the motion is always local-
ized to the non-linear oscillator (in agreement with
the numerical results); however, sufciently close to

0
= 1, the oscillation localizes on the linear oscillator
(as one would expect intuitively).
There is a region in the frequency domain,

1/(1 +) < < 1, where the coefcients X and V


are imaginary, indicating that no periodic motion on
S11canoccur there; this represents a forbiddenzone
not only for S11, but also for any periodic motion
of the system. Accordingly, the branch S11+ of in-
phase oscillations exists for <

1/(1 +), whereas


out-of-phase oscillations on S11exist for > 1.
The approximations of the branches S11 in the
frequencyenergy plane are computed by noting that
the conserved energy of the system is equal to
h =
X
2
2
+C
(V X)
4
4
(13)
which, taking into account expressions (11), leads to
the plot depicted in Fig. 9; this plot corresponds to the
parameters usedinthe numerical study ( = 0.05, C =
1.0). The approximate plots are close to the exact
numerical backbones of the FEP of Fig. 7.
3.1.3 Transient dynamics of the damped system
In this section, the transient, unforced dynamics of
the weakly dampedsystemis considered, andit will be
shownthat complicatedtransitions betweenmodes in
this systemcan be fully understood and interpreted in
terms of the periodic orbits of the undamped system.
Specically, the addition of damping induces tran-
sitions between different branches of solutions, and
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
94 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 9 Analytic approximation provided by the com-
plexicationaveraging method of the backbone
branch S11inthe frequency indexlogarithmof
energy plane
thus inuences the transfer of energy between the
linear oscillator and the non-linear attachment.
The transient responses of the weakly damped sys-
tem will demonstrate that the structure of periodic
orbits of the undamped system greatly inuences the
dynamics of the weakly damped one. When viewed
from such a perspective, one can systematically inter-
pret the complex transitions betweenmulti-frequency
modes of the transient, weakly damped dynamics by
relating them to the different branches of non-linear
modes in the FEP of Fig. 7. Unless otherwise noted,
in the following simulations system (2) is considered
with the same parameters used in the previous sec-
tions ( = 0.05,
0
= 1.0, C = 1.0), and small damping
coefcients
1
= 0,
2
= 0.0005.
Themotiononthestablespecial orbit of branchU76
is initiated and there occurs vigorous TET to the non-
linear attachment. InFig. 10, the responses andrelated
WTs of the system with initial conditions v(T/4) =
v(T/4) = x(T/4) = 0 and x(T/4) = 0.1039 are
depicted. The general observation is made that in this
case there is strong TET to the non-linear attachment
(NES), as evidenced by its large amplitude of oscilla-
tion compared with that of the (directly excited) linear
oscillator.
In particular, Fig. 10(d) is a schematic illustrating
the transitions taking place in the weakly damped
response on the FEP of the undamped system. The
simulation veries that the impulsive excitation of a
stablespecial orbit is oneof thetriggeringmechanisms
initiating (direct) passive energy pumping. Energy
decrease due to damping dissipation triggers the tran-
sitions between different branches of solutions. The
numerical simulations of Fig. 10 demonstrate that, fol-
lowing a prolonged motion on U76 during the early
regime of the motion, there occurs a 1:2 TRC with the
motion temporarily settling on branch S12 before
escaping from resonance capture as time increases
(and energy decreases), and being involved in TRC
with the stable branch S13. The short capture on
branch S12 leads to the conjecture that the domain
of attraction of 1:2 resonance capture is much smaller
thanthe corresponding domainof attractionof the 1:3
resonance capture, with the latter eventually captur-
ing the transient damped dynamics. Indeed, it should
be expected that due to the complicated topology
of the periodic orbits of the undamped system, the
transitions between branches and the sequence of
resonance captures should be sensitive to viscous
damping dissipation.
3.2 TET mechanisms
Inthis section, the impulsively forced, damped system
(2) with the primary DOF denoted by y is consid-
ered, and three basic mechanisms for the initiation
of non-linear TET are studied. The rst mechanism
(fundamental TET) is realized when the motion takes
place along the backbone curve S11+ of the FEP of
Fig. 7, occurring for relatively low frequencies <
0
.
The second mechanism (subharmonic TET) resem-
bles the rst, and occurs when the motion takes place
along a lower frequency branch Snm, n < m Z
+
. The
third mechanism (TET initiated by non-linear beat)
which leads to stronger TET involves the excitation of
a special orbit with main frequency
SO
greater than
the natural frequency of the linear oscillator
0
. In
what follows, eachmechanismis discussedseparately,
and numerical simulations that demonstrate passive
and irreversible energy transfer from the linear oscil-
lator to the non-linear attachment are provided in
each case. Analytical results are also provided for the
fundamental and subharmonic TET.
3.2.1 Fundamental TET
The rst mechanism for TET involves excitation of the
branch of in-phase synchronous periodic solutions
S11+, where the linear oscillator and the non-linear
attachment oscillate with identical frequencies in the
neighbourhood of the fundamental frequency
0
.
Although TET is considered only in the damped sys-
tem, in order to gain an understanding of the govern-
ing dynamics it is necessary to consider the case of no
damping.
Figure 8(b) depicts a detailed plot of branch
of the undamped system. At higher energies, the
in-phase NNMs are spatially extended (involving
nite-amplitude oscillations of both the linear oscil-
lator and the non-linear attachment). However, the
non-linear mode shapes of solutions on S11+depend
essentially on the level of energy and at low energies
they become localized to the attachment. Considering
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 95
Fig. 10 Damped motion initiated on the stable special orbit of branch U76 with weaker damping:
(a) and (b) transient responses of the linear and non-linear oscillators; (c) their WTs; (d)
WTs superimposed to the undamped FEP [83]
nowthe motion in-phase space, this low-energy local-
izationis a basic characteristic of the two-dimensional
NNM invariant manifold corresponding to S11+;
moreover, this localizationproperty is preservedinthe
weakly damped system, where the motion takes place
in a two-dimensional, damped NNM invariant man-
ifold. This means that when the initial conditions of
the damped system are such as to excite the damped
analogue of S11+, the corresponding mode shape of
the oscillation, initially spatially extended, becomes
localized to the non-linear attachment with decreas-
ing energy due to damping dissipation. This, in turn,
leads to passive, continuous and irreversible transfer
of energy from the linear oscillator to the non-linear
attachment, which acts as a NES. The underlying
dynamical phenomenon governing fundamental TET
was proven to be a resonance capture on a 1:1
resonance manifold of the system [50].
Numerical evidence of fundamental TET is given
in Fig. 11 for the system with parameters = 0.05,

2
0
= 1, C = 1, and
1
=
2
= 0.0015. Small damping
is considered in order to better highlight the TET
phenomenon, and the motion is initiated near the
boxed point of Fig. 8(b). Comparing the transient
responses shown in Figs 11(a) and (b), it is noted
that the response of the primary system decays faster
than that of the NES. The percentage of instantaneous
energy captured by the NES versus time is depicted
in Fig. 11(e), and the assertion that continuous and
irreversible transfer of energy from the linear oscilla-
tor to the NES takes place is conrmed. This is more
evident by computing the percentage of total input
energy that is eventually dissipated by the damper of
the NES (see Fig. 11(f )), which in this particular simu-
lation amounts to 72 per cent; the energy dissipated at
the NES is computed by the relation
E
NES
(t) =
2

t
0
[ v() y()]
2
d
The evolution of the frequency components of the
motions of the two oscillators as energy decreases
can be studied by numerical WTs of the transient
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
96 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 11 Fundamental TET. Shownarethetransient responses of the(a) linear oscillator and(b) NES;
WTs of the motion of (c) NES and (d) linear oscillator; (e) percentage of instantaneous total
energy in the NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy dissipated by the NES; transition
of the motion from S11+ to S13+ at smaller energy levels using the (g) NES (observe the
settlement of the motion at frequency 1/3) and (h) linear oscillator [84]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 97
responses, as depictedinFigs 11(c) and(d). Theseplots
demonstrate that a 1:1 resonance capture is indeed
responsible for TET. Below the value of 4 of the loga-
rithmof energylevel, themotionof thelinear oscillator
is too small to be analysed by the particular windows
used in the WT; however, a more detailed WT over
smaller energy regimes (see Figs 11(g) and (h)) reveals
a smoothtransitionfromS11+to S13+, inaccordance
withthe FEPof Fig. 7. This transitionmanifests itself by
the appearance of two predominant frequency com-
ponents in the responses (at frequencies 1 and 1/3) as
energy decreases.
The complexication-averaging method is utilized
to perform an analytical study of the resonance cap-
ture phenomenon in the fundamental TET mecha-
nism. System (2) is again considered, and the new
complex variables are introduced

1
(t) = v(t) +jv(t)
1
(t) e
jt
,

2
(t) = y(t) +jy(t)
2
(t) e
jt
(14)
where
i
(t), i = 1, 2, represent slowly varying com-
plex amplitudes and j
2
= 1. By writing equation (14),
a partition of the dynamics into slow and fast com-
ponents is introduced, and slowly modulated fast
oscillations at frequency =
0
= 1 are sought. As
discussed previously, fundamental TET is associated
with this type of motion in the neighbourhood of
branch S11+ in the FEP of the undamped dynam-
ics. Expressing the system responses in terms of the
new complex variables, y = (
2

2
)/(2j), v = (
1

1
)/(2j) (where (*) denotes complex conjugate), sub-
stituting into equation (2), and averaging over the
fast frequency, a set of approximate, slow modulation
equations that govern the evolutions of the complex
amplitudes is derived

1
= j

2
(
1

2
) +j
3C
8
|
1

2
|
2
(
1

2
)

2
=

2
+

2
(
1

2
) +j
3C
8
|
2

1
|
2
(
2

1
)
(15)
For the sake of simplicity, assume that
1
=
2
=
in equation (2). To derive a set of real modulation
equations, the complex amplitudes are expressed in
polar form,
i
(t) = a
i
(t)e
j
i
t
, which is substituted into
equation (15), and the real and imaginary parts are
separately set equal to zero. Then, equation (15) is
reduced to an autonomous set of equations that gov-
ern the slowevolution of the two amplitudes a
1
(t) and
a
2
(t) and the phase difference (t) =
2
(t)
1
(t)
a
1
=

2
a
1
+

2
a
2
cos
+
3C
8
a
2
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos ) sin
a
2
=

2
a
1
cos a
2

3C
8
a
1
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos ) sin
a
1
a
2

=
1
2
a
1
a
2

2
(a
1
+a
2
) sin

3C
8
(a
2
1
+a
2
2
2a
1
a
2
cos )
[(1 )a
1
a
2
+(a
1
a
2
) cos ]
(16)
This reduced dynamical system governs the slow-ow
dynamics of fundamental TET. In particular, 1:1 reso-
nance capture (the underlying dynamical mechanism
of fundamental TET) is associated with non-time-like
behaviour of the phase variable or, equivalently, fail-
ure of the averaging theorem in the slow ow (16).
Indeed, when exhibits time-like, non-oscillatory
behaviour [166], one can apply the averaging theorem
over and prove that the amplitudes a
1
and a
2
decay
exponentially with time and no signicant energy
exchanges (TET) can take place. Figure 12(a) depicts
1:1 resonance capture in the slow-ow-phase plane
(,

) for system (16) with = 0.05, = 0.01, C = 1,

0
= 1 and initial conditions a
1
(0) = 0.01, a
2
(0) =
0.24, (0) = 0. The oscillatory behaviour of the phase
variable in the neighbourhood of the in-phase limit
= 0
+
indicates 1:1 resonance capture (on branch
S11+of theFEPof Fig. 7), andleads toTETfromthelin-
ear oscillator to the NES as evidenced by the build-up
of amplitude a
1
(see Fig. 12(b)). Escape from reso-
nance capture is associated with time-like behaviour
of and rapid decrease of the amplitudes a
1
and a
2
(as predicted by averaging in equation (16)). A com-
parison of the analytical approximation (14)(16) and
direct numerical simulation for the previous initial
conditions conrms the accuracy of the analysis.
3.2.2 Subharmonic TET
Subharmonic TET involves excitation of a low-
frequency S-tongue. As mentioned earlier, low-
frequency tongues are the particular regions of the FEP
where the NES engages in m:n (m, n are integers such
that m < n) resonance captures with the linear oscil-
lator. A feature of the lower tongues is that on them
the frequency of the motion remains approximately
constant with varying energy. As a result, the tongues
are represented by horizontal lines in the FEP, and the
response of system (2) on a tongue locally resembles
that of a linear system. In addition, at each specic
m:n resonance capture, there appear a pair of closely
spacedtongues correspondingtoin- andout-of-phase
oscillations of the two subsystems.
Regarding the dynamics of subharmonic TET, a
particular pair of lower tongues are focused, say
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
98 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 12 Fundamental TET: (a) 1:1 resonance capture in the slow ow; (b) amplitude modulations;
(c) comparison between analytical approximation (dashed line) and direct numerical
simulation (solid line) for v(t); (d) transient responses of the system [84]
S13 (Fig. 8(c)). At the extremity of a lower pair
of tongues, the curve in the conguration plane is
strongly localized to the linear oscillator. However, as
for the fundamental mechanism for TET, the decrease
of energy by viscous dissipation leads to curves in the
conguration plane that are increasingly localized to
the NES, and non-linear TET to the NES occurs. In this
case, the underlying dynamical phenomenon causing
TET is resonance capture in the neighbourhood of a
m:n resonance manifold of the dynamics. Specically,
for the pair of tongues S13, a 1:3 resonance capture
occurs that leads to subharmonic TET with the linear
oscillator vibrating witha frequency three times that of
theNES. It is emphasizedthat duetothestability prop-
erties of the tongues S13, subharmonic TET involves
excitation of S13, but not S13+.
The transient dynamics when the motion is initi-
ated at the extremity of S13(see the initial condition
denoted by the box on the right part in Fig. 8(d))
is displayed in Fig. 13. The same parameters as in
the previous section are considered. Until t = 500 s,
subharmonic TET takes place. Despite the presence
of viscous dissipation, the NES response grows con-
tinuously, with simultaneous rapid decrease of the
response of the linear oscillator. A substantial amount
of energy is transferred to the NES (see Fig. 13(e)), and
eventually nearly 70 per cent of the energy is dissi-
pated by the NES damper (see Fig. 13(f )). A prolonged
1:3 resonance capture is nicely evidenced by theWT of
Figs 13(c) and (d), and the motion follows the whole
lower tongue S13 from the right to the left. Once
escape from resonance capture occurs (around t =
620630 s), energy is no longer transferred to the NES.
For analytical study of subharmonic TET, TET in
the neighbourhood of tongue S13 will be the focus
(similar analysis canbe appliedfor other orders of sub-
harmonic resonance captures). Due to the fact that
motions in the neighbourhood of S13 possess two
mainfrequency components, at frequencies 1 and1/3,
the responses of system (2) can be expressed as
y(t) = y
1
(t) +y1
3
(t), v(t) = v
1
(t) +v1
3
(t) (17)
where the indices represent the frequency of each
term. As in the previous case, new complex variables
are introduced

1
(t) = y
1
(t) +jy
1
(t)
1
(t) e
jt
,

3
(t) = y1
3
(t) +j

3
y1
3
(t)
3
(t) e
j
t
3

2
(t) = v
1
(t) +jv
1
(t)
2
(t) e
jt
,

4
(t) = v1
3
(t) +j

3
v1
3
(t)
4
(t) e
j
t
3
(18)
where
i
(t), i = 1, . . . , 4 represent slowly varying mod-
ulations of fast oscillations of frequencies 1 or 1/3.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 99
Fig. 13 Subharmonic TET initiated on S13: shown are the transient responses of the (a) linear
oscillator and (b) NES; WTs of the motion of (c) the NES and (d) the linear oscillator; (e)
percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy
dissipated by the NES [84]
Expressing the system responses in terms of the new
complex variables
y =

1

1
2j
+

3

3
2j(/3)
, v =

2

2
2j
+

4

4
2j(/3)
(19)
substituting into equation (2), and averaging over
each of the two fast frequencies, the slow modulation
equations that govern the evolutions of the complex
amplitudes are derived as

1
= j
1
2
_

1

2
(2
1

2
)
j
9C
8
3
[3
3
3
9
2
3

4
3
3
4
+9
3

2
4
(
1

2
)|
1

2
|
2
6(
1

2
)|
3

4
|
2
]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
100 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos

2
= j


2
(
2

1
) +j
9C
8
3
[3
3
3
9
2
3

4
3
3
4
+9
3

2
4
(
1

2
)|
1

2
|
2
6(
1

2
)|
3

4
|
2
]

3
= j
1
2
_

3

3

2
(2
3

4
)
+j
9C
8
3
[
1
(2(
3

4
)(

1

2
) 3(

4
)
2
)
+
2
(2(
4

3
)(

1

2
) +3(

4
)
2
)
+9(
3

4
)|
3

4
|
2
]

4
= j


2
(
4

3
) j
9C
8
3
[
1
(2(
3

4
)(

1

2
) 3(

4
)
2
)
+
2
(2(
4

3
)(

1

2
) +3(

4
)
2
)
+9(
3

4
)|
3

4
|
2
]
(20)
where again it was assumed that
1
=
2
= in
equation (2). To derive a set of real modulation equa-
tions, the complex amplitudes are expressed in polar
form
i
(t) = a
i
(t)e
j
i
(t)
, and an autonomous set of
sevenslow-owmodulationequations that governthe
amplitudes a
i
= |
i
|, i = 1, . . . , 4 and the phase differ-
ences
12
=
1

2
,
13
=
1
3
3
, and
14
=
1
3
4
are derived.
The equations of the autonomous slow ow will not
be reproduced here, but it sufces to state that they
are of the form
a
1
=

2
(2a
1
a
2
) +g
1
(a, ),
a
2
=

2
(a
2
a
1
) +g
2
(a, )
a
3
=

2
(2a
3
a
4
) +g
3
(a, ),
a
4
=

2
(a
4
a
3
) +g
4
(a, )

12
= f
12
(a) +g
12
(a, ; ),

13
= f
13
(a) +g
13
(a, )

14
= f
14
(a) +g
14
(a, ; )
(21)
where the functions g
i
and g
ij
are 2-periodic in
terms of the phase angles = (
12
,
13
,
14
)
T
, and
a = (a
1
, . . . , a
4
)
T
.
In this case (as for the fundamental TET mecha-
nism), strong energy transfer between the linear and
non-linear oscillators can occur only when a subset of
phase angles
kl
does not exhibit time-like behaviour;
that is, when some phase angles possess oscillatory
(non-monotonic) behaviour with respect to time. This
can be seen from the structure of the slow ow (21)
where, if the phase angles exhibit time-like behaviour
and the functions g
i
are small, averaging over these
phase angles canbe performedtoshowthat the ampli-
tudes decrease monotonically with time; in that case,
no signicant energy exchanges between the linear
and non-linear components of the system can take
place. It follows that subharmonic TET is associated
with non-time-like behaviour of (at least) a subset of
the slow-phase angles
kl
in equation (21).
Figure 14 presents the results of the numerical inte-
gration of the slow-ow equations (20) and (21) for
the system with parameters = 0.05, = 0.03, C = 1,
and
0
= 1. The motion is initiated on branch S13
with initial conditions v(0) = y(0) = 0 and v(0) =
0.01 499, and y(0) = 0.059 443(it corresponds exactly
to the simulation of Fig. 13). The corresponding ini-
tial conditions and the value of the frequency of
the reduced slow-ow model were computed by min-
imizing the difference between the analytical and
numerical responses of the system in the interval
t [0, 100]:
1
(0) = 0.0577,
2
(0) = 0.0016,
3
(0) =
0.0017,
4
(0) = 0.0134, and = 1.0073.
This result indicates that, initially, nearly all energy
is stored in the fundamental frequency component of
the linear oscillator, with the remainder conned to
the subharmonic frequency component of the NES.
Figures 14(a) and (b) depict the temporal evolutions of
the amplitudes a
i
, fromwhichit is concludedthat sub-
harmonicTETinthe systemis mainly realizedthrough
energy transfer fromthe (fundamental) component at
frequency of the linear oscillator, to the (subhar-
monic) component at frequency /3 of the NES (as
judged from the build-up of the amplitude a
3
and the
diminishingof a
1
). Asmaller amount of energyis trans-
ferred fromthe fundamental frequency component of
the linear oscillator to the corresponding fundamental
component of the NES (as judged by the evolution of
the amplitude a
2
).
These conclusions are supported by the plots of
Figs 14(c) to (e), where the temporal evolutions of the
phase differences
12
=
1

2
,
13
=
1
3
3
, and

14
=
1
3
4
are shown. Absence of strong energy
exchange betweenthe fundamental and subharmonic
frequency components of the linear oscillator is asso-
ciated with the time-like behaviour of the phase
difference
13
, whereas TET from the fundamental
component of thelinear oscillator tothetwofrequency
components of the NES is associated with oscillatory
early time behaviour of the phase differences
12
and

14
. Oscillatory responses of
12
and
14
correspond to
1:1 and 1:3 resonance captures, respectively, between
the corresponding frequency components of the lin-
ear oscillator and the NES; as time increases, time-like
responses of the phase variables are associated with
escapes fromthe corresponding regimes of resonance
capture. In addition, it is noted that the oscillations of
the angles
12
and
14
take place inthe neighbourhood
of , which conrms that, in this particular example,
subharmonic TET is activated by the excitation of
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 101
Fig. 14 Subharmonic TET: (a) amplitude modulations; (b)(d) phase modulations [84]
Fig. 15 Transient response of NES for 1:3 subharmonic
TET; comparison between analytical approx-
imation (dashed line) and direct numerical
simulation (solid line)
an anti-phase branch of periodic solutions (such as
S13). The analytical results are in full agreement
with the WTs depicted in Figs 5(c) and (d), where the
response of the linear oscillator possesses a strong
frequency component at the fundamental frequency

0
= 1, whereas the NES oscillates mainly at frequency

0
/3.
The accuracy of the analytical model (20) and (21)
incapturing the dynamics of subharmonicTETis con-
rmedby the plot depictedinFig. 15 where the analyt-
ical response of the NES is found to be in satisfactory
agreement with the numerical response obtained by
the direct simulation of equation (2). Interestingly,
the reduced analytical model is capable of accurately
modelling the strongly non-linear, damped, transient
response of the NES in the resonance capture region.
The analytical model fails, however, during the escape
from resonance capture since the ansatz (17) and (18)
is not valid in that regime of the motion. Indeed,
after escape from resonance capture, the motion
approximately evolves along the backbone curve of
the FEP; eventually S15 is reached whose motion can-
not be described by the ansatz (17) and (18), thereby
leading to the failure of the analytical model.
3.2.3 TET initiated by non-linear beating
The previous two mechanisms cannot be activated
with the NES at rest, since in both cases the motion
is initialized from a non-localized state of the system.
This means that these energy pumping mechanisms
cannot be activated directly after the application of an
impulsive excitation to the linear oscillator with the
NES initially at rest. Such a forcing situation, however,
is important from a practical point of view; indeed,
this is the situation where local NESs are utilized to
conne and passively dissipate unwanted vibrations
from linear structures that are forced by impulsive (or
broadband) loads.
Hence, it is necessary to discuss an alternative, third
energy pumping mechanismcapable of initiating pas-
sive energy transfer with the NES initially at rest. This
alternative mechanism is based on the excitation of
a special orbit that plays the role of a bridging orbit
for activation of either fundamental or subharmonic
TET. Excitation of a special orbit results in the trans-
fer of a substantial amount of energy from the initially
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
102 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
excited linear oscillator directly to the NES through a
non-linear beat phenomenon. Inthat context, the spe-
cial orbit may be regarded as an initial bridging orbit
or trigger, which eventually activates fundamental or
subharmonic TET once the initial non-linear beat ini-
tiates the energy transfer. Indeed, as shown below, the
third mechanism for TET represents an efcient ini-
tial (triggering) mechanismfor rapidtransfer of energy
from the linear oscillator to the NES at the crucial ini-
tial stage of the motion, before activating either one of
the (fundamental or subharmonic) main TET mech-
anisms through a non-linear transition (jump) in the
dynamics.
To study the dynamics of this triggering mecha-
nism, the following conjecture is formulated: Due
to the essential (non-linearizable) non-linearity, the
NES is capable of engaging in a m:n resonance cap-
ture with the linear oscillator, m and n being a set
of integers. Accordingly, in the undamped system,
there exists a sequence of special orbits (correspond-
ing to non-zero initial velocity of the linear oscillator
and all other initial conditions zero), aligned along a
one-dimensional smooth manifold in the FEP.
As a rst step to test this conjecture, a NLBVP was
formulated to compute the periodic orbits of system
(2) with no damping, and the additional restriction
for the special orbits was imposed. The numerical
results in the frequencyenergy plane are depicted
in Fig. 16 for parameters = 0.05,
0
= 1, and C = 1.
Each triangle in the plot represents a special orbit, and
a one-dimensional manifold appears to connect the
special orbits; a rigorous proof of the existence of this
manifold can be found in reference [85]. In addition, it
appears that there exist a countable innity of special
orbits, occurring in the neighbourhoods of the count-
able innities of IRs m:n (m, n integers) of the system.
It is noted that a subset of high-frequency branches
(for > 1) possesses two special orbits instead of one
(for example, all U(p +1)p branches with p 3). To
distinguish between the two special solutions in such
high-frequency branches, they are partitioned into
two subclasses: the a-special orbits that exist in the
neighbourhoodof =
0
= 1, andthe b-special orbits
that occur away fromthis neighbourhood(see Fig. 16).
It was proven numerically that the a-special orbits are
unstable, whereas the b-special orbits are stable [83].
Fig. 16 Manifold of special orbits (represented by triangles) in the FEP [84]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 103
As shown below it is the excitation of the stable
b-special orbits that activates the third mechanismfor
TET.
By construction, all special orbits have a common
feature; namely, they pass with vertical slope through
the origin of the conguration plane (v, y). This fea-
ture renders themcompatible withanimpulse applied
to the linear oscillator, which corresponds to a non-
zero velocity of the linear oscillator and all other
initial conditions zero. The curves corresponding to
the special orbits in the conguration plane can be
either closed or open depending upon the differences
between the two indices characterizing the orbits;
specically, odd differences between indices corre-
spond to closed curves in the conguration plane and
lie on U-branches, whereas even differences between
indices correspond to open curves on S-branches.
In addition, higher frequency special orbits (with
frequency index >
0
) in the upper part of the FEP
(i.e. m > n) are localized to the non-linear oscilla-
tor; conversely, special orbits in the lower part of the
FEP (with frequency index <
0
) tend to be local-
ized to the linear oscillator. This last observation is
of particular importance since it directly affects the
transfer of a signicant amount of energy from the
linear oscillator to the NES through the mechanism
discussed in this section. Indeed, there seems to be
a well-dened critical threshold of energy that sepa-
rates high- fromlow-frequencyspecial orbits; i.e. those
that do or do not localize to the NES, respectively (see
Fig. 16).
The third mechanism for TET can only be acti-
vated for input energies above the critical threshold,
since belowthat the (low-frequency) special orbits are
incapable of transferring signicant amounts of input
energy from the linear oscillator to the NES; in other
words, the critical level of energy represents a lower
bound below which no signicant TET can be initi-
ated through activation of a special orbit. Moreover,
combining this result with the topology of the one-
dimensional manifold of special orbits of Fig. 16, it
follows that it is the subclass of stable b-special orbits
that is responsible for activating the third TET mecha-
nism, whereas thesubclass of unstablea-special orbits
does not affect TET. This theoretical insight will be fully
validated by the numerical simulations that follow.
When the NES engages in a m:n resonance cap-
ture with the linear oscillator, a non-linear beat
phenomenon takes place. Due to the essential (non-
linearizable) non-linearity of the NES and the lack
of any preferential frequency, this non-linear beat
phenomenon does not require any a priori tuning
of the non-linear attachment, since at the specic
frequencyenergy range of the m:n resonance cap-
ture, the non-linear attachment adjusts its amplitude
(tunes itself ) to full the necessary conditions of
IR. This represents a signicant departure from the
classical non-linear beat phenomenon observed in
coupled oscillators with linearizable non-linear stiff-
nesses (e.g. springpendulum systems [129]), where
the dened ratios of linearized natural frequencies of
the component subsystems dictate the type of IRs that
can be realized [14, 167].
As an example, Fig. 17 depicts the exchanges of
energy during the non-linear beat phenomenon cor-
responding to the special orbits of branches U21
and U54 for parameters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1, and
no damping. As expected, energy is continuously
exchanged between the linear oscillator and the NES,
so the energy transfer is not irreversible as is required
for TET; it canbe concluded that excitationof a special
orbit can only initiate (trigger) TET, but not cause it in
itself. The amount of energy transferred during each
cycle of the beat varies with the special orbit consid-
ered; for U21 and U54, as much as 32 per cent and
86 per cent of energy can be transferred to the NES,
respectively. It can be shown that, for increasing inte-
gers m and n with corresponding ratios m/n 1
+
,
the maximum energy transferred during a cycle of the
special orbit tends to 100 per cent. At the same time,
however, the resulting period of the cycle of the beat
(and, hence, of the time needed to transfer the max-
imum amount of energy) should increase as the least
common multiple of m and n.
Note, at this point, that the non-linear beat phe-
nomenon associated with the excitation of the spe-
cial orbits can be studied analytically using the
complexication-averaging method [135]. To demon-
strate the analytical procedure, the special orbit on
branch U21 of the system with no damping is anal-
ysed in detail. In the previous section, the periodic
motions on this entire branch were studied, and it
was shown that the responses of the linear oscillator
and the non-linear attachment can be approximately
expressed as
y(t) Y
1
sint +Y
2
sin2t y
1
(t) +y
2
(t)c
v(t) V
1
sint +V
2
sin2t v
1
(t) +v
2
(t)
(22)
where the amplitudes are
Y
1
=
A

, V
1
=
B

, Y
2
=
D
2
, V
2
=
G
2
and A, B, D, and G are computed fromthe stationarity
conditions in the slow-ow equations as
B =
_
4
4
(Z
2
8Z
1
)
9CZ
3
1
Z
2
,
G =
_
32
4
(2Z
1
Z
2
)
9CZ
3
2
Z
1
A =

2

2
0

2
B,
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
104 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 17 Exchanges of energy during non-linear beat phenomena corresponding to special orbits
on (a), (b) U21, and (c) and (d) U54
D =
4
2

2
0
4
2
G
Z
1
=

2

2
0

2
1, Z
2
=
4
2

2
0
4
2
1
Hence, a two-frequency approximation is satisfactory
for this family of periodic motions. The frequency
SO
at which the special orbit appears is computed by
imposing the initial conditions y(0) = v(0) = v(0) = 0,
which leads to the relation
B = 2G (special orbit)
The instantaneous fraction of total energy in the lin-
ear oscillator during the non-linear beat phenomenon
is estimated to be
E
linear
(t)
=
[(
2
0
4
2
SO
) sin
SO
t 2(
2
0

2
SO
) sin2
SO
t]
2
9
2
SO

2
0
+
_
(
2
0
4
2
SO
) cos
SO
t
4(
2
0

2
SO
) cos 2
SO
t
_
2
9
4
0
(23)
The non-linear coefcient C has no inuence on the
fraction of total energy transferred to the NES dur-
ing the non-linear beat; this means that, during the
beat, the instantaneous energies of the linear oscil-
lator and the NES are directly proportional to the
non-linear coefcient. Moreover, as the mass of the
NES tends to zero, the frequency where the special
orbit is realized tends to the limit
SO
, and, as a
result, E
linear
(t) 1, and the energy transferred to the
NES during the beat tends to zero. However, it is noted
that this is a result satised only asymptotically since,
as indicated by the results depicted in Fig. 17, even
for very small mass ratios, e.g. = 0.05, as much as
86 per cent of the total energy canbe transferred to the
NES during a cycle of the special orbit of branch U54.
Considering now the damped system, it will be
shown that following an initial non-linear beat phe-
nomenon, either oneof themain(fundamental or sub-
harmonic) TET mechanisms can be activated through
a non-linear transition (jump) in the dynamics. It
was previously mentioned that the two main TET
mechanisms are qualitatively different from the third
mechanism, which is based on the excitation of a
non-linear beat phenomenon (special orbit). Indeed,
damping is a prerequisite for the realization of the two
main mechanisms, leading to an irreversible energy
transfer from the linear oscillator to the NES, whereas
a special orbit is capable of transferring energy with-
out dissipation, though this transfer is not irreversible
but periodic. This justies the earlier assertionthat the
third mechanism does not represent an independent
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 105
Fig. 18 TET by non-linear beat, transition to S11+. Shown are the transient responses of the (a)
linear oscillator and (b) NES; WTs of the motion of (c) the NES and (d) the linear oscillator;
(e) percentage of instantaneous total energy inthe NES; (f ) percentage of total input energy
dissipated by the NES [84]
mechanism for energy pumping, but rather triggers
it, and through a non-linear transition activates either
one of the two main mechanisms. This will become
apparent in the following numerical simulations.
The following simulations concern the transient
dynamics of the damped system (2) with parame-
ters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1,
1
=
2
= 0.0015, and an
impulse of magnitude Y appliedtothe linear oscillator
(corresponding to initial conditions y(0
+
) = v(0
+
) =
v(0
+
) = 0, y(0
+
) = Y ). By varying the magnitude of
the impulse, the different non-linear transitions which
take place in the dynamics and their effects on TET
are studied. The responses of the system to the rela-
tively strong impulse Y = 0.25 are depicted in Fig. 18.
Inspection of the WTs of the responses (see Figs 18(c)
and (d)), and of the portion of total instantaneous
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
106 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 19 Percentage of input energy eventually dissi-
pated at the NES for varying magnitude of the
impulse (the positions of certain special orbits
are indicated) [84]
energy captured by the NES (see Fig. 18(e)), reveals
that at the initial stage of the motion (until approxi-
mately t = 120 s) the (stable) b-special orbit onbranch
U32 is excited (since the NES response possesses two
main frequency components at 1 and 3/2 rad/s), and
a non-linear beat phenomenon takes place. (Note
the continuous exchange of energy between the two
subsystems, demonstrating reversibility in this ini-
tial stage of the motion.) For t > 120 s, the dynamics
undergoes a transition (jump) to branch S11+, and
fundamental TET to the NES occurs on a prolonged
1:1 resonance capture (see Figs 18(c) and (d)); eventu-
ally, 84 per cent of the input energy is dissipated by the
damper of the NES (see Fig. 18(f )).
3.2.4 Critical energy threshold necessary for
initiating TET
To demonstrate more clearly the effect of the b-special
orbits on TET, Fig. 19 depicts the percentage of input
energy eventually dissipated at the NES for varying
magnitude of the impulse for the systemwithparame-
ters = 0.05,
0
= 1, C = 1, and
1
=
2
= 0.01. In the
same plot, the positions of the special orbits of the
undampedsystemandthe critical thresholdpredicted
in Fig. 16 are depicted.
It is concluded that strong TET is associated with
the excitation of b-special orbits of the branches
U(p +1)p in the neighbourhood above the critical
threshold, whereas excitationof a-special orbits below
the critical threshold does not lead to rigorous energy
pumping. As mentioned previously, in the neighbour-
hood of the critical threshold, the b-special orbits are
strongly localized to the NES, whereas a-orbits are
non-localized. The deterioration of TET is also noted
from Fig. 19 as the magnitude of the impulse well
Fig. 20 Contours of percentage of input energy even-
tually dissipated at the NES for the case when
both oscillators excited by impulses; superim-
posed are contours of high- and low-frequency
branches of the undamped system (solid line:
in-phase, dashed line: out-of-phase branches);
special orbits in high- and low-frequency
branches are denoted by circles and triangles,
respectively [84]
above the critical threshold increases, where high-
frequency special orbits are excited; this is a conse-
quenceof thefact that well abovethecritical threshold,
the special orbits are weakly localized to the NES.
Extending the previous result, Fig. 20 depicts the
contours of energy eventually dissipated at the NES,
but for the case of two impulses of magnitudes y(0)
and v(0) applied to both the linear oscillator and
the NES, respectively. The system parameters used
were identical to those of the previous simulation of
Fig. 19. Superimposed on contours of energy dissi-
pated at the NES are certain high- and low-frequency
U- and S-branches of the undamped system together
with their special orbits, in order to conrm for this
case the essential role of the high-frequency special
orbits in TET. Indeed, high levels of energy dissipa-
tion are encountered in neighbourhoods of contours
of high-frequency U-branches, whereas lowvalues are
noted in the vicinity of low-frequency branches. These
results agree qualitatively with the earlier theoretical
and numerical ndings, and enable one to assess and
establish the robustness of TET when the NES is not
initially at rest.
The results presented thus far provide a measure
of the complicated dynamics encountered in the
two-DOF system under consideration. It is logical to
assume that by increasing the number of DOFs of
the system, the dynamics will become even more
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 107
complex. That this is indeed the case is revealed by the
numerical simulations presented in the next section
where resonance capture cascades are reported in
MDOF linear systems with essentially non-linear end
attachments. By resonance capture cascades, compli-
cated sudden transitions between different branches
of solutions (modes), which are accompanied by sud-
den changes in the frequency content of the system
responses, are denoted. As shown in previous works
[78], such multi-frequency transitions can drastically
enhance TET from the linear system to the essentially
non-linear attachment.
3.3 MDOF and continuous oscillators
To gain additional insight into the dynamics of TET,
the case of combinations of MDOF systems com-
posed of linear primary systems with attached SDOF
or MDOF ungrounded NESs is considered. Results
on this specic problem can also be found in ref-
erences [7780, 89]. Consider, rst, the case of the
two-DOF linear primary system with attached SDOF
ungrounded NES
y
2
+
2
0
y
2
+
2
y
2
+d( y
2
y
1
) = 0
y
1
+
2
0
y
1
+
1
y
1
+
3
( y
1
v) +d( y
1
y
2
)
+C( y
1
v)
3
= 0
v +
3
( v y
1
) +C(v y
1
)
3
= 0
(24)
Thesystemparameters arechosenas
0
= 136.9 (rad/s),

1
=
2
=0.155,
3
=0.544, d =1.2 10
3
, = 1.8, and
C = 1.63 10
7
, with linear natural frequencies
1
=
11.68 and
2
= 50.14 (rad/s).
Figure21(a) depicts therelativeresponsev(t) y
1
(t)
of the system for initial displacements y
1
(0) = 0.01,
y
2
(0) = v(0) = 0.01, and zero initial velocities. The
multi-frequency content of the transient response is
evident and is quantied in Fig. 21(b), where the
instantaneous frequency of the time series is com-
puted by applying the numerical Hilbert transform
[95].
As energy decreases because damping dissipation, a
series of eight resonance capture cascades is observed;
i.e. of transient resonances of the NES with a number
of non-linear modes of the system. The complexity
of the non-linear dynamics of the system is evi-
denced by the fact that of these eight captures only
two (labelled IV and VII in Fig. 21(b)) involve the
linearized in-phase and out-of-phase modes of the
linear oscillator, with the remaining involving essen-
tially non-linear interactions of the NES with different
low- and high-frequency non-linear modes of the sys-
tem. On the average, during these resonance captures,
the NES passively absorbs energy from the non-linear
Fig. 21 Resonance capture cascades in the two-DOF
system with non-linear end attachment: (a)
relative transient response v(t) y
1
(t); (b)
instantaneous frequency (resonance cap-
tures indicated). The two natural frequencies
are computed as f
1
=
1
/2 = 1.86 Hz and
f
2
=
2
/2 = 7.98 Hz where
1
= 11.68 and

2
= 50.14 (rad/s) [84]
mode involved, before escape fromresonance capture
occurs andthe NES transiently resonates withthe next
mode in the series.
In essence, the NES acts as a passive, broadband
boundary controller, absorbing, conning, and elimi-
nating vibrationenergy fromthe linear oscillator. Sim-
ilar types of resonance capture cascades were reported
in previous works where grounded NESs, weakly cou-
pled to the linear structure, were examined [78]. The
capacity of the NES to resonantly interact with linear
and non-linear modes in different frequency ranges
is due to its essential non-linearity (i.e. the absence
of a linear term in the non-linear stiffness charac-
teristic), which precludes any preferential resonant
frequency.
3.3.1 Analysis of a two-DOF linear primary system
with an SDOF NES
The rst system which is considered here is a two-
DOF linear primary system with an attached SDOF
NES (Fig. 22), in which the effect that the increase in
DOF of the primary system has on the TET dynamics
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
108 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 22 Two-DOF primary system coupled to an
ungrounded NES
is studied. Equations of motion assume the form
m
1
y
1
+
1
y
1
+k
1
y
1
+k
12
( y
1
y
2
) = 0
m
2
y
2
+
2
y
2
+( y
2
v) +k
2
y
2
+k
12
( y
2
y
1
)
+C( y
2
v)
3
= 0
v +( v y
2
) +C(v y
2
)
3
= 0
(25)
wherey
1
, y
2
, v refer tothedisplacements of theprimary
systemandthe NES, respectively. For obvious practical
reasons, a lightweight NES is specied by requiring
that 1; in this way, weak damping is also assured.
All other variables are treated as O(1) quantities.
As shown in the previous section, understanding
the topological structure of the FEP of the underlying
Hamiltonian system is a prerequisite for interpreting
(even complex) damped transitions in the damped
and forced system. Hence, the analysis focuses on the
analytical computation of the FEP of the undamped
and unforced system. The complexication-averaging
technique is utilized for the analytical approximation
of the main backbone curves on the FEP, which cor-
respond to 1:1 resonant oscillations of the primary
system and the NES (i.e. the dominant frequencies
of these two system are identical). At this point, the
complex variables are introduced

1
= y
1
+jy
1
,
2
= y
2
+jy
2
,
3
= v +jv
(26)
whicharethensubstitutedintoequation(25). Express-
ing the complex variables in polar form
i
=
i
e
jt
,
i = 1, 2, 3 and performing averaging over the fast fre-
quency, the complex-valued slow-ow modulation
equations are obtained
m
1

1
+
j
1
2
(m
1

2
k
1
k
12
) +
j
2
2
k
12
= 0
m
2

2
+
j
2
2
(m
2

2
k
2
k
12
) +
j
1
2
k
12
+
3jC
8
3
(
2
3

2

2
2

3
|
3
|
2

3
+|
2
|
2

2
+2|
3
|
2

2
2|
2
|
2

3
) = 0

3
+
j
2

3

3jC
8
3
(
2
3

2

2
2

3
|
3
|
2

3
+|
2
|
2

2
+2|
3
|
2

2
2|
2
|
2

3
) = 0
(27)
The complex amplitudes
i
can be expressed in polar
form as
i
= a
i
e
j
i
, a
i
,
i
R for i = 1, 2, 3. Then, by
imposing stationarity conditions on the slow-ow
equations and considering trivial phase differences
such that
1

2
=
1

3
= 0, an approximation of
the NNMs on the main backbone is obtained
y
1
= a
1
sint, y
2
= a
2
sint, v = a
3
sint (28)
where the amplitudes a
i
, i = 1, 2, 3 can be found as a
function of frequency by solving the algebraic equa-
tions resulting from the steady-state conditions of the
real-valued slow-ow equations.
The main backbone branches can now be con-
structed by varying the frequency and represent-
ing a NNM at a point (h, ) on the FEP where the
total energy h =
2
/2[m
1
a
1
()
2
+m
2
a
2
()
2
+a
3
()
2
]
is conserved when the system oscillates in a spe-
cic mode. Figure 23 depicts the backbone branch,
named S111, of the system with parameters m
1
=
m
2
= 1, k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C = 1, and = 0.05. NNMs
depicted as projections of the three-dimensional con-
guration space (v, y
1
, y
2
) of the system are superim-
posed to demonstrate mode localization behaviours
with respect to the total energy of the system; the
horizontal and vertical axes in these plots are the non-
linear and primary system responses, respectively.
Four characteristic frequencies, f
1L
, f
2L
, f
1H
, and f
2H
,
are denedinthis plot. At high-energy levels andnite
frequencies, the essential non-linearity behaves as a
rigid link, and the systemdynamics is governed by the
equations
m
1
y
1
+k
1
y
1
+k
12
( y
1
y
2
) = 0
(m
2
+) y
2
+k
2
y
2
+k
12
( y
2
y
1
) = 0
(29)
The natural frequencies of this system are f
1H
=
0.9876 and f
2H
= 1.7116 rad/s for the above parame-
ters. At low-energy levels, the equivalent stiffness of
the essential non-linearity tends to zero, and the sys-
temdynamics is that of theprimarysystem, thenatural
frequencies of which are f
1L
= 1 and f
2L
=

3 rad/s.
From Fig. 23, it is observed that the two frequencies
f
1L
and f
2L
divide the FEP into three distinct regions.
1. The rst region, for which f
2L
, comprises the
branch S111 ++ (the signs indicate whether
the initial condition of the corresponding oscillator
is positiveor negative, respectively). Onthis branch,
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 109
Fig. 23 Analytic approximation of the main back-
bone branches of the system m
1
= m
2
= 1,
k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C =1, =0.05. NNMs
depicted as projections of the three-dimen-
sional conguration space (v, y
1
, y
2
) of the
system are superimposed; the horizontal and
vertical axes in these plots are the non-linear
and primary system responses, respectively
(top plot: (v, y
1
); bottom plot: (v, y
2
); see legend
in the bottom right corner). The aspect ratio is
set so that increments on the horizontal and
vertical axes are equal in size, enabling one to
directly deduce whether the motion is localized
to the primary system or to the non-linear
oscillator [87]
the primary system vibrates in an anti-phase fash-
ion, and the motion is more and more localized to
the primary system or to the NES as the frequency
approaches f
2L
or , respectively.
2. The second region, for which f
1L
f
2H
, com-
prises two different branches, namely S111 +
and S111 ++. These branches coalesce at a point
S111 +0 (see the grey dot in Fig. 23), where the
NNMis such that the initial condition on the veloc-
ity of the oscillator m
2
is zero. On S111 +, the
primary system vibrates in an anti-phase fashion,
and the motion localizes to the NES as the fre-
quency goes away from f
2H
. On S111 ++, there
is an in-phase motion of the primary system, and
the motion localizes to the primary system, as the
frequency converges to f
1L
.
Fig. 24 Numerical computation of the FEP (back-
bone and loci of special orbits) of a two-DOF
primary coupled to an NES (m
1
= m
2
= 1,
k
1
= k
2
= k
12
= 1, C = 1, = 0.05); black dots
and squares denote anti-phase and in-phase
special orbits, respectively [87]
3. The third region, for which f
1H
, comprises the
branch S111 +++. On this branch, the primary
system vibrates in an in-phase fashion, and the
motion localizes to the NES as the frequency goes
away from f
1H
.
Owing tothe energy dependence of the NNMs along
S111, interesting and vigorous energy exchanges may
occur between the primary system and the NES. In
particular, an irreversible channeling of vibrational
energy from the primary system to the NES takes
place on S111 + and S111 +++. Because the
NES has no preferential resonance frequency, fun-
damental TET can be realized either for in-phase or
anti-phasemotionof theprimarysystem, whichshows
the adaptability of the NES.
The SPOs, determined from accommodating spe-
cic initial conditions y
1
(0) = 0, y
2
(0) = 0 with all the
others zero, can also be computed for the MDOF sys-
tem. The role of special orbits is to transfer as quickly
as possible a signicant portion of the induced energy
to the NES, initially at rest, which should trigger TET.
Figure 24 depicts two different families of special
orbits for a two-DOF primary system.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
110 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
1. The rst family consists of in-phase SPOs (++0)
located on in-phase tongues; the masses of the
primary system move in-phase. The locus of in-
phase SPOs is a smooth curve on the FEP. When
the phase difference between the NES and the pri-
mary is trivial, the motion in the conguration
space takes the form of a simple curve; in the case
of non-trivial phase differences, a Lissajous curve
is realized. For the SPO 1, the motion of the two
masses of the primary system is almost identical
and monochromatic. The NES has two dominant
harmonic components, one of which is at the fre-
quency of oscillation of the primary system, the
other being three times smaller; a 1:3 IR between
the NES and the primary system is realized. The
non-linear beating characteristic of such a dynam-
ical phenomenon can be clearly observed. For the
SPO 1, the energy exchange is insignicant as the
maximum percentage of total energy of the NES
never exceeds 0.17 per cent. For the SPOs 2 and
3, the energy transfer is much more vigorous. To
obtain a global picture, the maximum percentage
of energy transferred to the NES during the non-
linear beating is superposed on the FEP in Fig. 25.
This clearly depicts that there exists a critical energy
threshold above which the SPOs can transfer a
substantial amount of energy to the NES. More pre-
cisely, the SPOs must lie above the frequency of the
in-phase mode of the primary system f
1L
.
Fig. 25 Maximum percentage of energy transferred to
theNESduringnon-linear beating(dashed(dot-
ted) line: in-phase (anti-phase) special orbits).
The backbone of the FEP (solid line) and the
loci of the special orbits are also superimposed
(square in-phase; circle anti-phase [87])
2. The second family consists of anti-phase SPOs
(+0) located on anti-phase tongues. Their locus
is also a smooth curve on the FEP. By inspecting
Fig. 25, one can conclude the existence of a critical
energy thresholdfor enhancedTETs; the SPOs must
lie above the frequency of the anti-phase mode of
the primary system f
2L
.
The transient dynamics of the weakly damped sys-
tem is now examined and is interpreted based on
the topological structure of the non-linear modes of
the undamped system. Damping parameters are set
to
1
=
2
= 0.1, = 0.04, and others are the same as
those used in constructing the FEP in Fig. 23. In this
section, only the single-mode responses by impos-
ing the in-phase and anti-phase impulsive forcing are
considered, and the multi-mode responses (i.e. res-
onance capture cascades) will be demonstrated later
compared with the experimental system.
First, the motion initiated on S111 +++ (i.e. in-
phase fundamental TET) is examined (Figs 26(a) and
(b)). In Fig. 26(c), the WT of v(t) y
2
(t) is superim-
posed on the FEP to demonstrate transient dynamics
along the damped NNM manifold as the total energy
decreases due to damping. The dynamical owis cap-
tured in the neighbourhood of a 1:1 resonance mani-
fold, whichleads toaprolonged1:1resonancecapture.
Figure 26(d) depicts the trajectories of the phase dif-
ferences between the NES and the two masses in
the primary structure. The phase variables were com-
puted by utilizing the Hilbert transform (HT) of the
responses. Non-time-like behaviour of the two phase
variables is observed, as the evidence for resonance
capture. Figure 26(e) conrms that fundamental TET,
i.e. an irreversible energy transfer from the primary
structure to the NES, takes place along S111 +++.
Now the motion initiated on S111 + (i.e. out-
of-phase fundamental TET) is examined. Figure 27(a)
and(b) depicts the time series where fundamental TET
is realized in a rst stage (t = 0 100 s) for an anti-
phase motion of the primary structure. During this
regime, the envelope of all displacements decreases
monotonically, but the envelope of the NES seems to
decrease more slowly than that of the primary struc-
ture; TET to the NES is observed (Fig. 27(e)). Around
t = 80 s, the displacement y
2
of the second mass m
2
becomes very small, and a transition from anti-phase
(S111 +) to in-phase (S111 ++) motion in the
primary structure occurs. When the inection point
on S111 ++ is reached (where a bifurcation elimi-
nates the stable/unstable pair of NNMs), escape from
resonance capture occurs, which results in time-like
behaviour of the phase variables in Fig. 27(d). Fig-
ures 27(b), (c), and (e) show that this is soon followed
by subharmonic TET on an in-phase tongue; there is a
capture into 1:3 resonance manifold.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 111
Fig. 26 Fundamental TET for in-phase motion of the primary system: (a) time series; (b) close-up
of the time series (square: y
1
(t); circle: y
2
(t); reversed triangle: v(t)); (c) WT superimposed
on the frequency-energy plot; (d) trajectories of the phase modulation; (e) instantaneous
percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
A motion initiated from special orbits is examined
to verify the existence of a critical energy thresh-
old above which the SPOs can trigger fundamental
TET. In Fig. 28, the motion is initiated from in-
phase SPOs 1 and 2, located below and above the
threshold, respectively. The dynamic responses are
remarkably different for those two cases. For the
SPO 1, the NES cannot extract a sufcient amount
of energy from the primary system, and a transi-
tion to S111 ++ is observed. On this branch, the
motion localizes to the primary system as the total
energy in the system decreases. For the SPO 2, thanks
to a non-linear beating phenomenon, the motion is
directed towards the basin of attraction of S111 +++,
and fundamental TET from the in-phase mode is
realized.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
112 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 27 Fundamental TETfor anti-phasemotionof theprimary system: (a) timeseries; (b) close-up
of the time series (square: y
1
(t); circle: y
2
(t); reversed triangle: v(t)); (c) WT superimposed
on the frequencyenergy plot; (d) trajectories of the phase modulation; (e) instantaneous
percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
Likewise, if the motion is initiated from an anti-
phase SPO located below the threshold (e.g. SPO 4),
there occurs a transition to S111 ++, on which
the motion localizes to the primary system with a
decrease inthe total energy. If the anti-phase SPOlying
above the threshold (e.g. SPO 6) is excited, the branch
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 113
Fig. 28 Motion initiated from in-phase special orbits: (a, b) time series; (c, d) WT superim-
posed on the frequency energy plot; (e, f ) instantaneous percentage of total energy in the
NES [87]
S111 + is reached, resulting in the realization of
fundamental TET from the anti-phase mode.
3.3.2 Analysis of an SDOF linear primary system
with an MDOF NES
Application of an MDOF NES is now considered. It is
showed that enhanced TET takes place in this case
because of the capacity of the essentially non-linear
MDOF NES to engage in simultaneous resonance
captures with multiple modes of the linear system.
Consider the systeminFig. 29, where a two-DOFlinear
primary oscillator is connected through a weak linear
stiffness (which is the small parameter of the prob-
lem), 0 < 1, to a three-DOF non-linear attach-
ment with the two essentially non-linear stiffnesses,
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
114 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 29 Primary (linear) system with an MDOF
non-linear attachment
C
1
and C
2
. The equations of motion for this systemcan
be written as
u
1
+ u
1
+(
2
0
+)u
1
u
2
= F
1
(t)
u
2
+ u
2
+(
2
0
+ +)u
2
u
1
v
1
= F
2
(t)
v
1
+( v
1
v
2
) +(v
1
u
2
) +C
1
(v
1
v
2
)
3
= 0
v
2
+(2 v
2
v
1
v
3
) +C
1
(v
2
v
1
)
3
+C
2
(v
2
v
3
)
3
= 0
v
3
+( v
3
v
2
) +C
2
(v
3
v
2
)
3
= 0
(30)
In the limit 0, the system decomposes into two
uncoupled oscillators: a two-DOF linear primary sys-
tem with natural frequencies
1
=
_

2
0
+2 and
2
=

0
<
1
, corresponding to out-of-phase and in-phase
linear modes, respectively; and a three-DOF essen-
tially non-linear oscillator with a rigid-body mode and
two exible NNMs.
Unlike the SDOF NES conguration, this MDOF
NESexhibits multi-frequency simultaneousTETs from
multiple modes of the primary system; this means
that multiple non-linear modes of the MDOF NES
engage in transient resonance interactions with mul-
tiple modes of the linear system. Once again, complex
transitions in the damped dynamics can be related to
the topological structure of the periodic orbits of the
corresponding undamped system.
For practical purposes, the systemwith NES masses
of O() is considered with parameter values = 0.2,
= 1.0, C
1
= 4.0, C
2

2
C
2
= 0.05,
2
= 0.08,
and
0
= 1, where rescaling was applied to the NES
masses and the second essentially nonlinear cou-
pling spring C
2
.
As performed in previous sections, the FEP of
the underlying Hamiltonian system was considered
rst. A numerical method was utilized to con-
struct the FEP of the periodic solutions of the
underlying Hamiltonian system [87]. Denoting u(t) =
[u
1
(t)u
2
(t)v
1
(t)v
2
(t)v
3
(t)]
T
, the periodic solutions of
the undamped and unforced system(30) can be deter-
mined by computing the values of u(0) for which
u(0) = 0 for a given period T. Numerically this is
performed by minimizing the expression
min
T
{[u(T) u(T)] [0 u(0)]}
Then, the total energy hof the underlying Hamiltonian
system, when it oscillates with a periodic solution of
frequency = 2/T, is expressed as
h =
1
2
[ u
1
(0)
2
+ u
2
(0)
2
+ v
1
(0)
2
+ v
2
(0)
2
+ v
3
(0)
2
]
Considering as aperturbationparameter, system(30)
with the rescaled parameter
2
is expected to
possess complicated dynamics as 0, because it is
essentially (or strongly) non-linear, high-dimensional,
and singular (since the highest derivatives in three
of its equations are multiplied by the perturbation
parameter squared).
In Fig. 30, the periodic orbits are presented in a
FEP. Note that it was difcult to capture the lowest
frequency branch through the numerical scheme. It
was analytically estimated and superimposed to the
numerical results [88]. From the FEP of Fig. 30, it is
noted that the backbone branches of periodic orbits
are dened over wider frequency and energy ranges
than for the system of the NES masses of O(1) [88],
and no subharmonic tongues exist inthis case (at least
none was detected in the numerical scheme). Hence,
it can be conjectured that a decrease in magnitude
of the masses of the NES results in the elimination
of the local subharmonic tongues (i.e. of the sub-
harmonic motions at frequencies integrally related to
the natural frequencies f
1
= 1.8529, f
2
= 1.5259, and
f
3
= 0.9685 rad/s of the linear subsystem). For the limit
of high energy and nite frequency, the underlying
Hamiltonian system (30) reaches the linear limiting
Fig. 30 Frequencyenergy plot of the periodic orbits for
the MDOF system with the NES masses of O(
2
)
[88]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 115
Fig. 31 Damped responses for out-of-phase impulses Y = 0.1: (a) Cauchy WTs superimposed on
the FEP; (b) partition of instantaneous energy of the system [88]
system
u
1
+(
2
0
+)u
1
u
2
= 0
u
2
+(
2
0
+ +)u
2
u
1
v
1
= 0
3 v
1
+(v
1
u
2
) = 0
(31)
with limiting natural frequencies

f
1
= 1.7734,

f
2
=
1.1120, and

f
3
= 0.7960 rad/s.
The efciency of TETs is demoistrated numerically
by means of the MDOF NES conguration consid-
ered herein, under the out-of-phase impulsive forcing
F
1
(t) = F
2
(t) = Y (t), withall other initial conditions
being zero.
Figure 31 depicts the damped responses for the
impulsive forcing amplitude Y = 0.1. Inthis case, both
the relative displacements v
1
(t) v
2
(t) and v
2
(t)
v
3
(t) betweenthe NES masses followregular backbone
branches. The relative displacement v
1
(t) v
2
(t) has a
dominant frequency component that approaches the
linearized natural frequency f
2
of the limiting system
for the limit of low energy and nite frequency, where
the equation for the NES part becomes
v
1
+(v
1
u
2
) = 0
with decreasing energy. In contrast, v
2
(t) v
3
(t) has
two strong harmonic components that approach the
linearized natural frequencies f
2
and f
3
for decreas-
ing energy, indicating transfer of energy simultane-
ously from two modes of the linear limiting system
for limit of low energy and nite frequency. More-
over, the same regular backbone branches are tracked
by the response throughout the motion and strong
energy transfer occurs right fromthe early stage of the
response, which explains the strong eventual energy
transfer to the NES (90 per cent) that occurs for this
low-impulse excitation.
By increasing the impulsive forcing to Y = 1.0 [88],
the overall energy transfer from the linear to non-
linear subsystem decreases signicantly with delay,
and the steady-state energy dissipation by the NES is
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
116 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 32 Damped responses for out-of-phase impulses Y = 1.5: (a) Cauchy WTs superimposed on
the FEP; (b) partition of instantaneous energy of the system [88]
onlyabout 50per cent. This occurs becausethemotion
is mainly localized to the directly excited linear sub-
systems by the strong initial out-of-phase resonance
capture, with a small portion of energy spreading out
to the NES.
Further increasing the impulse magnitude to Y =
1.5 enables the systemtoescape fromthe strong initial
out-of-phase resonance capture, leading to resumed
strong TETs (Fig. 32). The NES relative responses
possess multiple strong frequency components, indi-
cating that strong TET occurs at multiple frequencies.
Thesteady-stateenergydissipationbytheNESreaches
nearly 90 per cent of the input energy.
3.3.3 Analysis of a linear continuous system with
SDOF and MDOF attached NESs
A separate series of papers examined TET in con-
tinuous systems with attached NESs. For example,
Fig. 33 depicts linear (dispersive) elastic rods coupled
to SDOF and MDOF NESs [9294]. In these works,
it was shown that appropriately designed NESs are
capable of passively absorbing and locally dissipat-
ing signicant portions of the vibration energy of the
impulsively forced rod.
In Fig. 34, a representative WTs of the damped
responses of these two systems superimposed to the
FEPs of the underlying Hamiltonian (undamped and
unforced) systems are provided. Comparing the action
of the SDOFandMDOFNESs, notedit is that the SDOF
NES is capable of engaging in resonance capture with
only one mode of the linear rod at a time. Hence,
in Fig. 34(a), a resonance capture cascade where the
SDOF NES engages with a series of modes sequen-
tially (i.e. it escapes from a resonance capture with
one mode before it can engage in similar resonance
capture with another one) is noted. In the case of the
MDOF NES (see Figs 34(b) to (d)), this does not hold,
as the NES engages in broadband resonance interac-
tions with multiple modes of the rod; that is, different
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 117
Fig. 33 Linear elastic rod coupled to (a) an ungrounded SDOF NES; (b) an MDOF NES
Fig. 34 Wavelet spectra of the relative responses between the rod end and (a) an SDOF NES, (bd)
an MDOF NES, superimposed to the corresponding FEPs of each system [94]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
118 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
non-linear modes of the MDOF NES engage in sepa-
rate resonance captures with different linear modes of
the rod (this is revealed by the broadband character
of the non-linear modal interactions between the rod
and the NES in this case). Hence, similar to previous
applications withdiscretecoupledoscillators, it is con-
cludedthat aMDOFNESis moreversatileandeffective
compared with the SDOF NES, as it can extract vibra-
tion energy simultaneously from a set of modes of the
linear system. For a more detailed analysis and discus-
sionof these results, the reader is referredtoreferences
[92] to [94].
3.4 Non-smoothVI NES
A separate series of papers considered NESs with non-
smooth stiffness characteristics. An NES with piece-
wise linear springs was rst utilized for the purpose of
shock isolation in reference [105] (see also reference
[71]); this piecewise linear stiffness is relatively easy to
realize in practice [116118].
This section is concerned with NESs undergoingVIs
(hereafter, vibro-impact NESs can be termed as VI
NESs). As shown in the aforementioned references,
this type of non-smooth NES possesses fast reac-
tion time; i.e. a VI NES is capable of passive TET at
a fast time-scale, which makes this type of device
ideal in applications where the NES needs to be acti-
vated very early in the motion (within the initial one
or two cycles of vibration). The simplest primary sys-
tem VI NES conguration, namely an SDOF linear
oscillator coupled to a VI NES (Fig. 35) is consid-
ered. It will be demonstrated that a clear depiction of
the damped non-linear transitions that govern energy
transactions in this system can be gained by study-
ing the damped motion on the FEP of the underlying
VI conservative system (i.e. the identical system con-
guration, but with purely elastic impacts and no
viscous damping elements). The premise is that, for
sufciently small damping, the damped non-linear
dynamics are perturbations of the dynamics of the
underlying conservative system, so that damped non-
linear transitions take place near branches of periodic
or quasi-periodic motions of the undamped system.
Hence, by studying the structure of periodic orbits of
the conservative system, the behaviour of the damped
dynamics should be understood as well, and phe-
nomena such as TRCs and jumps between different
Fig. 35 An SDOF linear oscillator connected to aVI NES
branches of solutions that governTET in theVI system
should be identied.
The equations of motion in non-dimensional form
between impacts can be written as
u
1
+(1 +)u
1
+u
2
= 0, u
2
+(u
2
u
1
) = 0
(32)
where = m
2
/m
1
, = k
2
/k
1
are the mass and stiff-
ness ratios; the rescaling of time, =
_
k
1
/m
1
t, is
imposed, and the derivative with respect to the new
non-dimensional time is denoted by the overdot.
Impact occurs whenever the absolute value of the
relative displacements satises |u
2
u
1
| = e, where e
denotes the clearance; if |u
2
u
1
| < e, then no impact
occurs and the system oscillates simply in a linear
combination of the two linear modes of system (32).
Setting the coefcient of restitution to 1 (i.e. assum-
ing perfectly elastic impacts), and applying momen-
tumconservation, the velocities of the two masses just
before and after impacts can be related; that is
v

1
=
(1 )v
1
+2v
2
1 +
, v

2
=
( 1)v
2
+2v
1
1 +
(33)
where v
i
= du
i
/d and the prime denotes the quantity
just after impact.
The periodic solutions of the VI conservative sys-
tem were computed numerically and represented in
a FEP. This plot was constructed by depicting each
VI periodic orbit as a single point with the coordi-
nates determined in the following way: consider the
eigenfrequency of the uncoupled linear oscillator as
reference frequency, f
0
= 0.1515; the frequency coor-
dinate of the FEP is equal to (p/q)f
0
, where the rational
number p/q is the ratio of the basic frequency of
the linear oscillator to the basic frequency of the NES.
The energy coordinate is the (conserved) total energy
of the system when it oscillates in the specic peri-
odic orbit considered. The parameters of the system
adopted for the FEP computation are = = 0.1 and
e = 0.1, and the resulting FEP is depicted in Fig. 36.
The complicated topology of the branches of peri-
odic orbits depictedinthe FEPreects the well-known
complexity of the dynamics of this seemingly sim-
ple non-linear dynamical system. It is exactly because
of the complexity of VI motions that it is necessary
to establish a careful notation in order to distinguish
between the different families of VI periodic motions
and study their dependence on energy and frequency.
To this end, each VI periodic orbit depicted in the
FEP is given the notation Lijkl. The capital letter
L is assigned either letters S or U, referring to sym-
metric or unsymmetric periodic motions, respectively.
Symmetric periodic motions satisfy the conditions
u
k
() = u
k
( +T/2), R, k = 1, 2, where T is the
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 119
Fig. 36 Frequencyenergy plot for the system(32); dashed lines indicate the two linearized eigen-
frequencies, and bullets, the maximum energy levels at which oscillations take place
without VIs [116]
period of the motion, whereas unsymmetric periodic
motions do not satisfy the conditions of the sym-
metric motions. Regarding the four numerical indices
{ijkl}, index i refers to the number of left VIs occur-
ring during the rst half-period; j to the number of
right impacts occurring during the rst half-period; k
tothe number of left impacts occurring during the sec-
ond half-period; and l to the number of right impacts
occurring during the second half-period of a periodic
motion.
The (+) sign corresponds to in-phase VI periodic
motions where, for zero initial displacements, the
initial velocities of the two particles have the same
sign at the beginning of both the rst and second
half-periods of the periodic motion; otherwise, the
VI periodic motion is deemed to be anti-phase and
the () sign is used. It can be shown that S-VI peri-
odic orbits correspond to synchronous motions of the
two oscillators, and thus are represented by curves
in the conguration plane of the system, (u
1
, u
2
); i.e.
these periodic motions are characterized as NNMs.
On the contrary, U-VI periodic orbits correspond to
asynchronous motions of the two oscillators, and are
represented by Lissajous curves in the conguration
plane of the system.
Considering the FEP of Fig. 36, the two bullets indi-
cate the maximum energy thresholds below which
oscillations occur without VIs, andthe dynamics of the
two-DOF system is exactly linear. The rst (in-phase)
and second (out-of-phase) modes of the linear sys-
tem (corresponding to the two-DOF system with no
rigid stops and clearance, e.g. e = ) exist below the
energy thresholds for VIs, namely, E
1
= 0.001 185 12
for the in-phase mode and E
2
= 0.000 865 078 for the
out-of-phase one. Clearly, when the system oscillates
below these maximum energy thresholds, the relative
displacement between the two particles of the system
satises |u
1
u
2
| < e.
As the energy is increased above the threshold VIs,
giving rise to two main branches of periodicVI NNMs:
the branch of out-of-phase VI NNMs S1001 which
bifurcates from the out-of-phase linearized mode,
and the branch of in-phase VI NNMs S1001+ which
bifurcates from the in-phase linearized mode. The
two branches S1001 will be referred to as backbone
(global) branches of theFEP; theyconsist ofVI periodic
motions duringwhichtheNESvibrates either in-phase
or out-of-phasewiththelinear oscillator withidentical
dominant frequencies.
Moreover, both backbone branches exhibit a single
VI per half-periodare denedover extendedfrequency
and energy ranges, and correspond to motions that
are mainly localized to the VI attachment (except
in the neighbourhoods of the two linearized eigen-
frequencies of the system with e = , at f
1
= 0.136
and f
2
= 0.186). Both backbone branches satisfy the
condition of 1:1 IR between the linear oscillator and
the VI NES, with the oscillations of both subsys-
tems possessing the same dominant frequency, as
well as weaker harmonics at integer multiples of the
dominant frequency.
A different class of VI periodic solutions of the FEP
lies on subharmonic tongues (local branches); these
are multi-frequency periodic motions, with frequen-
cies being rational multiples of one of the linearized
eigenfrequencies of the system. Eachtongue is dened
over a nite energy range and is composed of a pair
of branches of in- and out-of-phase subharmonic
solutions. At a critical energy level, the two branches
of the pair coalesce in a bifurcation that signies
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
120 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 37 Representative VI impulse orbits: U3223 (upper) and U2222 (lower) [116]
the end of that particular tongue and the elimina-
tion of the corresponding subharmonic motions for
higher energy values. Clearly, there exists a countable
innity of such tongues emanating from the back-
bone branches, with each tongue corresponding to
symmetric or unsymmetric VI subharmonic motions
with different patterns of VIs during each cycle of the
oscillation.
Finally, there exists a third class of VI motions in
the FEP, which are denoted as VI impulsive orbits
(VI IOs). These are periodic solutions corresponding
to zero initial conditions, except for the initial veloc-
ity of the linear oscillator. In essence, a VI IO is the
response of the system initially at rest due to a single
impulse applied to the linear oscillator at time = 0
+
.
Apart from the clear similarity of a VI IO to the Greens
function dened for the corresponding linear system,
the importance of studying this class of orbits stems
fromtheir essential role in passive TET fromthe linear
oscillator to the non-linear attachment.
Indeed, for impulsively excited linear systems with
NESs having smooth non-linearities, IOs (which are,
in essence, non-linear beats) play the role of bridg-
ing orbits that occur in the initial phase of TET, and
channel a signicant portion of the induced impulsive
energy fromthe linear systemto the NES at a relatively
fast time-scale; this represents the most efcient sce-
nario for passive TET. Although the aforementioned
results refer todampedIOs, thedynamics of theunder-
lying conservative system determines, in large part,
the dynamics of the damped system as well, provided
that the damping is sufciently small. It follows that
the IOs of the conservative system govern the initial
phase of TET from the linear oscillator to the NES.
As shown in reference [85], impulsive periodic and
quasi-periodic orbits form a manifold in the FEP that
contains a countable innity of periodic IOs and an
uncountable innity of quasi-periodic IOs.
For theVI systemunder consideration, the manifold
of VI IOs was numerically computed and is depicted in
the FEP of Fig. 36; in general, the manifold appears
as a smooth curve, with the exception of a num-
ber of outliers. Representative VI IOs are depicted in
Fig. 37. In general, the IOs become increasingly local-
ized to the VI NES as their energy decreases, a result
which is in agreement with previous results for NESs
with smooth essential non-linearities [85]. As energy
increases, the VI IOs tend to the in-phase mode (i.e.
a straight line of slope /4 in the conguration plane
(u
1
, u
2
)). Moreover, there is no critical energy thresh-
old for the appearance of VI IOs since there are no
low-energy VI motions (the system is linear for low-
energy levels), and the dominant frequency of a VI IO
depends ontheclearance, e. For thesystemunder con-
sideration, the VI IOs start with a dominant frequency
of 0.152 (or a period of 6.58).
Apart from the compact representation of VI peri-
odic motions, the FEP is again a valuable tool for
understanding the non-linear resonant interactions
that govern energy transactions (such as TET) dur-
ing damped transitions in the weakly dissipative
system. This is because, for sufciently weak dissi-
pation (due to inelastic VIs or viscous damping), the
damped dynamics are expected to be perturbations
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 121
Fig. 38 Damped VI transitions initiated on the tongue
U8778: (a) WT superimposed on the FEP; (b)
instantaneous energy plot [116]
of solutions of the underlying conservative system. To
showthis, the dynamics of the systemof Fig. 35 for the
case of inelastic impacts is computed and analysed
the resulting transient responses by numerical WTs.
Thenthe resultingWTspectra are superimposedtothe
FEP in order to study the resulting damped transitions
and related them to the dynamics of the underlying
conservative system.
A damped transition is depicted in Fig. 38, corre-
sponding to VI motion initiated on the VI IO U8778,
with a coefcient of restitution, 0.995. Three regimes
of the dampedVI transition can be distinguished.
In the initial phase of the motion, the oscillations
stay in the neighbourhood of the subharmonic tongue
S1221+ until approximately = 500 and logarithm of
energy equal to 2.15. There is efcient energy dissi-
pation in this initial phase of the motion, as evidenced
by the energy plot of Fig. 38(b).
In the second regime, the dynamics makes a tran-
sition to branch U0110 until the logarithm of
energy becomes equal to 2.5; in this regime of the
damped transition non-symmetric oscillations take
place. An additional transition to the manifold of VI
IOs (e.g. IOs U2112+, U1111+, S1221+) occurs, before
the VI dynamics makes a nal transition to the back-
bone branch S0110+for logarithm of the energy close
to 2.7.
By studying the instantaneous energy of the system
during the aforementioned transitions (see Fig. 38(b)),
it can be concluded that the most efcient energy
dissipation by the VI NES occurs during the initial
TRC on the subharmonic tongue S1221+. This result
demonstrates that TRC is a basic dynamical mech-
anism governing effective passive TET, for example,
from a seismically excited primary structure to an
attached VI NES. It follows that by studying VI tran-
sitions in the FEP and relating them to rates of energy
dissipation by VI NESs, one should be able to iden-
tify the most effective damped transitions from a TET
point of view. The complicated series of VI transi-
tions depicted in Fig. 38 demonstrates the poten-
tial of the two-DOF system for exhibiting complex
dynamics, and the utility of the FEP as a tool for
representing and understanding complex transient
multi-frequency transitions.
4 EXPERIMENTALVERIFICATIONS
In this section, the experimental work that validates
the previous theoretical results on passive TET will be
reviewed. For a general synopsis regarding the exper-
imental study of TETs, refer to the literature review in
section 2.2.3.
4.1 Experiments with SDOF primary systems
Figure 39(a) depicts an experimental xture built
to examine the energy transfers in the two-DOF
system (Fig. 39(b) for its mathematical modelling)
described by
M y +
1
y +
2
( y v) +C( y v)
3
+ky = 0,
v +
2
( v y) +C(v y)
3
= 0
(34)
A schematic of the system is provided in Fig. 39(c),
detailing major components. The system parameters
were identied using modal analysis and the restor-
ing force surface method(Fig. 40; [168]): M = 1.266 kg,
= 0.140 kg, k = 1143 N/m,
1
= 0.155 Ns/m,
2
=
0.4 Ns/m, C = 0.185 10
7
N/m
2.8
, and = 2.8, where
denotes the power of the essential non-linearity.
Figure 39(e) is a schematic showing how cubic
(essential) non-linearity is achieved through geomet-
ric non-linearity. Assuming zero initial tension along
the wire, a static force F with respect to a transverse
displacement x can be expressed as
F = kL
_
x
L
_
_
1
1
_
1 +(x/L)
2
_
(35)
where k = EA/L represents the axial stiffness constant
of the wire, L is the half-length of the span, E Youngs
modulus, and A the cross-sectional area of the wire.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
122 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 39 Experimental setup for an SDOF linear primary structure coupled to an SDOF NES:
(a)(c) general conguration and schematics; (d) experimental force pulse (21 N);
(e) realization of the essential cubic non-linearity through a system with geometric
non-linearity [96, 99, 169]
Taylor-series expansion of the bracketed termabout
x = 0 assuming x/L 1 gives
F = EA
_
x
L
_
3
+O
_
x
5
L
5
_
(36)
from which the coefcient for the essentially non-
linear term can be estimated as C = EA/L
3
. Note that
a non-integer power (close to three) is obtained via
system identication [169].
Two series of physical experiments were conducted
in which the primary system was impulsively loaded.
In the rst series of tests, the damping in the NES
was kept relatively low in order to highlight the dif-
ferent mechanisms for TETs. Additional tests were
performed to investigate whether TETs can take place
with increased levels of damping.
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 123
Fig. 40 Measured restoring force represented as a function of time (left) and relative displacement
v y (right)[99]
4.1.1 Case of low damping
In the low-damping case, several force levels ranging
from 21 to 55 N were considered, but for conciseness,
only the results for the lowest and the highest force
levels are depicted in Fig. 41.
At 21 N of forcing, the acceleration and displace-
ment of the NES are higher than those of the primary
system, which indicates that the NES participates in
the systemdynamics to a large extent. The percentage
of instantaneous total energy plot illustrates that vig-
orous energy exchanges take place between the two
oscillators. However, it can also be observed that the
channeling of energy to the NES is not irreversible.
After 0.23 s, as much as 88 per cent of the total energy
is present in the NES, but this number drops down
to 1.5 per cent immediately thereafter. Hence, in this
case, energy quickly ows back and forth between the
two oscillators, which is characteristic of a non-linear
beating phenomenon. Another indication for this is
that the envelope of the NES response undergoes large
modulations.
At the 55 N level, the non-linear beating still dom-
inates the early regime of the motion. A less vigor-
ous but faster energy exchange is now observed as
63 per cent of the total energy is transferred to the NES
after 0.12 s. These quantities also hold for the interme-
diate force levels [99]. It should be noted that these
observations are in close agreement with the analyti-
cal and numerical studies [83, 84]; indeed, inthis case,
the special orbits are such that they transfer smaller
amounts of energy to the NES, but in a faster fashion
when the force level is increased.
A qualitative means of assessing the energy dissi-
pation by the NES is to compare the response of the
primary system in the following two cases: (a) when
the NES is attached to the primary system(the present
case denoted by NES displacements at the bottom
of Fig. 41); (b) when the NES is disconnected, but its
dashpot is installed between the primary system and
ground (a SDOF linear oscillator with added damp-
ing denoted by ground dashpot displacement in
Fig. 41). Case (b) was not realizedinthe laboratory, but
the system response was computed using numerical
simulation. The two bottom gures in Fig. 41 com-
pare the corresponding displacements of the linear
oscillator in the aforementioned two different system
congurations. It can be observed that the NES per-
forms much better than the grounded dashpot for the
21 N level, but this is less obvious for the 55 N level.
This might mean that, when the non-linear beating
phenomenon is capable of transferring a signicant
portion of the total energy to the NES, it should be a
more useful mechanism for energy dissipation.
4.1.2 Case of high damping
Several force levels ranging from 31 to 75 N were
considered, and the results for 31 N are presented
herein. The damping coefcient was identied to be
1.48 Ns/m, which means that damping can no longer
be considered to be O(). The increase in damping is
alsoreectedinthemeasuredrestoringforceinFig. 42.
The system responses are almost entirely damped
out after ve to six periods. The NES acceleration and
displacement are still higher than the corresponding
responses of the primary system, meaning that TETs
may also occur in the presence of higher damping.
The percentage of instantaneous total energy in the
NES never reaches close to 100 per cent as in the
lower damping case. However, one may conjecture
that this is due to the increased damping value; as
soon as energy is transferred to the NES, it is almost
immediately dissipated by the dashpot.
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
124 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 41 Experimental results for lowdamping (left column: 21 N; right column: 55 N; note differing
durations). The rst row depicts measured acceleration; the second, measured displace-
ment; the third, percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES; and the fourth,
displacement of the primary structure (NES versus grounded dashpot) [99]
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 125
Fig. 42 Experimental results for high damping (31 N). From the top left, measured accelerations,
measured displacements, percentage of instantaneous total energy in the NES, measured
and simulated energy dissipated by the NES, displacement of the primary system (NES
versus grounded dashpot), and restoring force [99]
4.1.3 Frequencyenergy plot analysis
Utilizing the FEP on which the WT of the relative dis-
placement betweenthe primary structure andthe NES
is superimposed, the dynamics of the systemfor high-
level forcing with low damping, and for low-level forc-
ing with high damping, can be investigated (Fig. 43).
There are strong harmonic components developing
during the non-linear beating phenomenon. Once
these harmonic components disappear, the NES
engages in a 1:1 resonance capture with the linear
oscillator at a frequency approximately equal to the
natural frequency of the uncoupled linear oscillator.
4.2 Experiments with MDOF primary systems
In order to support the theoretical ndings in
section 3.3, physical experiments were carried out
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
126 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 43 Superposition of theWT of the relative displacement across the non-linearity and the FEP:
(a) 55 N, low damping; (b) 31 N, high damping [99]
Fig. 44 Experimental setup for a two-DOF linear pri-
mary structure coupled to an SDOF NES [169]
using the xture depicted in Fig. 44, which cor-
responds to the schematic depicted in Fig. 22.
It realizes the system described by equation 25,
and the system parameters are identied using
modal analysis and the restoring force surface
method: m
1
= 0.6285 kg, m
2
= 1.213 kg, = 0.161 kg,
k
1
= 420 N/m, k
2
= 0 N/m, k
12
= 427 N/m, C =4.97
10
6
N/m
3
,
1
=0.05 0.1 Ns/m,
2
= 0.5 0.9 Ns/m,

12
= 0.2 0.5 Ns/m, = 0.3 0.35 Ns/m.
The mass ratio /(m
1
+m
2
) is equal to 8.7 per cent.
From these parameters, the natural frequencies of the
uncoupled linear subsystem are found to be 1.95 and
6.25 Hz, respectively. The damping coefcients range
over a certain interval, because damping estimation is
a difcult problem in this setup due to the presence
of several ball joints and bearings, and due to the air
track. It was foundthat dampingwas rather sensitiveto
the force level, which is why intervals rather than xed
values are given. In addition, at lowamplitude friction
appeared to play an important role in the dynamics of
the system.
In these experimental verications, the mass m
1
was loaded by impulses of different amplitudes and
of durations of approximately 0.01 s. Four cases of
increasing input energy were considered: case I,
0.0103 J; II, 0.0258 J; III, 0.0296 J; and IV, 0.0615 J. The
superposition of the WT of the relative displacement
across the non-linear spring on the FEP is shown in
Fig. 45.
Starting with the case I, the lowest energy,
S111 +++ is excited from the beginning of the
motion. This means that the input energy is already
above the threshold for TET from the in-phase mode,
but belowthe threshold for resonance with the out-of-
phase mode. For case II, S111 +++ is again excited,
but harmonic components are present. By slightly
increasing the imparted energy (case III), the thresh-
old for interaction with the out-of-phase mode is
exceeded. As aresult, S111 +is excited, andshortly
after a jump to S111 +++ takes place. In case IV, the
transitions are similar to those of case III.
Further results for case IV, which bear strong resem-
blance to those in Fig. 46, are displayed in Fig. 47.
During the rst few cycles, the NES clearly resonates
with the out-of-phase mode. As a result, after 2 s,
the NES can capture as much as 87 per cent of the
instantaneous total energy, and the participation of
the out-of-phase mode in the systemresponse is dras-
tically reduced. Around t = 2 s, a sudden transition
takes place, and the NES starts extracting energy from
the in-phase mode. The comparison of Figs 47(c) and
(e) with Figs 47(d) and (f ) shows that the predictions
of the model identied are in very close agreement
with the experimental measurements in the interval
04 s. Specically, the sequential interaction of the
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 127
Fig. 45 Frequencyenergy plot for the experimental xture for a peak duration around 0.01 s:
(a)(d) Cases IIV [87]
Fig. 46 Response following direct impulsive forcing of mass m
1
(40 N, 0.01 s): (a)(b) displace-
ments; (c) FEP with the superimposed WT of the relative displacement between m
2
and
the NES; (d) instantaneous percentage of total energy in the NES [87]
JMBD118 IMechE 2008 Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics
128 Y S Lee, A F Vakakis, L A Bergman, DMMcFarland, GKerschen, F Nucera, S Tsakirtzis, and P NPanagopoulos
Fig. 47 Experimental results (case IV): (a)(c) measured displacements; (d) predicted NES dis-
placement; (e)(f ) measured and predicted instantaneous percentage of total energy in
the NES [87]
NES with both modes is accurately reproduced by the
numerical model. Discrepancies occur after t = 4 s,
probably due to unmodelled friction in the bearings;
this explains why the TET predicted by the numerical
model between 4 and 8 s was not reproduced with the
experimental xture.
During this experiment, no attempt was made to
maximize energy dissipation in the NES. The purpose
was rather to examine the energy transfers in this sys-
tem, tohighlight the underlying dynamic phenomena,
andto demonstrate that the NES is capable of resonat-
ing with virtually any given mode of a structure.
5 CONCLUDINGREMARKS
Fundamental aspects of passive TET in systems of
coupled oscillators with essentially non-linear attach-
ments were reviewed in this work. The concepts,
methods, and results presented in this review article
Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics JMBD118 IMechE 2008
Passive non-linear TET and its applications 129
can be applied to diverse engineering elds. To just
give an indication of the powerful applications that
passive TET can nd some recent applications of TET
and NES to some practical engineering problems.
Inaseries of papers [98, 114, 115] theabilityof SDOF
and MDOF NESs to robustly eliminate aeroelastic
instabilities occurring in in-ow wings is demon-
strated both theoretically and experimentally. This
is a consequence of a series of transient or sus-
tained resonance captures between the essentially
non-linear NESs and aeroelastic (pitch and heave)
modes, which act to suppress the triggering mech-
anism that yields to LCOs and assure instability-free
dynamics. The designs proposed in these papers hold
promise for using strongly non-linear local elements
to achieve passive vibration reduction in situations
where this is not possible by weakly non-linear or
linear methods.
Moreover, in an additional series of papers
[116118], NESs withsmoothand/or non-smooth(VI)
characteristics are employed in frame structures to
mitigate the damaging effects of strong seismic exci-
tations. In particular, the author demonstrated, both
theoretically and experimentally, that NESs with non-
smooth stiffness characteristics can provide passive
reduction of the seismic response during the criti-
cal initial cycles (i.e. immediately after application of
the earthquake excitation), where the motion is at
its highest energetic state. This is due to fast-scale
TET from the structure to the non-smooth NES. The
use of VI NESs in seismic mitigation designs has the
added advantages of spreading seismic energy to
higher structural modes, which leads to amplitude
reduction and to more efcient dissipation of seismic
energy.
The results, methods, and applications reviewed in
this paper hopefully demonstrate the potential ben-
ets to be gained through intentional introduction
of non-linearities in certain engineering applications.
Though this runs counter to the prevailing view that
non-linearities in structural design should be avoided
when possible; but here it is shown that, for certain
applications, the intentional use of (even strong) non-
linearities can yield benecial results that cannot be
obtained otherwise by weakly non-linear or linear
designs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported in part by the US Air Force
Ofce of Scientic Research through Grants Num-
ber FA95500410073 and F49620-01-1-0208. Gatan
Kerschen is supported by a grant from the Bel-
gian National Science Foundation, which is gratefully
acknowledged.
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