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# Physics First

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POGIL: Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heating In our time together we have already learned about one method by which energy is transferred into or out of a system. This is the concept of working, in which energy is transferred by force acting over a distance. In this POGIL we will become familiar with heating, the process by which energy is transferred because of a difference in temperature. Before tackling this concept we will familiarize ourselves with different units of temperature and energy. Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heating Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy per particle of a substance. A substance with a higher temperature has particles with a higher average kinetic energy. There are three common scales we use to measure temperature. Kelvin (K): Water freezes at 273.15 K and boils at 373.15 K. Fahrenheit (F): Water freezes at 32F and boils at 212F. Celsius (C): Water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C 1. The forecast for the town of Kalamazoo is for a high of 40F. The forecast for the town of Veracruz is for a high of 40C. (a) Which town will have warmer weather?

(b) In which town will the air molecules be moving faster, on average?

2. Which represents a greater change in temperature: an increase in temperature of 1C, 1F, or 1 K? Justify your answer.

Thermal Energy Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of all particles in a substance. It is commonly measured in Joules (J), just like any other energy storage mechanism. We will occasionally come across units of calories (cal), which is equal to 4.19 J. 3. Suppose we sit on the shores of Lake Maxinkuckee one winter day sipping hot cocoa. The temperature of the lake is 5C and the temperature of the cocoa is 85C (a) Which has molecules with higher average kinetic energy: the cocoa or the lake?

(b) Which has more thermal energy: the cocoa or the lake?

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4. Compare and contrast temperature and thermal energy. How are they the same? How are they different?

## 5. What properties of an object determine its thermal energy?

6. The sparks from a sparkler have a temperature of around 2000C. Why do they not burn your hand when they strike it?

Heating Heating is energy that is transferring between two objects because of a difference in temperature between them. Since it is a measure of energy, it is also measured in Joules, or sometimes calories. Heating always flows from a high temperature region to a low temperature region. 7. We continue to sip hot cocoa by the shores of Lake Maxinkuckee on a cold winter day. The air temperature is 2C and the temperature of the cocoa is 85C. (a) Will heating flow from the air to the cocoa or from the cocoa to the air? Justify your answer.

(b) As a result of the heating: i. will the temperature of the cocoa increase, decrease, or stay the same?

ii.

will the temperature of the air increase, decrease, or stay the same?

iii.

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(c) As a result of the heating: i. will the thermal energy of the cocoa increase, decrease, or stay the same?

ii.

will the thermal energy of the air increase, decrease, or stay the same?

iii.