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HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY HACCP PLAN Kenneth S. Hilderbrand Jr.

OSU Extension Sea Grant Program Revised 12/30/97 1. Introduction 2. Flow Diagram 3. Hazard Analysis Worksheet 4. HACCP Plan

5. Process Schedule 6. Production Log 7. Temperature Recorder Verification Log 8. Drying Verification Log

1. Introduction: 1. Introduction: The information, tables, and other materials in this generic HACCP plan for Hot Smoked Fish represent only one possible way to write a HACCP plan. It should be used only for illustrative purposes. Each processor is obligated by law to write a flow diagram specific to their own facility and conduct a hazard analysis for their own processes and products. The primary purpose of this generic plan is to illustrate how a firm might simplify record keeping by writing a single plan, which could include several similar smoked fish products having different brining and smoking procedures. According to law, certain HACCP functions must be performed by someone who has completed training equivalent to the HACCP Training Curriculum (publication UNC-SG-96-02) developed by The National Seafood HACCP Alliance for Training and Education. These functions include developing the plan, changing the plan, and conducting record review. This training may be obtained through classroom instruction or by equivalent on-the-job training. For details, see Sec. 123.10 of the regulations. This generic HACCP plan for hot smoked fish is based on the principles detailed in that manual and in guidance contained in the FDA's Fish & Fisheries Products Hazards & Controls Guide, First Edition, September 1996. Seafood processors also should be aware that FDA's HACCP regulation (Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products; Final Rule, December 18, 1995) requires that they monitor and keep records on their sanitation procedures. This is best done by writing and implementing an SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure). An example of this can be found on University of California's Web site <www-seafood.ucdavis.edu>. For information on purchasing the Training Curriculum ($20), write or call: North Carolina Sea Grant, Box 8605, N.C. State University, Raleigh NC 27695-8605. Tel. 919 -515-2454. Advance payment is required. For information on obtaining a free copy of FDA's Hazard & Controls Guide, contact: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood, 200 C St. S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204. Tel. 202418-3133; fax 202-418-3196.2. Return to Index 2. Flow Diagram Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc. Process Flow Diagram RECEIVING RECEIVING non-scombroid fish scombroid fish | | | | FROZEN FISH STORAGE | | THAWING | | THAWED FISH STORAGE |

RECEIVING salt | | | | | | | | | | |

Fish headed, gutted, frozen and glazed in 50 lb. boxes ---------- Salt on wood pallets into dry storage On pallets in -10F cold store until needed Partially thawed in mobile tubs with fresh flowing water at less than 70F the day proceeding smoking operations In raw product cold room at 40F or less in mobile tubs. Fish must be still partially frozen at time of butchering.

| BUTCHERING | | | RINSING | | | BRINING | | RINSING | | SMOKING/DRYING/COOKING/COOLING (INTEGRATED STEPS) | | COOLING (FINAL) | | PACKAGING/LABELING | | STORAGE | | SHIPPING Return to Index

| | | | BRINE MAKEUP | | | <

Remove sides manually leaving skin on. Cut into pieces for brining. Processing takes place in an air-conditioned area. Fish rinsed in fresh water at less than 70F to remove debris ---------- Brine makeup in cold water and stored in raw product cold room (less than 40F) until needed In a specified strength of salt brine for a specified time. These are relatively strong brines and short times. (See note #1) In fresh water at less than 70F to remove surface brine To surface dry, apply smoke, dehydrate, cook, and cool enough to remove excess heat prior to final cooling. Product goes into cooler immediately upon removing from cooker. In a special unpackaged final product cooler at 38F or less which is isolated from other raw or processed products. In vacuum packages then into 20 lb. master cartons In cartons on pallets in finished product cooler at 38F or less. In refrigerated vans at 38F or less (commercial carrier)

3. Hazard Analysis Worksheet Hot Smoked Fish Company Hazard-Analysis Worksheet Firm Name: Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc. Product Description: Refrigerated, vacuum-packaged, cooked ready-to-eat smoked fish (no mercury-containing species used -- see note #2) Firm Address: 123 Somewhere St., Anytown USA 97365 Method of Storage and Distribution: Stored and transported under refrigeration Intended Use and Consumer: ready to eat by general public without further cooking (1) (2) Ingredient/processing Identify potential step hazards, controlled or enhanced at the step (1) (3) Are any potential food safety hazards significant? (Y/N) (4) Justify your decisions for column 3. (5) What preventive measures can be applied to prevent the (6) Is this step a critical control point? (Y/N)

significant hazards? Receiving nonBIOLOGICAL scombrotoxin forming pathogen inclusion fish BIOLOGICAL parasites CHEMICAL mercury PHYSICAL metal Receiving BIOLOGICAL scombrotoxin forming pathogen inclusion fish BIOLOGICAL parasites BIOLOGICAL histamine no smoking/cooking step using frozen fish only species using H&G fish only smoking/cooking step using frozen fish only secondary processor of frozen fish only species using H&G fish only using only canners grade salt NO NO NO

no

no no

no

no

no

CHEMICAL mercury PHYSICAL metal Receiving salt BIOLOGICAL none

no no

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Frozen fish storage BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth no SOP uses security alarms and continuous surveillance NO

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL adulteration Thawing BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth no packaged fish only partly thawed in cool water NO

no

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Thawed fish storage BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth no cold temperatures and insufficient time with only partially thawed fish NO

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Butchering BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth no cool temperatures and insufficient time NO

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Rinsing BIOLOGICAL none CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Brining (see Note #1) BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth during yes smoking and in final product CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Rinsing BIOLOGICAL none CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Smoking/initial BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth on no surface during smoking/drying/cooking SOP for natural wood-smoke flavor and color NO NO human error in sufficient brine makeup brining and brining times are possible YES NO

is sufficient to inhibit growth of surface pathogens CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Smoking/drying BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth in final yes product dehydration of sufficient brined fish must drying be sufficient to raise water phase salt in finished product to control C. botulinum if product is temperature abused YES

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Smoking/cooking BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth in final yes product cook time and sufficient temperature cooking must be sufficient at to destroy pathogens preventing their growth in finished product if product is temperature abused YES

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Cooling BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth during yes cooling BIOLOGICAL cross contamination CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL pathogens can sufficient grow if cooling cooling period is too long controlled by SSOP YES

no

none Packaging/labeling BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth in temperature abused product yes temperature proper abuse by labeling shippers, distributors, or consumers is possible and can cause pathogen growth if water phase salt is too low YES

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Storage BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth yes pathogens can proper YES grow in warm storage temperatures if temperatures water phase salt is too low

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Shipping BIOLOGICAL pathogen growth yes pathogens can grow in warm temperatures if water phase salt is too low adequate NO warning labels on packages will control this hazard in previous step

CHEMICAL none PHYSICAL none Return to Index 4. HACCP Plan HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY HACCP PLAN Firm Name: Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc. Product Description: Refrigerated, vacuumpackaged, cooked, ready-to-eat, smoked fish (no mercury-containing species used - see Note #1) Firm Address: 123 Somewhere St., Anytown USA 97365 Method of Storage and Distribution: Stored and transported under refrigeration Intended Use and Consumer: ready to eat by general public without further cooking (1) (2) (3) Monitoring (8) (9) (10)

Critical Control Point (CCP)

Significan t Hazards( s)

Critical (4) Limits for What each Preventiv e Measure

(5) How

(6) (7) Frequen Who cy

Correctiv Records Verification e Actions

Brining pathogen minimum brine (see growth brine strength note #1) during strength and time smoking and times and in as per final process product schedule Smoking / drying (see note #3) pathogen growth in final product minimum in/out smoke- process house times cycle time as per process schedule minimum final cook time/cent er temp as per process schedule

salomet er and in/out time

each brining batch (lot)

operat rebrine producti daily record or or hold on log review for evaluatio n

chart each recorde batch r

smoke reproces producti -house s or hold on log operat for and or evaluatio recorder n charts

daily record review monthly wt. loss checks annual wps/a wchec ks daily record review, weekly recorder check

Smoking / cooking (see note #3)

pathogen growth in final product

cook chart each temperatu recorde batch re and r center temperatu re

smoke reproces producti -house s or hold on log operat for and or evaluatio recorder n charts

Cooling pathogen growth during cooling

maximum cooling cooler room temperatu temp re

chart continuo operat hold for producti recorde us or evaluatio on log r n/ adjust and cooler temp temp recorder charts each lot operat relabel or

daily record review, weekly recorder check

Packagin pathogen all packagin visual g/ growth in products g material labeling temperatu labeled re abused "keep at product 38F or less" Storage pathogen 38F or of growth less finished product cold storage

producti daily record on logs reviews

chart continuo operat hold for producti weekly recorde us or evaluatio on logs/ recorder r n/ adjust recorder check cold charts room temp

Signature of Company Official: Date of Revision: Note #1: This hazard analysis assumes short brining times in strong salt solutions. If long brining times in weak solutions are used, the hazard analysis should consider the possibility of a biological hazard (pathogen growth and/or histamine formation), resulting in a critical control point at this brining step. If raw brined scombrotoxin fish are stored overnight in the raw fish cooler prior to smoking, then that storage step should be added to the flow sheet and Hazard Analysis Worksheet. The Hazard Analysis should list histamine formation as a significant biological

hazard which can be controlled by refrigeration with a CCP at the raw brined fish storage step. The temperature recorder verification log should be changed to include the raw fish storage temperature recorder. Note #2: Species known to have mercury are not included in this generic plan because the FDA's Hazard and Controls Guide does not cover this hazard (First Edition, September 1996, page 101). This should be resolved prior to Dec. 17, 1997. Note #3: Brining, smoking, drying, cooking details for each species, size, and style of smoked fish are contained in the company process schedule. Return to Index 5. Process Schedule HOT SMOKED FISH CO. PROCESS SCHEDULE (FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY) OPERATING LIMITS (see note #4) SPECIES SIZE BRINING (maximum) (minimum)

SMOKING (minimum)

COOKING DRYING (minimum) (minimum) time temp weight loss (min) (F) (%) 35 35 35 35 35 35 148 148 148 148 148 148 20 25 30 15 15 20

thick len width stren. deg time total process time (in) (in) (in) (sal) (hrs) (hrs) Chinook (lg) Chinook (sm) Blackcod Albacore 2 1 9 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 3 62 62 62 62 62 2:35 8 1:00 6 :50 :45 :20 6 6 5 1:30 6

Chum Salmon 1 2

1 1/2 5

Snapper 1 4 2 62 CRITICAL LIMITS (see note #5) SPECIES BRINING (minimum) strength (sal) Chinook (lg) Chinook (sm) Chum Salmon Blackcod Albacore Snapper 60 60 60 60 60 60 time (hrs) 2:20 :50 :45 1:20 :40 :15

SMOKING (minimum) total process time (hrs) 7:45 5:45 5:45 5:45 5:45 4:45

COOKING (note #6) (minimum) time (min) 30 30 30 30 30 30 temperature (F) 145 145 145 145 145 145

signed: revision date: Note #4: THIS PROCESS SCHEDULE IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. THE VALUES CONTAINED HERE ARE NOT SUBSTANTIATED BY RESEARCH OR FIELD EXPERIENCE. EACH PROCESSING FIRM MUST ESTABLISH AND VERIFY THEIR OWN PROCESSES. Operating limits are values intended to exceed CRITICAL LIMITS so that deviations from CRITICAL LIMITS will not occur. They are margins of safety. Note #5: THE CRITICAL LIMITS SUGGESTED HERE ARE FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. AS WITH OPERATING LIMITS, EACH PROCESSOR MUST ESTABLISH AND VERIFY THEIR OWN CRITICAL LIMITS BY TESTING PROCEDURES AND CONDUCTING PRODUCT ANALYSIS. Information on smoked fish HACCP plans can be obtained from FDA's Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guide, First Edition, September 1996, Chapter 13 (Clostridium botulinum Toxin Formation) and Chapter 14 (Pathogen Growth and Toxin Formation as a Result of Inadequate Drying). Note #6: Addition information on smoked fish critical limits can be found on the menus of University of California's Web site or specifically at :

www-seafood.ucdavis.edu/haccp/compendium/process/smoke.htm. Return to Index 6. Production Log HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY PRODUCTION LOG BRINING Brine Strength (Sal) (minimum) lot # Brining Time (hours) (minimum)

date species size operating critical actual operating critical time in time actual meets 1997 limit limit SAL limit limit (clock) out brining critical value (clock) time limit y/n 62 62 60 60 63 63 2:35 :50 2:20 :45 10:23 11:00 12:57 11:49 2:34 :49 y y

0327973/27 Chinook lg 1 0327973/27 chum 2

Deviations: none CONTINUED FROM BRINING LOG ABOVE lot #

Corrective Actions: none SMOKING/DRYING total processing times

Operator initials: Date:

date species size operating critical time in time out actual 1997 limit (hr.) limit (hr.) (clock or (clock or process (minimum) (minimum) recorder) recorder) time (hr.) 8:00 6:00 7:45 5:45 7:30 8:00 15:29 14:01 7:59 6:01

meets critical limit? (y/n) y y

032797- 3/28 Chinook lg 1 032797- 3/28 chum 2

Deviations: none

Corrective Actions: none

Operator initials: Date:

COOKING TIME/TEMPERATURE (fish center temp) actual time/temp from recorder control critical chart CONTINUED FROM limit limits (CL) File charts by SMOKING/DRYING ABOVE minimum minimum date! meets time critical date temp time temp time temp above limit? lot # 1997 species size (F) (min) (F) (min) (F) CL (Y/N)

out of cooker at (note #7)

into cooler at: (clock)

032797- 3/28 Chinook lg 1 032797- 3/28 chum 2

148 148

35 35

145 145

30 30

148 147

34 33

y y

15:45 14:30

16:00 14:45

Deviations: none Reviewed by (signature): Return to Index

Corrective Actions: none Operator initials: Date: Date:

7. Temperature Recorder Verification Log HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY TEMPERATURE VERIFICATION LOG WEEKLY RECORDER CALIBRATION Date Time Recorder 1997 3/27 12:00 Smokehouse #1 3/27 12:15 Smokehouse #2 3/27 2:30 Smoked Fish Cooler 3/27 2:40 Finished Product Cooler Recorder Temp (F) 125 140 35 38 Actual temp Deviation from (F) Actual 127 138 35 37 -2 +2 0 +1 Corrective Action ? none adjust down 2 degrees none none

Operator Signature: Reviewer Signature: Return to Index 8. Drying Verification Log DRYING VERIFICATION LOG TRANSFER FROM PRODUCTION LOG date of testing lot #

Date: Date:

WEIGHT LOSS FROM DRYING (see note #1)

ANNUAL WPS and/or awchecks when taken (see Note #2)

net net operating wt wt actual % limit corrective FDA actual corrective species size in out loss (%) action guideline value action wps=3.5% 3.6% none 275 195 29 30 add 5 min to process schedule

3/31/97 030397- Chinook lg 3 3/31/97 032797- chum 2

Signature of Operator:

Date:

Signature of Reviewer: Date: Note #7: Tests done in plant show that unpackaged smoked fish taken from the smokehouse at 145F or less and placed in cooler at 38F or less will cool to 50F in less than 3 hours and to 38F in less than 12 hours. Note #8: Weight loss checks can be made for representative samples placed in the smoker rather than on the weight of the entire load. Note #9: FDA guidelines allow either or both Water Phase Salt (WPS) and Water Activity (Aw) to be used to judge the adequacy of protection from growth of Clostridium botulinum in the finished product (smoked fish).