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# Analysis of Algorithms

Day 1

**Objectives of the course
**

• • • • • To introduce the concept of ‘Analysis of Algorithms’. To learn the various factors that affect the performance of an algorithm. To learn Code Tuning Techniques. To Analyze well known Algorithms. To introduce Intractable problems.

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References

1. Weiss M, W. (1993) Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C, Benjamin Cummings. 2. McConnell, S. (1993) Code complete, Microsoft Press 3. Alfred V Aho, John E Hopcraft, Jeffrey D Ullman, Design & Analysis of Computer Algorithms, Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 4. Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni, Sanguthevar, (1998)Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms, Galgotia Publications private limited, New Delhi. 5. Donald E Knuth (1938)The Art of Computer Programming, Fundamental Algorithms, Volume 1, Third Edition, Addison Wesley

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**Course Plan Day 1
**

• Introduction to Analysis of algorithms

– What is an Algorithm? – Properties of an Algorithm – Life cycle of an Algorithm

• •

Code Tuning Techniques SQL Tuning Techniques

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0 . Divide & Conquer.) Day 2 • Analyzing Algorithms – Basic Mathematical principles – Order of magnitude – Introduction to Asymptotic notations • Best case • Worst case • Average case • Analysis of well known algorithms – Algorithm design techniques ( Brute force. Decrease & Conquer) – Analysis of some well known algorithms Copyright © 2004. Infosys Technologies Ltd 5 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. Greedy.Course Plan (cont.

Course plan (cont. Infosys Technologies Ltd 6 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.) (Dynamic Programming) Intractable problems – – – – Deterministic Vs Non-Deterministic machines P Vs NP NP Complete NP Hard • Case Study Copyright © 2004.0 .) Day 3 • • Algorithm Design techniques (contd.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 7 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 .Plan for Day-1 • Introduction to Analysis of algorithms – What is an Algorithm? – Properties of an Algorithm – Life cycle of an Algorithm • • Code Tuning Techniques SQL Tuning Techniques Copyright © 2004.

Introduction .Analysis of Algorithms Unit 1 .

Introduction to Analysis of Algorithms Where does the word algorithm came from? King Algor of Castile ? Algiros + Arithmos meaning Painful + Numbers ? NO The etymology of the word Algorithm dates back to the 8th Century AD.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 9 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. The word Algorithm is derived from the name of the Persian author “Abu Jafar Mohammad ibn Musa al Khowarizmi” Muhammad al-Khowarizmi. from a 1983 USSR commemorative stamp scanned by Donald Knuth Reference: ACM Trans .Algorithms Copyright © 2004.

The properties of an algorithm are as follows: Finiteness Effectiveness Algorithm Definiteness Output Input Copyright © 2004. Infosys Technologies Ltd 10 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 .What is an Algorithm? • • Finite set of instructions to accomplish a task.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 11 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.n) Input array A of n integers Output maximum element of A CurrentMax A[0] for I = 1 to n-1 do if A[i] > currentMax then currentMax A[i] return currentMax Copyright © 2004.0 .Pseudo Code • An algorithm is independent of any language or machine whereas a program is dependent on a language and machine. Example: Algorithm arrayMax (A. we need pseudo codes. • To fill the gap between these two. Psuedo-code is a way to represent the step by step methods in finding the solution to the given problem.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 12 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.Pseudo Code An Algorithm should be independent of any programming language. n) Input array A of n integers Output maximum element of A currentMax for I A[0] 1 to n-1 do if A [i] > currentMax then currentMax A [i] return currentMax Copyright © 2004. Example: Algorithm arrayMax (A. Psuedo-code is a way to represent the step by step methods in finding the solution to the given problem.0 .

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 13 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.Life Cycle of an Algorithm • • • • Design the Algorithm Write (Implementation of the Algorithm) Test the Algorithm Analyze the Algorithm Copyright © 2004.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 14 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 .Life Cycle of an Algorithm (Contd…) Copyright © 2004.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 15 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.Resources available in a computer Copyright © 2004.0 .

– Posteriori Analysis: » Analysis done after implementation.0 .Analysis of Algorithms • An algorithm when implemented. Analyzing the amount of resources (time &/ space) needed for solving the problem). Copyright © 2004. The Analysis is done at two stages: – Priori Analysis: • • » Analysis done before implementation. uses the computer’s primary memory and Central Processing Unit. Infosys Technologies Ltd 16 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.

0 . • Performance Measures • • Time Quality • Simplicity… Copyright © 2004. Then how do we judge these solutions? The solutions are chosen based on performance measures.Efficiency Measures • Performance of a solution • • • Most of the software problems do not have a single best solution. Infosys Technologies Ltd 17 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.

0 . there would be better utilization of memory. Infosys Technologies Ltd 18 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. If employee details were to be stored in an array. the array would have to be declared large enough to be able to hold the maximum number of records the system was rated to handle. Which implementation would provide faster access to an employee with a given employee number? Which implementation would be easier to code? Which implementation would be easier to test? Copyright © 2004. With a linked list implementation on the other hand.Efficiency Measures (Contd…) • Space Time Tradeoff Example 1: Consider a personnel management product that an organization can purchase and use to maintain information about its employees. This would always take up a large amount of memory.

then there are two options: Option a: fire a SQL and retrieve the relevant employee names each time the list is dropped down. If the employee database is on a different machine.Efficiency Measures (Contd …) Example 2: Think of a GUI drop-down list box that displays a list of employees whose names begin with a specified sequence of characters. In your opinion which is the preferred option and why? Copyright © 2004.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 19 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. Option b: keep the complete list of employees in memory and refer to it each time the list is dropped down.

2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 20 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. example: If the input is “aabcef” the output is 1 If the input is “aabc” then the output is 0 Design a computer program that sorts ( in Ascending order ) and outputs the result for any input sequence a1. otherwise.1. where n is any natural number. Hint: consider the RAM size required in both the programs • Copyright © 2004.a2. if the word is of length 3n (n=0.…an of numbers.0 .Efficiency Measures (Contd …) Example 3: Which of the following programs is more complicated? • Design a computer program which produces an output 1.…) and 0.

0 . Life Cycle of an Algorithm Performance Measures Copyright © 2004.Summary of Unit-1 • • • • What is an Algorithm? Properties of an Algorithm. Infosys Technologies Ltd 21 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.

Analysis of Algorithms Unit 2 .Code Tuning Techniques .

Infosys Technologies Ltd 23 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.Code Tuning Techniques • Code Tuning refers to modifying the implementation of a specific design rather than modifying the design itself Related to how to code better How to review a given code with performance as a concern • • Copyright © 2004.0 .

There are quite a few of code tuning techniques which can be applied to looping constructs in order to improve the performance of the code. Jamming of loops: Jamming of loops is an outcome of combining loops which operate over the same range of values. for (m = 1 to n) { Max[m] = m * Max[m] }. 2n Loop Checks After Jamming. Copyright © 2004.CTT . Infosys Technologies Ltd 24 Before Jamming. Max[k] = k * Max[k] }. for (k = 1 to n) { initialize T[k]. n Loop Checks ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. for (k = 1 to n) { initialize T[k] }.Loops Looping constructs in a program are executed many times.0 .

... for (i=0. .... .. the bank has to deduct the monthly installment of the loan from each employee if salary is credited in their account. Infosys Technologies Ltd 25 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.i<noofemployees.......000 employees of a company got loan in a bank.....CTT – Loops (Contd…) Unswitching of Loops: Unswitch loops that contain if tests..i++){ ..0 . if the results of these tests do not change inside the loop Let 10... } } }} Move the if condition outside the loop Copyright © 2004.... At the start of every month.i++){ If (salary_credited = YES) { if (salary_credited = YES) { for (i=0.... i<noofemployees. ..

n loop checks i = 1. } Before unrolling. Infosys Technologies Ltd 26 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.CTT – Loops (Contd…) Unrolling of Loops: i = 1. while(i < num) { a( i ) = i. a( i + 1 ) = i + 1. i = i + 2. n/2 loop checks Copyright © 2004. } After unrolling. while(i < num) { a( i ) = i.0 . i = i + 1.

For (i = 1 to n_2) { m=i * i.CTT – Loops (Contd…) Minimize work performed inside loops: For (i = 1 to n/2) { Fprimes(i * i). Copyright © 2004. Fprimes(i * i * i). } n_2 = n/2. Load of the loop is reduced. Fprimes(m * i).0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 27 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. } Need to compute n/2 in every iteration is removed. Fprimes(m).

Infosys Technologies Ltd 28 . the ‘\0’ is the sentinal While (i< n) and (x< >a[i]) { i= i+1. While (x< >a[i]) { i = i+1. } One boundary check is reduced. as it is achieved by the sentinel ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. } a[n+1] = x.CTT – Loops (Contd…) Use of Sentinel Values: In a character string in C language.0 Copyright © 2004.

for (i = 1 to Num ) { commission ( i ) = i * Revenue * BaseCommission * Discount } comm = Revenue * BaseCommission * Discount sum = comm for ( i = 1 to Num ) { commission ( i ) = sum sum = sum + comm } ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.CTT – Loops (Contd…) Reduce the strength of operations performed inside loops: All operations which do not depend on loop variant may be moved outside loops and the operations are converted into cheaper ones. Infosys Technologies Ltd 29 .0 Copyright © 2004.

} 6: {….} 5: {….} 3: {…. Grade 7 is encountered.} endcase read (empNo) case Grade(empNo) of 7: { ….} ….} 2: {…. Infosys Technologies Ltd 30 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. 1: {….} endcase Every time.CTT – Logic Order tests in case statements by frequency: read (empNo) case Grade(empNo) of 1: {…. the more frequent.} …. the code executes faster Copyright © 2004. 7: {….0 .

Copyright © 2004.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 31 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. } if(a < 10) then { if(b < 20) then { ….CTT – Logic (Contd…) Stop testing when you know the result: if(a < 10 ) and (b < 20) then { …. } } While doing linear search come out as soon as the element is found.

} for (a=0. then move it outside the loop for (a=0. b++) { total[b] = total[b] * sum_now. b < 10.CTT – Data Transformations Minimize array references: If the same array element is repeatedly referred to inside a loop.0 . b++) { total[b] = total[b] * sum[a]. Infosys Technologies Ltd 32 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. a++) { for (b =0. a < 5. a < 5. a++) { sum_now = sum[a]. } Copyright © 2004. for (b =0. b < 10.

so that finding the length of the string can be done easily without actually calculating it every time. Infosys Technologies Ltd 33 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. This index helps in speeding up the search operation in a linked list which is other wise strictly linear. the length can be augmented at the start. then the number of searches is reduced to an average of 55. Copyright © 2004.CTT – Data Transformations (Contd…) Augment data structures with indexes: For example we can add an index to the linear linked list data structure. then searching the list on an average will cost 500 operations. If a linked list is having 1000 elements.0 . In a character array. If the same linked list is augmented with another small list of pointers each pointing to every 10th element in the original list.

i = 3.14 to 3 store into i “Converting to a desired type” is an overhead Copyright © 2004.14. Infosys Technologies Ltd 34 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.CTT – Expressions Use constants of the correct type: float x. x = 5. Convert 3.0 store into x int i.0 . Convert 5 to 5.

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 35 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.CTT – Expressions (Contd…) Precompute results: y = log(x) / log(2) b = log(a) / log(2) instead have LOG2 = log(2) y = log(x) / LOG2 b = log(a) / LOG2 Four Function Calls Three Function Calls Copyright © 2004.

CTT – Expressions (Contd…) Exploit Algebraic Identities: Algebraic identities can be used to replace costlier operations by cheaper ones < √y. So it is enough to check if x < y in this case. we can use the algebraic identity which says √x < √y only when x < y. Infosys Technologies Ltd 36 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 . Whenever we need to find whether √x not (A or B) is cheaper than not A and not B Copyright © 2004.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 37 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 . This can be achieved by: Replacing multiplication with addition Replacing exponentiation with multiplication… Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D is better computed as ((Ax + B)x + C)x + D Copyright © 2004.CTT – Expressions (Contd…) Strength Reduction in Expressions: Strength reduction refers to replacing costlier operations by cheaper ones.

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 38 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. provided accuracy which is more often wasted. like the math routines. Copyright © 2004. For example the math routine which computes log(x) provides the result in a floating point number whereas most of the times we might be interested only in the integral part. If we do not need the level of accuracy as provided by the math routines then it makes sense for us to write the piece of code for the same.CTT – Expressions (Contd…) Be Wary of System Routines: System Routines.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 39 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. Instead.0 . Copyright © 2004.SQL Query Tuning Concatenation of different data types in SQL queries An SQL query involving concatenation of different data types takes more time to execute. we can re write the above query as: SELECT * FROM dwtable2 WHERE empno=1234 AND ename='name1234'. Ex: SELECT * FROM dwtable2 WHERE empno||ename='1234name1234'.

Copyright © 2004.0 . It is advisable to write the query as follows: Select count(*) from table1. Ex: Assume you have table1 with 10000000 records and table 2 with 1000 records. Infosys Technologies Ltd 40 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. table2 where rownum < 500.SQL Query Tuning (Contd…) Position of table with fewer rows in the select…from query It is advisable to put the table that returns the fewest rows at the end of from list.

empno AND emp2. emp2 WHERE emp1. Infosys Technologies Ltd 41 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. Copyright © 2004. Ex: SELECT idno.0 .empno AND e2. as it would enhance the speed of parse phase of the query. empno FROM emp1. then it is advisable to use table aliases.idno = emp2.idno=e2.empno<=100.SQL Query Tuning (Contd…) Usage of Table Aliases If more than one table is used in a query.empno FROM emp1 e1. emp2 e2 WHERE e1. The same query can be written more efficiently as: SELECT idno.empno<=100.

SQL Query Tuning (Contd…) Usage of NOT or != operators Unless it is absolutely necessary. Reason: Whenever these operators are used. Copyright © 2004. a FTS (Full Table Scan) is done and will degrade the performance of the transactions.0 . one should avoid the usage of NOT or != operator in SQL queries. Infosys Technologies Ltd 42 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.

0 . Copyright © 2004. Infosys Technologies Ltd 43 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2. but is an overhead when insertion.SQL Query Tuning (Contd…) Usage of Index/Indexes Index enables faster retrieval of data. updation and deletion processes are involved.

0 .Summary of Unit-2 Code Tuning Techniques for Loops Code Tuning Techniques for logic Code Tuning Techniques for Data Transformations Code Tuning Techniques for Expressions SQL Query Tuning Copyright © 2004. Infosys Technologies Ltd 44 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.

Summary of Day-1 • Introduction to Analysis of algorithms – What is an Algorithm? – Properties of an Algorithm – Life cycle of an Algorithm • • Code Tuning Techniques SQL Tuning Techniques Copyright © 2004. Infosys Technologies Ltd 45 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.0 .

Thank You! Copyright © 2004.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 46 ER/CORP/CRS/SE15/003 Version No: 2.