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Problem 1.1

1.1 Tar Silly Putty Modeling clay Wax A number of common substances are Sand Jello Toothpaste Shaving cream

[3]

Some of these materials exhibit characteristics of both solid and fluid behavior under different conditions. Explain and give examples.

Given:

Common Substances Tar Silly Putty Modeling clay Wax Sand Jello Toothpaste Shaving cream

Some of these substances exhibit characteristics of solids and fluids under different conditions.

Find: Solution:

Explain and give examples. Tar, Wax, and Jello behave as solids at room temperature or below at ordinary pressures. At high pressures or over long periods, they exhibit fluid characteristics. At higher temperatures, all three liquefy and become viscous fluids.

Modeling clay and silly putty show fluid behavior when sheared slowly. However, they fracture under suddenly applied stress, which is a characteristic of solids. Toothpaste behaves as a solid when at rest in the tube. When the tube is squeezed hard, toothpaste flows out the spout, showing fluid behavior. Shaving cream behaves similarly. Sand acts solid when in repose (a sand pile). However, it flows from a spout or down a steep incline.

Problem 1.2

1.2 Give a word statement of each of the five basic conservation laws stated in Section 1-4, as they apply to a

[2]

system.

a. b.

Five basic conservation laws stated in Section 1-4. A word statement of each, as they apply to a system. Assume that laws are to be written for a system.

Conservation of mass The mass of a system is constant by definition. Newton's second law of motion The net force acting on a system is directly proportional to the product of the system mass times its acceleration.

c.

First law of thermodynamics The change in stored energy of a system equals the net energy added to the system as heat and work.

d.

Second law of thermodynamics The entropy of any isolated system cannot decrease during any process between equilibrium states.

e.

Principle of angular momentum The net torque acting on a system is equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the system.

Problem 1.3

1.3

[3]

Discuss the physics of skipping a stone across the water surface of a lake. Compare these mechanisms with a

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Consider the physics of skipping a stone across the water surface of a lake. Compare these mechanisms with a stone as it bounces after being thrown along a roadway. Discussion: Observation and experience suggest two behaviors when a stone is thrown along a water surface: 1. If the angle between the path of the stone and the water surface is steep the stone may penetrate the water surface. Some momentum of the stone will be converted to momentum of the water in the resulting splash. After penetrating the water surface, the high drag* of the water will slow the stone quickly. Then, because the stone is heavier than water it will sink. 2. If the angle between the path of the stone and the water surface is shallow the stone may not penetrate the water surface. The splash will be smaller than if the stone penetrated the water surface. This will transfer less momentum to the water, causing less reduction in speed of the stone. The only drag force on the stone will be from friction on the water surface. The drag will be momentary, causing the stone to lose only a portion of its kinetic energy. Instead of sinking, the stone may skip off the surface and become airborne again. When the stone is thrown with speed and angle just right, it may skip several times across the water surface. With each skip the stone loses some forward speed. After several skips the stone loses enough forward speed to penetrate the surface and sink into the water. Observation suggests that the shape of the stone significantly affects skipping. Essentially spherical stones may be made to skip with considerable effort and skill from the thrower. Flatter, more disc-shaped stones are more likely to skip, provided they are thrown with the flat surface(s) essentially parallel to the water surface; spin may be used to stabilize the stone in flight. By contrast, no stone can ever penetrate the pavement of a roadway. Each collision between stone and roadway will be inelastic; friction between the road surface and stone will affect the motion of the stone only slightly. Regardless of the initial angle between the path of the stone and the surface of the roadway, the stone may bounce several times, then finally it will roll to a stop. The shape of the stone is unlikely to affect trajectory of bouncing from a roadway significantly.

Problem 1.4

1.4 The barrel of a bicycle tire pump becomes quite warm during use. Explain the mechanisms responsible for

[3]

Open-Ended Problem Statement: The barrel of a bicycle tire pump becomes quite warm during use. Explain the mechanisms responsible for the temperature increase. Discussion: Two phenomena are responsible for the temperature increase: (1) friction between the pump piston and barrel and (2) temperature rise of the air as it is compressed in the pump barrel. Friction between the pump piston and barrel converts mechanical energy (force on the piston moving through a distance) into thermal energy as a result of friction. Lubricating the piston helps to provide a good seal with the pump barrel and reduces friction (and therefore force) between the piston and barrel. Temperature of the trapped air rises as it is compressed. The compression is not adiabatic because it occurs during a finite time interval. Heat is transferred from the warm compressed air in the pump barrel to the cooler surroundings. This raises the temperature of the barrel, making its outside surface warm (or even hot!) to the touch.

Problem 1.5

[1]

Data on oxygen tank. Mass of oxygen. Compute tank volume, and then use oxygen density (Table A.6) to find the mass. p = 7 MPa J kg K T = ( 25 + 273) K T = 298 K

RO2 = 259.8

(Table A.6)

3

and =

M V

V =

D 6

V =

3 ( 5 m ) 6

V = 65.4 m

Hence

M = V =

pV RO2 T

M = 7 10

M = 5913 kg

Problem 1.6

[1]

Basic equation:

3 3

p = 14.7psi

ft lbf lbm R

= 0.00238

slug ft

3

= 1.23

kg m

3

M = V

M = 61.2 lbm

M = 1.90 slug

M = 27.8 kg

Problem 1.7

[2]

Mass of nitrogen, and design constraints on tank dimensions. External dimensions. Use given geometric data and nitrogen mass, with data from Table A.6. M = 10 lbm T = ( 70 + 460) K p = ( 200 + 1) atm T = 954 R p = 2.95 10 psi RN2 = 55.16 M V ft lbf lbm R (Table A.6)

3

2

p = RN2 T

and

V =

D L 4

where

L = 2 D

2 2 3

Hence

M = V =

1 3 1 3

Solving for D

D =

2 RN2 T M p

D =

55.16

D = 1.12 ft

D = 13.5 in

L = 2 D

L = 27 in

These are internal dimensions; the external ones are 1/4 in. larger: L = 27.25 in

D = 13.75 in

Problem 1.8

1.8

[3]

Very small particles moving in fluids are known to experience a drag force proportional to speed. Consider a

particle of net weight W dropped in a fluid. The particle experiences a drag force, FD = kV, where V is the particle speed. Determine the time required for the particle to accelerate from rest to 95 percent of its terminal speed, Vt, in terms of k, W, and g.

Given:

Small particle accelerating from rest in a fluid. Net weight is W, resisting force FD = kV, where V is speed.

Find: Solution:

Time required to reach 95 percent of terminal speed, Vt. Consider the particle to be a system. Apply Newton's second law.

Then

= W kV = ma y = m

dV W dV = dt g dt

or

dV k = g(1 V) dt W

Separating variables,

dV = g dt k 1 W V

dV W k = ln(1 V) k 1 W V k W

OP PQ

= gdt = gt

0 0

or

k W V=e W; V= 1 e W W k

kgt

LM MN

kgt

OP PQ

But VVt as t, so Vt =

kgt W

W k

. Therefore

V = 1 e W Vt

kgt

When

V Vt

= 0.95 , then e

= 0.05 and

kgt W

= 3. Thus t = 3 W/gk

Problem 1.9

1.9 Consider again the small particle of Problem 1.8. Express the distance required to reach 95 percent of its

[2]

Given:

Small particle accelerating from rest in a fluid. Net weight is W, resisting force is FD = kV, where V is speed.

Find: Solution:

Distance required to reach 95 percent of terminal speed, Vt. Consider the particle to be a system. Apply Newton's second law.

Basic equation: Fy = may Assumptions: 1. 2. W is net weight. Resisting force acts opposite to V.

Then,

= W kV = ma y = m dV = dt

W k

W g

V dV dy

or

V Vg

k 1 W V =

V dV g dy

. Then 1

1 = g V dV dy

Separating variables

V dV = g dy 1 1 Vt V

gy =

0.95Vt

V V dV = VVt Vt 2 ln 1 1 Vt 1 V Vt

0.95Vt

Problem 1.10

[3]

Data on sphere and formula for drag. Maximum speed, time to reach 95% of this speed, and plot speed as a function of time. Use given data and data in Appendices, and integrate equation of motion by separating variables.

3 5 N s 2

air = 1.17

= 1.8 10

w = 999

kg m

3

SGSty = 0.016 kg m

3

d = 0.3 mm

Sty = SGSty w

3

Sty = 16 ( 0.0003 m ) 6

3

d M = Sty 6

= 16

kg m

3

M = 2.26 10

10

kg

Newton's 2nd law for the steady state motion becomes (ignoring buoyancy effects) so Vmax = M g 1 m m 1 10 = 2.26 10 kg 9.81 2 5 3 d 3 1.8 10 N s 0.0003 m s

2

M g = 3 V d

Vmax = 0.0435

m s

Newton's 2nd law for the general motion is (ignoring buoyancy effects) so g dV 3 d M V M g 3 d = dt

dV = M g 3 V d dt

V ( t) =

3 d t M 1 e

0.05 0.04

V (m/s)

t (s)

M g 1 e 3 d

3 d t M

= 0.95 Vmax

so

t=

0.95 Vmax 3 d M ln 1 3 d M g

Substituting values

t = 0.0133 s

Problem 1.11

[4]

Data on sphere and formula for drag. Diameter of gasoline droplets that take 1 second to fall 25 cm. Use given data and data in Appendices; integrate equation of motion by separating variables.

5 N s 2

= 1.8 10

w = 999

kg m

3

SGgas = 0.72

gas = SGgas w

gas = 719

kg m

3

Newton's 2nd law for the sphere (mass M) is (ignoring buoyancy effects) M so dV 3 d V g M = dt

3 d t M

dV = M g 3 V d dt

M g V( t) = 1 e 3 d

2

Integrating again

M g M x ( t) = t + e 3 d 3 d

3 d t M

d M = gas 6

This equation must be solved for d so that x ( 1 s) = 1 m. The answer can be obtained from manual iteration, or by using Excel's Goal Seek. (See this in the corresponding Excel workbook.) d = 0.109 mm

0.25 0.2

x (m)

t (s)

Note That the particle quickly reaches terminal speed, so that a simpler approximate solution would be to solve Mg = 3Vd for d, with V = 0.25 m/s (allowing for the fact that M is a function of d)!

Problem 1.12

[4]

M = 70 kg

k = 0.25

N s m

Maximum speed; speed after 100 m; plot speed as function of time and distance. Use given data; integrate equation of motion by separating variables.

Newton's 2nd law for the sky diver (mass M) is (ignoring buoyancy effects):

(1)

so

1 2

Vt =

m m N s Vt = 75 kg 9.81 2 2 0.25 N s kg m s

2 2

Vt = 54.2

m s

dV dV dy dV 2 = M = M V = M g k V dt dy dt dt

y V dV = g dy 2 0 k V 1 M g 0

so

k V2 2 k = y ln 1 M g M

2 k y M V ( y) = Vt 1 e 1 2

or

M g V = 1 e k

2

2 k y M

Hence

For y = 100 m:

1 2

V ( 100 m) = 38.8

m s

60 40 20

V(m/s)

100

200

300

400

500

y(m)

M dV 2 = M g k V dt

t V dV = 1 dt 0 2 M g V k 0

so

M 1 t= ln 2 k g 2 e V ( t) = Vt 2 e

M g V k 1 k g t M + 1

k g t M

M g +V k

1 M Vt + V ln 2 k g Vt V

Rearranging

or

k V ( t) = Vt tanh Vt t M

60 40 V ( t) 20

V(m/s)

10 t

15

20

t(s)

Problem 1.13

[5]

M = 70 kg

kvert = 0.25

N s m

khoriz = 0.05

N s m

U0 = 70

m s

Treat the sky diver as a system; apply Newton's 2nd law in horizontal and vertical directions: dV 2 = M g kvert V (1) dt

Vertical: Newton's 2nd law for the sky diver (mass M) is (ignoring buoyancy effects):

V

V dV = 1 dt 0 M g 2 V kvert +V

so

M 1 t= ln 2 kvert g 2 M g e kvert 2 e

M g kvert

M g V kvert 1 kvert g t M + 1

kvert g t M

Rearranging

or ( t) = V

so

V ( t) =

M g kvert

tanh

kvert g t M

dy =V dt

or

y=

V dt

t y ( t) = V ( t) dt = 0 0 M g kvert

M g kvert

tanh

kvert g t dt = M

y ( t) =

ln cosh

kvert g t M

y(m)

20 t

40

60

t(s)

Horizontal: Newton's 2nd law for the sky diver (mass M) is:

dU 2 = khoriz U dt

(2)

U k 1 horiz dU = M dt 2 0 U U 0 t

so

khoriz M

t =

1 1 + U U0

Rearranging

or

U ( t) = 1+

U0 khoriz U0 M t

dx =U dt

or

x = U dt

t

x ( t) =

M khoriz

ln

khoriz U0

M

t + 1

210 1.510

3 3 3

x(m)

x ( t)

110

500 0 20 t 40 60

t(s)

Plotting the trajectory:

0 1

y(km)

x(km)

Problem 1.14

[3]

The data provided are:

Data on sphere and terminal speed. Drag constant k, and time to reach 99% of terminal speed. Use given data; integrate equation of motion by separating variables.

11

M = 5 10

kg

V t = 5

cm s M dV = M g k V dt (1)

Newton's 2nd law for the general motion is (ignoring buoyancy effects)

Newton's 2nd law for the steady state motion becomes (ignoring buoyancy effects)

M g = k Vt

so

k =

M g Vt

k=

M g m s 11 = 5 10 kg 9.81 2 0.05 m Vt s

k = 9.81 10

9 N s

m dV = dt

To find the time to reach 99% of Vt, we need V(t). From 1, separating variables M k ln 1 V k M g V = 0.99 Vt

2

k g V M

t=

V = 4.95

cm s

t = 5 10

11

kg

m 9.81 10

9

N s

N s 9 N s ln 1 9.81 10 kg m m

1 5 10

11

kg

s 0.0495 m kg m 2 9.81 m s N s

2

t = 0.0235 s

Problem 1.15

[5]

The data provided are:

Data on sphere and terminal speed from Problem 1.14. Distance traveled to reach 99% of terminal speed; plot of distance versus time. Use given data; integrate equation of motion by separating variables.

11

M = 5 10

kg

Vt = 5

cm s M dV = M g k V dt so (1) M g Vt

Newton's 2nd law for the general motion is (ignoring buoyancy effects)

Newton's 2nd law for the steady state motion becomes (ignoring buoyancy effects) k= M g m s 11 = 5 10 kg 9.81 2 0.05 m Vt s k = 9.81 10

9 N s

M g = k Vt

k =

To find the distance to reach 99% of Vt, we need V(y). From 1: V dV Separating variables k g V M

2

dV dy dV dV = M = M V = M g k V dt dt dy dy

= dy

y=

M g k

2

ln 1

k M V V M g k V = 4.95

2

V = 0.99 Vt

cm s

y = 5 10

11

kg

9.81 m s

2

+ 5 10

11

0.0495 m N s kg 9 kg m s 9.81 10 N s m

y = 0.922 mm Alternatively we could use the approach of Problem 1.14 and first find the time to reach terminal speed, and use this time in y(t) to find the above value of y: dV From 1, separating variables k g V M t= M k = dt

ln 1

k M g

(2)

V = 0.99 Vt

2

V = 4.95

cm s

t = 5 10

11

kg

m 9.81 10

9

N s

N s 9 N s ln 1 9.81 10 kg m m

k t

1 5 10

11

kg

s 0.0495 m kg m 2 9.81 m s N s

2

t = 0.0235 s

dy M g M V = = 1 e dt k

M g M M y= t + e 1 k k

N s 0.0235 s ... kg m

2

y = 5 10

11

kg

9.81 m s

2

m 9.81 10

9

N s

m + 5 10 11 kg 9 9.81 10 N s

9.81 10 9 .0235 2 11 N s 5 10 e 1

kg m

y = 0.922 mm

1 0.75

y (mm)

0.5 0.25 0 5 10 15 20 25

t (ms)

Problem 1.16

1.16 The English perfected the longbow as a weapon after the Medieval period. In the hands of a skilled archer,

[3]

the longbow was reputed to be accurate at ranges to 100 meters or more. If the maximum altitude of an arrow is less than h = 10 m while traveling to a target 100 m away from the archer, and neglecting air resistance, estimate the speed and angle at which the arrow must leave the bow. Plot the required release speed and angle as a function of height h.

Long bow at range, R = 100 m. Maximum height of arrow is h = 10 m. Neglect air resistance. Estimate of (a) speed, and (b) angle, of arrow leaving the bow. (a) release speed, and (b) angle, as a function of h Let V0 = u 0 i + v 0 j = V0 (cos 0 i + sin 0 j)

Also,

mv

Thus

h = v 2 2g 0

Fx = m 2u v du = 0, so u = u 0 = const, and R = u 0 t f = 0 0 dt g

From 1.

v 2 = 2gh 0

(3)

u2 = 0 gR 2 8h

2.

u0 =

gR gR = 2v 0 2 2gh

Then

2 V0

u2 0

v2 0

LM NM

OP QP

1 2

(4)

V0

2 2

1 m 10 m

2

OP Q

1 2

= 37.7 m s

From Eq. 3

(5)

= sin 1 2 9.81

LMF MNGH

m 10 m s

IJ K

1 2

OP PQ

Problem 1.17

[2]

Given: Find:

Basic dimensions F, L, t and T. Dimensional representation of quantities below, and typical units in SI and English systems.

Solution:

(a) Power Power = Energy Force Distance F L = = Time Time t Force F = 2 Area L Force F = 2 Area L Radians 1 = Time t N m s N m

2

lbf ft s lbf ft

2

(b) Pressure

Pressure =

Pressure =

N m 1 s N m L t F = M L t

2 2

lbf ft 1 s lbf ft

2

AngularVelocity =

(e) Energy

(f) Momentum

2

or N s N m

2 2

M= lbf s lbf ft

2 2

F t L

2

ShearStress =

SpecificHeat =

F L M T

F L

F t2 T L

= 1 T

L

2

m

2

ft

2

t T

s K

s R

LengthChange Length

Temperature

1 K N m s

1 R lbf ft s

Problem 1.18

[2]

Given: Find:

Basic dimensions M, L, t and T. Dimensional representation of quantities below, and typical units in SI and English systems.

Solution:

(a) Power Power = Energy Force Distance F L = = Time Time t Force = Mass Acceleration so

2

F =

M L t

2 2 2

Hence

Power =

F L M L L M L = = 2 3 t t t t

kg m s

3

slugft s

3

(b) Pressure

Pressure =

2

kg m s kg m s 1 s = M L t

2 2 2 2

slug ft s

2

Pressure =

slug ft s 1 s

2 2

AngularVelocity =

(e) Energy

kg m s

2

slug ft s

2

M L L t

2

M L t

2

kg m s

2

slug ft s

2

(g) Momentum

2

M L t

kg m s kg m s

2

slug ft s slug ft s

2

ShearStress =

= L L

M L t L

2 2

M L t

2

(i) Strain

Strain =

LengthChange Length

Dimensionless M L t M L t

2

L =

kg m s

slugs ft s

Problem 1.19

[1]

Pressure, volume and density data in certain units Convert to different units

Using data from tables (e.g. Table G.2) (a) 1 psi = 1 psi 6895 Pa 1 kPa = 6.89 kPa 1 psi 1000 Pa 1 quart 1 gal = 0.264 gal 0.946 liter 4 quart

2

(b)

1 liter = 1 liter

(c)

Problem 1.20

[1]

Viscosity, power, and specific energy data in certain units Convert to different units

(a)

1 ft 2 2 2 12 m m ft 1 = 1 = 10.76 s s s 0.0254 m

100 W = 100 W 1 hp = 0.134 hp 746 W

(b)

(c)

Problem 1.21

[1]

(a)

Quantities in English Engineering (or customary) units. Quantities in SI units. Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Google) 100 ft ft 0.0254 m 12 in 1 min = 0.0472 m = 100 m min 1 in 1 ft s 60 s 231 in 0.0254 m 3 = 0.0189 m 1 gal 1 in

3 3 3 3 3 3

(b)

5 gal = 5 gal

(c)

65 mph = 65

3

(d)

= 2.19 10 m

Problem 1.22

[1]

(a)

3 2 2

1000 W 1 hp = 134 hp 1 kW 746 W

3

(b)

2

(c)

(d)

is already in BG units

Problem 1.23

[1]

Acreage of land, and water needs. Water flow rate (gpm) to water crops. Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Google) as needed. Q = 1.5 in 25 acres week 1.5 in 25 acre 1.5 in 25 acre 4.36 10 ft 12 in 1 week 1 day 1 hr = 1 acre week week 7 day 24 hr 60 min 1 ft

4 2 2

Q =

Q = 101 gpm

Problem 1.24

[2]

Geometry of tank, and weight of propane. Volume of propane, and tank volume; explain the discrepancy. Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Google) as needed.

The author's tank is approximately 12 in in diameter, and the cylindrical part is about 8 in. The weight of propane specified is 17 lb. The tank diameter is The tank cylindrical height is The mass of propane is The specific gravity of propane is The density of water is D = 12 in L = 8 in mprop = 17 lbm SGprop = 0.495 = 998 kg m mprop prop

3

Vprop =

3 3

3

The volume of the tank is given by a cylinder diameter D length L, D2L/4 and a sphere (two halves) given by D3/6 Vtank = D D L + 4 6

2 2 3 3

( 12 in) ( 12 in) Vtank = 8 in + 4 6 Vtank = 1810 in The ratio of propane to tank volumes is Vprop Vtank = 53 %

3

This seems low, and can be explained by a) tanks are not filled completely, b) the geometry of the tank gave an overestimate of the volume (the ends are not really hemispheres, and we have not allowed for tank wall thickness).

Problem 1.25

1.25 The density of mercury is given as 26.3 slug/ft3. Calculate the specific gravity and the specific volume in

[1]

m3/kg of the mercury. Calculate the specific weight in lbf/ft3 on Earth and on the moon. Acceleration of gravity on the moon is 5.47 ft/s2.

Given:

Find:

a. b. c. d. Specific gravity of mercury. Specific volume of mercury, in m3/kg. Specific weight on Earth. Specific weight on moon.

SG = 26.3 slug ft

3 3

Thus

v=

On Earth,

E = 26.3

slug ft 3

32.2

ft s2

On the moon,

m = 26.3

slug ft

3

5.47

ft s

2

{Note that the mass based quantities (SG and ) are independent of gravity.}

Problem 1.26

[1]

(a)

3 3

(b)

1 gal 4 0.000946 m

3

(c)

liter liter 1 gal 60 s = 1 = 0.264 gpm min min 4 0.946 liter 1 min ft 0.0254 m 60 min m 1 hr = 1.70 hr min 1 ft 12

3 3 3

(d)

1 SCFM = 1

Problem 1.27

1.27

[1]

The kilogram force is commonly used in Europe as a unit of force. (As in the U.S. customary system, where

1 lbf is the force exerted by a mass of 1 lbm in standard gravity, 1 kgf is the force exerted by a mass of 1 kg in standard gravity.) Moderate pressures, such as those for auto or truck tires, are conveniently expressed in units of kgf/cm2. Convert 32 psig to these units.

In European usage, 1 kgf is the force exerted on 1 kg mass in standard gravity. Convert 32 psi to units of kgf/cm2. Apply Newton's second law.

F = 1 kg 9.81 m s2 N s2 = 9.81 N = 1 kgf kg m

N in.2 kgf kgf = 0.0703 2 2 2 lbf (2.54) cm 9.81 N cm

lbf in.2

=1

lbf in.2

4.448

or

Thus

32 psi = 32 psi

Problem 1.28

[3]

Information on canal geometry. Flow speed using the Manning equation, correctly and incorrectly! Use Table G.2 and other sources (e.g., Google) as needed.

2 3 1 2

V =

R h S0 n

1 2

Rh = 7.5 m

1 10

n = 0.014

7.5

Hence V =

2 3

1 10

0.014

V = 86.5

m s

(Note that we don't cancel units; we just write m/s next to the answer! Note also this is a very high speed due to the extreme slope S0.) Rh = 24.6 ft

Rh = 7.5 m

2 3

1 in 1 ft 0.0254 m 12 in

1 2

Hence

V =

1 24.6 10 0.014

V = 191

ft s ft s 12 in 1 ft

(Note that we again don't cancel units; we just write ft/s next to the answer!) 0.0254 m 1 in V = 58.2 m s which is wrong!

V = 191

This demonstrates that for this "engineering" equation we must be careful in its use! To generate a Manning equation valid for Rh in ft and V in ft/s, we need to do the following:

2 3 1 2

Rh ( m) S0 1 in ft m 1 ft V = V = n s s 0.0254 m 12 in

2 3 1 2 2 3

1 in 1 ft 0.0254 m 12 in

2 3 1 2 1 3

Rh ( ft) S0 ft V = n s

1 in 1 ft 0.0254 m 12 in

1 in

0.0254 m

Rh ( ft) S0 1 ft = 12 in n

1 in 1 ft 0.0254 m 12 in

In using this equation, we ignore the units and just evaluate the conversion factor 1.49 Rh ( ft) S0 ft V = n s

2 3 1 2

1 1 .0254 12

1 3

= 1.49

Hence

Handbooks sometimes provide this form of the Manning equation for direct use with BG units. In our case we are asked to instead define a new value for n: Rh ( ft) S0 ft V = nBG s

2 3 1 2

nBG =

n 1.49

nBG = 0.0094

where

1 2

24.6

Using this equation with Rh = 24.6 ft: Converting to m/s V =

2 3

1 10

0.0094 ft 12 in 0.0254 m s 1 ft 1 in

V = 284 V = 86.6

V = 284

Problem 1.29

[2]

Equation for maximum flow rate. Whether it is dimensionally correct. If not, find units of 0.04 term. Write a BG version of the equation Rearrange equation to check units of 0.04 term. Then use conversions from Table G.2 or other sources (e.g., Google) 0.04 = mmax T0 At p0

Substituting the units of the terms on the right, the units of the constant are

1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2

kg 1 1 kg 1 m N s K s K = K = 2 Pa 2 s N kg m m s m m K s m

1 2

c = 0.04

For BG units we could start with the equation and convert each term (e.g., At), and combine the result into a new constant, or simply convert c directly: K s 1.8 R 0.0254 m 12 in = 0.04 m K 1 in 1 ft R s ft

1 2 1 2 1 2

c = 0.04

c = 0.0164

so

mmax = 0.0164

At p0 T0

1 2 2 1 2 2

c = 0.0164

R s 12 in ft 1 ft

c = 2.36

R in s ft

3

so

mmax = 2.36

At p0 T0

Problem 1.30

The given data is The COPIdeal is

Equation for COP and temperature data. COPIdeal, EER, and compare to a typical Energy Star compliant EER value. Use the COP equation. Then use conversions from Table G.2 or other sources (e.g., Google) to find the EER. TL = ( 68 + 460) R TL = 528 R TH = ( 95 + 460) R TH = 555 R

The EER is a similar measure to COP except the cooling rate (numerator) is in BTU/hr and the electrical input (denominator) is in W:

BTU hr

2545 = 19.4

BTU = 66.2

EERIdeal = COPIdeal

hr 746 W

BTU hr

This compares to Energy Star compliant values of about 15 BTU/hr/W! We have some way to go! We can define the isentropic efficiency as EERActual isen = EERIdeal Hence the isentropic efficiency of a very good AC is about 22.5%.

Problem 1.31

[1]

Equation for drag on a body. Dimensions of CD. Use the drag equation. Then "solve" for CD and use dimensions. FD = CD = CD = L 1 2 V A C D 2 2 FD V A F M L 2 L 3 t or M L t

2 2 2

2 3

F = M

L t

2

Hence

CD =

L t 1 =0 2 2 M L L

Problem 1.32

[1]

Equation for mean free path of a molecule. Dimensions of C for a diemsionally consistent equation. Use the mean free path equation. Then "solve" for C and use dimensions. = C m d

2 2

C =

d m L

M L M

3

=0

Problem 1.33

[1]

Equation for vibrations. Dimensions of c, k and f for a dimensionally consistent equation. Also, suitable units in SI and BG systems. Use the vibration equation to find the diemsions of each quantity m d x dt

2 2

L t

2

Each of the other terms must also have these dimensions. Hence c dx M L = 2 dt t M L t

2

so

L M L = 2 t t M L t

2

and

c =

M t M t

2

k x =

so

kL =

and

k =

f = kg s slug s kg

2

M L t

2

k:

slug

2

f:

kg m

2

slug ft

2

s s s s Note that c is a damping (viscous) friction term, k is a spring constant, and f is a forcing function. These are more typically expressed using F ( rather than M (mass). From Newton's 2nd law: F = M L t

2

or F t F t = L t L lbf ft f:

2

M=

F t L

Using this in the dimensions and units for c, k, and f we find = c N s m lbf s ft N m

k=

F t

2 2

F L

f =F

L t N

c:

k:

lbf

Problem 1.34

[1]

The units are

rpm gpm ft

3 4

1 2

or

ft s

3 4 3 2

1 2

NScu = 2000

rpm gpm ft

3 4

1 4 0.000946 m3 1 min 12 ft rpm gpm 2 rad 1 min NScu = 2000 3 1 gal 60 s 1 rev 60 s 0.0254 m

ft

4 1 2

1 2

1 2

3 4

NScu = 4.06

3 rad m s s

3 4

Problem 1.35

[1]

The dimensions of "1.5" are ft. The dimensions of "4.5 x 10-5" are ft/gpm2. Using data from tables (e.g. Table G.2), the SI versions of these coefficients can be obtained 1.5 ft = 1.5 ft 0.0254 m = 0.457 m 1 ft 12 = 4.5 10

5

4.5 10

ft gpm

2

ft gpm

2

4.5 10

ft gpm

2

= 3450

The equation is

m3 s

m3 H ( m) = 0.457 3450 Q s

Problem 1.36

1.36 A container weighs 3.5 lbf when empty. When filled with water at 90F, the mass of the container and its

[2]

contents is 2.5 slug. Find the weight of water in the container, and its volume in cubic feet, using data from Appendix A.

Given:

Empty container weighing 3.5 lbf when empty, has a mass of 2.5 slug when filled with water at 90F.

Find:

a. b. Weight of water in the container Container volume in ft3 Basic equation:

F = ma

Solution:

Wt = WH 2 O + Wc

Then

M H 2O

M H 2O g

WH 2 O

= 77.0 lbf

Problem 1.37

1.37 Calculate the density of standard air in a laboratory from the ideal gas equation of state. Estimate the

[2]

experimental uncertainty in the air density calculated for standard conditions (29.9 in. of mercury and 59F) if the uncertainty in measuring the barometer height is 0.1 in. of mercury and the uncertainty in measuring temperature is 0.5F. (Note that 29.9 in. of mercury corresponds to 14.7 psia.)

Given:

Uncertainty: in p is 0.1 in Hg, in T is 0.5F Note that 29.9 in Hg corresponds to 14.7 psia

Find:

a. b. air density using ideal gas equation of state. estimate of uncertainty in calculated value.

Solution:

= 0.0765 lbm ft 3

1 p RT = RT = = 1; RT RT p

LF p I F T I = MG MNH p u JK + GH T u JK

2 p T

2 12

OP PQ

up = uT =

T T p p = = 1; = 2 T RT RT

FG H

IJ K

2

Then

u = u

2 2 12 2 p T 4 3

Problem 1.38

1.38 Repeat the calculation of uncertainty described in Problem 1.37 for air in a freezer. Assume the measured

[2]

barometer height is 759 1 mm of mercury and the temperature is 20 0.5 C. [Note that 759 mm of mercury corresponds to 101 kPa (abs).]

Given:

Find:

a. b. Air density using ideal gas equation of state Estimate of uncertainty in calculated value

Solution:

1 p = RT = 1; RT p

LF p I F T I = MG MNH p u JK + GH T u JK

2 p T

2 1/ 2

OP PQ

up = uT =

p T T p = = 1; = T RT RT 2

FG H

IJ K

2 12

Then

u = u

2 2 12 2 p T 3 3

Problem 1.39

1.39 The mass of the standard American golf ball is 1.62 0.01 oz and its mean diameter is 1.68 0.01 in.

[2]

Determine the density and specific gravity of the American golf ball. Estimate the uncertainties in the calculated values.

m = 162 0.01 oz (20 to 1) . D = 168 0.01 in. (20 to 1) .

Given: Find:

a. b.

Density and specific gravity. Estimate uncertainties in calculated values. Density is mass per unit volume, so

Solution:

= =

m = 6

m

4 R 3 3

. 162 oz

and

SG =

H 2 O

= 1130

kg m3

2

m3 = 113 . 1000 kg

LF m I F D = MG MNH m u JK + GH D u

m

IJ K

2 12

OP PQ

D 4 D D 6 m 6 m = 3 = 3; u D = 0.595 percent = 3 D D4 D4 6m

u = um

FG H

IJ K

FG H

IJ K

Thus

u u SG

2 2 12 D 2 2

1 2

Finally,

SG = 113 0.0214 (20 to 1) .

Problem 1.40

1.40

[2]

The mass flow rate in a water flow system determined by collecting the discharge over a timed interval is 0.2

kg/s. The scales used can be read to the nearest 0.05 kg and the stopwatch is accurate to 0.2 s. Estimate the precision with which the flow rate can be calculated for time intervals of (a) 10 s and (b) 1 min.

Given:

Mass flow rate of water determined by collecting discharge over a timed interval is 0.2 kg/s.

Scales can be read to nearest 0.05 kg. Stopwatch can be read to nearest 0.2 s.

Find: Solution:

Estimate precision of flow rate calculation for time intervals of (a) 10 s, and (b) 1 min. Apply methodology of uncertainty analysis, Appendix F:

m= m t

Computing equations:

Thus

2 2

1 2

The uncertainties are expected to be half the least counts of the measuring instruments. Tabulating results: Time Interval, t(s) 10 60 Error in t(s) 0.10 0.10 Uncertainty in t (percent) 1.0 0.167 Water Collected, m(kg) 2.0 12.0 Error in m(kg) 0.025 0.025 Uncertainty in m (percent) 1.25 0.208 Uncertainty in (percent) 1.60 0.267

A time interval of about 15 seconds should be chosen to reduce the uncertainty in results to 1 percent.

Problem 1.41

1.41

[2]

A can of pet food has the following internal dimensions: 102 mm height and 73 mm diameter (each 1 mm at

odds of 20 to 1). The label lists the mass of the contents as 397 g. Evaluate the magnitude and estimated uncertainty of the density of the pet food if the mass value is accurate to 1 g at the same odds.

Given:

H = 102 1 mm (20 to 1) D = 73 1 mm (20 to 1) m = 397 1 g (20 to 1)

Find: Solution:

4 m m m = = or = ( m, D, H ) R 2 H D 2 H

LF m I F D I F H = MG MNH m u JK + GH D u JK + GH H u

2 2 m D

IJ K

OP PQ

1 2

Evaluating,

u = [(1)(0.252)]2 + [( 2)(137)]2 + [( 1)(0.980)]2 . u = 2.92 percent

Substituting

1 2

D2 H =

(73) 2 mm 2 102 mm

m3 109 mm 3

= 4.27 10 4 m 3

Thus

Problem 1.42

1.42

[2]

The mass of the standard British golf ball is 45.9 0.3 g and its mean diameter is 41.1 0.3 mm. Determine

the density and specific gravity of the British golf ball. Estimate the uncertainties in the calculated values.

m = 45.9 0.3 g

Given: Find:

a. b.

(20 to 1)

Density and specific gravity Estimate of uncertainties in calculated values. Density is mass per unit volume, so

Solution:

= =

m = 6

m

4 R 3 3

m 3 6 m = 3 4 ( D 2) D3 1 (0.0411)

3

0.0459 kg

m 3 = 1260 kg m 3

and

SG =

H 2 O

= 1260

kg m3

m3 = 126 . 1000 kg

LF m I F D = MG MNH m u JK + GH D u

2 m 4 3

IJ K

2 12

OP PQ

FG 3 6 m IJ = 3 FG 6m IJ = 3 H D K H D K

o

u = [( u m ) 2 + ( 3u D ) 2 ]1 2 = (0.654) 2 + [ 3(0.730)]2

12

Thus

Summarizing

SG = 126 0.0289 (20 to 1) .

Problem 1.43

1.43

[3]

The mass flow rate of water in a tube is measured using a beaker to catch water during a timed interval. The

nominal mass flow rate is 100 g/s. Assume that mass is measured using a balance with a least count of 1 g and a maximum capacity of 1 kg, and that the timer has a least count of 0.1 s. Estimate the time intervals and uncertainties in measured mass flow rate that would result from using 100, 500, and 1000 mL beakers. Would there be any advantage in using the largest beaker? Assume the tare mass of the empty 1000 mL beaker is 500 g.

Given:

Nominal mass flow rate of water determined by collecting discharge (in a beaker) over a timed interval is m = 100 g s

Scales have capacity of 1 kg, with least count of 1 g. Timer has least count of 0.1 s. Beakers with volume of 100, 500, 1000 mL are available tare mass of 1000 mL beaker is 500 g. Estimate (a) time intervals, and (b) uncertainties, in measuring mass flow rate from using each of the three beakers.

Find:

Solution:

To estimate time intervals assume beaker is filled to maximum volume in case of 100 and 500 mL beakers and to maximum allowable mass of water (500 g) in case of 1000 mL beaker.

Then

m=

m t

and

t =

m = m m

Tabulating results

um

LF m m u I + F t m u = MG MNH m m JK GH m t

2 m

IJ K

2 12

OP PQ

The uncertainties are expected to be half the least counts of the measuring instruments

m = 0.5 g

t = 0.05 s

m 1 m = = t =1 m m t

FG IJ H K

and

t t m = m t m

b g LM m OP = 1 MN btg PQ

2 2

u m = u m

b g + b u g

2 t

2 12

Tabulating results: Uncertainty Beaker Volume (mL) 100 500 1000 Water Collected m(g) 100 500 500 0.50 0.50 0.50 Error in m(g) Uncertainty in m (percent) 0.50 0.10 0.10 Time Interval t(s) 1.0 5.0 5.0 0.05 0.05 0.05 5.0 1.0 1.0 5.03 1.0 1.0 Error in t(s) in t (percent) in (percent)

Since the scales have a capacity of 1 kg and the tare mass of the 1000 mL beaker is 500 g, there is no advantage in using the larger beaker. The uncertainty in could be reduced to 0.50 percent by using the large beaker if a scale

Problem 1.44

1.44

[3]

The estimated dimensions of a soda can are D = 66.0 0.5 mm and H = 110 0.5 mm. Measure the mass of

a full can and an empty can using a kitchen scale or postal scale. Estimate the volume of soda contained in the can. From your measurements estimate the depth to which the can is filled and the uncertainty in the estimate. Assume the value of SG = 1.055, as supplied by the bottler.

Given: Find:

a. b.

Soda can with estimated dimensions D = 66.0 0.5 mm, H = 110 0.5 mm. Soda has SG = 1.055

volume of soda in the can (based on measured mass of full and empty can). estimate average depth to which the can is filled and the uncertainty in the estimate. Measurements on a can of coke give

m f = 386.5 0.50 g, m e = 17.5 0.50 g m = m f m e = 369 u m g

Solution:

um

LF m = MG MNH m

m u mf m f

IJ + FG m m u IJ OP K H m m K PQ

2 e me e

2 1/ 2

u mf =

2 2 1/ 2

um

=

= 0.0019

= m m m3 kg 1 = 369 g = 350 10 6 m 3 1000 kg 1055 1000 g H 2 O SG .

The reference value H2O is assumed to be precise. Since SG is specified to three places beyond the decimal point, assume uSG = 0.001. Then

uv uv

2 2 1/ 2 2 m m SG 2 2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

D 2

4

L or L =

D 2

350 10 6 m 3 (0.066) 2 m 2

103 mm = 102 mm m

uL

2

IJ K

2 1/ 2

OP PQ

0.5 mm L D 2 4 = = 1 uD = = 0.0076 4 L 66 mm D 2

D 2 4 D L 2 =D 3 = 2 L D 4 D

u L = [(1) (0.0021)]2 + [( 2) (0.0076)]2

FG H

IJ K

1/ 2

= 0.0153 or 1.53%

Note: 1. Printing on the can states the content as 355 ml. This suggests that the implied accuracy of the SG value may be over stated. 2. Results suggest that over seven percent of the can height is void of soda.

Problem 1.45

[3]

The data is:

A = 2.414 10

5 N s 2

C = 140 K

T = 293 K

B ( TC)

uT =

uT = 0.085 %

3 N s 2

Also

( T) = A 10

Evaluating d ( T) = dT 10

( T) = 1.01 10 A B ln ( 10)

B C T

( C T)

Hence

u ( T) =

ln ( 10) B T uT T d ( T) uT = ( T) dT ( C T )2

Evaluating

u ( T) = 0.609 %

Problem 1.46

1.46 An enthusiast magazine publishes data from its road tests on the lateral acceleration capability of cars. The

[3]

measurements are made using a 150-ft-diameter skid pad. Assume the vehicle path deviates from the circle by 2 ft and that the vehicle speed is read from a fifth-wheel speed-measuring system to 0.5 mph. Estimate the experimental uncertainty in a reported lateral acceleration of 0.7 g. How would you improve the experimental procedure to reduce the uncertainty?

Given:

Path deviation: 2 ft measurement uncertainty Vehicle speed: 0.5 mph

U V W

Find:

a. b. Estimate uncertainty in lateral acceleration. How could experimental procedure be improved? Lateral acceleration is given by a = V2/R.

Solution:

V 2 = aR; V = aR = 0.70

LM N

32.2 ft s2

75 ft

OP Q

1/ 2

= 411 ft / s .

Then

uv = uR =

V

V

= 0.5

1/ 2

and

R

R

= 2 ft

so

= 0.0445

Experimental procedure could be improved by using a larger circle, assuming the absolute errors in measurement are constant.

For

LM N

32.2 ft s2

200 ft

OP Q

1/ 2

uv =

1/ 2

u a = (2 0.0109) 2 + (0.0100) 2

Problem 1.47

1.47

[4]

Using the nominal dimensions of the soda can given in Problem 1.44, determine the precision with which the

diameter and height must be measured to estimate the volume of the can within an uncertainty of 0.5 percent.

Given:

D = 66 mm H = 110 mm

Find:

Measurement precision needed to allow volume to be estimated with an uncertainty of 0.5 percent or less.

Solution:

=

Computing equations:

D2H

4

1

H 2 D 2 2 u = uH + uD H D

H

Since =

D2 H

4

, then

= D and 4

2

= DH 2

4H D 2 x 2 4D DH x 2 2 x 2 2 x 2 2 u = + = + 2 2 D H 4 H D H 2 D H D

Solving,

x 2 x 2 = + = ( x) H D

2 2

1 2 2 2 + H D

x=

u

1 2 ( H )2 + ( D )2

1 2

0.005

1 110 mm

) +(

2

2 66 mm

= 0.158 mm

uH =

Check:

x

H

= =

1 1

uD =

x

D

If x represents half the least count, a minimum resolution of about 2 x 0.32 mm is needed.

Problem 1.19

Problem 1.48

[4]

For this building height, we are to vary (and therefore L ) to minimize the uncertainty u H.

Plotting u H vs (deg) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Optimizing using Solver (deg) 31.4 uH 0.947% uH 4.02% 2.05% 1.42% 1.13% 1.00% 0.95% 0.96% 1.02% 1.11% 1.25% 1.44% 1.70% 2.07% 2.62% 3.52% 5.32% 10.69% 12% 10% 8% uH 6% 4% 2% 0% 0 10 20 30 40 ( )

o

50

60

70

80

90

To find the optimum as a function of building height H we need a more complex Solver H (ft) 50 75 100 125 175 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 (deg) 29.9 34.3 37.1 39.0 41.3 42.0 43.0 43.5 44.1 44.4 44.6 44.7 44.8 44.8 44.9 uH 0.992% 0.877% 0.818% 0.784% 0.747% 0.737% 0.724% 0.717% 0.709% 0.705% 0.703% 0.702% 0.701% 0.700% 0.700%

50 40 (deg) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 H (ft) 600 700 800 900 1000

Use Solver to vary ALL 's to minimize the total u H! Total u H's: 11.3%

Problem 1.50

1.50 In the design of a medical instrument it is desired to dispense 1 cubic millimeter of liquid using a piston-

[5]

cylinder syringe made from molded plastic. The molding operation produces plastic parts with estimated dimensional uncertainties of 0.002 in. Estimate the uncertainty in dispensed volume that results from the uncertainties in the dimensions of the device. Plot on the same graph the uncertainty in length, diameter, and volume dispensed as a function of cylinder diameter D from D = 0.5 to 2 mm. Determine the ratio of stroke length to bore diameter that gives a design with minimum uncertainty in volume dispensed. Is the result influenced by the magnitude of the dimensional uncertainty?

Given:

Find:

a. b. c. Estimate of uncertainty in dispensed volume that results from the dimensional uncertainties. Determine the ratio of stroke length to bore diameter that minimizes u ; plot of the results. Is this result influenced by the magnitude of ? Apply uncertainty concepts from Appendix F:

Solution:

Computing equation:

D 2 L

4

; u

LF L u I + F D u = MG MNH L JK GH D

2 L

1

IJ K

OP PQ

1 2

From ,

L L

= 1, and

D D

= 2 , so u = [ u 2 + (2 u D ) 2 ] 2 L

mm in.

4

= 0.0508 mm

= 127 mm .

D 2

1 mm 3

1 (1) 2 mm2

U | V | W

u = 10.9 percent

u = [( u L ) 2 + (2 u D

LF I F I O ) ] = MG J + G 2 J P MNH L K H D K PQ

2 2 2

1 2

LF D I F I OP = MG MNH 4 JK + GH 2 D JK PQ

2 2 2

1 2

[] = D 4

FG IJ H K

1

4 D 3 + (2 ) 2 2

1 3

FG H

IJ = 0; D D K

1

3

=2

FG 4 IJ HK

; D = 26

FG 4 IJ HK

1 3

Thus

D opt = 2 6

FG 4 1 mm IJ H K

3

= 122 mm .

The corresponding L is

L opt =

1 mm 3

1 (122) mm 2 .

2

= 0.855 mm

Note that drops out of the optimization equation. This optimum L/D is independent of the magnitude of However, the magnitude of the optimum u increases as increases.

Uncertainty in volume of cylinder: D (mm)

= 0.002 in.

= 1 mm

3

0.0508 mm

L (mm)

L/D (---)

uD(%)

uL(%)

u( % )

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.22 1.3

5.09 3.54 2.60 1.99 1.57 1.27 1.05 0.884 0.855 0.753

10.2 5.89 3.71 2.49 1.75 1.27 0.957 0.737 0.701 0.580

10.2 8.47 7.26 6.35 5.64 5.08 4.62 4.23 4.16 3.91

1.00 1.44 1.96 2.55 3.23 3.99 4.83 5.75 5.94 6.74

20.3 17.0 14.6 13.0 11.7 10.9 10.4 10.2 10.2 10.3

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

0.650 0.566 0.497 0.441 0.393 0.353 0.318 0.289 0.263 0.241 0.221 0.204

0.464 0.377 0.311 0.259 0.218 0.186 0.159 0.137 0.120 0.105 0.092 0.081

3.63 3.39 3.18 2.99 2.82 2.67 2.54 2.42 2.31 2.21 2.12 2.03

7.82 8.98 10.2 11.5 12.9 14.4 16.0 17.6 19.3 21.1 23.0 24.9

10.7 11.2 12.0 13.0 14.1 15.4 16.7 18.2 19.9 21.6 23.4 25.3

Problem 2.1

[1]

Given: Find:

Solution:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) V V V V V V V V =V =V =V =V =V =V =V =V ( y) ( x) ( x , y) ( x , y) ( x) ( x , y , z) ( x , y) ( x , y , z) 1D 1D 2D 2D 1D 3D 2D 3D V V V V V V V V =V V =V =V =V V =V V ( t) ( t) ( t) ( t) ( t) ( t) ( t) ( t) Unsteady Steady Unsteady Unsteady Unsteady Steady Unsteady Steady

Problem 2.2

[2]

Problem 2.3

[1]

For streamlines

Streamline Plots

5

v dy B x y B y = = = 2 u dx A x A x

4 3 2 1

Integrating

ln ( y) = C x

B 1 ln ( x) + c = ln ( x) + c A 2

The solution is

y=

y (m)

dy B dx = y A x

x (m)

Problem 2.4

[2]

t=0 c=1 y 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 c=2 y 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 c=3 y 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

x 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00

t =1 s (### means too large to view) c=1 c=2 c=3 x y y y 0.05 20.00 40.00 60.00 0.10 10.00 20.00 30.00 0.20 5.00 10.00 15.00 0.30 3.33 6.67 10.00 0.40 2.50 5.00 7.50 0.50 2.00 4.00 6.00 0.60 1.67 3.33 5.00 0.70 1.43 2.86 4.29 0.80 1.25 2.50 3.75 0.90 1.11 2.22 3.33 1.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 1.10 0.91 1.82 2.73 1.20 0.83 1.67 2.50 1.30 0.77 1.54 2.31 1.40 0.71 1.43 2.14 1.50 0.67 1.33 2.00 1.60 0.63 1.25 1.88 1.70 0.59 1.18 1.76 1.80 0.56 1.11 1.67 1.90 0.53 1.05 1.58 2.00 0.50 1.00 1.50

t = 20 s c=1 y ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### 86.74 8.23 1.00 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 c=2 y ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### 173.47 16.45 2.00 0.30 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 c=3 y ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### ###### 260.21 24.68 3.00 0.45 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

x 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00

Streamline Plot (t = 0)

3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0

y

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Streamline Plot (t = 1 s)

70 60 50 40

y

30 20 10 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Streamline Plot (t = 20 s)

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

Problem 2.6

[1]

Velocity field Whether field is 1D, 2D or 3D; Velocity components at (2,1/2); Equation for streamlines; Plot

The velocity field is a function of x and y. It is therefore 2D. At point (2,1/2), the velocity components are u = a x y = 2

2

1 1 2 m m m s 2 1 1 m m s 2

2

u = 2

m s

v = b y = 6 v dy by by = = = u dx a x y ax dy b dx = y a x ln ( y) = y = C x b ln ( x) + c a

3 2

3 m v= 2 s

For streamlines

y = C x

b a

1 3 = C 2 2

C =

1 3 2 2

C=4

y=

4 x

3

20 16 12 8 4 1 1.3 1.7 2

a= 1 b= 1 C= x 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 0 y 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.39 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.89 0.92 0.95 0.97 1.00 2 y 0.15 0.20 0.27 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.45 4 y 0.14 0.19 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 6 y 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

Streamline Plot

1.2 1.0 0.8

y 0.6

x

1.5

2.0

A = 10 B = 20 C= x 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 1 y 0.50 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.40 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.25 2 y 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.51 0.50 4 y 2.00 1.90 1.82 1.74 1.67 1.60 1.54 1.48 1.43 1.38 1.33 1.29 1.25 1.21 1.18 1.14 1.11 1.08 1.05 1.03 1.00 6 y 3.00 2.86 2.73 2.61 2.50 2.40 2.31 2.22 2.14 2.07 2.00 1.94 1.88 1.82 1.76 1.71 1.67 1.62 1.58 1.54 1.50

Streamline Plot

3.5

c=1

3.0 2.5 2.0 y 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 x 1.5

2.0

Problem 2.9

[2]

For streamlines

Velocity field Equation for streamline through (1,3) A v dy = = u dx dy dx = y x ln ( y) = ln ( x) + c y = C x 3 = C 1 up = dx A = dt x which is the equation of a straight line. C=3 or and x dx = A dt y = 3 x x= 2 A t + c t= c x 2 A 2 A

2

y x

2

A x

y x

So, separating variables Integrating The solution is For the streamline through point (1,3) For a particle

2 2 2 2

t = t ( x = 2) t ( x = 1)

t =

t = 0.75 s

Problem 2.10

[3]

Flow field Plot of velocity magnitude along axes, and y = x; Equation of streamlines

u =

2 x + y

K y

2 2

=0

100 50

v=

2 x + y

K x

2

K 2 x

v( m/s)

10

5 50 100

10

x (km)

The velocity is perpendicular to the axis, is very high close to the origin, and falls off to zero. This can also be plotted in Excel. On the y axis, x = 0, so u=

2 x + y Plotting

K y

2

K 2 y

100 50

v=

2 x + y

(2

K x

=0

u ( m/s)

10

5 50 100

10

y (km)

The velocity is perpendicular to the axis, is very high close to the origin, and falls off to zero.

2

On the y = x axis

u=

2 x + x

K 4 x

v=

2 x + x

K x

2

K 4 x

1 u = 1 v r= x +x =

2 2

r=

x +y

2

then along y = x

2 x

u +v =

1 1 K K K + = = 4 x2 x2 2 r 2 2 x

Plotting

100 50

V(m/s)

10

5 50 100

10

r (km)

This can also be plotted in Excel.

K x

For streamlines

v dy = = u dx

2 x + y

( 2 2)

2 2

(2

K y

x y

Integrating

y x = +c 2 2

x +y = C

This flow models a vortex flow. See Example 5.6 for streamline plots. Streamlines are circular, and the velocity approaches infinity as we approach the center. In Problem 2.11, we see that the streamlines are also circular. In a real tornado, at large distances from the center, the velocities behave as in this problem; close to the center, they behave as in Problem 2.11.

Problem 2.11

[3]

Flow field Plot of velocity magnitude along axes, and y = x; Equation for streamlines

u=

M y =0 2

1000 500

v=

M x 2

v (m/s)

10

5 500 1000

10

x (km)

The velocity is perpendicular to the axis and increases linearly with distance x. This can also be plotted in Excel. On the y axis, x = 0, so Plotting u= M y 2

1000 500

v=

M x =0 2

u (m/s)

10

5 500 1000

10

y (km)

The velocity is perpendicular to the axis and increases linearly with distance y. This can also be plotted in Excel.

On the y = x axis

u=

M y M x = 2 2 1 u = 1 v

v=

M x 2

r=

x +y

2

2 2

then along y = x

r=

x +x =

2 x

u +v =

M M r 2 2 M 2 x x +x = = 2 2 2

1000 500

V(m/s)

10

5 500 1000

10

r (km)

This can also be plotted in Excel. v dy = = u dx

M x 2

For streamlines

M y 2

x y

y dy = x dx

Integrating

y x = +c 2 2

The solution is

x +y = C

The streamlines form a set of concentric circles. This flow models a rigid body vortex flow. See Example 5.6 for streamline plots. Streamlines are circular, and the velocity approaches zer as we approach the center. In Problem 2.10, we see that the streamlines are also circular. In a real tornado, at large distances from the center, the velocities behave as in Problem 2.10; close to the center, they behave as in this problem.

Problem 2.12

[3]

Flow field Plot of velocity magnitude along axes, and y = x; Equations of streamlines

u =

2 x + y

qx

2 2

q 2 x

35 25 15 5 5 0 15 25 35

v=

2 x + y

(2

q y

=0

u (m/s)

10

10

x (km)

The velocity is very high close to the origin, and falls off to zero. It is also along the axis. This can be plotted in Excel. On the y axis, x = 0, so u= q x

2

2 x + y

=0

v=

2 x + y

q y

2

q 2 y

Plotting

10

35 25 15 5 5 0 15 25 35

v (m/s)

10

y (km)

The velocity is again very high close to the origin, and falls off to zero. It is also along the axis. This can also be plotted in Excel.

On the y = x axis

u=

q x

2

q 4 x 1 v =1 u

v=

2 x + x

q x

2

q 4 x

2 2 2

then along y = x

r=

x +x =

2 x

u +v =

1 1 q q q + = = 2 2 4 x 2 r 2 2 x x

Plotting

10

35 25 15 5 5 0 15 25 35

V(m/s)

10

r (km)

This can also be plotted in Excel. For streamlines v dy = = u dx

2 x + y 2 x + y

(2 (2

q y q x

) )

y x

Problem 2.13

[2]

t=0 x 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 C=1 y 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 C=2 y 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 C=3 y 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

t =1 s x 0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275 0.300 0.325 0.350 0.375 0.400 0.425 0.450 0.475 0.500 C=1 y 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.71 0.66 0.60 0.53 0.44 0.31 0.00 C=2 y 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.34 1.32 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.23 1.20 1.17 1.13 1.09 1.05 1.00 C=3 y 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.72 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.69 1.67 1.66 1.64 1.62 1.61 1.58 1.56 1.54 1.51 1.48 1.45 1.41

t = 20 s x 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 C=1 y 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.59 0.53 0.45 C=2 y 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.27 1.24 1.22 1.19 1.16 1.13 1.10 C=3 y 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.70 1.69 1.68 1.67 1.66 1.65 1.63 1.61 1.60 1.58 1.56 1.53 1.51 1.48

Streamline Plot (t = 0)

3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 y 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 x 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 x 0.4 0.5 0.6 y

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 x 1.5 2.0 2.5 y

Problem 2.15

[4]

Pathlines of particles Conditions that make them satisfy Problem 2.10 flow field; Also Problem 2.11 flow field; Plot pathlines

xp = a sin ( t) u=

yp = a cos ( t)

2 x + y

K y

2

v=

2 x + y

(2

K x

)

(1)

If the pathlines are correct we should be able to substitute xp and yp into the velocity field to find the velocity as a function of time: u =

2 x + y v =

K y

2 2

2 a sin( t ) + a cos ( t ) =

K a cos ( t )

2 2 2 2

K cos ( t ) 2 a

2 x + y

K x

2 2

2 a sin( t ) + a cos ( t )

K ( a sin( t ) )

2 2 2 2

K sin( t ) 2 a

(2)

We should also be able to find the velocity field as a function of time from the pathline equations (Eq. 2.9): dxp =u dt u = dxp dt = a cos ( t ) K cos ( t ) 2 a or dxp dt v= =v dyp dt (2.9)

= a sin ( t) K sin ( t) 2 a

(3)

u = a cos ( t ) = K 2 a

v = a sin ( t) = K 2 a

2

a =

400

To plot this in Excel, compute xp and yp for t ranging from 0 to 60 s, with given by the above formula. Plot yp versus xp. Note that outer particles travel much slower!

200

400

200

200

400

200

400

u=

M y 2

v=

M x 2

If the pathlines are correct we should be able to substitute xp and yp into the velocity field to find the velocity as a function of time: u= M y M ( a cos ( t) ) M a cos ( t) = = 2 2 2 (4)

v=

(5)

u=

(3)

u = a cos ( t) = = M 2

v = a sin ( t) =

The pathlines

400

200

To plot this in Excel, compute xp and yp for t ranging from 0 to 75 s, with given by the above formula. Plot yp versus xp. Note that outer particles travel faster!

400

200 200

200

400

400

600

Problem 2.16

[2]

For streamlines

Time-varying velocity field Streamlines at t = 0 s; Streamline through (3,3); velocity vector; will streamlines change with time

At t = 0 (actually all times!) So, separating variables Integrating The solution is For the streamline through point (3,3)

The streamlines will not change with time since dy/dx does not change with time.

5 4 3

At t = 0

u = a x ( 2 + cos ( t) ) = 5 u = 45 m s

1 3 m 3 s

v = a y ( 2 + cos ( t) ) = 5 v = 45 m s

1 s

3 m 3

2 1

0 1 2 3 4 5

dy y = = 1 dx x v = 1 u

Problem 2.17

[3]

Problem 2.18

[3]

Pathline t 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 x 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.12 1.17 1.22 1.29 1.37 1.46 1.57 1.70 1.85 2.02 2.23 2.47 2.75 3.09 3.49 y 1.00 0.78 0.61 0.47 0.37 0.29 0.22 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

Streamlines t=0 x y 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.78 1.00 0.61 1.00 0.47 1.00 0.37 1.00 0.29 1.00 0.22 1.00 0.17 1.00 0.14 1.00 0.11 1.00 0.08 1.00 0.06 1.00 0.05 1.00 0.04 1.00 0.03 1.00 0.02 1.00 0.02 1.00 0.01 1.00 0.01 1.00 0.01 1.00 0.01

t=1s x 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.12 1.17 1.22 1.29 1.37 1.46 1.57 1.70 1.85 2.02 2.23 2.47 2.75 3.09 3.49

y 1.00 0.97 0.88 0.75 0.61 0.46 0.32 0.22 0.14 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

t=2s x 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.12 1.17 1.22 1.29 1.37 1.46 1.57 1.70 1.85 2.02 2.23 2.47 2.75 3.09 3.49

y 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.78 0.68 0.57 0.47 0.37 0.28 0.21 0.15 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00

1.0 0.8 0.6

y

x

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Problem 2.20

[3]

Problem 2.21

[3]

Flow field Pathline for particle starting at (3,1); Streamlines through same point at t = 1, 2, and 3 s

dx = u = a x t dt dx = a t dt x dy = b dt

and or or

dy =v=b dt ln ( x) = 1 2 a t + c1 2

y = b t + c2

Using initial condition (x,y) = (3,1) and the given values for a and b c1 = ln ( 3 m ) The pathline is then For streamlines (at any time t) So, separating variables Integrating x = 3 e

0.05 t

2

and and

c2 = 1 m y = 4 t + 1

v dy b = = u dx a x t dy = y= b dx at x b ln ( x) + c a t

We are interested in instantaneous streamlines at various times that always pass through point (3,1). Using a and b values: c = y b 4 ln ( x) = 1 ln ( 3) a t 0.1 t 40 t x ln 3

30 20 10

y = 1+

0 1 2 3 4 5

y

10 20

Problem 2.22

[4]

Velocity field Plot streamlines that are at origin at various times and pathlines that left origin at these times

For streamlines

v dy = = u dx

v0 sin t

x u0

u0 x u0

u0

dx

Integrating

x v0 cos t u 0 y= +c x v0 cos t u cos ( t) 0 y= dx = u = u0 dt dx = u0 dt c1 = u0 dy x = v = v0 sin t u dt 0 and dy = v = v0 sin ( ) dt dy = v0 sin ( ) dt c2 = v0 sin ( ) y = v0 sin ( ) t + c2 y = v0 sin ( ) ( t ) so or x = u0 t + c1 x = u0 ( t )

For particle paths, first find x(t) Separating variables and integrating Using initial condition x = 0 at t = For y(t) we have

u0 ( t ) dy = v = v0 sin t dt u0

Separating variables and integrating Using initial condition y = 0 at t = The pathline is then x ( t , ) = u0 ( t )

y ( t , ) = v0 sin ( ) ( t )

Streamline t = 0s Streamline t = 0.05s Streamline t = 0.1s Streamline t = 0.15s Pathline starting t = 0s Pathline starting t = 0.05s Pathline starting t = 0.1s Pathline starting t = 0.15s

The streamlines are sinusoids; the pathlines are straight (once a water particle is fired it travels in a straight line). These curves can be plotted in Excel.

Problem 2.23

[5]

Following the discussion leading up to Eq. 2.10, we first find equations for the pathlines in form xp( t ) = x t , x0 , y0 , t0

) )

and

yp ( t) = y t , x0 , y0 , t0

) )

where x0, y0 is the position of the particle at t = t0, and re-interprete the results as streaklines xst t0 = x t , x0 , y0 , t0

( )

and

yst t0 = y t , x0 , y0 , t0

( )

which gives the streakline at t, where x0, y0 is the point at which dye is released (t0 is varied from 0 to t) For particle paths, first find x(t) Separating variables and integrating For y(t) we have dx = u = u0 dt dx = u0 dt or so x = x0 + u0 t t0

and

x0 + u0 t t0 dy = v = v0 sin t dt u0

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

yst t0 = v0 sin t0 t t0

( ) (

2 1

y (m)

0 1 2

10

x (m)

This curve can be plotted in Excel. For t = 1, t0 ranges from 0 to t.

Problem 2.24

Problem 2.24

Problem 2.25

Problem 2.25

Problem 2.26

Problem 2.26

Problem 2.27

[3]

Solution

The particle starting at t = 3 s follows the particle starting at t = 2 s; The particle starting at t = 4 s doesn't move! Starting at t = 0 x 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 y 0.00 0.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20 3.60 4.00 3.80 3.60 3.40 3.20 3.00 2.80 2.60 2.40 2.20 2.00 Starting at t = 1 s x y Starting at t = 2 s x y Streakline at t = 4 s x 2.00 1.80 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 y 2.00 1.60 1.20 0.80 0.40 0.00 -0.40 -0.80 -1.20 -1.60 -2.00 -1.80 -1.60 -1.40 -1.20 -1.00 -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00

Pathlines: t 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

0.00 0.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 1.80 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 -0.20 -0.40 -0.60 -0.80 -1.00 -1.20 -1.40 -1.60 -1.80 -2.00

4 3 2 1

y

0 -0.5 -1 -2 -3 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Problem 2.28

[4]

For streamlines

2D velocity field Streamlines passing through (6,6); Coordinates of particle starting at (1,4); that pathlines, streamlines and streaklines coincide 2 a y dy = b dx

v dy = = u dx

3

b ay

2

or

Integrating For the streamline through point (6,6) For particle that passed through (1,4) at t = 0

3

dx 2 = ay dt dy =b dt

t

v =

y = y0 + b t = y0 + 2 t

2 2 3 b t 3

2 x x0 = a y0 + b t dt 0 2 4 3 x = 1 + 16 t + 8 t + t 3

x = x0 + a y0 t + b y0 t +

At t = 1 s

x = 26.3 m y = 6 m

y = 4 + 2 t 1 dy = b dt

t

y = y0 + b t t0

2 b 3 2 2 3 x = x0 + a y0 t t0 + b y0 t t0 + t t0 3

x = 3 +

4 3

t 1 =

(3 )

1 3

4 t 13

y = 2 ( t 1) y = 4 m

x = 31.7 m

Problem 2.29

Problem 2.29

Problem 2.30

Problem 2.30

Problem 2.31

Problem 2.31

Problem 2.32

[2]

Problem 2.33

[2]

Data: T (oC) 0 100 200 300 400 T (K) 273 373 473 573 673 (x105) 1.86E-05 2.31E-05 2.72E-05 3.11E-05 3.46E-05

Using procedure of Appendix A.3: T (K) 273 373 473 573 673 T3/2/ 2.43E+08 3.12E+08 3.78E+08 4.41E+08 5.05E+08

3 2

S 1 = T + b b

Hence: b = 1.531E-06 S = 101.9 kg/m.s.K1/2 K

From the built-in Excel Linear Regression functions: Slope = 6.534E+05 Intercept = 6.660E+07 R2 = 0.9996

6.E+08 5.E+08 4.E+08

T3/2/ 3.E+08

Data Plot Least Squares Fit

T

500

600

700

800

Problem 2.35

[2]

Basic equation

Velocity distribution between flat plates Shear stress on upper plate; Sketch stress distribution

yx =

du dy

8 umax y h

2

and

h = 0.1 mm

umax = 0.1

m s

= 1.14 10

3 N s 2

(Table A.8)

Hence

yx = 8 1.14 10 yx = 4.56 N m

2

The upper plate is a minus y surface. Since yx < 0, the shear stress on the upper plate must act in the plus x direction. The shear stress varies linearly with y yx ( y) =

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02

8 umax y 2 h

y (mm)

Problem 2.36

[2]

Basic equations

F = yx A

yx =

du dy

so

yx = h 2

8 umax y h

2

and

F =

8 A umax y h

2

y=

and m s

2

h = 0.1 mm = 1.14 10

A = 1 m

3 N s 2

umax = 0.05

(Table A.8)

2

Hence

F = 8 1 m 1.14 10

F = 2.28 N

Problem 2.37

[2]

Explain how an ice skate interacts with the ice surface. What mechanism acts to reduce sliding friction between skate and ice? Open-Ended Problem Statement: Explain how an ice skate interacts with the ice surface. What mechanism acts to reduce sliding friction between skate and ice? Discussion: The normal freezing and melting temperature of ice is 0C (32F) at atmospheric pressure. The melting temperature of ice decreases as pressure is increased. Therefore ice can be caused to melt at a temperature below the normal melting temperature when the ice is subjected to increased pressure. A skater is supported by relatively narrow blades with a short contact against the ice. The blade of a typical skate is less than 3 mm wide. The length of blade in contact with the ice may be just ten or so millimeters. With a 3 mm by 10 mm contact patch, a 75 kg skater is supported by a pressure between skate blade and ice on the order of tens of megaPascals (hundreds of atmospheres). Such a pressure is enough to cause ice to melt rapidly. When pressure is applied to the ice surface by the skater, a thin surface layer of ice melts to become liquid water and the skate glides on this thin liquid film. Viscous friction is quite small, so the effective friction coefficient is much smaller than for sliding friction. The magnitude of the viscous drag force acting on each skate blade depends on the speed of the skater, the area of contact, and the thickness of the water layer on top of the ice. The phenomenon of static friction giving way to viscous friction is similar to the hydroplaning of a pneumatic tire caused by a layer of water on the road surface.

Problem 2.38

[2]

Given: Find:

Solution:

The velocity profile is g y u= h y sin ( ) 2

2

u umax

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

= 2

y h

2 1 y 2 h

y/h

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

u/umax

This graph can be plotted in Excel The given data is h = 0.1 in du dy = 2.15 10 du dy

3 lbf s 2

= 45 deg

ft

Basic equation

yx =

yx =

2 d g y h y sin ( ) = g ( h y) sin ( ) 2 dy

At the surface y = 0

3

Hence

32.2

ft s

2

0.1 in

1 ft 12 in

sin ( 45 deg)

lbf s slug ft

yx = 0.313

lbf ft

2

The surface is a positive y surface. Since yx > 0, the shear stress on the surface must act in the plus x direction.

Problem 2.39

[2]

Problem 2.40

[2]

Problem 2.41

[2]

Basic equation

Data on tape mechanism Maximum gap region that can be pulled without breaking tape

yx =

du dy

and

F = yx A FT = 2 F = 2 yx A

Here F is the force on each side of the tape; the total force is then The velocity gradient is linear as shown The area of contact is Combining these results V FT = 2 w L c Solving for L L= FT c 2 V w c = 0.012 in A = w L du V0 V = = dy c c

c t F,V x c

L

= 0.02 slug ft s V = 3 ft s w = 1 in L = 2.5 ft

FT = 25 lbf

L = 25 lbf 0.012 in

Problem 2.42

[2]

Given data: Reference data:

3

Dtube = 75 mm

Mass = 2 kg

L = 100 mm

SGAl = 2.64

2

From Fig. A.2:, the dynamic viscosity of SAE 10W-30 oil at 25oC is:

= 0.13

The terminal velocity of the mass m is equivalent to the terminal velocity of the piston. At that terminal speed, the acceleration of the piston is zero. Therefore, all forces acting on the piston must be balanced. This means that the force driving the motion (i.e. the weight of mass m and the piston) balances the viscous forces acting on the surface of the piston. Thus, at r = Rpiston:

2 D piston L d Mass + SGAl water g = rz A = dr Vz ( Dpiston L) 4

The velocity profile within the oil film is linear ... Therefore V d Vz = dr Dtube Dpiston 2

2

or

V = 10.2

m s

Problem 2.43

[3]

Given data: Reference data:

Flow data on apparatus Sketch of piston speed vs time; the time needed for the piston to reach 99% of its new terminal speed.

3

Dtube = 75 mm

L = 100 mm

SGAl = 2.64

V0 = 10.2

m s

2

From Fig. A.2, the dynamic viscosity of SAE 10W-30 oil at 25oC is:

= 0.13

The free body diagram of the piston after the cord is cut is: Piston weight:

2 D piston Wpiston = SGAl water g L 4

Viscous force:

Fviscous ( V) = rz A

or

Therefore

If

then

dX dV = a dt dt dX = a X dt where X ( 0) = g a V 0

X ( t) = X0 e

a t

or

g a V ( t) = g a V0 e

a t

12 10 8 V ( t) 6 4 2

1 t

The terminal speed of the piston, Vt, is evaluated as t approaches infinity Vt = g a Vt = 3.63 m s

or

The time needed for the piston to slow down to within 1% of its terminal velocity is:

V g 0 a 1 t = ln a 1.01 Vt

g a

or

t = 1.93 s

Problem 2.44

Problem 2.44

Problem 2.45

Ff = A x, V, a

[4]

M g

Given data

Data on the block and incline Initial acceleration; formula for speed of block; plot; find speed after 0.1 s. Find oil viscosity if speed is 0.3 m/s after 0.1 s

M = 5 kg = 0.4 N s m

2

A = ( 0.1 m )

d = 0.2 mm

= 30 deg

Applying Newton's 2nd law to initial instant (no friction) a = M g sin( ) Ff = M g sin( ) M so m ainit = g sin( ) = 9.81 sin( 30 deg) 2 s M a = M g sin( ) Ff so M a = M and m ainit = 4.9 2 s du V A = A dy d

Ff = A =

dV A = M g sin( ) V dt d = dt

Separating variables

dV A V g sin ( ) M d

M d A ln 1 V = t A M g d sin ( )

or

A t M g d sin ( ) M d V ( t) = 1 e

At t = 0.1 s

V = 5 kg 9.81

m s

2

0.4 N s ( 0.1 m)

2 0.1 N s 5 0.0002 1 e 2 kg m

0.4 0.01

V ( 0.1 s) = 0.404

m s

1.5

V (m/s)

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t (s)

To find the viscosity for which V(0.1 s) = 0.3 m/s, we must solve

M g d sin ( ) M d V ( t = 0.1 s) = 1 e A

( t=0.1 s)

The viscosity is implicit in this equation, so solution must be found by manual iteration, or by any of a number of classic root-finding numerical methods, or by using Excel's Goal Seek Using Excel: = 1.08 N s m

2

Problem 2.46

[3]

Problem 2.47

[2]

Problem 2.48

[3]

Data on double pipe heat exchanger Whether no-slip is satisfied; net viscous force on inner pipe

2 r uz( r ) = umax 1 Rii

where

umax =

Rii p 4 L

R 2 ii r = Rii uz( Rii) = umax 1 = 0 Rii 2 2 1 p 2 2 Roi Rio r uz( r ) = R r ln 4 L io Rio Rio ln Roi 2 2 Roi 1 p 2 2 Roi Rio r = Roi uz (Roi) = Rio Roi ln 4 L Rio Rio ln Roi

1 p 2 2 2 2 uz Roi = R Roi + Roi Rio = 0 4 L io

( )

When

r = Rio

2 2

( )

The no-slip condition holds on all three surfaces. The given data is Rii = 7.5 cm 3 mm Rii = 3.45 cm 2 poil = 8 Pa Rio = 7.5 cm 2 Rio = 3.75 cm Roi = 11 cm 3 mm Roi = 5.2 cm 2

L = 0.85 m

3 N s 2

2 N s 2

rx = rx =

For water

2 2

2

2 2

Fw

2 2 R Rio R 2 oi = pw io Rio 2 ln Roi 2 ( 5.2 cm) 2 ( 3.75 cm) 2 1 m 2 N 1 m 100 cm = 2.5 3.75 cm 2 100 cm 3.75 m 2 ln 5.2

Hence

Fw

Fw = 0.00454 N This is the force on the r-negative surface of the fluid; on the outer pipe itself we also have Fw = 0.00454 N For oil rx = duz ( r) dr

2 2 oil umax r poil r d r = oil umax 1 = R = 2 dr 2 L Rii ii

Foil = rx A =

poil Rii 2 L

This should not be a surprise: the pressure drop just balances the friction!

Hence

Foil = 8

N m

2

3.45 cm

1 m 100 cm

This is the force on the r-positive surface of the fluid; on the pipe it is equal and opposite The total force is F = Fw + Foil

Note we didn't need the viscosities because all quantities depend on the p's!

Problem 2.49

[3]

Data on counterflow heat exchanger Whether no-slip is satisfied; net viscous force on inner pipe

The analysis for Problem 2.48 is repeated, except the oil flows in reverse, so the pressure drop is -2.5 Pa not 2.5 Pa. For the oil, the velocity profile is

r 2 uz ( r) = umax 1 Rii

where

umax =

Rii p 4 L

R 2 ii r = Rii uz (Rii) = umax 1 =0 Rii 2 2 1 p 2 2 Roi Rio r uz ( r) = R r ln 4 L io Rio Rio ln Roi 2 2 Roi 1 p 2 2 Roi Rio r = Roi uz (Roi) = R Roi ln 4 L io Rio Rio ln Roi

1 p 2 2 2 2 uz Roi = Rio Roi + Roi Rio = 0 4 L

( )

When

r = Rio

2 2

( )

The no-slip condition holds on all three surfaces. The given data is Rii = 7.5 cm 3 mm Rii = 3.45 cm 2 poil = 8 Pa Rio = 7.5 cm 2 Rio = 3.75 cm Roi = 11 cm 3 mm Roi = 5.2 cm 2

pw = 2.5 Pa The viscosity of water at 10oC is (Fig. A.2) The viscosity of SAE 10-30 oil at 100oC

L = 0.85 m

3 N s 2

w = 1.25 10

is (Fig. A.2) du dr

2 N s oil = 1 10 2

rx = rx =

For water

duz ( r) dr

2 2

2

2 2

Fw

2 2 R Rio R 2 oi = pw io Rio 2 ln Roi 2 ( 5.2 cm) 2 ( 3.75 cm) 2 1 m 2 N 1 m 100 cm = 2.5 ( 3.75 cm) 2 100 cm 3.75 m 2 ln 5.2

Hence

Fw

Fw = 0.00454 N This is the force on the r-negative surface of the fluid; on the outer pipe itself we also have Fw = 0.00454 N For oil rx = duz ( r) dr

2 2 oil umax r poil r d r = oil umax 1 = R = 2 dr 2 L Rii ii

Foil = rx A =

poil Rii 2 L

This should not be a surprise: the pressure drop just balances the friction!

Hence

Foil = 8

N m

2

3.45 cm

1 m 100 cm

This is the force on the r-positive surface of the fluid; on the pipe it is equal and opposite The total force is F = Fw + Foil

Note we didn't need the viscosities because all quantities depend on the p's!

Problem 2.50

[2]

Flow between two plates Force to move upper plate; Interface velocity

The shear stress is the same throughout (the velocity gradients are linear, and the stresses in the fluid at the interface must be equal and opposite). Hence du1 du2 = 1 = 2 dy dy Vi = 1+ V 1 h2 2 h1 or 1 1 m Vi = 0.714 m s Vi h1 = 2

( V Vi)

h2

F = 143 N

Problem 2.51

[2]

Problem 2.52

[2]

Problem 2.53

[2]

Problem 2.54

[2]

Problem 2.55

[4]

The given data is

R = 50 mm

H = 80 mm

a = 0.20 mm

I = 0.0273 kg m

= 0.1

N s m

2

I = Torque = A R

where is the angular acceleration and is the viscous stress, and A is the surface area of the viscometer The stress is given by = du V0 V R = = = dy a a a

where V and are the instantaneous linear and angular velocities. Hence I = I d R R A = A R = a dt a

2 2

Separating variables

d R A = dt aI

R A t aI R A t a I

2 2

( t ) = 0 e

0.01 0 = 0 e

so

t=

a I R A

2

ln ( 0.01)

Note that

A = 2 R H

so

t=

a I 2 R H

3

ln ( 0.01)

t = 4.00 s

Problem 2.56

[4]

Problem 2.57

Problem 2.57

Problem 2.58

[3]

Given: Find:

Solution:

Basic equation r = du dr Shear force F = A Torque T = F R Power P = T

1 R 2 ( R + ) du V = = dr r

V2 = 2(R + )

r =

( 1 2 ) R

Because << R

V1 = 1R

Then

P = T 2 = F R 2 = A2 R 2 = 2 2 1 2 R L P =

1 2 R 2 R L R 2

Hence

P 2 2 1 2 R L

10 W 2.5 10 2 N s m

2

1 min 1 min 1 1 N m rev 60 s 3 0.02 m 9000 rev 1000 rev s W 2 rad min ( .01 m ) which corresponds to SAE 30 oil at 30oC.

= 0.202

= 2.02 poise

Problem 2.59

[4]

Problem 2.60

[4]

The data is

2 N (rpm) (Ns/m ) 10 0.121 20 0.139 30 0.153 40 0.159 50 0.172 60 0.172 70 0.183 80 0.185

The computed data is (rad/s) / (1/s) (Ns/m2x103) 1.047 2.094 3.142 4.189 5.236 6.283 7.330 8.378 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 121 139 153 159 172 172 183 185

The apparent viscosities at 90 and 100 rpm can now be computed N (rpm) (rad/s) 90 9.42 100 10.47 / (1/s) 1080 1200 (Ns/m2x103) 191 195

1000

2 3 (N.s/m x10 )

100

= 44.94(/)0.2068 R2 = 0.9925

10 100 Shear Rate / (1/s)

1000

[3]

Given: Viscometer data Find: Value of k and n in Eq. 2.17 Solution: (Pa) du/dy (s-1) The data is 0.0457 5 0.119 10 0.241 25 0.375 50 0.634 100 1.06 200 1.46 300 1.78 400

10 Data Power Trendline

(Pa)

1 1 10 100 1000

0.1

0.01

du/dy (1/s)

Hence we have

k = 0.0162 n = 0.7934

We can compute the apparent viscosity from du/dy (s-1) (Ns/m2) 5 10 25 50 100 200 300 400 0.0116 0.0101 0.0083 0.0072 0.0063 0.0054 0.0050 0.0047

k (du/dy )n -1

[4]

(Pa)

50 100 150 163 171 170 202 246 349 444

U (m/s) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3

y = p =

du/dy =

Pa Ns/m2 s-1 Pa

y =

we can use the Bingham plastic formula to solve for p given , y and du/dy from above

p =

0.652

Ns/m2

500 450 400

(Pa)

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

du/dy (1/s)

Problem 2.64

[5]

Problem 2.65

[5]

Problem 2.66

[4]

Conical bearing geometry Expression for shear stress; Viscous torque on shaft

ds dz z AA r

Basic equation

du dy

dT = r dA

Assumptions: Newtonian fluid, linear velocity profile (in narrow clearance gap), no slip condition tan( ) = Then = r z so r = z tan( )

a Section AA U = r

du u ( r 0) z tan( ) = = = dy y ( a 0) a

As we move up the device, shear stress increases linearly (because rate of shear strain does) But from the sketch dz = ds cos ( ) dA = 2 r ds = 2 r dz cos ( ) dT = 2 z tan( ) dz a cos ( )

3 3

dT = r dA = r

z tan( ) dz 2 r a cos ( )

3 4

2 2

T=

tan( ) H 2 a cos ( )

= 0.2

75

rev s

1 0.2 10

3

1 cos ( 30 deg)

2 rad rev

T = 0.0643 N m

Problem 2.67

[5]

Problem 2.68

[5]

Problem 2.69

[5]

Basic equation

Geometry of rotating bearing Expression for shear stress; Maximum shear stress; Expression for total torque; Total torque

du dy

dT = r dA

Assumptions: Newtonian fluid, narrow clearance gap, laminar motion From the figure r = R sin ( ) h = a + R ( 1 cos ( ) ) Then = u = r = R sin ( ) du u0 u = = dy h h

dA = 2 r dr = 2 R sin ( ) R cos ( ) d

2

=0

= 6.6 deg

2

70 rad 1 N s = 12.5 poise 0.1 2 0.075 m sin ( 6.6 deg) poise 60 s [ 0.0005 + 0.075 ( 1 cos ( 6.6 deg) ) ] m m kg = 79.2 N m

2 max

kg m s

The torque is

T= r A d = 0

where

R0 max = asin R

3

This integral is best evaluated numerically using Excel, Mathcad, or a good calculator

T = 1.02 10

N m

Problem 2.70

[2]

Problem 2.71

[2]

Slowly fill a glass with water to the maximum possible level. Observe the water level closely. Explain how it can be higher than the rim of the glass. Open-Ended Problem Statement: Slowly fill a glass with water to the maximum possible level before it overflows. Observe the water level closely. Explain how it can be higher than the rim of the glass. Discussion: Surface tension can cause the maximum water level in a glass to be higher than the rim of the glass. The same phenomenon causes an isolated drop of water to bead up on a smooth surface. Surface tension between the water/air interface and the glass acts as an invisible membrane that allows trapped water to rise above the level of the rim of the glass. The mechanism can be envisioned as forces that act in the surface of the liquid above the rim of the glass. Thus the water appears to defy gravity by attaining a level higher than the rim of the glass. To experimentally demonstrate that this phenomenon is the result of surface tension, set the liquid level nearly as far above the glass rim as you can get it, using plain water. Add a drop of liquid detergent (the detergent contains additives that reduce the surface tension of water). Watch as the excess water runs over the side of the glass.

Problem 2.72

[2]

For a steel needle of length L, diameter D, density s, to float in water with surface tension and contact angle , the vertical force due to surface tension must equal or exceed the weight 2 L cos ( ) W = m g = D s L g 4

3 N 2

or

8 cos ( ) s g = 1000 kg m

3

= 72.8 10 SG = 7.83

= 0 deg

Hence

Hence D < 1.55 mm. Only the 1 mm needles float (needle length is irrelevant)

Problem 2.73

[5]

Plan an experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid similar to water. If necessary, review the NCFMF video Surface Tension for ideas. Which method would be most suitable for use in an undergraduate laboratory? What experimental precision could be expected? Open-Ended Problem Statement: Plan an experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid similar to water. If necessary, review the NCFMF video Surface Tension for ideas. Which method would be most suitable for use in an undergraduate laboratory? What experimental precision could be expected? Discussion: Two basic kinds of experiment are possible for an undergraduate laboratory:

1. Using a clear small-diameter tube, compare the capillary rise of the unknown liquid with that of a known liquid (compare with water, because it is similar to the unknown liquid). This method would be simple to set up and should give fairly accurate results. A vertical traversing optical microscope could be used to increase the precision of measuring the liquid height in each tube. A drawback to this method is that the specific gravity and co ntact angle of the two liquids must be the same to allow the capillary rises to be compared. The capillary rise would be largest and therefore easiest to measure accurately in a tube with the smallest practical diameter. Tubes of several diameters could be used if desired. 2. Dip an object into a pool of test liquid and measure the vertical force required to pull the object from the liquid surface. The object might be made rectangular (e.g., a sheet of plastic material) or circular (e.g., a metal ring). The net force needed to pull the same object from each liquid should be proportional to the surface tension of each liquid. This method would be simple to set up. However, the force magnitudes to be measured would be quite small. A drawback to this method is that the contact angles of the two liquids must be the same.

The first method is probably best for undergraduate laboratory use. A quantitative estimate of experimental measurement uncertainty is impossible without knowing details of the test setup. It might be reasonable to expect results accurate to within 10% of the true surface tension.

*Net force is the total vertical force minus the weight of the object. A buoyancy correction would be necessary if part of the object were submerged in the test liquid.

Problem 2.74

[2]

Problem 2.75

[2]

Basic equation

y y u = a + b + c

0=a U = a+b+c = 0 = du =0 dy

d y y b y b c a + b + c = + 2 c = + 2 2 dy b = 2 U

2

b + 2 c = 0

(2)

c = U

y y u = 2 U U

u y y = 2 U

Dimensionless Height

0.25

0.5

0.75

Dimensionless Velocity

Problem 2.76

[2]

Basic equation

y y u = a + b + c

3 2

a =0 b +c = U (1)

0 =

d y y b y b c a + b + c = + 3 c = + 3 3 dy U 2 b= 3 U 2

3

b + 3 c = 0

(2)

From 1 and 2

c=

Hence

u=

3 U y U y 2 2

u 3 y 1 y = U 2 2

Dimensionless Height

0.25

0.5

0.75

Dimensionless Velocity

Problem 2.77

[1]

Basic equation

V = M c c= k R T

and

M = 0.3

Hence

V = M c = M k R T V = 0.3 1.4 53.33 ft lbf 32.2 lbm ft 60 mph ( 60 + 460) R 2 lbm R ft lbf s 88 s

1 2

V = 229 mph

Problem 2.78

[2]

0.75

ft min

Basic equation

Geometry of and flow rate through garden hose At which point becomes turbulent

Re = Q =

V D = 2300 D V 4

2

We can combine these equations and eliminate V to obtain an expression for Re in terms of D Re = V D D 4 Q 4 Q = = = 2300 2 D D 4 Q 2300

3 N s 2

Hence

D =

2

= 1.94

slug ft

3

(Approximately)

= 1.25 10

ft N s m

2

2

= 2.61 10

4 lbf s 2

ft

Hence

D =

0.75 ft 4 1 min 1.94 slug ft lbf s 12 in 3 4 min slug ft 2300 60 s 1 ft 2.61 10 lbf s ft Dout = Din 4 Dout = 0.5 in Lturb L = L = 5 in D Din Dout Din

Linear ratios leads to the distance from Din at which D = 0.617 in Lturb = L D Din Dout Din

Lturb = 3.83 in

NOTE: For wrong flow rate, this does not apply! Flow will not become turbulent.

Problem 2.79

[3]

Data on supersonic aircraft Mach number; Point at which boundary layer becomes turbulent

V = M c M= V = c

and V k R T

c=

k R T

T = 223.5 K

2 1 2

M = 2700 10

3 m

hr

M = 2.5

For boundary layer transition, from Section 2-6 Then Retrans = V xtrans

We need to find the viscosity and density at this altitude and pressure. The viscosity depends on temperature only, but at 223.5 K = - 50oC, it is off scale of Fig. A.3. Instead we need to use formulas as in Appendix A At this altitude the density is (Table A.3)

1 2

= 0.02422 1.225

kg m

3

= 0.0297

kg m

3

For

b T 1+

S T

where

b = 1.458 10

kg m s K

1 2

S = 110.4 K

= 1.459 10

5 kg

m s

5 kg

= 1.459 10

5 N s 2

Hence

xtrans = 1.459 10

m s

500000

xtrans = 0.327 m

Problem 2.80

[2]

Data on water tube Reynolds number of flow; Temperature at which flow becomes turbulent

Basic equation

2 7 m

Re =

V D V D = m 1 s 0.005 m 7 2 s 9 10 m Re = 1389

and so

Re = 0.25

V D = 2300

2 7m

Problem 2.81

[2]

Type of oil, flow rate, and tube geometry Whether flow is laminar or turbulent

Data on SAE 30 oil SG or density is limited in the Appendix. We can Google it or use the following

3 N s 2 2 5 m

so

= 9 10

= 1 10 1 1 10

5

s = 900 kg m

3 2

= 9 10

3 N s 2

s m

2

kg m s N

2

kg m

3

Hence

SG =

water

3

SG = 0.9 m s

2

= g D V 4

2

9.81

N s kg m

= 8.829 10

3 N 3

Q =

so

6 3

V =

4 Q D

2 3 5m

10 m 1 1 1 mL 9 s

3 2

Q = 1.111 10 V = 0.0981 m s

4 1 1 1000 mm 5 m 1.11 10 s 1 m 12 mm V D Re = kg m 1

Re = 118

Problem 2.82

[2]

5 m 2

Then

V xtrans ft s

2 2

so

xtrans =

Retrans V

5 ft 2

10.8 1

2

= 0.8 10

= 8.64 10

m s

xtrans = 8.64 10 As the seaplane touches down: At 45oF = 7.2oC (Fig A.3) = 1.5 10

5 ft

500000

xtrans = 0.295 ft

5 m

10.8 1

2

ft s

2

= 1.62 10

4 ft

m s

xtrans = 1.62 10

4 ft

500000

xtrans = 0.552 ft

[3]

Given: Data on airliner Find: Sketch of speed versus altitude (M = const) Solution: Data on temperature versus height can be obtained from Table A.3 At 5.5 km the temperature is approximatel The speed of sound is obtained from c = where k = 1.4 R = 286.9 c = 318 We also have V = 700 or V = 194 km/hr m/s 252 K

k R T

J/kgK m/s

(Table A.6)

V = 677 km/hr At a height of 8 km NOTE: Realistically, the aiplane will fly to a maximum height of about 10 km! z (km)

4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

T (K)

262 259 256 249 243 236 230 223 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 219 221 223 225 227 250 271 256 220 181 181

c (m/s) V (km/hr)

325 322 320 316 312 308 304 299 295 295 295 295 295 295 295 295 295 295 296 298 299 300 302 317 330 321 297 269 269

713 709 704 695 686 677 668 658 649 649 649 649 649 649 649 649 649 649 651 654 657 660 663 697 725 705 653 592 592

750

650

600

Problem 2.84

How does an airplane wing develop lift? Open-Ended Problem Statement: How does an airplane wing develop lift?

[4]

Discussion: The sketch shows the cross-section of a typical airplane wing. The airfoil section is rounded at the front, curved across the top, reaches maximum thickness about a third of the way back, and then tapers slowly to a fine trailing edge. The bottom of the airfoil section is relatively flat. (The discussion below also applies to a symmetric airfoil at an angle of incidence that produces lift.)

It is both a popular expectation and an experimental fact that air flows more rapidly over the curved top surface of the airfoil section than along the relatively flat bottom. In the NCFMF video Flow Visualization, timelines placed in front of the airfoil indicate that fluid flows more rapidly along the top of the section than along the bottom. In the absence of viscous effects (this is a valid assumption outside the boundary layers on the airfoil) pressure falls when flow speed increases. Thus the pressures on the top surface of the airfoil where flow speed is higher are lower than the pressures on the bottom surface where flow speed does not increase. (Actual pressure profiles measured for a lifting section are shown in the NCFMF video Boundary Layer Control.) The unbalanced pressures on the top and bottom surfaces of the airfoil section create a net force that tends to develop lift on the profile.

Problem 3.1

[2]

Assuming ideal gas behavior: where, from Table A.6, for nitrogen

p V = MRT R = 297 J kg K

M =

D3 pV p = RT RT 6

25 10 N m

2 6

M =

M = 62.4 kg To determine wall thickness, consider a free body diagram for one hemisphere: F = 0 = p where c is the circumferential stress in the container Then p D p D t= = 4 D c 4 c

6 2

D c D t 4

t = 25 10

N m

2

0.75 m 4

1 210 10

m 6 N

t = 0.0223 m

t = 22.3 mm

Problem 3.2

[2]

Data on flight of airplane Pressure change in mm Hg for ears to "pop"; descent distance from 8000 m to cause ears to "pop."

Assume the air density is approximately constant constant from 3000 m to 2900 m. From table A.3 SL = 1.225 kg m

3

air = 0.7423 SL

air = 0.909

kg m

3

We also have from the manometer equation, Eq. 3.7 p = air g z Combining hHg = air Hg z = and also air SGHg H2O p = Hg g hHg z SGHg = 13.55 from Table A.2

hHg =

hHg = 6.72 mm

For the ear popping descending from 8000 m, again assume the air density is approximately constant constant, this time at 8000 m. From table A.3 air = 0.4292 SL We also have from the manometer equation air8000 g z8000 = air3000 g z3000 where the numerical subscripts refer to conditions at 3000m and 8000m. Hence z8000 = air3000 g air8000 g z3000 = air3000 air8000 z3000 z8000 = 0.909 0.526 100 m z8000 = 173 m air = 0.526 kg m

3

Problem 3.3

[3]

Given: Boiling points of water at different elevations Find: Change in elevation Solution: From the steam tables, we have the following data for the boiling point (saturation temperature) of water Tsat (oF) 195 185 p (psia) 10.39 8.39

The sea level pressure, from Table A.3, is pSL = Hence Tsat ( F) 195 185

o

14.696

psia

15000

12500

10000

From Table A.3 p/pSL Altitude (m) Altitude (ft) 0.7372 2500 8203 0.6920 3000 9843 0.6492 3500 11484 0.6085 4000 13124 0.5700 4500 14765

7500

5000

p/pSL

Then, any one of a number of Excel functions can be used to interpolate (Here we use Excel 's Trendline analysis) p/pSL 0.707 0.571 Altitude (ft) 9303 14640

9303 ft

The change in altitude is then 5337 ft Alternatively, we can interpolate for each altitude by using a linear regression between adjacent data points p/pSL Altitude (m) Altitude (ft) 2500 8203 3000 9843 2834 9299 p/pSL 0.6085 0.5700 0.5730 Altitude (m) 4000 4500 4461 Altitude (ft) 13124 14765 14637

For

0.7372 0.6920

Then

0.7070

Problem 3.4

[2]

Problem 3.5

[2]

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = patm g y y0

with

p y0 = patm

( )

p1 = patm + g h

and

F1 = p1 A = g h A

Fy = 0

F1 W = 0

W = F1 = g h A

p2 = patm + g H

and

F2 = p2 A = g H A

Fy = 0

F2 W F = 0

2

F = F 2 W = g H A g h A = g A ( H h)

D F = H2O SG g ( H h) 4

SG = 13.54 kg m F = 45.6 N

3

F = 1000

13.54 9.81

m s

2

N s kg m

Problem 3.6

[2]

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = g h

Then the pressure on the lower surface is pL = pinterface + g hL = patm + g SGoil hoil + hL For the cube V = 125 mL

1 3

V = 1.25 10

d = V

and the depth in water to the upper surface is hU = 0.3 m where hL is the depth in water to the lower surface A = d

2

hL = hU + d FL = pL A

A = 0.0025 m

2

FL FU W T = 0

or

T = FL FU W

F = FL FU = g SGoil hL hU A

and

T = F W

2

FU = 269.668 N Note: Extra decimals needed for computing T later!

SGoak = 0.77

so

W = SGoak g V m s

2 4

W = 0.77 1000

kg m

3

9.81

1.25 10

N s kg m

W = 0.944 N

T = FL FU W

T = 0.282 N

Problem 3.7

[1]

Given: Pressure and temperature data from balloon Find: Plot density change as a function of elevation Solution: Using the ideal gas equation, = p/RT

1.26

Density Distribution

1.24

p (kPa) 101.4 100.8 100.2 99.6 99.0 98.4 97.8 97.2 96.6 96.0 95.4

T ( C) 12.0 11.1 10.5 10.2 10.1 10.0 10.3 10.8 11.6 12.2 12.1

(kg/m ) 1.240 1.236 1.231 1.225 1.218 1.212 1.203 1.193 1.183 1.173 1.166

3

Density (kg/m3)

1.22

1.20

1.18

1.16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Elevation Point

Problem 3.8

[2]

Data on tire at 3500 m and at sea level Absolute pressure at 3500 m; pressure at sea level

At an elevation of 3500 m, from Table A.3: pSL = 101 kPa and we have pg = 0.25 MPa patm = 101 kPa patm = 0.6492 pSL pg = 250 kPa patm = 65.6 kPa p = pg + patm p = 316 kPa

At sea level

Meanwhile, the tire has warmed up, from the ambient temperature at 3500 m, to 25oC. At an elevation of 3500 m, from Table A.3 Tcold = 265.4 K and Thot = ( 25 + 273) K Thot = 298 K

Hence, assuming ideal gas behavior, pV = mRT, and that the tire is approximately a rigid container, the absolute pressure of the hot tire is phot = Then the gage pressure is pg = phot patm pg = 253 kPa Thot Tcold p phot = 354 kPa

Problem 3.9

[2]

Properties of a cube floating at an interface The pressures difference between the upper and lower surfaces; average cube density

The pressure difference is obtained from two applications of Eq. 3.7 pU = p0 + SAE10 g ( H 0.1 d) pL = p0 + SAE10 g H + H2O g 0.9 d

where pU and pL are the upper and lower pressures, p0 is the oil free surface pressure, H is the depth of the interface, and d is the cube size Hence the pressure difference is p = pL pU = H2O g 0.9 d + SAE10 g 0.1 d From Table A.2 SGSAE10 = 0.92 p = 999 kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

Ns kg m

p = 972 Pa

For the cube density, set up a free body force balance for the cube F = 0 = p A W Hence W = p A = p d cube = m d

3 2

W d g N m

2 3

p d d g

3

=

2

p d g cube = 991 kg m

3

cube = 972

1 0.1 m

s kg m 2 9.81 m Ns

Problem 3.10

[2]

Properties of a cube suspended by a wire in a fluid The fluid specific gravity; the gage pressures on the upper and lower surfaces

F = 0 = T + pL pU d M g

where M and d are the cube mass and size and pL and pU are the pressures on the lower and upper surfaces For each pressure we can use Eq. 3.7 Hence where H is the depth of the upper surface Hence the force balance gives SG = M g T H2O g d From Table A.1, the fluid is Meriam blue. The individual pressures are computed from Eq 3.7 p = p0 + g h or slug ft pg = 1.754 1.94

3 3

2

2

SG = 1.75

pg = g h = SG H2O h ft s 32.2

2

pg = 1.754 1.94

32.2

2 lbf s 1 ft ft slug ft 12 in 3 2

2

pg = 0.507 psi

2

slug ft

3

ft s

2

1 lbf s 1 ft + ft slug ft 12 in 3 2

pg = 0.888 psi

Note that the SG calculation can also be performed using a buoyancy approach (discussed later in the chapter): Consider a free body diagram of the cube: where M is the cube mass and FB is the buoyancy force T + SG H2O L g M g = 0

3

F = 0 = T + FB M g FB = SG H2O L g or SG = M g T H2O g L

3 3

Hence

as before

SG = 1.75

Problem 3.11

[2]

Basic equation

dp = sea g dy

p = R T =

M R T V

We assume the temperature is constant, and the density of sea water is constant

p = patm + SGsea g h

p =

M R T V

M R T = const = p V

Hence

p1 V1 = p2 V2

1 3

or

P1 V 2 = V 1 p2

1 3

or

3 3 p1 D2 = D1 p2 1 3

= D1

SGsea = 1.025

(This is at 68oF)

1 3

slug ft

3

32.2

ft s

2

100 ft

2 2 2

D2 = 0.477 in

Problem 3.12

[4]

Problem 3.13

Problem 3.13

Problem 3.14

[3]

Problem 3.15

[1]

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = g h

This equation only applies in the 6 in of coke in the straw - in the other 11 inches of air the pressure is essentially constant.

pcoke = g hcoke

Hence, with

hcoke = 6 in

because h is measured downwards slug ft pcoke = 31.2 lbf ft pcoke = 14.5 psi

2 3

pcoke = 1.94

32.2

ft s

2

6 in

1 ft lbf s 12 in slugft

gage

Problem 3.16

[2]

Basic equation

Data on water tank and inspection cover If the support bracket is strong enough; at what water depth would it fail

dp = g dy

p = g h

pbase = patm + g h

where

h = 5 m

pbase = g h

This is the pressure to use as we have patm on the outside of the cover.

4 2

F = pbase A F = g h A kg m F = 30.7 N

3

where

A = 2.5 cm 2.5 cm

A = 6.25 10

F = 1000

9.81

m s

2

5 m 6.25 10

N s kg m

The bracket is strong enough (it can take 40 N). To find the maximum depth we start with = 40 N F h= F g A m 1 s 1 1 kg m 1000 kg 9.81 m 6.25 10 4 m2 N s2 1

3 2

h = 40 N

h = 6.52 m

Problem 3.17

[4]

h = 39.3 mm

Problem 3.18

[2]

Data on partitioned tank Gage pressure of trapped air; pressure to make water and mercury levels equal

The pressure difference is obtained from repeated application of Eq. 3.7, or in other words, from Eq. 3.8. Starting from the right air chamber pgage = SGHg H2O g ( 3 m 2.9 m ) H2O g 1 m pgage = H2O g SGHg 0.1 m 1.0 m pgage = 999 kg m

3

)

N s kg m

2

9.81

m s

2

If the left air pressure is now increased until the water and mercury levels are now equal, Eq. 3.8 leads to pgage = SGHg H2O g 1.0 m H2O g 1.0 m pgage = H2O g SGHg 1 m 1.0 m pgage = 999 kg m

3

)

Ns kg m

2

9.81

m s

2

( 13.55 1 m 1.0 m)

Problem 3.19

[2]

Data on partitioned tank Pressure of trapped air required to bring water and mercury levels equal if right air opening is sealed

First we need to determine how far each free surface moves. In the tank of Problem 3.15, the ratio of cross section areas of the partitions is 0.75/3.75 or 1:5. Suppose the water surface (and therefore the mercury on the left) must move down distance x to bring the water and mercury levels equal. Then by mercury volume conservation, the mercury free surface (on the right) moves up (0.75/3.75)x = x/5. These two changes in level must cancel the original discrepancy in free surface levels, of (1m + 2.9m) - 3 m = 0.9 m. Hence x + x/5 = 0.9 m, or x = 0.75 m. The mercury level thus moves up x/5 = 0.15 m. Assuming the air (an ideal gas, pV=RT) in the right behaves isothermally, the new pressure there will be pright = Aright Lrightold Lrightold patm = patm = p Vrightnew Aright Lrightnew Lrightnew atm Vrightold

where V, A and L represent volume, cross-section area, and vertical length Hence pright = 3 101 kPa 3 0.15 pright = 106 kPa

When the water and mercury levels are equal application of Eq. 3.8 gives: pleft = pright + SGHg H2O g 1.0 m H2O g 1.0 m pleft = pright + H2O g SGHg 1.0 m 1.0 m pleft = 106 kPa + 999 pgage = pleft patm kg m

3

)

Ns kg m

2

9.81

m s

2

Problem 3.20

[2]

Problem 3.21

[2]

Problem 3.22

[2]

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = g h

Starting at p1

pA = p1 + SGA g ( h + l )

where l is the (unknown) distance from the level of the right interface

Next, from A to B

pB = pA SGB g h

p2 = pB SGA g l

p2 p1 = SGA SGB g h p1 p2

h=

(SGB SGA) g

lbf ft

2

h = 18

1 ( 2.95 0.88)

h = 0.139 ft

h = 1.67 in

Problem 3.23

[2]

Problem 3.24

[2]

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = g h

Starting at point a

p1 = pa g h1

where

h1 = 0.125 m + 0.25 m

h1 = 0.375 m

Next, in liquid A

p2 = p1 + SGA g h2

where

h2 = 0.25 m

Finally, in liquid B

patm = p2 SGB g h3

where

h3 = 0.9 m 0.4 m

h3 = 0.5 m

or in gage pressures

pa = g h1 SGA h2 + SGB h3

)

2

3

pa = 7.73 kPa

(gage)

Problem 3.25

[2]

Problem 3.26

[2]

Data on fluid levels in a tank Air pressure; new equilibrium level if opening appears

Using Eq. 3.8, starting from the open side and working in gage pressure pair = H2O g SGHg ( 0.3 0.1) m 0.1 m SGBenzene 0.1 m N s kg m

2

pair = 999

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

To compute the new level of mercury in the manometer, assume the change in level from 0.3 m is an increase of x. Then, because the volume of mercury is constant, the tank mercury level will fall by distance (0.025/0.25)2x. Hence, the gage pressure at the bottom of the tank can be computed from the left and the right, providing a formula for x

0.025 SGHg H2O g ( 0.3 m + x) = SGHg H2O g 0.1 m x m ... 0.25 + H2O g 0.1 m + SGBenzene H2O g 0.1 m

2

Hence

x =

x = 0.184 m (The negative sign indicates the manometer level actually fell) h = 0.116 m

Problem 3.27

[2]

Problem 3.28

[2]

Problem 3.29

[2]

Problem 3.30

[2]

Problem 3.31

[2]

Problem 3.32

[3]

Basic equation Under applied pressure From Table A.1 and p = 1 in. of water, or

dp = g dy

p = g h

3

where 9.81 m s

2

h = 25 mm N s kg m = L d D

2 2

h = 0.025 m

p = 245 Pa

x = L

(2)

2 d p = SGMer g L sin ( ) + L D

Solving for

sin ( ) =

d p SGMer g L D N m

2

sin ( ) = 245

1 0.827

= 11 deg The sensitivity is the ratio of manometer deflection to a vertical water manometer s= L h = 0.15 m 0.025 m s=6

Problem 3.33

[3]

Problem 3.34

Problem 3.34

Problem 3.35

[4]

Problem 3.36

[4]

Problem 3.37

[3]

Problem 3.38

[2]

Fluid 1

Fluid 2

Two fluids inside and outside a tube An expression for height h; find diameter for h < 10 mm for water/mercury

A free-body vertical force analysis for the section of fluid 1 height h in the tube below the "free surface" of fluid 2 leads to

F = 0 = p

D D 1 g h + D cos ( ) 4 4 p = 2 g h

2

Assumption: Neglect meniscus curvature for column height and volume calculations Hence p D D D D 1 g h = 2 g h 1 g h = D cos ( ) 4 4 4 4 4 cos ( ) g D 2 1

2 2 2

Solving for h

h =

For fluids 1 and 2 being water and mercury (for mercury = 375 mN/m and = 140o, from Table A.4), solving for D to make h = 10 mm D = 4 cos ( ) 4 cos ( ) = g h 2 1 g h H2O SGHg 1

)

2

4 0.375 D = 9.81 m s

2

3

kg m N s D = 0.93 mm D 1 mm

0.01 m 1000

( 13.6 1)

Problem 3.39

[2]

h1

Oil Air

h4

h2 Hg h3 x

Basic equation

dp = g dy

p = g h

)

(1)

( (

Note that the air pocket has no effect! For the final state, working from right to left patm = patm + SGHg g h3 x SGoil g h4 SGHg g h3 x = SGoil g h4 The two unknowns here are the mercury levels before and after (i.e., h3 and x) Combining Eqs. 1 and 2 From Table A.1 The term SGHg g x = SGoil g h1 + h2 h4 SGHg = 13.55 h1 + h2 h4 is the difference between the total height of oil before and after the accident V 4 1 1 1 m 3 cc = 0.0316 m 0.011 m 100 cm

2 3

(2)

x=

SGoil h + h2 h4 SGHg 1

(3)

h1 + h2 h4 =

d2 4

x =

1.67 13.55

0.0316 m

x = 3.895 10

x = 0.389 cm

p SL = R = =

The temperature can be computed from the data in the figure The pressures are then computed from the appropriate equation z (km) 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.1 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.2 34.0 36.0 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 47.3 50.0 52.4 54.0 56.0 58.0 60.0 61.6 64.0 66.0 68.0 70.0 72.0 74.0 76.0 78.0 80.0 82.0 84.0 86.0 88.0 90.0 T (oC) 15.0 2.0 -11.0 -24.0 -37.0 -56.5 -56.5 -56.5 -56.5 -56.5 -56.5 -54.6 -52.6 -50.6 -48.7 -46.7 -44.5 -39.5 -33.9 -28.4 -22.8 -17.2 -11.7 -6.1 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 -5.6 -9.5 -13.5 -17.4 -20.5 -29.9 -37.7 -45.5 -53.4 -61.2 -69.0 -76.8 -84.7 -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 T (K) 288.0 275.00 262.0 249.0 236.0 216.5 216.5 216.5 216.5 216.5 216.5 218.4 220.4 222.4 224.3 226.3 228.5 233.5 239.1 244.6 250.2 255.8 261.3 266.9 270.5 270.5 270.5 267.4 263.5 259.5 255.6 252.5 243.1 235.3 227.5 219.6 211.8 204.0 196.2 188.3 180.5 180.5 180.5 180.5 180.5 180.5 m = 0.0065 (K/m) p /p SL 1.000 0.784 0.608 0.465 0.351 0.223 0.190 0.139 0.101 0.0738 0.0530 0.0393 0.0288 0.0211 0.0155 0.0115 0.00824 0.00632 0.00473 0.00356 0.00270 0.00206 0.00158 0.00122 0.00104 0.000736 0.000544 0.000444 0.000343 0.000264 0.000202 0.000163 0.000117 0.0000880 0.0000655 0.0000482 0.0000351 0.0000253 0.0000180 0.0000126 0.00000861 0.00000590 0.00000404 0.00000276 0.00000189 0.00000130

From Table A.3 z (km) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 p /p SL 1.000 0.942 0.887 0.835 0.785 0.737 0.692 0.649 0.609 0.570 0.533 0.466 0.406 0.352 0.304 0.262 0.224 0.192 0.164 0.140 0.120 0.102 0.0873 0.0747 0.0638 0.0546 0.0400 0.0293 0.0216 0.0160 0.0118 0.00283 0.000787 0.000222 0.0000545 0.0000102 0.00000162

T = const

m = -0.000991736 (K/m)

m = -0.002781457 (K/m)

m = 0.003913043 (K/m)

T = const

1.00000 0 0.10000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0.01000

Pressure Ratio p /p SL

0.00100

Computed

0.00010

Table A.3

0.00001

0.00000

Elevation (km)

Agreement between calculated and tabulated data is very good (as it should be, considering the table data is also computed!)

= =

72.8 1000

mN/m kg/m3

Using the formula above a (mm) h (mm) 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 148 98.9 74.2 59.4 49.5 42.4 37.1 33.0 29.7 27.0 24.7 22.8 21.2 19.8 14.8 11.9 9.89 8.48 7.42

160

Height h (mm)

Gap a (mm)

Problem 3.42

[2]

Water

a) Tube: A free-body vertical force analysis for the section of water height h above the "free surface" in the tube, as shown in the figure, leads to

F = 0 = D cos ( ) g h

D 4

Assumption: Neglect meniscus curvature for column height and volume calculations 4 cos ( ) g D

Solving for h

h =

b) Parallel Plates: A free-body vertical force analysis for the section of water height h above the "free surface" between plates arbitrary width w (similar to the figure above), leads to

F = 0 = 2 w cos() g h w a

Solving for h h = 2 cos ( ) g a

For water = 72.8 mN/m and = 0o (Table A.4), so 4 0.0728 a) Tube h = 999 kg m b) Parallel Plates h = 999

3

N m 0.005 m N m 0.005 m

9.81

m s

2

kg m N s

2

h = 5.94 10

h = 5.94 mm

2 0.0728 kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

kg m N s

2

h = 2.97 10

h = 2.97 mm

Problem 3.43

[3]

Basic equation

Data on isothermal atmosphere Elevation changes for 2% and 10% density changes; plot of pressure and density versus elevation

dp = g dz

and

p = R T

Assumptions: static, isothermal fluid,; g = constant; ideal gas behavior Then dp p g = g = dz Rair T Rair T0 g and dp g = dz p Rair T

Integrating

z =

ln

p2 p1

2 1

where

T = T0 Rair T0 g

p2 p1

2 Rair T 1 Rair T

so

z =

ln

2 2 = C ln 1 1

(1)

2

Evaluating

C= 2 1 2 1 2 1

= 53.33

( 85 + 460) R

C = 29065 ft

so from Eq. 1

z = 29065 ft ln ( 0.98)

z = 587 ft

= 0.9

so from Eq. 1

z C

z = 29065 ft ln ( 0.9)

z = 3062 ft

To plot

p2 p1

and

2 1

we rearrange Eq. 1

p2 p1

=e

20000

15000

Elevation (ft)

10000

5000

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.9

Problem 3.44

Problem 3.44

Problem 3.45

Problem 3.45

Problem 3.46

Problem 3.46

Problem 3.47

Problem 3.47

Problem 3.47

Problem 3.48

Problem 3.48

Problem 3.48

Problem 3.49

[2]

Basic equation For point A Here we have

dp = g dy

p = g h pA = g h1 h1 = 0.2 m

pA = patm + g h1 h1 = 20 cm pA = 1000 kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

0.2 m

N s kg m

pA = 1962 Pa h2 = 10 cm

(gage)

2

where

13.55 1000

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

0.1 m

N s kg m

(gage)

Note that p = constant throughout the air pocket For point B pB = patm + SGHg g h3 pB = 11300 For point C N m

2

where kg m

3

h3 = 15 cm m s

2

h3 = 0.15 m

2

+ 13.55 1000

9.81

0.15 m

N s kg m

(gage)

2

where kg m

3

h4 = 25 cm m s

2

+ 13.55 1000

9.81

0.25 m

N s kg m

(gage)

where kg m

h5 = 15 cm

2

(gage)

Problem 3.50

[2]

Given: Find:

y a = 1.25 ft w FR SG = 2.5 b = 1 ft dy y

Solution:

Basic equation FR = p dA dp = g dy FR = pc A Ms = y' FR = y dFR = y p dA Ixx y' = yc + A yc

a a

but

dA = w dy and

w y = b a

w =

b y a

Hence

2 b b 2 SG g b a FR = SG g y y dy = SG g y dy = 3 a a 0 0

Alternatively Hence

FR = pc A FR = SG g b a 3

2

and

2 pc = SG g yc = SG g a 3

with

A =

1 a b 2

For y'

3 b 3 SG g b a y' FR = y p dA = SG g y dy = 4 a 0

y' =

SG g b a 3 = a 4 FR 4

Alternatively

Ixx y' = yc + A yc 2

3

and

b a Ixx = 36

(Google it!)

b a 2 3 3 y' = a + = a 36 a b 2 a 3 4 Using given data, and SG = 2.5 (Table A.1) and lbf s FR = 1.94 32.2 1 ft ( 1.25 ft) 3 2 slug ft 3 ft s 3 y' = a y' = 0.938 ft 4 2.5 slug ft

2 2

FR = 81.3 lbf

Problem 3.51

[3]

Given: Find:

h H = 25 ft A R = 10 ft y B FA y z x

Solution:

Basic equation FR = p dA dp = g dh FR = pc A Mz = 0 Ixx y' = yc + A yc where y would be measured from the free surface

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; door is in equilibrium Instead of using either of these approaches, we note the following, using y as in the sketch Mz = 0 1 y g h dA R FA R = y p dA with p = g h (Gage pressure, since p = patm on other side) h = Hy

FA =

with

dA = r dr d

and

y = r sin ( )

Hence

3 4 2 H R2 R3 R g 2 H R = g FR = 8 8 R 3 3

FR = 1.94

slug ft

3

32.2

FR = 7.96 10 lbf

Problem 3.52

[3]

This is a problem with atmospheric pressure on both sides of the plate, so we can first determine the location of the center of pressure with respect to the free surface, using Eq.3.11c (assuming depth H) Ixx y' = yc + A yc where L = 1 m is the plate height and w is the plate width L y' = H + 2 L L = H + 2 L L 12 H 12 w L H 2 2 w L

3 2

and

Ixx =

w L 12

with

yc = H

L 2

Hence

But for equilibrium, the center of force must always be at or below the level of the hinge so that the stop can hold the gate in place. Hence we must have y' > H 0.45 m L Combining the two equations H + 2

2

12 H

L 2

H 0.45 m

Solving for H

L + 2

L 12 0.45 m 2

1 m + 2

( 1 m)

1 m 12 0.45 m 2

H 2.17 m

Problem 3.53

[3]

Given: Find:

h y dF W w=2m L/2 L=3m

Solution:

Basic equation FR = p dA dp = g dh FR = pc A MO = 0 Ixx y' = yc + A yc

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; door is in equilibrium Instead of using either of these approaches, we note the following, using y as in the sketch L W cos ( ) = y dF 2 with p = g h = g y sin( ) (Gage pressure, since p = patm on other side)

MO = 0 We also have dF = p dA 2

Hence

W =

W =

2 3

1000

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

2 m ( 3 m ) tan( 30 deg)

N s kg m

W = 68 kN

Problem 3.54

Problem 3.54

Problem 3.55

[1]

FR = p dA FR = pc A

dp = g dh

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; cup does not crack! The force on the half-cup is the same as that on a rectangle of size FR = p dA = g y dA Hence g w h FR = g y w dy = 0 2 FR = pc A FR = and

h 2

h = 3 in

and

w = 2.5 in

but

dA = w dy

Alternatively

h g w h FR = pc A = g yc A = g h w = 2 2

3 2

FR = 0.407 lbf

Hence a teacup is being forced apart by about 0.4 lbf: not much of a force, so a paper cup works!

Problem 3.56

Problem 3.56

Problem 3.57

[3]

Basic equation

Ry Rx

FR = p dA FR = pc A

dp = g dh

FR

Fn

The force on each gate is the same as that on a rectangle of size FR = p dA = g y dA Hence g w h FR = g y w dy = 0 2 FR = pc A FR = 1 2 1000 kg m

3 h 2

h = D = 10 m

and

w =

W 2 cos ( 15 deg)

but

dA = w dy

Alternatively

and m s

2

h g w h FR = pc A = g yc A = g h w = 2 2 34 m 2 cos ( 15 deg) ( 10 m )

2

9.81

N s kg m

FR = 8.63 MN

For the force components Rx and Ry we do the following w Mhinge = 0 = FR Fn w sin( 15 deg) 2 Fx = 0 = FR cos ( 15 deg) Rx = 0 Fy = 0 = Ry FR sin( 15 deg) + Fn = 0 R = ( 8.34 MN , 14.4 MN) Fn = FR 2 sin ( 15 deg) Fn = 16.7 MN Rx = 8.34 MN Ry = 14.4 MN

Problem 3.58

[2]

Problem 3.59

[2]

Problem 3.60

[2]

Problem 3.61

[1]

The explanation is as follows: It is true that the pressure in the entire tire is the same everywhere. However, the tire at the top of the hub will be essentially circular in cross-section, but at the bottom, where the tire meets the ground, the cross section will be approximately a flattened circle, or elliptical. Hence we can explain that the lower cross section has greater upward force than the upper cross section has downward force (providing enough lift to keep the car up) two ways. First, the horizontal projected area of the lower ellipse is larger than that of the upper circular cross section, so that net pressure times area is upwards. Second, any time you have an elliptical cross section that's at high pressure, that pressure will always try to force the ellipse to be circular (thing of a round inflated balloon - if you squeeze it it will resist!). This analysis ignores the stiffness of the tire rubber, which also provides a little lift.

Problem 3.62

[3]

Problem 3.63

[3]

L D y F1

Ixx = bD 12

3

Basic equation

dp = g dh FR = pc A

Mz = 0 Ixx y' = yc + A yc

Computing equations

F2

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; no friction in hinge For incompressible fluid p = g h where p is gage pressure and h is measured downwards

The force on the vertical gate (gate 1) is the same as that on a rectangle of size h = D and width w Hence The location of this force is D g w D F1 = pc A = g yc A = g D w = 2 2

3 Ixx 1 D w D 2 2 y' = yc + = + = D 12 w D D A yc 2 3 2

The force on the horizontal gate (gate 2) is due to constant pressure, and is at the centroid F2 = p ( y = D) A = g D w L Summing moments about the hinge L 2 L Mhinge = 0 = F1 ( D y') + F2 = F1 D D + F2 2 3 2 F 1 D 3 = g w D D L L = F 2 = g D w L 2 3 2 2

3 2 2

g w D g D w L = 6 2 D = 3 L = 3 5ft

D = 8.66 ft

Problem 3.64

[3]

Given: Find:

Geometry of gate

y D

h y

Solution:

Basic equation dp = g dh Mz = 0

3

FR

FA

Computing equations

FR = pc A

Ixx y' = yc + A yc

Ixx =

w L 12

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; no friction in hinge For incompressible fluid p = g h where p is gage pressure and h is measured downwards

The hydrostatic force on the gate is that on a rectangle of size L and width w. Hence L FR = pc A = g hc A = g D + sin( 30 deg) L w 2 FR = 1000 kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

1.5 +

3 N s sin( 30 deg) m 3 m 3 m kg m 2

FR = 199 kN

Ixx The location of this force is given by y' = yc + where y' and y are measured along the plane of the gate to the free surface A yc c L 3 m D 1.5 m yc = + yc = + yc = 4.5 m 2 sin ( 30 deg) 2 sin ( 30 deg)

3 2 2 Ixx 1 1 w L L ( 3 m) y' = yc + = yc + = yc + = 4.5 m + 12 yc 12 4.5 m 12 w L yc A yc

y' = 4.67 m

D F L MH = 0 = FR y' A sin ( 30 deg) D y' sin ( 30 deg) FA = FR L 1.5 4.67 sin ( 30 deg) FA = 199 kN 3

FA = 111 kN

Problem 3.65

[3]

Problem 3.66

[4]

Various dam cross-sections Which requires the least concrete; plot cross-section area A as a function of

For each case, the dam width b has to be large enough so that the weight of the dam exerts enough moment to balance the moment due to fluid hydrostatic force(s). By doing a moment balance this value of b can be found a) Rectangular dam Straightforward application of the computing equations of Section 3-5 yields D 1 2 FH = pc A = g w D = g D w 2 2

3 Ixx w D D 2 y' = yc + = + = D A yc 2 3 D 12 w D 2

so Also

y = D y' =

D 3

m = cement g b D w = SG g b D w

M0. = 0 = FH y + 2 m g

b

so

1 g D2 w D = b ( SG g b D w) 2 3 2

b= D 3 SG D

2

Solving for b

A = b D =

2

3 SG = D

2

A =

3 SG

3 2.4

A = 0.373 D

a) Triangular dams Instead of analysing right-triangles, a general analysis is made, at the end of which right triangles are analysed as special cases by setting = 0 or 1. Straightforward application of the computing equations of Section 3-5 yields D 1 2 FH = pc A = g w D = g D w 2 2

3 Ixx w D D 2 y' = yc + = + = D A yc 2 3 D 12 w D 2

so

y = D y' =

D 3 b D 1 w = g b D w 2 2 x = ( b b) + 2 b = b 1 3 3

Also

FV = V g = g

M0. = 0 = FH y + FV x + m1 g x1 + m2 g x2

so 1 1 2 D g D w + g b D w b 1 ... 3 2 3 2 1 SG g b D w b 1 2 + 1 SG g ( 1 ) b D w 2 b ( 1 ) + 3 2 2 3 b= =0

Solving for b

(3 ) + SG (2 )

2

For a right triangle with the hypotenuse in contact with the water, = 1, D 3 1 + SG D 3 1 + 2.4 A = b D 2 = 0.238 D

2

and

b = 0.477 D

b=

A = 0.238 D

For a right triangle with the vertical in contact with the water, = 0, and

b=

D 2 SG

D 2 2.4

b = 0.456 D

A =

b D 2 = 0.228 D 2 D

2

A = 0.228 D

b D A = = 2

2 D

(3 2) + SG (2 )

2 2

A = 2

(3 2) + 2.4 (2 )

A =

2 4.8 + 0.6

From the corresponding Excel workbook, the minimum area occurs at = 0.3 Amin = D

2

A = 0.226 D

2

The final results are that a triangular cross-section with = 0.3 uses the least concrete; the next best is a right triangle with the vertical in contact with the water; next is the right triangle with the hypotenuse in contact with the water; and the cross-section requiring the most concrete is the rectangular cross-section.

Solution:

The triangular cross-sections are considered in this workbook

Dimensionless Area A /D 2

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

A /D

0.2282 0.2270 0.2263 0.2261 0.2263 0.2270 0.2282 0.2299 0.2321 0.2349 0.2384

0.240 0.238 0.236 0.234 0.232 0.230 0.228 0.226

2

0.224 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Coefficient

0.2261

Problem 3.67

[3]

Mg y y F1 F2

Given: Find:

Block hinged and floating SG of the wood

Solution:

Basic equation Computing equations dp = g dh FR = pc A Mz = 0 Ixx y' = yc + A yc

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side; no friction in hinge For incompressible fluid p = g h where p is gage pressure and h is measured downwards

The force on the vertical section is the same as that on a rectangle of height d and width L Hence The location of this force is d g L d F1 = pc A = g yc A = g d L = 2 2 3 Ixx 1 d L d 2 2 y' = yc + = + = d 12 L d d A yc 2 3

2

The force on the horizontal section is due to constant pressure, and is at the centroid F2 = p ( y = d ) A = g d L L Summing moments about the hinge Hence L L Mhinge = 0 = F1 ( d y') F2 + M g 2 2 F 1 d 2 3

4

L 3 L d + F2 = SG L g 2 2

2

SG g L g L d d 2 L = + g d L 2 2 3 2 1 d d SG = + 3 L L SG = 1 0.5 0.5 + 3 1 1

3 3

SG = 0.542

Problem 3.68

[2]

Given: Find:

Solution:

Basic equation dp = g dh

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant For incompressible fluid p = patm + g h where h is measured downwards from the free surface

The force on each horizontal section (depth d = 1 ft and width w = 10 ft) is F = p A = patm + g h d w Hence the total force is FT = patm + patm + g h + patm + g 2 h + patm + 3 g h + patm + g 4 h d w

) ( )

lbf in

2

) (

) (

12 in

FT = 1.12 10 lbf

Problem 3.69

[2]

Given: Find:

Solution:

Basic equation dp = g dh

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; since we are asked for the force of water, we use gage pressures For incompressible fluid p = g h where p is gage pressure and h is measured downwards from the free surface

The force on each horizontal section (depth d and width w) is F = p A = g h d w Hence the total force is (allowing for the fact that some faces experience an upwards (negative) force) FT = p A = g h d w = g d h w Starting with the top and working downwards kg m

3

FT = 1000

9.81

m s

2

1 m [ ( 1 m 4 m ) + ( 2 m 2 m ) ( 3 m 2 m ) ( 4 m 4 m ) ]

Ns kg m

FT = 137 kN The negative sign indicates a net upwards force (it's actually a buoyancy effect on the three middle sections)

Problem 3.70

Problem 3.70

Problem 3.71

Problem 3.71

Problem 3.72

[2]

Problem 3.73

[2]

Problem 3.74

[2]

Problem 3.75

[3]

Problem 3.76

[4]

Given: Find:

Solution:

Basic equations dp = g dh MA = 0

x D FV A R FB WGate

y R/2 W1 FH y

4R/3

F1

Assumptions: static fluid; = constant; patm on other side p = g h

We need to compute force (including location) due to water on curved surface and underneath. For curved surface we could integrate pressure, but here we use the concepts that FV (see sketch) is equivalent to the weight of fluid above, and FH is equivalent to the force on a vertical flat plate. Note that the sketch only shows forces that will be used to compute the moment at A FV = W1 W2 N s W1 = g w D R = 1000 9.81 3 m 4.5 m 3 m 3 2 kg m m s kg m W2 = g w R kg m 2 N s = 1000 9.81 3 m ( 3 m) 3 2 4 kg m 4 m s FV = 189 kN W1 R W2 4 R Fv 2 Fv 3

2 2 2

For FV

with

W1 = 397 kN

W2 = 208 kN

FV = W1 W2 R 4 R FV x = W1 W2 2 3 x = 397 189

with x given by

or

x=

3 m 208 4 3 m 2 189 3 FH = pc A

For FH

Computing equations

Hence

R FH = pc A = g D w R 2 FH = 1000 kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

4.5 m

3 m N s 3 m 3 m kg m 2

FH = 265 kN

3 2 Ixx w R 1 R R R y' = yc + = D + = D + 12 A yc 2 2 R R 12 D w R D 2 2

y' = 4.5 m

3 m + 2

( 3 m)

12 4.5 m

3 m 2

y' = 3.25 m

3

9.81

m s

2

4.5 m 3 m 3 m

N s kg m

F1 = 397 kN

2 2

WGate = SG g w

WGate = 499 kN

FB R + F1

FB =

FB =

FB = 278 kN

Problem 3.77

[3]

Problem 3.78

[3]

Problem 3.79

[4]

Sphere with different fluids on each side Resultant force and direction

The horizontal and vertical forces due to each fluid are treated separately. For each, the horizontal force is equivalent to that on a vertical flat plate; the vertical force is equivalent to the weight of fluid "above". For horizontal forces, the computing equation of Section 3-5 is FH = pc A where A is the area of the equivalent vertical plate. For vertical forces, the computing equation of Section 3-5 is FV = g V where V is the volume of fluid above the curved surface. The data is For water For the fluids For the weir (a) Horizontal Forces For fluid 1 (on the left) D 1 2 FH1 = pc A = 1 g D L = SG1 g D L 2 2 FH1 = 1 kg m N s 2 1.6 999 9.81 ( 3 m ) 6 m 3 2 kg m 2 m s

2

= 999

kg m

3

SG1 = 1.6 D = 3 m

SG2 = 0.8 L = 6 m

FH1 = 423 kN

3

9.81

m s

2

( 3 m) 6 m

N s kg m

FH2 = 52.9 kN

FH = FH1 FH2

FH = 370 kN

For the left geometry, a "thought experiment" is needed to obtain surfaces with fluid "above"

Hence

FV1 = SG1 g

D 4

2 kg m

3

L ( 3 m) N s 6 m 8 kg m

2 2

FV1 = 1.6 999 (Note: Use of buoyancy leads to the same result!) For the right side, using a similar logic

9.81

m s

2

FV1 = 333 kN

FV2 = SG2 g

D 4

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

( 3 m) N s 6 m 16 kg m

FV2 = 83.1 kN

FV = FV1 + FV2

FV = 416 kN

2 2

= atan

FV FH

Problem 3.80

[3]

Problem 3.81

Problem 3.81

Problem 3.82

Problem 3.82

Problem 3.82

Problem 3.83

[3]

Problem 3.84

Problem 3.84

Problem 3.85

Problem 3.85

Problem 3.86

[4]

The x, y and z components of force due to the fluid are treated separately. For the x, y components, the horizontal force is equivalent to that on a vertical flat plate; for the z component, (vertical force) the force is equivalent to the weight of fluid above. For horizontal forces, the computing equation of Section 3-5 is FH = pc A where A is the area of the equivalent vertical plate. For the vertical force, the computing equation of Section 3-5 is FV = g V where V is the volume of fluid above the curved surface. The data is For water For the fluid (Table A.2) For the aquarium (a) Horizontal Forces Consider the x component The center of pressure of the glass is yc = H 4 R 3 yc = 9.36 m = 999 kg m

3

SG = 1.025 R = 1.5 m H = 10 m

Hence

R FHx = pc A = SG g yc 4

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

9.36 m

( 1.5 m) N s 4 kg m

FHx = 166 kN

The y component is of the same magnitude as the x component FHy = FHx The resultant horizontal force (at 45o to the x and y axes) is

2 2

FHy = 166 kN

FH =

FHx + FHy

FH = 235 kN

(b) Vertical forces The vertical force is equal to the weight of fluid above (a volume defined by a rectangular column minus a segment of a sphere)

2 4 R 3

3

The volume is

V =

R H 4

V = 15.9 m

3 2

Then

FV = SG g V

FV = 1.025 999

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

15.9 m

N s kg m

FV = 160 kN

2 2

F = 284 kN

= atan

FV FH

= 34.2 deg

Note that is the angle the resultant force makes with the horizontal

Problem *3.87

[3]

Basic equation

Data on sphere and weight SG of sphere; equilibrium position when freely floating

T FB

F B = g V where

and

Fz = 0 M = 10 kg

Fz = 0 = T + FB W F B = g SG = 1 M + V 2 SG = 0.9 V 2 W = SG g V

T = M g

Hence

M g + g

V SG g V = 0 2 m 1000 kg

3

SG = 10 kg

1 0.025 m

3

1 2

Weight SG g V = = SG g Volume V

= 0.9 1000

kg m

3

9.81

m s

2

N s kg m

= 8829

N m

3

For the equilibriul position when floating, we repeat the force balance with T = 0 FB W = 0 W = FB with FB = g Vsubmerged

2

h Vsubmerged = ( 3 R h ) 3 3 V R = 4

2 1 3

3 3 R = 0.025 m 4

2

1 3

R = 0.181 m

Hence

h W = SG g V = FB = g ( 3 R h ) 3 h ( 3 0.181 m h ) =

2

h ( 3 R h ) =

3 SG V

3 0.9 .025 m

h ( 0.544 h ) = 0.0215

This is a cubic equation for h. We can keep guessing h values, manually iterate, or use Excel's Goal Seek to find

h = 0.292 m

Problem 3.88

[2]

Problem *3.89

[2]

Problem *3.90

[2]

Problem *3.91

[2]

Problem *3.92

[2]

The data is

Geometry of steel cylinder Volume of water displaced; number of 1 kg wts to make it sink

= 999

kg m

3

4 3

D 2 4

Vsteel = 3.22 10

3

9.81

m s

2

3.22 10

N s kg m

W = 24.7 N

At equilibium, the weight of fluid displaced is equal to the weight of the cylinder Wdisplaced = g Vdisplaced = W W m s kg m Vdisplaced = = 24.7 N 2 999 kg 9.81 m g N s

3 2

Vdisplaced = 2.52 L

To determine how many 1 kg wts will make it sink, we first need to find the extra volume that will need to be dsiplaced Distance cylinder sank x1 = Vdisplaced x1 = 0.321 m

D2 4

2

x2 = H x1

x2 = 0.679 m

1 kg n g = g

2

n = 5.33

Problem *3.93

[2]

V y

FB

FD

W = Mg

Basic equation

FB = g V = g FB = 1.94 slug ft

3

3 d 6 ft s

2

and

Fy = M ay

3

Fy = 0 = FB FD W

2

11

32.2

FB = 1.89 10

lbf

FB FD W = 0

FD = 3 V d = FB

where we have ignored W, the weight of the bubble (at STP most gases are about 1/1000 the density of water)

5 lbf s 2

Hence

V =

FB 3 d

11

with

= 2.10 10

2

ft

V = 1.89 10

lbf

V = 1.15 10

3 ft

As noted by Professor Kline in the film "Flow Visualization", bubbles rise slowly!

Problem *3.94

[2]

Gas bubbles are released from the regulator of a submerged scuba diver. What happens to the bubbles as they rise through the seawater? Explain.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Gas bubbles are released from the regulator of a submerged Scuba diver. What happens to the bubbles as they rise through the seawater? Discussion: Air bubbles released by a submerged diver should be close to ambient pressure at the depth where the diver is swimming. The bubbles are small compared to the depth of submersion, so each bubble is exposed to essentially constant pressure. Therefore the released bubbles are nearly spherical in shape. The air bubbles are buoyant in water, so they begin to rise toward the surface. The bubbles are quite light, so they reach terminal speed quickly. At low speeds the spherical shape should be maintained. At higher speeds the bubble shape may be distorted. As the bubbles rise through the water toward the surface, the hydrostatic pressure decreases. Therefore the bubbles expand as they rise. As the bubbles grow larger, one would expect the tendency for distorted bubble shape to be exaggerated.

Problem *3.86

Problem *3.95

[2]

Problem *3.96

[3]

Basic equation

Data on hot air balloon Volume of balloon for neutral buoyancy; additional volume for initial acceleration of 0.8 m/s2.

FB = atm g V

and

Fy = M ay

Hence

Fy = 0 = FB Whotair Wload = atm g V hotair g V M g V = M = atm hotair M patm R Tatm patm R Thotair

2

M R patm

1 1 T Thotair atm

1 1 V = 2027 m

3

1 1 ( 9 + 273) K ( 70 + 273) K

a M 1 + R M g + M a g Vnew = = 1 2 a atm hotair g 2 hotair a 1 patm T Thotair Thotair g atm Vnew = 450 kg 1 +

3

V = Vnew V V = 6884 m To make the balloon move up or down during flight, the air needs to be heated to a higher temperature, or let cool (or let in ambient air).

Vnew = 8911 m

Problem *3.97

[4]

Problem *3.98

[3]

Problem 3.99

[3]

Given: Find:

(L + c)/2

L/2 c

Solution:

Basic equations MHinge = 0 FB = g V (Buoyancy)

FBR FBB WR L WB

The free body diagram is as shown. FBB and FBR are the buoyancy of the block and rod, respectively; c is the (unknown) exposed length of the rod

with WB = MB g

FBB = g VB

Combining equations

(MB VB) L A (L c)

A L c

) = 2 MB VB + 1 MR L

c=

2 L 1 MB VB + MR A 2

3 2

c =

( 5 m) 2 5 m

c = 1.58 m a c a = asin c

Then

sin ( ) =

with

a = 0.25 m

= 9.1 deg

Problem *3.100

[3]

Problem 3.101

[2]

Given: Find:

Geometry of rod How much of rod is submerged; force to lift rod out of water

(L + c)/2

L/2 c

Solution:

Basic equations MHinge = 0 F B = g V (Buoyancy)

FBR WR L

The free body diagram is as shown. FBR is the buoyancy of the rod; c is the (unknown) exposed length of the rod

FBR with

FBR = g ( L c) A

Hence

A ( L c)

( L + c) L + MR = 0 2 2

A L c

) = MR L

c =

3 2

c =

( 5 m ) 5 m

c = 4.74 m

L c = 0.257 m

To lift the rod out of the water requires a force equal to half the rod weight (the reaction also takes half the weight) N s F = MR g = 1.25 kg 9.81 2 kg m 2 2 s 1 1 m

2

F = 6.1 N

Problem *3.102

[4]

Problem *3.103

FB H = 2 ft W

[2]

h = 1 in.

Basic equation

FB = g Vsub

and

Fy = 0

Fy = 0 = FB W

where

FB = g Vsub = g Asub L

W = SG g V = SG g A L R ( sin( ) ) 2

2

Asub =

Hence

R 2 ( sin( ) ) L = SG g R L 2

sin( ) = 2 SG = 2 0.8

This equation can be solved by manually iterating, or by using a good calculator, or by using Excel's Goal Seek = 239 deg R + R cos

and also

Hence

R = 1.28 ft

Solving for R

R =

Hh

1 + cos 180deg

D = 2 R

D = 2.57 ft

Problem *3.104

[4]

Basic equations

Data on sphere and tank bottom Expression for SG of sphere at which it will float to surface; minimum SG to remain in position

FU

FB

F B = g V

and

Fy = 0

Fy = 0 = FL FU + FB W

FL

where FL = patm a

2

FU = patm + g ( H 2 R) a 4 3 2 R a 2 R 3

FB = g Vnet

Vnet =

W = SG g V

with

V =

4 3 R 3

Note that we treat the sphere as a sphere with SG, and for fluid effects a sphere minus a cylinder (buoyancy) and cylinder with hydrostatic pressures 4 4 2 2 3 2 3 patm a patm + g ( H 2 R) a + g R 2 R a SG g R = 0 3 3 SG = 4 2 3 2 g ( H 2 R) a + g R 2 R a 3 4 g R 3

3

Hence

Solving for SG

SG = 1

3 H a 4 R3 3 4

SG = 1

2.5 ft 0.075 in

1 ft 1 12 in 12 in 1 in 1 ft

SG = 0.873

This is the minimum SG to remain submerged; any SG above this and the sphere remains on the bottom; any SG less than this and the sphere rises to the surface

Problem *3.105

[4]

Problem *3.106

[3]

Basic equations

Floating H = 8 ft

Sinking

h = 7 ft

F B = g V and Fy = 0

We can apply the sum of forces for the "floating" free body Fy = 0 = FB W where FB = SGsea g Vsubfloat

= 60o

2

1 2 h L h h L = tan( ) 2 tan

SGsea = 1.024

(Table A.2)

Hence

(1)

We can apply the sum of forces for the "sinking" free body Fy = 0 = FB W SGmix g L H W= tan( )

2

where

FB = SGmix g Vsub

Vsubsink =

1 2 H L H H L = tan( ) 2 tan

Hence

(2)

2

7 SGmix = 1.024 8

3

The density is

mix = SGmix

slug ft

3

mix = 1.52

Problem *3.107

FB

[2]

F 7 in.

D = 4 in. 1 in. W

3 in.

Basic equation

F B = g V

and

Fy = 0

Fy = 0 = FB F W

Hence

F = FB W FB = SGBXYB g Vsub W = SGbowl g Vbowl F = SGBXYB g Vbowl + Vair SGbowl g Vbowl F = g SGBXYB Vbowl + Vair SGbowl Vbowl slug ft F = 34.2 lbf

3

with

Hence

F = 1.94

32.2

ft s

2

15.6 56 in + ( 3 1) in

Problem *3.108

[4]

Consider a conical funnel held upside down and submerged slowly in a container of water. Discuss the force needed to submerge the funnel if the spout is open to the atmosphere. Compare with the force needed to submerge the funnel when the spout opening is blocked by a rubber stopper.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Consider a conical funnel held upside down and submerged slowly in a container of water. Discuss the force needed to submerge the funnel if the spout is open to the atmosphere. Compare with the force needed to submerge the funnel when the spout opening is blocked by a rubber stopper. Discussion: Let the weight of the funnel in air be Wa. Assume the funnel is held with its spout vertical and the conical section down. Then Wa will also be vertical. Two possible cases are with the funnel spout open to atmosphere or with the funnel spout sealed. With the funnel spout open to atmosphere, the pressures inside and outside the funnel are equal, so no net pressure force acts on the funnel. The force needed to support the funnel will remain constant until it first contacts the water. Then a buoyancy force will act vertically upward on every element of volume located beneath the water surface. The first contact of the funnel with the water will be at the widest part of the conical section. The buoyancy force will be caused by the volume formed by the funnel thickness and diameter as it begins to enter the water. The buoyancy force will reduce the force needed to support the funnel. The buoyancy force will increase as the depth of submergence of the funnel increases until the funnel is fully submerged. At that point the buoyancy force will be constant and equal to the weight of water displaced by the volume of the material from which the funnel is made. If the funnel material is less dense than water, it would tend to float partially submerged in the water. The force needed to support the funnel would decrease to zero and then become negative (i.e., down) to fully submerge the funnel. If the funnel material were denser than water it would not tend to float even when fully submerged. The force needed to support the funnel would decrease to a minimum when the funnel became fully submerged, and then would remain constant at deeper submersion depths. With the funnel spout sealed, air will be trapped inside the funnel. As the funnel is submerged gradually below the water surface, it will displace a volume equal to the volume of the funnel material plus the volume of trapped air. Thus its buoyancy force will be much larger than when the spout is open to atmosphere. Neglecting any change in air volume (pressures caused by submersion should be small compared to atmospheric pressure) the buoyancy force would be from the entire volume encompassed by the outside of the funnel. Finally, when fully submerged, the volume of the rubber stopper (although small) will also contribute to the total buoyancy force acting on the funnel.

Problem *3.109

[4]

In the Cartesian diver childs toy, a miniature diver is immersed in a column of liquid. When a diaphragm at the top of the column is pushed down, the diver sinks to the bottom. When the diaphragm is released, the diver again rises. Explain how the toy might work.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: In the Cartesian diver child's toy, a miniature diver is immersed in a column of liquid. When a diaphragm at the top of the column is pushed down, the diver sinks to the bottom. When the diaphragm is released, the diver again rises. Explain how the toy might work. Discussion: A possible scenario is for the toy to have a flexible bladder that contains air. Pushing down on the diaphragm at the top of the liquid column would increase the pressure at any point in the liquid. The air in the bladder would be compressed slightly as a result. The volume of the bladder, and therefore its buoyancy, would decrease, causing the diver to sink to the bottom of the liquid column. Releasing the diaphragm would reduce the pressure in the water column. This would allow the bladder to expand again, increasing its volume and therefore the buoyancy of the diver. The increased buoyancy would permit the diver to rise to the top of the liquid column and float in a stable, partially submerged position, on the surface of the liquid.

Problem *3.110

[4]

A proposed ocean salvage scheme involves pumping air into bags placed within and around a wrecked vessel on the sea bottom. Comment on the practicality of this plan, supporting your conclusions with analyses.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: A proposed ocean salvage scheme involves pumping air into bags placed within and around a wrecked vessel on the sea bottom. Comment on the practicality of this plan, supporting your conclusions with analyses. Discussion: This plan has several problems that render it impractical. First, pressures at the sea bottom are very high. For example, Titanic was found in about 12,000 ft of seawater. The corresponding pressure is nearly 6,000 psi. Compressing air to this pressure is possible, but would require a multi-stage compressor and very high power. Second, it would be necessary to manage the buoyancy force after the bag and object are broken loose from the sea bed and begin to rise toward the surface. Ambient pressure would decrease as the bag and artifact rise toward the surface. The air would tend to expand as the pressure decreases, thereby tending to increase the volume of the bag. The buoyancy force acting on the bag is directly proportional to the bag volume, so it would increase as the assembly rises. The bag and artifact thus would tend to accelerate as they approach the sea surface. The assembly could broach the water surface with the possibility of damaging the artifact or the assembly. If the bag were of constant volume, the pressure inside the bag would remain essentially constant at the pressure of the sea floor, e.g., 6,000 psi for Titanic. As the ambient pressure decreases, the pressure differential from inside the bag to the surroundings would increase. Eventually the difference would equal sea floor pressure. This probably would cause the bag to rupture. If the bag permitted some expansion, a control scheme would be needed to vent air from the bag during the trip to the surface to maintain a constant buoyancy force just slightly larger than the weight of the artifact in water. Then the trip to the surface could be completed at low speed without danger of broaching the surface or damaging the artifact.

Problem *3.111

[2]

Steel balls resting in floating plastic shell in a bucket of water What happens to water level when balls are dropped in water Basic equation FB = Vdisp g = W for a floating body weight W

When the balls are in the plastic shell, the shell and balls displace a volume of water equal to their own weight - a large volume because the balls are dense. When the balls are removed from the shell and dropped in the water, the shell now displaces only a small volume of water, and the balls sink, displacing only their own volume. Hence the difference in displaced water before and after moving the balls is the difference between the volume of water that is equal to the weight of the balls, and the volume of the balls themselves. The amount of water displaced is significantly reduced, so the water level in the bucket drops. Volume displaced before moving balls: V1 = Wplastic + Wballs g

V2 =

Wplastic + Vballs g

V = V2 V1 = Vballs

V = Vballs 1 SGballs

Hence initially a large volume is displaced; finally a small volume is displaced (V < 0 because SGballs > 1)

[3]

3.10

Problem *3.113

[2]

Problem *3.114

[2]

In components

Rectangular container with constant acceleration Slope of free surface Basic equation x y z

p + gx = ax

p + gy = ay

p + gz = az gz = 0 (3)

We have

ay = az = 0 x p + g sin( ) = ax

gy = g cos ( ) z p =0

Hence

p = p ( x , y , z) dp = x p dx +

to p dy

p = p ( x , y)

y p dy or x dy = dx y

dp = 0 =

p dx +

p = p

g sin ( ) ax g cos ( )

g sin ( ) ax g cos ( )

9.81 ( 0.5) dy = dx

m s

2

3 m s

2

m s

2

9.81 ( 0.866)

dy = 0.224 dx

Problem *3.115

[2]

In components

Spinning U-tube sealed at one end Maximum angular speed for no cavitation Basic equation V 2 p = ar = = r r r z z r p = g and so

2

p = g

pD pC = g H pA pB = g H p

pC B L

(1)

p = g

2

and so

(2)

p = r

2

and so

2 1 dp = r dr 0

2 L pC pB = 2

(3)

pC = patm + g H

2 L pB = pC 2 2

From Eq. 3

so

2 L pB = patm + g H 2 2 L pA = patm 2 2

From Eq. 2

pA = pB g H

so

Thus the minimum pressure occurs at point A (not B) At 68oF from steam tables, the vapor pressure of water is pv = 0.339 psi

2 patm pv L

2

1 2

= 185

rad s

= 1764 rpm

Problem *3.116

[2]

Spinning U-tube sealed at one end Pressure at A; water loss due to leak Basic equation

From the analysis of Example Problem 3.10, solving the basic equation, the pressure p at any point (r,z) in a continuous rotating fluid is given by p = p0 + 2 2 r r0 g z z0 2

2

(1)

where p0 is a reference pressure at point (r0,z0) In this case The speed of rotation is The pressure at D is Hence p = pA = 200 rpm pD = 0 kPa

2

p0 = pD

z = zA = zD = z0 = H = 20.9 rad s

r =0

r0 = rD = L

(gage)

L 1 slug rad lbf s 2 2 1 ft pA = L g ( 0) = = 1.94 20.9 ( 3 in) 3 2 2 2 s 12 in slug ft ft pA = 0.18 psi (gage)

( )

2 2

When the leak appears,the water level at A will fall, forcing water out at point D. Once again, from the analysis of Example Problem 3.10, we can use Eq 1 In this case p = pA = 0

2

p0 = pD = 0

z = zA

z0 = zD = H

r=0

r0 = rD = L

Hence

0=

2 L g zA H 2

( )

)

2 2

L 1 rad s 1 ft 2 zA = H = 12in 20.9 ( 3 in) 2 g 32.2 ft 12 in 2 s The amount of water lost is h = H zA = 12 in 6.91 in h = 5.09 in

2 2

zA = 6.91 in

Problem *3.117

[2]

Problem *3.118

[2]

Problem *3.119

[3]

In components We have Hence

Cubical box with constant acceleration Slope of free surface; pressure along bottom of box Basic equation x p + gx = ax gx = 0 y p + gy = ay gy = g z p + gz = az gz = 0 (3)

ax = ax x

ay = 0 y

az = 0 z p =0

p = SG ax (1)

p = SG g (2)

p = p ( x , y , z) dp = x p dx + x

to p dy y

p = p ( x , y) (4) p dy or dy x = dx y p = p ax 0.25 g = g g

dp = 0 =

p dx +

dy = 0.25 dx y= x +C 4

and through volume conservation the fluid rise in the rear balances the fluid fall in the front, so at the midpoint the free surface has not moved from the rest position L 1 L = +C 2 4 2 or C= 5 L 8 y= 5 x L 8 4

For size

L = 80 cm at the midpoint x =

L 2

y=

L 2

dp = SG ax dx SG g dy x=0 y= L so 5 patm = SG g L + c 8

p = SG ax x SG g y + c

We have

p = patm

when

5 c = patm + SG g L 8

5 5 x p ( x , y) = patm + SG g L ax x g y = patm + SG g L y 4 8 8 5 x kg N s m 5 On the bottom y = 0 so p ( x , 0) = patm + SG g L = 101 + 0.8 1000 9.81 0.8 m 3 kg m 2 8 8 4 m s p ( x , 0) = 105 1.96 x (p in kPa, x in m)

2

x 4

kPa 10 Pa

3

Problem *3.120

[3]

Problem *3.121

[3]

Problem *3.122

[3]

Problem *3.123

[3]

Problem *3.124

[3]

Problem *3.125

Problem *3.125

Problem *3.126

[4]

Problem *3.127

3.120

[4]

Problem 4.1

[1]

The given data is

M = 3 kg

h = 5 m

k = 400

N m

Apply the First Law of Thermodynamics: for the system consisting of the mass and the spring (the spring has gravitional potential energy and the spring elastic potential energy) Total mechanical energy at initial state E1 = M g h E2 = M g ( x) + 1 2 k x 2

Total mechanical energy at instant of maximum compression x Note: The datum for zero potential is the top of the uncompressed spring But so E1 = E2 M g h = M g ( x) +

2

1 2 k x 2

Solving for x

2 M g 2 M g h x =0 k k M g + k

x=

M g + 2 M g h k k

m

Note that ignoring the loss of potential of the mass due to spring compression x gives x = 2 M g h k x = 0.858 m

Note that the deflection if the mass is dropped from immediately above the spring is x = 2 M g k x = 0.147 m

Problem 4.2

[1]

Problem 4.3

[2]

Basic equation

Fx = M

dV dV = M V = Ft = constant dt dx

Separating variables

M V dV = Ft dx x= M V 2 Ft

2

Integrating

x =

x = 747 m

dV = Ft dt M V Ft

3

Integrating

t=

t = 325 10 kg 225

t = 23.9 s

Aerodynamic and rolling resistances would significantly increase both these results

Problem 4.5

Problem 4.4

[2]

Problem 4.4

Problem 4.5

[2]

Problem 4.6

[2]

Basic equation

Q W = dE

Assumptions: 1) Adiabatic so Q = 0 2) Stationary system dE =dU 3) Frictionless process W = pdV = Mpdv Then dU = W = M p dv

Before integrating we need to relate p and v. An adiabatic frictionless (reversible) process is isentropic, which for an ideal gas gives cp k where p v = C k= cv

1 1 k k 1 k 1 1 1 k

Hence

v = C p

and

dv = C p k

1 k 1 1 1 k 1 k

dp

Substituting

du =

dU = p dv = p C p M k

dp =

C p k

1 k

dp

C u = p2 k1

1 k k1 k

1 k

k1 k

p1

k1 k

C p1 k1

1 k

k1 k

k1 k p2 1 p1

But

C p

= C p

1 1 k k

p = p v = Rair T

Hence

k1 k Rair T1 p2 u = 1 k1 p1

Rair = 53.33

ft lbf lbm R

and

k = 1.4

u = 2.6 10

4 ft lbf

lbm

u = 33.4

Btu lbm

u = 1073

Btu slug

Problem 4.7

[2]

Data on cooling of a can of soda in a refrigerator How long it takes to warm up in a room

The First Law of Thermodynamics for the can (either warming or cooling) is M c dT = k T Tamb dt

or

dT = A T Tamb dt

where

A =

k M c

where M is the can mass, c is the average specific heat of the can and its contents, T is the temperature, and Tamb is the ambient temperature Separating variables dT = A dt T Tamb T ( t) = Tamb + Tinit Tamb e

Integrating

At

where Tinit is the initial temperature. The available data from the coolling can now be used to obtain a value for constant A Given data for cooling Tinit = ( 25 + 273) K T = ( 10 + 273) K Tinit = 298 K T = 283 K Tamb = ( 5 + 273) K when Tamb = 278 K t = = 10 hr

4 1

Hence

A =

A = 1.284 10

Then, for the warming up process Tinit = ( 10 + 273) K Tend = ( 15 + 273) K with Tend = Tamb + Tinit Tamb e 1 A Tinit = 283 K Tend = 288 K Tamb = ( 20 + 273) K Tamb = 293 K

ln

= 5.40 10 s

= 1.50 hr

Problem 4.8

[2]

Basic equation

Data on heat loss from persons, and people-filled auditorium Internal energy change of air and of system; air temperature rise

Q W = E

Assumptions: 1) Stationary system dE =dU 2) No work W = 0 Then for the air For the air and people U = Q = 85 W 60 s 6000 people 15 min person min U = 459 MJ

U = Qsurroundings = 0

The increase in air energy is equal and opposite to the loss in people energy For the air Hence From Table A.6 U = Q T = but for air (an ideal gas) U = M cv T with M = V = p V Rair T

6

2

T = 1.521 K

Problem 4.9

Problem 4.9

Problem 4.10

[3]

Data on velocity field and control volume geometry Several surface integrals

r dA2 = wdz j r V = az + bk j

r dA1 = dz + dyk j

r dA2 = dz j

) )( )

r V = 10 z + 5k j

(a)

(b)

A1

(c)

)( ) )

(d)

) (

(e)

(

A2

r r V V dA2 =

1 0

1 3 0

+ 25 z 2 k = 33.3 + 25k j j

0

Problem 4.11

[3]

Geometry of 3D surface Volume flow rate and momentum flux through area

r dA = dxdz + dxdyk j

r V = axi by j

r j V = xi y

1 y or y = 6 2 z 2

a)

r Q = V dA = xi y dxdz + dxdyk j j

A A 10 3 3 3

)(

)

3 0

Q = ( 180 + 90 )

ft 3 s

Q = 90

b) Momentum flux

ft 3 s

V V dA = xi y ( ydxdz ) j

A A

r r

= ( xy )dzdxi + 10 y 2dz j

0 0 10 3 0 3

10 3

0 0 2 10 0 3 6 z z 2 3 i + 10 36 z 12 z 2 + 4 z 3 j 0 3 0 0 + (10(108 108 + 36)) = ( 50 )(18 9 )i j

x = 2

= 450 i + 360 j

slug ft s if is in slug s ft 3

Problem 4.12

Problem 4.12

[2]

Problem 4.13

[3]

r

A A

= axdydz bydxdz = a dz Q = ( 6a 6b ) Q = 24 m3 s

0 0 0 0 0

2 3

2 2

2 3 1 3 ydy b dz xdx = 2a y 2 2b x 2 3 2 3 0 4 0 0 0 0

j V (V dA) = ( axi + by + ck )( axi + byj + ck) (dydzi dxdzj ) j = ( axi + by + ck )( axdydz bydxdz ) r r r

A A A

= axi + A = axi + A

2 2

2 2 2 2

3 2 x3 2 i (9 ) a 2 x = (6) a 3 3 0 2 2 = 16a i 24a j 12ack 2 j (6 ) ac x 2 0 2

0

2

= 64i 96 j 60k

m4 s2

Problem 4.14

Problem 4.12

[2]

Problem 4.15

[2]

Problem 4.16

[2]

Problem 4.17

[1]

Basic equation

Data on flow through nozzles Average velocity in head feeder; flow rate

( ) = 0 V A

CS

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Then for the nozzle flow

CS

Hence

10 Anozzle

2

1 8 ft Vfeeder = 10 10 s 1

The flow rate is

2 2

ft s

Q = 3.82 gpm

Problem 4.18

[3]

Basic equation

Data on flow into and out of tank Time at which exit pump is switched on; time at which drain is opened; flow rate into drain

MCV +

( ) = 0 V A

CS

CS

Ain Din dh = Vin = Vin dt Atank Dtank Hence the time to reach hexit = 0.7 m is t texit = hexit

dh dt

texit = 126 s

MCV +

CS 2 2

Ain Aexit Din Dexit dh = Vin Vexit = Vin Vexit dt Atank Atank Dtank Dtank tdrain = texit +

(hdrain hexit)

dh dt

(hdrain hexit)

Din Dexit Vin Vexit Dtank Dtank

2 2

1 m 0.08 m m 0.1 m 3 s 3 m s 3 m

2 2

tdrain = 506 s

The flow rate into the drain is equal to the net inflow (the level in the tank is now constant) Qdrain = Vin Din 4

2

Vexit

Dexit 4

Qdrain = 5

m s

( 0.1 m) 3

m s

( 0.08 m)

m Qdrain = 0.0242 s

Problem 4.19

Moist air

[4]

CS

Warm water

Cool water

Basic equation

Data on flow into and out of cooling tower Volume and mass flow rate of cool water; mass flow rate of moist and dry air

( ) = 0 V A

CS

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Uniform flow 2) Incompressible flow At the cool water exit Qcool = V A mcool = Qcool Qcool = 5.55 mcool = 1.94 ft 2 ( 0.5 ft) s 4 slug ft

3

Qcool = 1.09

ft s

5 lb mcool = 2.45 10 hr

1.09

ft s

NOTE: Software does not allow dots over terms, so m represents mass flow rate, not mass! For the air flow we need to use to balance the water flow V A = 0

(

CS

We have

mwarm + mcool + mv = 0

mv = mwarm mcool

This is the mass flow rate of water vapor. We need to use this to obtain air flow rates. From psychrometrics

where x is the relative humidity. It is also known (try Googling "density of moist air") that

moist dry

We are given

moist = 0.066

lb ft

3

p For dry air we could use the ideal gas equation dry = R T dry = 0.002377 slug ft

3

3

dry = 0.002377

32.2

lb slug

dry = 0.0765

lb ft

3

Hence

0.066 = 0.0765

x =

x = 0.354

Hence

mv =x mair

leads to

lb mair = 14331 hr

Problem 4.20

[1]

Basic equation

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Between sections 1 and 2 Q = V1 A1 = V1 D 1 4

2

= V2 A2 = V2

D 2 4

2

Hence

D1 V2 = V1 D2 D1 V3 = V1 D3

5 V2 = 20 mph 3 5 V3 = 20 mph 2

V2 = 55.6 mph

2

Similarly

V3 = 125 mph

Problem 4.21

[1]

Basic equation

( ) = 0 V A

CS

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Then for the box V A = V1 A1 + V2 A2 + V3 A3 = 0

( )

CS

Note that the vectors indicate that flow is in at location 1 and out at location 2; we assume outflow at location 3 Hence A1 A2 V3 = V1 V2 A3 A3 Vx = V3 sin( 60 deg) Vy = V3 cos ( 60 deg) ft ft V3 = 4.33 , 2.5 s s V3 = 10 ft 0.5 ft 0.1 20 s 0.6 s 0.6 ft s ft s V3 = 5 ft s

Based on geometry

Vx = 4.33 Vy = 2.5

Problem 4.22

[1]

Basic equation

( ) = 0 V A

CS

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Then for the box V A = V1 A1 + V2 A2 + V3 A3 = V1 A1 + V2 A2 + Q3

( )

CS

3

Problem 4.23

[1]

Basic equation

Q = V A

2

where n is the number of pipes, V is the average velocity in the pipes, and D is the pipe diameter Q = 5 acre 0.25 ft 5 acre 0.25 ft 43560 ft 1 hr = 1 acre 1 hr 1 hr 3600 s ft s

3 2 3 2

Q = 15.1 Hence n= 4 Q V D

2

n =

s 4 1 ft 15.1 s 10 ft 0.5 ft

n = 7.69

Problem 4.24

[1]

CS

Cross-section area of tank

Rising level

We can treat this as a steady state problem if we choose a CS as the original volume of gas in the tank, so that additional gas "leaves" the gas as the gas level in the tank rises, OR as an unsteady problem if we choose the CS as the entire gas tank. We choose the latter Basic equation t MCV +

Inflow

( ) = 0 V A

CS

( ) = Q V A

CS

where Q is the gas fill rate, A is the tank cross-section area, and h is the rate of rise in the gas tank Hence A = Q

dh dt 2

A = 5.3

2

A = 1.98 ft

A = 285 in

Problem 4.25

[1]

This is an unsteady problem if we choose the CS as the entire sink Basic equation t MCV +

( ) = 0 V A

CS

( ) = Inflow Outflow V A

CS

Accumulationrate= Inflow Outflow For the first case For the second case For the third case Accumulationrate= 5000 Accumulationrate= 5000 units units 60 min 60 hr min hr units units 60 min 13 hr min hr Accumulationrate= 1400 Accumulationrate= 4220 units hr units hr

Problem 4.26

[1]

Data on filling of a basement during a storm Flow rate of storm into basement

This is an unsteady problem if we choose the CS as the entire basement Basic equation t MCV +

( ) = 0 V A

CS

( ) = Qstorm Qpump V A

CS

or

where A is the basement area and dh/dt is the rate at which the height of water in the basement changes.

Problem 4.27

[1]

Basic equation

( ) = 0 V A

CS

(

CS

Hence

Vd Ad u = d Vu Au

u = 4

lb ft

3

10 1 15 0.25

u = 10.7

lb ft

3

Problem 4.28

[2]

Governing equation:

Data on flow through device Velocity V3; plot V3 against time; find when V3 is zero; total mean flow

V dA =

V A = 0

V1 A1 V2 A2 + V3 A3 = 0

t 2 m

V3 =

V1 A1 + V2 A2 A3

t 2

10 e =

2

m 2 0.2 m s

The velocity at A3 is

V3 = 6.67 e

+ 2.67 cos ( 2 t)

Q = 0

3

t 1 3 2 Q = lim 2 e + sin ( 2 t) ( 2) = 2 m 5 t

Q = 2 m

The time at which V3 first is zero, and the plot of V3 is shown in the corresponding Excel workbook

t = 2.39 s

t (s) V 3 (m/s) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 9.33 8.50 6.86 4.91 3.30 2.53 2.78 3.87 5.29 6.41 6.71 6.00 4.48 2.66 1.15 0.48 0.84 2.03 3.53 4.74 5.12 4.49 3.04 1.29 -0.15 -0.76

10 8

V 3 (m/s)

t (s)

The time at which V 3 first becomes zero can be found using Goal Seek t (s) 2.39 V 3 (m/s) 0.00

Problem 4.29

[2]

Problem 4.30

[2]

2h

y x

CS

Basic equation

V dA = 0

CS

h

Evaluating at 1 and 2

h 3 h 3 = 2 h U 3 h 2 3 h 2

Hence

umax =

3 3 m U = 2.5 2 2 s

Problem 4.31

[2]

Basic equation

V dA = 0

CS

2 Evaluating at inlet and exit U R + u ( r ) 2 r dr = 0 0 R

umax R

2

1 2 2 R = R U 2

2 r 2 umax 1 2 r dr = R U R 0 U = 1 u 2 max m s

Hence

1 m U = 3 2 s

U = 1.5

Problem 4.32

[2]

Problem 4.33

[3]

Governing equation

Velocity distribution in annulus Volume flow rate; average velocity; maximum velocity; plot velocity distribution

For the flow rate (Eq. 4.14a) and average velocity (Eq. 4.14b) p kPa = 10 L m

Q = V dA = 0.1 N s m

2

Vav =

Q A

Ro = 5 mm

Ri = 1 mm

2 2

Ro p 2 2 Ro Ri u ( r) = R r + ln 4 L o Ri r ln Ro

The flow rate is Q = u ( r) 2 r dr R

i Ro

2 2 p 2 2 Ro Ri 2 2 Q = R Ri R Ri + Ro 8 L o o ln Ri 2

Substituting values

3 5m

Q = 10.45

mL s 1 1.045 10

3 5 m 2

Vav =

2 2 5 1 m

1000

Vav = 0.139

m s

2 2

R 2 R 2 i o Ri ln r Ro

m s

r =

Ri Ro 2 ln

Ri Ro

r = 2.73 mm

Substituting in u(r)

The maximum velocity using Solver instead, and the plot, are also shown in the corresponding Excel workbook

Ro = Ri = p /L = =

5 1 -10 0.1

mm mm kPa/m N.s/m2

r (mm) u (m/s) 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 0.000 0.069 0.120 0.157 0.183 0.201 0.210 0.213 0.210 0.200 0.186 0.166 0.142 0.113 0.079 0.042 0.000

6 5 r (mm) 4 3 2 1 0 0.00 0.05 0.10 u (m/s) 0.15 0.20 0.25

The maximum velocity can be found using Solver r (mm) u (m/s) 2.73 0.213

Problem 4.25

Problem 4.34

[2]

Problem 4.26

Problem 4.35

[2]

Problem 4.27

Problem 4.36

[2]

Problem 4.28

Problem 4.37

[2]

Problem 4.38

CS Outflow

[2]

Basic equation

Data on airflow out of tank Find rate of change of density of air in tank

r r dV + V dA = 0 t CV CS

dtank dt dtank dt exit V A Vtank pexit V A Rair Texit Vtank 1 0.4 m

3

Assumptions: 1) Density in tank is uniform 2) Uniform flow 3) Air is an ideal gas Hence Vtank + exit V A = 0 = =

= 300 10

kg

= 0.258

Problem 4.30

Problem 4.39

[2]

Problem 4.32

Problem 4.40

[2]

Problem 4.31

Problem 4.41

[2]

Problem 4.33

Problem 4.42

[2]

Problem 4.35

Problem 4.43

[2]

Problem 4.44

Problem 4.44

Problem 4.45

Problem 4.45

Problem 4.38

Problem 4.46

[3]

Problem 4.39

Problem 4.47

[3]

Problem 4.40

Problem 4.48

[3]

Problem 4.41

Problem 4.49

P4.48.

[3]

Problem 4.42

Problem 4.50

[4]

Problem 4.51

Problem 4.51

Problem 4.52

Problem 4.52

Problem 4.53

[3]

CS

r r VV dA

2

V2 = 20

ft s

A2 = 0.1 ft

A3 = 0.6 ft

V 3 = 5

ft s

It is an outlet

65 lbm ft

3

) [

](

4

)

2

) ft2 lbf s

s

4

lbm ft

2

= 2406 lbf

65

lbm ft

3

) ft2 lbf s

s

lbm ft

= 2113 lbf

Problem 4.54

[3]

2h

y x

CS

Data on flow at inlet and outlet of channel Ratio of outlet to inlet momentum flux

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction at a section Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow Evaluating at 1 and 2 mfx1 = U ( U 2 h) w

h

r mf x = uV dA

A

mfx1 = 2 w U h

h

Hence

4 2 2 2 16 mfx2 = w umax 2 h h + h = w umax h 3 5 15 Then the ratio of momentum fluxes is mfx2 mfx1 16 2 w umax h 15 2 w U h 3 U 2

2

8 umax = 15 U

umax =

Hence the momentum increases as it flows in the entrance region of the channel. This appears to contradict common sense, as friction should reduce flow momentum. What happens is the pressure drops significantly along the channel so the net force on the CV is to the right.

Problem 4.55

[3]

Data on flow at inlet and outlet of pipe Ratio of outlet to inlet momentum flux

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction at a section Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow Evaluating at 1 and 2 mfx1 = U U R

R

r mf x = uV dA

A

mfx1 = U R

R

Hence

3 5 r 2 r + r dy 2 4 R R

2 2

umax = 2 U

1 2 U 4 = = 1.33 3 U 3

Hence the momentum increases as it flows in the entrance region of the pipe This appears to contradict common sense, as friction should reduce flow momentum. What happens is the pressure drops significantly along the pipe so the net force on the CV is to the right.

Problem 4.48

Problem 4.56

[2]

Problem 4.49

Problem 4.57

[2]

Problem 4.58

[2]

CS y U x Rx

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow 5) Water leaves vertically Hence Rx = u1 u1 A1 = U A = U

2 2

2 D

Rx = 16.9 lbf

Problem 4.59

[1]

where p is the pressure drop over length L, w is the wall friction and As is the pipe surface area The sum of forces in the x direction is zero. The friction force on the fluid is in the negative x direction, so the net pressure force must be in the positive direction. Hence pressure drops in the x direction so that pressure and friction forces balance

Problem 4.60

[2]

The given data is

D1 = 0.25 m A1 = A2 = V1 = V2 = D 1 4

2

D2 = 0.2 m

Q = 1.5

m s

p1 = 3500 kPa

2 2

= 999

kg m

3

Then

2 2 D D2 4 1 Q A1 Q A2

2 2

(4.18a)

and

p2 = 0

(gage)

F = 3500

kN m

2

0.0491 m + 999

kg m

3

30.6

0.0491 m 84.9

2

2 0.0177 m s 2

F = 90.4 kN

Problem 4.61

[2]

Large tank with nozzle and wire Tension in wire; plot for range of water depths

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the tank Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow Hence When y = 0.9 m Rx = T = V ( V A) = V A = ( 2 g y) T =

2

d 4

T=

2

1 2 g y d 2

(1)

4 3

T = 3.12 N

From Eq 1

T (N)

y (m)

This graph can be plotted in Excel

Problem 4.62

V

[2]

CS

Rx

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the tank Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow 5) Exit velocity is V Hence Rx = M g = V ( V A) + V cos ( ) ( V A) = V A ( cos ( ) 1) M = s kg m 2 1000 10 0.1 m ( 1 cos ( 40 deg) ) 3 9.81 m s m

3000 2000 1000 2 2 2

M =

V A ( 1 cos ( ) ) g

(1)

M = 238 kg

M (kg)

45

90

135

180

Angle (deg)

This graph can be plotted in Excel

Problem 4.63

[3]

Water jet hitting plate with opening Force generated on plate; plot force versus diameter d

V y x

CS

Rx

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow Hence Rx = u1 u1 A1 + u2 u2 A2 = V

2 D

+ V

2 d

Rx =

2 2 2 V D d 1 4 D

(1)

Rx = 35.7 lbf

40

Force (lbf)

This graph can be plotted in Excel

Problem 4.64

[3]

y V x Rx CS

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow Hence Rx = u1 u1 A1 + u2 u2 A2 = 0 + ( V sin( ) ) ( V a b ) Rx = 1000 kg m

3

V

2

Rx = V a b sin( )

2

Rx = 0.0962 N Rx = 0.0962 N

This is the force on the fluid (it is to the left). Hence the force on the cylinder is

Problem 4.65

[5]

V x CS

Rx

Water flowing into tank Mass flow rates estimated by students. Explain discrepancy

Basic equation: Momentum flux in y direction Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow For the first student m1 = V t slug ft For the second student M m2 = t

3

where m1 represents mass flow rate (software cannot render a dot above it!) 15 ft

3

m1 = 1.94

1 30 s

slug m1 = 0.97 s

lbm m1 = 31.2 s

1 m2 = 960 lb 30 s

There is a discrepancy because the second student is measuring instantaneous weight PLUS the force generated as the pipe flow momentum is "killed". To analyse this we first need to find the speed at which the water stream enters the tank, 5 ft below the pipe exit. This would be a good place to use the Bernoulli equation, but this problem is in the set before Bernoulli is covered. Instead we use the simple concept that the fluid is falling under gravity (a conclusion supported by the Bernoulli equation). From the equations for falling under gravity: Vtank = Vpipe + 2 g h where Vtank is the speed entering the tank, Vpipe is the speed at the pipe, and h = 5 ft is the distance traveled. Vpipe is obtained from Vpipe = Vpipe = 4 m1 dpipe 4 31.2 lbm s ft 1 slug 1 1.94 slug 32.2 lbm 1 ft 6

2 3 2 2 2 2

4 m1 dpipe

2

Vpipe = 22.9

ft s

Then

Vtank =

Vpipe + 2 g h

Vtank =

Vtank = 29.1

ft s

We can now use the y momentum equation for the CS shown above Ry W = Vtank Vtank Atank where Atank is the area of the water flow as it enters the tank. But for the water flow Hence W = Ry W = Vtank Vpipe dpipe 4

2

This equation indicate the instantaneous difference W between the scale reading (Ry ) and the actual weight of water (W) in the tank W = 1.94 slug ft

3

29.1

W = 28.2 lbf

Hence the scale overestimates the weight of water by 28.2 lbf, or a mass of 28.2 lbm For the second student Hence M = 960 lbm 28.2 lbm = 932 lbm M m2 = t 1 m2 = 932 lb 30 s where m2 represents mass flow rate slug m2 = 0.966 s lbm m2 = 31.1 s

Comparing with the answer obtained from student 1, we see the students now agree! The discrepancy was entirely caused by the fact that t second student was measuring the weight of tank water PLUS the momentum lost by the water as it entered the tank!

Problem 4.66

CS V y x Rx

[3]

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the tank Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure at exit 4) Uniform flow Hence Rx = V cos ( ) ( V A) = V

2 2 D

We need to find V. We could use the Bernoulli equation, but here it is known that V = 2 9.81 m s Hence Rx = 1000 kg m

3 2

4 m

2

V = 8.86

8.86

For the block, the maximum friction force a mass of M = 9 kg can generate is Fmax = 9 kg 9.81 m s

2

0.5

N s kg m

Hence the tension T created by the water jet is larger than the maximum friction Fmax; the tank starts to move

Problem 4.67

CS

[4]

y y x

FR

Gate held in place by water jet Required jet speed for various water depths

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the wall Note: We use this equation ONLY for the jet impacting the wall. For the hydrostatic force and location we use computing equations Ixx FR = pc A y' = yc + A yc Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Hence Rx = V V Ajet = V

2 D

This force is the force generated by the wall on the jet; the force of the jet hitting the wall is then Fjet = Rx = V For the hydrostatic force

2 D 2

where D is the jet diameter Ixx h 2 y' = yc + = + = h h A yc 2 3 w h 2 h Fjet hjet + FR ( h y') = Fjet hjet + FR = 0 3

w h 12

3

h 1 2 FR = pc A = g h w = g w h 2 2

where h is the water depth and w is the gate width For the gate, we can take moments about the hinge to obtain where hjet is the height of the jet from the ground Fjet = V

2 D 2

Hence

3

V =

2 g w h

2

3 D hj

2

V =

2 3 2

9.81

m s

2

1 0.01 m 0.5 m

1

2

V = 51

m s m s m s

V =

3

V = 18

V =

2 3

9.81

m s

2

0.5 m ( 0.6 m)

3

1 0.01 m 0.5 m

1

V = 67.1

Problem 4.55

Problem 4.68

[2]

Problem 4.56

Problem 4.69

[2]

Problem 4.70

[3]

Flow into and out of CV Expressions for rate of change of mass, and force

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Uniform flow For the mass equation dMCV + dt

dt

CS

dMCV = V1 A1 + V2 A2 V3 A3 V4 A4 dt

) ( ( ) ( )

Fx +

p1 A1 2

V1 5 4 5 5 p2 A2 p3 A3 p4 A4 = 0 + V 1 A 1 + V V2 A2 ... 13 5 13 13 2 2 4 5 + V3 V3 A3 + V V 3 A 3 5 13 3

Fx =

p1 A1 2

5 4 5 1 5 4 5 2 2 2 2 p A + p A + p A + V1 A1 V A2 + V3 A3 + V A3 13 2 2 5 3 3 13 4 4 13 2 5 13 3 2

Fy +

p1 A1 2

12 13

p2 A2

3 5

p3 A3 +

12 13

p4 A4 = 0 +

V V2 A2 ... 13 2 3 12 + V3 V3 A3 V V 3 A 3 5 13 3

V1

( 2 (

V 1 A 1

12

Fy =

p1 A1 2

3 12 1 12 3 12 2 2 2 2 p A + p A p A + V1 A1 V A2 + V3 A3 V A3 13 2 2 5 3 3 13 4 4 13 2 5 13 3 2 12

Problem 4.71

[2]

Problem 4.72

y x CS

[2]

Rx

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the elbow Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure at exit 4) Uniform flow Hence Rx + p1g A1 = V1 V1 A1 V2 V2 A2 so

2

Rx = p1g A1 V1 A1 + V2 A2

2 2

2

A1 V2 = V1 A2

ft 4 V2 = 10 s 1

V2 = 40

ft s

4 in 1.94

Rx = 86.9 lbf

The force is to the left: It is needed to hold the elbow on against the high pressure, plus it generates the large change in x momentum

Problem 4.73

y x CS

[2]

Rx

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the elbow Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Hence Rx + p1g A1 + p2g A2 = V1 V1 A1 V2 V2 A2

)

2

Rx = p1g A1 p2g A2 V1 A1 + V2 A2

2 2

From continuity V2 A2 = V1 A1

so

D1 V2 = V1 = V1 A2 D2

A1

V2 = 0.8

m 0.2 s 0.04

V2 = 20

m s

Hence

Rx = 350 10 + 1000

Rx = 11.6 kN

kg m

3

0.8

2 2 2 2 2 ( 0.2 m ) ( .04 m ) N s m m + 20 4 4 s s kg m

The force is to the left: It is needed to hold the elbow on against the high pressures, plus it generates the large change in x momentum

Problem 4.74

y x

[2]

Rx

CS

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the elbow Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Hence Rx + p1g A1 + p2g A2 = V1 V1 A1 + V2 cos ( ) V2 A2

Rx = p1g A1 + V2 A2 cos ( ) V1 A1

2 2

From continuity V2 A2 = V1 A1

so

D1 V 2 = V 1 = V1 A2 D2

A1

V2 = 1.5

m 30 s 15

V 2 = 6

m s

Hence

Rx = 15 10

Rx = 668 N

The joint is in tension: It is needed to hold the elbow on against the high pressure, plus it generates the large change in x momentum

Problem 4.61

Problem 4.75

[2]

Problem 4.76

CS

[2]

y x Rx

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the elbow Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow Hence Rx + p1g A1 p2g A2 = V1 V1 A1 + V2 V2 A2

Rx = p1g A1 + V2 A2 V1 A1

2 2

From continuity Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 Q ft = 20 s A1

3

so

V1 =

1 ft 3

= 229

ft s

and

NOTE: problem has an error: Flow rate should be 2 ft3/s not 20 ft3/s! We will provide answers to both

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( 1.5 in) ( 4 in) slug ft 229 ft ( 4 in) 1 ft lbf s 1628 Rx = 200 + 1.94 2 3 4 4 4 s s 12 in slugft in ft

Hence

lbf

Rx = 51707 lbf With more realistic velocities Hence Rx = 200 lbf in Rx = 1970 lbf

2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( 1.5 in) ( 4 in) 1 ft ( 4 in) slug ft ft lbf s + 1.94 163 22.9 3 4 4 4 s s 12 in slug ft ft

Problem 4.63

Problem 4.77

[2]

Problem 4.64

Problem 4.78

[2]

Problem 4.79

CS y x Rx Given: Find: Solution:

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction for the elbow Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Neglect change of momentum within CV 3) Uniform flow Hence Rx peg Ae = Ve e Ve Ae = me Ve Data on rocket motor Thrust produced

[2]

Ve

Rx = peg Ae + me Ve

where peg is the exit pressure (gage), me is the mass flow rate at the exit (software cannot render dot over m!) and Ve is the xit velocity For the mass flow rate Hence kg kg me = mnitricacid + maniline = 80 + 32 s s Rx = ( 110 101) 10

2 2 ( 0.6 m) kg m N s 3 N + 112 180 2 4 s s kg m

kg me = 112 s Rx = 22.7 kN

Problem 4.65

Problem 4.80

[2]

Problem 4.81

[3]

Problem 4.82

[2]

The given data is Governing equation: y -momentum

Data on flow and system geometry Deflection angle as a function of speed; jet speed for 10o deflection

= 999

kg m

3

A = 0.005 m

L = 2 m

k = 1

N m

x0 = 1 m

(4.18b)

Applying this to the current system in the vertical direction Fspring = V sin( ) ( V A) But Hence Fspring = k x = k x0 L sin( )

Solving for

V =

1 V =

N ( 1 2 sin ( 10 deg) ) m m kg m

3

kg m

2

V = 0.867

m s

999

The deflection is plotted in the corresponding Excel workbook, where the above velocity is obtained using Goal Seek

= xo = L = k = A =

999 1 2 1 0.005

kg/m3 m m N/m m

2

V (m/s) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

o ( )

30.0 29.2 27.0 24.1 20.9 17.9 15.3 13.0 11.1 9.52 8.22 7.14 6.25 5.50 4.87 4.33

35 30 (deg) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 V (m/s) 1.00 1.25 1.50

Problem 4.69

Problem 4.83

[3]

Problem 4.84

y x Ry Rx CS

[2]

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow CV 3) Uniform flow For x momentum From continuity Rx = V2 cos ( ) V2 A2 = V2 A1 V1 = A2 V2 Rx = 1000 kg m For y momentum

3

2 2 D 2

cos ( )

2

D1 V2 = V1 = V1 A2 D2

A1

2

V2 = 2

2

m 7.5 s 2.5

V2 = 18

m s

Hence

18

Rx = 138 N

Ry p1 A1 W Vol g = V1 V1 A1 V2 sin ( ) V2 A2 Ry = p1 D 1 4

2

)

3

+ W + Vol g + m

2

where

Hence

Ry = 554 N

Problem 4.71

Problem 4.85

[3]

Problem 4.86

[3]

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow CV 3) Uniform flow From continuity Vs As Vj Aj + V2 A2 = 0 V2 = 10 For x momentum ft 0.75 0.1 ft 0.1 + 100 s 0.75 s 0.75 As Aj Aj A2 Aj V2 = Vs + Vj = Vs + Vj A2 A2 A2 A2 ft V2 = 22 s

p1 A2 p2 A2 = Vj Vj Aj + Vs Vs As + V2 V2 A2

2 Aj 2 As 2 p = p2 p1 = Vj + Vs V2 A2 A2

p = 1.94 slug

Hence

p = 1816

lbf ft

p = 12.6 psi

Problem 4.73

Problem 4.87

[3]

Problem 4.74

Problem 4.88

[3]

Problem 4.89

[3]

V1 CS p1 y x Rx

V2 p2

Basic equation: Continuity, and momentum flux in x direction, plus ideal gas equation p = R T

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Ideal gas CV 3) Uniform flow From continuity For x momentum 1 V1 A1 + 2 V2 A2 = 0 1 V1 A = 2 V2 A 1 V1 = 2 V2

Rx + p1 A p2 A = V1 1 V1 A + V2 2 V2 A = 1 V1 A V2 V1 Rx = p2 p1 A + 1 V1 A V2 V1

)

1 = 3.15 kg m

3

)

kg K 1 3 N 2 286.9 N m ( 60 + 273) K m

1 =

P1 Rair T1

1 = ( 200 + 101) 10

Hence

Rx = 2456 N Fpipe = Rx Fpipe = 2456 N The air is dragging the pipe to the right

This is the force of the pipe on the air; the pipe is opposing flow. Hence the force of the air on the pipe is

Problem 4.90

[3]

V1 CS

V2 p2 y x Rx V3

p1

3

where m3 = 20 kg/s is the mass leaving through the walls (the software does not allow a dot)

V2 = 322

m s

Rx + p1 A p2 A = V1 1 V1 A + V2 2 V2 A

2 2 Rx = p2 p1 + 2 V2 1 V1 A

)

2 2 N s 0.15 m2 kg m

2

Hence

Rx = 1760 N

Problem 4.77

Problem 4.91

[3]

Problem 4.78

Problem 4.92

[3]

Problem 4.79

Problem 4.93

[3]

Problem 4.94

[4]

Data on flow in wind tunnel Mass flow rate in tunnel; Maximum velocity at section 2; Drag on object

Basic equations: Continuity, and momentum flux in x direction; ideal gas equation p = R T Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Uniform density at each section From continuity mflow = 1 V1 A1 = 1 V1 D 1 4 patm Rair Tatm

2 2

where mflow is the mass flow rate air = 101000 N m kg mflow = 6.63 s

2 2

air =

kg K 1 286.9 N m 293 K

air = 1.2

kg m

3

R

Also

2 air Vmax R 2 air Vmax R 2 r r dr = mflow = 2 u2 dA2 = air Vmax 2 r dr = 0 3 R R 0 Vmax = 3 mflow 2 air R

2

Vmax = 18.8

m s

For x momentum

Rx + p1 A p2 A = V1 1 V1 A + 2 u2 u2 dA2

3

9.81

2

m s

2

0.03 m

p1 = 294 Pa

p2 = g h2

2

p2 = 147 Pa

2

Rx = 54 N The drag on the object is equal and opposite Fdrag = Rx Fdrag = 54.1 N

Problem 4.95

[2]

Governing equation: Momentum

(4.18a)

1

u ( r ) 2 r u ( r ) dr

1 2 U 2 r u ( r ) 2 dr F = 0

F=

5 2 U2 8

Problem 4.96

[4]

2h y x

Basic equations: Continuity, and momentum flux in x direction; ideal gas equation

CS

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Neglect frition From continuity U1 A1 + u2 dA = 0 2 h h y 4 dy = w umax [ h ( h ) ] = w umax h U1 2 h w = w umax 1 2 3 3 3 h h Hence umax = 3 U 2 1 umax = 3 m 7.5 2 s umax = 11.3 m s

h

For x momentum

p1 A p2 A = V1 1 V1 A + 2 u2 u2 dA2

2

2 w 2 p1 p2 = U1 + umax 1 A h

2 y

dy = U1 +

2

umax h

2 1 2 h 2 h + 2 h 3 5

8 3 1 8 2 2 p = p1 p2 = U1 + umax = U1 1 = U1 15 15 2 5

Hence p = 1 5 1.24 kg m

3

7.5

N s kg m

p = 14 Pa

Problem 4.83

Problem 4.97

[3]

Problem 4.84

Problem 4.98

[3]

Problem 4.86

Problem 4.99

[3]

Problem 4.100

[4]

CS

c y x

a Ff

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No net pressure force From continuity U0 w + mbc + u w dy = 0 0 mbc = U0 u w dy 0

where mbc is the mass flow rate across bc (Note: sotware cannot render a dot!)

Hence

For x momentum

2 2 Ff = U0 U0 w + U0 mbc + u u w dy = U0 + u + U0 U0 u w dy 0 0

But we have

u 3 1 3 = U0 2 2 Ff = w 0

=1 2

1

y =

u u 3 9 2 1 3 3 4 1 6 2 d = U0 + d U 0 1 2 U0 4 2 2 4 U0

0

Ff w Hence Ff w Ff w

= U 0

2

2 2

= 0.139 0.002377

3 lbf

= 2.48 10

ft

Problem 4.101

b CS c y

[4]

x a Ff d

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No net pressure force From continuity U0 w + mbc + u w dy = 0 0 mbc = U0 u w dy 0

where mbc is the mass flow rate across bc (Note: sotware cannot render a dot!)

Hence

For x momentum

2 2 Ff = U0 U0 w + U0 mbc + u u w dy = U0 + u + U0 U0 u w dy 0 0

But we have

u y = U0 Ff = w 0

=1

1

y =

U 0

u u 2 1 d = U0 ( 1 ) d 0 U0 U0

Ff w Hence Ff w Ff w

= U 0

2

1 1 2 = U 0 3 6

2 2

1 kg m 2 N s 1.225 20 m 3 6 kg m s 1000 m N m

= 0.163

Problem 4.102

Problem 4.102

Problem 4.103

[4]

Problem 4.104

[4]

Problem *4.91

Problem *4.105

[4]

Problem *4.106

CS

[4]

Basic equations: Hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli, and momentum flux in x direction p V + + g z = constant 2 Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying Bernoulli between jet exit and stagnation point

2 p0 p V + = +0 air 2 air 2

p0 p =

1 2 air V 2 = air V

2

p0 p = SG g h h = 0.002377

so

2

h =

3

1 2 V 2 air SG g

2

2 SG g h = 0.55 ft h = 6.6 in

For x momentum

Rx = V air A V = air V

2 2 D

4

2

The force of the jet on the plate is then F = Rx

Problem *4.107

CS y V, A x Rx

[2]

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure throughout 4) Uniform flow Hence Q Q 2 Rx = u1 u1 A1 = V A = A = A A

4 Q D

F = R x = 1

4 Q D

: A smaller diameter leads to a larger force. This is because as 2 D the diameter decreases the speed increases, and the impact force varies as the square of the speed, but linearly with area For a force of F = 650 N D F 4

2

Q =

Q =

Q = 257

L min

Problem *4.108

[3]

Problem *4.109

CS

[3]

Water jet striking disk Expression for speed of jet as function of height; Height for stationary disk

Basic equations: Bernoulli; Momentum flux in z direction p V + + g z = constant 2 Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow The Bernoulli equation becomes Hence But from continuity Hence we get V0 2

2 2

+ g 0 =

V + g h 2

V = V0 2 g h

V =

V0 2 g h

M g = w1 w1 A1 = V A V 0 A 0 = V A so

2

V A = V0 A0

M g = V V A = V0 A0 V0 2 g h

2 1 2 M g V h= V A 2 g 0 0 0

Solving for h

1

2 3

2 25 m 1000

4

h = 4.28 m

Problem *4.96

Problem *4.110

Problem *4.110

Problem *4.95

Problem *4.111

[3]

Problem *4.112

[2]

The given data is

= 999

kg m

3 2

D = 0.1 m

2

d = 0.04 m 2 d 4 Q A2

2

V 1 = 5

m s

Then

A1 =

D 4

A1 = 0.00785 m Q = 0.0393 m s

3

A2 = V2 =

2

(4.24)

2

(4.18a) p2 V2 2 kg m

3 2

2 2 p2 = p1 + V1 V2 2

5 31.3

(2

2 2 N s kN 2 m 2 kg m 1000 N

p2 = 125 kPa

)

kg m

3

or

F = p1 A1 p2 A2 + V1 A1 V2 A2

2 2 2

F = 600

kN m

2

0.00785 m 125

kN m

2

0.00126 m + 999

0.00785 m 31.3

2

0.00126 m

N s kg m F = 3.52 kN

Problem *4.98

Problem *4.113

[4]

Problem *4.99

Problem *4.114

[4]

Problem *4.101

Problem *4.115

[4]

Problem *4.100

Problem *4.116

[4]

Problem *4.102

Problem *4.117

[4]

Problem *4.118

Problem *4.118

Problem *4.105

Problem *4.119

[5]

Problem *4.104

Problem *4.120

Problem *4.120

Problem *4.121

Problem *4.121

Problem *4.122

CS (moves at speed U)

[3]

y x Ry Rx

Water jet striking moving vane Force needed to hold vane to speed U = 5 m/s

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow 5) Jet relative velocity is constant Then Rx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = ( V U) [ ( V U) A] + ( V U) cos ( ) [ ( V U) A] Rx = ( V U) A ( cos ( ) 1) Using given data Rx = 1000 Then m N s 3 2 ( 25 5) 1.26 10 m ( cos ( 150 deg) 1) 3 kg m s m kg

2 2 2

A =

40 m 4 1000

A = 1.26 10

3 2

Rx = 940 N

2

kg

Ry = 252 N

Hence the force required is 940 N to the left and 252 N upwards to maintain motion at 5 m/s

Problem 4.123

[3]

CS (moves at speed U)

y Ry Rx x

Water jet striking moving vane Force needed to hold vane to speed U = 10 m/s

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow 5) Jet relative velocity is constant Then Rx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = ( V U) [ ( V U) A] + ( V U) cos ( ) [ ( V U) A] Rx = ( V U) A ( cos ( ) 1) Using given data Rx = 1000 Then m N s 2 ( 30 10) 0.004 m ( cos ( 120 deg) 1) 3 kg m s m kg

2 2 2

Rx = 2400 N

2

kg

Ry = 1386 N

Hence the force required is 2400 N to the left and 1390 N upwards to maintain motion at 10 m/s

Problem 4.124

[2]

Problem 4.125

[2]

Governing equation: Momentum

Data on jet boat Formula for boat speed; jet speed to double boat speed

2 Q + Q V j k 2 k 2

or, with

Fdrag = k V

k V = Q Vj Q V

Solving for V

V =

Let

Q 2 k + 2 Vj V = 10 m s

2 2

V = +

2

m s

Vj = 25

2

m s

2

+ 50 = ( 10 + ) = 100 + 20 +

10 m 3 s

Hence

V =

10 3 10 3

100 9 100 9

20 V 3 j 20 V 3 j 100 20 70 + V = 9 3 j 3 Vj = 80 m s

For V = 20 m/s

20 =

Problem 4.110

Problem 4.126

[2]

Problem 4.112

Problem 4.127

[2]

Problem 4.128

[3]

CS (moves at speed U)

y Ry Rx x

Water jet striking moving vane Expressions for force and power; Show that maximum power is when U = V/3

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow 5) Jet relative velocity is constant Then Rx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = ( V U) [ ( V U) A] + ( V U) cos ( ) [ ( V U) A] Rx = ( V U) A ( cos ( ) 1) This is force on vane; Force exerted by vane is equal and opposite The power produced is then To maximize power wrt to U Hence Fx = ( V U) A ( 1 cos ( ) ) P = U Fx = U ( V U) A ( 1 cos ( ) ) dP 2 = ( V U) A ( 1 cos ( ) ) + ( 2) ( 1) ( V U) U A ( 1 cos ( ) ) = 0 dU V U 2 U = V 3 U = 0 U = V 3 for maximum power

2 2 2

Problem 4.114

Problem 4.129

[3]

Problem 4.130

CS (moves to left at speed Vc) V j + Vc R y x t Rx V j + Vc

[3]

Water jet striking moving cone Thickness of jet sheet; Force needed to move cone

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow 5) Jet relative velocity is constant Then V 1 A 1 + V 2 A 2 = 0 t= Dj

2

V j + V c t =

D j 4

+ V j + V c 2 R t = 0

(Refer to sketch)

Hence

8 R

1 1 2 ( 4 in) 8 9 in

t = 0.222 in

) (

Hence the force is 1780 lbf to the left; the upwards equals the weight

Rx = 1780 lbf

Problem 4.116

Problem 4.131

[3]

Problem 4.117

Problem 4.132

[3]

Problem 4.133

[2]

Problem 4.119

Problem 4.134

[3]

Problem 4.120

Problem 4.135

[2]

Problem 4.133

Problem 4.136

[2]

Problem 4.137

[2]

Problem 4.138

[4]

The given data is

= 999

kg m

3

M = 30 kg

2

A = 0.005 m

V = 20

m s

k = 0.3

2

dU ( V U ) A = g k dt M

a=

( V U ) A g k M dU = dt

Separating variables

( V U ) A g k M Substitute u = VU dU = du du A u g k M M A 1 du = atanh u 2 g k A A u g k M g k M

2

= dt

and u = V - U so

g k M A tanh M g k A atanh

g k M

V = t

VU =

g k A A t + atanh V M g k M g k A A t + atanh V M g k M

U = V

g k M A

tanh

Note that

atanh

for x > 1

so

U = V

g k M A

tanh

g k A 1 i t + atanh M 2 A V g k M

tanh x

1 i = tanh( x) 2 g k M

to obtain

U = V

A tanh

g k A g k M 1 t + atanh M A V

g k M A

dx = V dt

tanh

g k A g k M 1 t + atanh M A V

This can be solved analytically, but is quite messy. Instead, in the corresponding Excel workbook, it is solved numerically using a simple Euler method. The complete set of equations is g k M U = V A tanh

g k A g k M 1 t + atanh M A V

2

2

Position x vs Time

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

t (s)

t (s) x (m) U (m/s) a (m/s2) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.2 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.7 7.0 8.4 9.7 11.2 12.6 14.1 15.5 17.0 18.5 20.1 21.6 23.1 24.7 26.2 27.8 29.3 30.9 32.4 34.0 35.6 37.1 38.7 40.3 0.0 4.8 7.6 9.5 10.8 11.8 12.5 13.1 13.5 13.9 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 14.9 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.3 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 63.7 35.7 22.6 15.5 11.2 8.4 6.4 5.1 4.0 3.3 2.7 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

x (m)

2.0

2.5

3.0

Velocity U vs Time

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

t (s)

U (m/s)

2.0

2.5

3.0

70 60

Acceleration a vs Time

a (m/s )

t (s)

Problem 1.24

Problem 4.139

[3]

Problem 4.133

Problem 4.140

[4]

Assumptions: 1) cahnges in CV 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow 5) Constant jet relative velocity Then M arfx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = ( V U) [ ( V U) A] + ( V U) cos ( ) [ ( V U) A] M arfx = ( V U) A ( cos ( ) 1) Since arfx = constant = acos 1 then M arfx

2

or

cos ( ) = 1

2

U = arfx t

cos ( ) = 1

2 (V arfx t) A

m s

2

m 1000 kg

15 m 1.5 m 5 s s 2 s

2 0.025 m

1

= 19.7 deg

at t = 5 s

180

20 15 10 5 0 10

Angle (deg)

135 90 45 0

2.5

7.5

Time t (s)

The solution is only valid for up to 180o (when t = 9.14 s). This graph can be plotted in Excel

Speed U (m/s)

Problem 4.126

Problem 4.141

[3]

Problem 4.142

Problem 4.142

Problem 4.143

[3]

Problem 4.144

Problem 4.144

Problem 4.130

Problem 4.145

[3]

Problem 4.146

Problem 4.146

Problem 4.146

Problem 4.132

Problem 4.147

[3]

Problem 4.148

[4]

The given data is

= 999

kg m

3

M = 30 kg

2

A = 0.005 m

V = 20

m s

k = 7.5

N s m

dU ( V U) A k U = dt M M

( V U) A k U M M

The differential equation for U can be solved analytically, but is quite messy. Instead we use a simple numerical method Euler's method U( n + 1) = U( n ) +

( V U) 2 A

M

k U t M

dx =U dt x ( n + 1) = x ( n) + U t

( V U) 2 A k U t U ( n + 1) = U ( n) + M M

a= ( V U) A k U M M

2

t (s) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0

x (m) 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.6 2.7 3.9 5.2 6.6 7.9 9.3 10.8 12.2 13.7 15.2 16.6 18.1 19.6 21.1 22.6 24.1 25.7 27.2 28.7 30.2 31.7 33.2 34.8 36.3 37.8 39.3 40.8

U (m/s) 0.0 6.7 9.5 11.1 12.1 12.9 13.4 13.8 14.1 14.3 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.0 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2

a (m/s2) 66.6 28.0 16.1 10.5 7.30 5.29 3.95 3.01 2.32 1.82 1.43 1.14 0.907 0.727 0.585 0.472 0.381 0.309 0.250 0.203 0.165 0.134 0.109 0.0889 0.0724 0.0590 0.0481 0.0392 0.0319 0.0260 0.0212

x (m)

Position x vs Time

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

t (s)

2.0

2.5

3.0

Velocity U vs Time

16 14

U (m/s)

t (s)

2.0

2.5

3.0

70 60

2 a (m/s )

Acceleration a vs Time

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 1 2

t (s)

Problem 4.134

Problem 4.149

[3]

Problem 4.136

Problem 4.150

[3]

Problem 4.151

[3]

The given data is

Data on system Jet speed to stop cart after 1 s; plot speed & position; maximum x; time to return to origin

= 999

kg m

3

M = 100 kg

2

A = 0.01 m

U0 = 5

m s

dU ( V + U ) A = dt M

which leads to

d ( V + U) ( V + U)

2

A = dt M U = V + 1+ V + U0 A V + U 0 M

) t

To find the jet speed V to stop the cart after 1 s, solve the above equation for V, with U = 0 and t = 1 s. (The equation becomes a quadratic in V). Instead we use Excel's Goal Seek in the associated workbook From Excel V = 5 m s dx = U = V + dt V + U0 1+ A V + U 0 M

) t

The result is

x = V t +

M A

ln 1 +

A V + U 0 t M

This equation (or the one for U with U = 0) can be easily used to find the maximum value of x by differentiating, as well as the time for x to be zero again. Instead we use Excel's Goal Seek and Solver in the associated workbook From Excel xmax = 1.93 m t ( x = 0) = 2.51 s

) t

x = V t +

M A

ln 1 +

A V + U 0 t M

M = = A = Uo = t (s) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

100 999 0.01 5 x (m) 0.00 0.82 1.36 1.70 1.88 1.93 1.88 1.75 1.56 1.30 0.99 0.63 0.24 -0.19 -0.65 -1.14

kg kg/m3 m2 m/s U (m/s) 5.00 3.33 2.14 1.25 0.56 0.00 -0.45 -0.83 -1.15 -1.43 -1.67 -1.88 -2.06 -2.22 -2.37 -2.50 To find V for U = 0 in 1 s, use Goal Seek t (s) 1.0 U (m/s) 0.00 V (m/s) 5.00

To find the time at which x = 0 use Goal Seek t (s) 2.51 x (m) 0.00

2.5 2.0 1.5

x (m)

1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0.0 -1.0 -1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

t (s)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0.0 -2 -3 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

U (m/s)

t (s)

Problem 4.137

Problem 4.152

[3]

Problem *4.153

[3]

CS moving at speed U

Basic equations: Bernoulli; Momentum flux in z direction (treated as upwards) for linear accelerating CV p V + + g z = constant 2 Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow in jet) (All The Bernoulli equation becomes V0 2

2 2

+ g 0 =

V1 2

+ g z z0

2

V1 =

V0 + 2 g z0 z m s

15 m + 2 9.81 m ( 0 3) m 2 s s

V1 = 12.9

W M arfz = w1 V1 A1 + w2 V2 A2 = V1 U V1 U A1 + 0 V0 2 V1 U A0 V 1 U A 1 W V 1 U A 1 V1 arfz = = g = g M M M

) (

Hence

using

V1 A1 = V0 A0

m arfz = 2.28 2 s

Problem *4.154

M = 35 kg

[4]

CS moving at speed U D = 75 mm

Water jet striking disk Plot mass versus flow rate to find flow rate for a steady height of 3 m

Basic equations: Bernoulli; Momentum flux in z direction (treated as upwards) p V + + g z = constant 2 Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure in jet 4) Uniform flow in jet) (All The Bernoulli equation becomes The momentum equation becomes M g = w1 V1 A1 + w2 V2 A2 = V1 V1 A1 + 0 Hence V 1 A 1 M= g M= V 1 V 0 A 0 g

2 2 2

V0 2

+ g 0 =

V1 2

+ g h

V1 =

V0 2 g h

V1 A1 = V0 A0 and also Q = V0 A0

This equation is difficult to solve for V0 for a given M. Instead we plot first:

100 80

M (kg)

Q (cubic meter/s)

This graph can be parametrically plotted in Excel. The Goal Seek or Solver feature can be used to find Q when M = 35 kg m s

3

Q = 0.0469

Problem 4.155

[3]

Problem 4.156

[3]

Problem 4.142

Problem 4.157

Problem 4.157

Problem 4.158

Problem 4.158

Problem 4.159

CS at speed U Ve Y y x

[3]

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction Assumptions: 1) No resistance 2) pe = patm 3) Uniform flow 4) Use relative velocities From continuity dM = mrate = constant dt arfx M = dU = so M = M0 mrate t (Note: Software cannot render a dot!) Data on rocket sled Minimum fuel to get to 265 m/s

dU M0 mrate t = ue e Ve Ae = Ve mrate dt

Separating variables

Integrating

U Ve = mrate t = M0 1 e 265 2750 = 900 kg 1 e

Ve mrate

or

M0 Ve t= 1 e mrate

mf mf

Hence

mf = 82.7 kg

Problem 4.160

CS at speed U Ve Y X Given: Find: Solution:

Basic equation: Momentum flux in x direction Assumptions: 1) No resistance 2) pe = patm 3) Uniform flow 4) Use relative velocities 5) Constant mass flow rate From continuity dM = mrate = constant dt so M = M0 mrate t Data on rocket weapon Expression for speed of weapon; minimum fraction of mass that must be fuel

[3]

y x

dU Hence from momentum arfx M = M0 mrate t = ue e Ve Ae = Ve mrate dt Separating variables dU = Ve mrate M0 mrate t dt

( (

( )) = Ve ln1

mrate t M0

mrate t U = U0 Ve ln 1 M0

Rearranging

MassFractionConsumed =

mrate t M0

( UU0)

Ve

= 1e

= 1e

( 3500600) 6000

= 0.383

Hence 38.3% of the mass must be fuel to accomplish the task. In reality, a much higher percentage would be needed due to drag effects

Problem 4.161

Problem 4.161

Problem 4.147

Problem 4.162

[3]

Problem 4.163

Problem 4.163

Problem 4.148

Problem 4.164

[3]

Problem 4.165

CS at speed V y x

[3]

Y X Ve

Assumptions: 1) No resistance 2) pe = patm 3) Uniform flow 4) Use relative velocities 5) Constant mass flow rate From continuity dM = mrate = constant dt so M = M0 mrate t (Note: Software cannot render a dot!)

Hence from momentum M g arfy M = ue e Ve Ae = Ve mrate Ve mrate Ve mrate dV arfy = = g = g dt M M0 mrate t (1)

Hence

Separating variables

dV =

Ve mrate M0 mrate t

g dt

( (

( ))

mrate t M0

g t

V = Ve ln 1 m s

mrate t M0

g t

kg s 1 300 kg 8 s 9.81 m s

2

(2)

At t = 8 s

V = 3000

ln 1 8

8 s

V = 641

m s

The speed and acceleration as functions of time are plotted below. These are obtained from Eqs 2 and 1, respectively, and can be plotted in Excel

5000 4000

V (m/s)

Time (s)

400 300

a (m/s2)

200 100

10

20

30

Time (s)

Problem 4.151

Problem 4.166

[3]

Problem 4.167

y x

[4]

CS (moves at speed U)

Ry

Ff

Water jet striking moving vane Plot of terminal speed versus turning angle; angle to overcome static friction

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Atmospheric pressure in jet 3) Uniform flow 4) Jet relative velocity is constant Then Ff M arfx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = ( V U) [ ( V U) A] + ( V U) cos ( ) [ ( V U) A] arfx = Also ( V U) A ( 1 cos ( ) ) Ff M

2

(1)

Ry M g = v1 V1 A1 + v2 V2 A2 = 0 + ( V U) sin ( ) [ ( V U) A] Ry = M g + ( V U) A sin ( )

2

0=

M k M g

2

or

V Ut =

A 1 cos ( ) k sin ( )

Ut = V

A 1 cos ( ) k sin ( )

k M g

The terminal speed as a function of angle is plotted below; it can be generated in Excel

20

15 10 5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Angle (deg)

For the static case Ff = s Ry and arfx = 0 (the cart is about to move, but hasn't)

Substituting in Eq 1, with U = 0

2

0=

V A 1 cos ( ) s V A sin ( ) + M g

M s M g V A = 19 deg

2

or

cos ( ) + s sin ( ) = 1

We need to solve this for ! This can be done by hand or by using Excel's Goal Seek or Solver

Note that we need = 19o, but once started we can throttle back to about = 12.5o and still keep moving!

Problem 4.168

[4]

Problem 4.169

[4]

Problem 4.170

[4]

Problem 4.171

CS at speed V y x

[5]

Y X Ve

Data on rocket Maximum speed and height; Plot of speed and distance versus time

Assumptions: 1) No resistance 2) pe = patm 3) Uniform flow 4) Use relative velocities 5) Constant mass flow rate From continuity dM = mrate = constant dt so M = M0 mrate t (Note: Software cannot render a dot!)

Hence from momentum M g arfy M = ue e Ve Ae = Ve mrate Hence Ve mrate Ve mrate dV arfy = = g = g dt M M0 mrate t dV =

Separating variables

Ve mrate M0 mrate t

g dt

( (

( ))

mrate t M0

g t

(1)

3 kg

V = Ve ln 1

mrate t M0

g t

for

(burn time)

mf To evaluate at tb = 1.7 s, we need Ve and mrate mrate = tb Also note that the thrust Ft is due to momentum flux from the rocket Ft = mrate Ve

mrate = Ve =

mrate = 7.35 10 Ve =

s kg m s N

2

5.75 N 7.35 10

3 kg

Ve = 782

m s

Hence

mrate tb Vmax = Ve ln 1 g tb M0

Vmax = 782 m s ln 1 7.35 10

3 kg

1 0.0696 kg

1.7 s 9.81

m s

2

1.7 s

Vmax = 138

m s

To obtain Y(t) we set V = dY/dt in Eq 1, and integrate to find Y = Ve M0 mrate t mrate t 1 2 1 ln 1 1 + 1 g t mrate M0 M0 2 t tb tb = 1.7 s (2)

At t = tb

m s 0.00735 1.7 ln 1 .00735 1.7 1 + 1 ... 0.0696 kg 1 3 s 0.0696 .0696 7.35 10 kg 1 m 2 + 9.81 ( 1.7 s) 2 2 s Yb = 113 m Yb = 782 V ( t) = Vmax g t tb

) ) ( )

t > tb

(3)

1 2 Y ( t) = Yb + Vmax t tb g t tb 2

(4)

The speed and position as functions of time are plotted below. These are obtained from Eqs 1 through 4, and can be plotted in Excel

150 100

V (m/s)

50

0 50

10

15

20

Time (s)

1500

Y (m)

1000

500

10

15

20

Time (s)

Using Solver, or by differentiating y(t) and setting to zero, or by setting V(t) = 0, we find for the maximumt y 15.8 s = ymax = 1085 m

Problem 4.172

[4]

Problem *4.173

Problem *4.173

Problem *4.173

Problem *4.174

Problem *4.174

Problem *4.175

[5]

CS moving at speed U

Water jet striking moving disk Motion of disk; steady state height

Basic equations: Bernoulli; Momentum flux in z direction (treated as upwards) for linear accelerating CV p V + + g z = constant 2 Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Atmospheric pressure 4) Uniform flow 5) velocities wrt CV The Bernoulli equation becomes V0 2

2 2

+ g 0 =

V1 2

+ g h

V1 =

V0 2 g h m s

15 m + 2 9.81 m ( 0 3) m 2 s s

V1 = 12.9

2 2

) (

and

U =

dh dt

we get

M g M

d h

dh = V 1 A 1 2 dt dt

2 A 0 V 0 dh 2 = V0 2 g h g 2 dt 2 dt M V0 2 g h 2

(2)

This must be solved numerically! One approach is to use Euler's method (see the Excel solution) At equilibrium h = h0 dh =0 dt d h dt

2 2

=0

so V0 h0 = 1 2 g

2

Hence

and M g

2

[3]

h i +1 = h i + t

dh dt

d 2h dh dh = + t 2 dt dt i +1 dt i

t (s) 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 0.700 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000 1.050 1.100 1.150 1.200 1.250 1.300 1.350 1.400 1.450 1.500 1.550 1.600 1.650 1.700 1.750 1.800 1.850 1.900 1.950 2.000

h (m) dh/dt (m/s) d 2h/dt 2 (m/s2) 2.000 2.000 2.061 2.167 2.310 2.481 2.673 2.883 3.107 3.340 3.582 3.829 4.080 4.333 4.587 4.840 5.092 5.341 5.588 5.830 6.069 6.302 6.530 6.753 6.969 7.179 7.383 7.579 7.769 7.952 8.127 8.296 8.457 8.611 8.757 8.896 9.029 9.154 9.272 9.384 9.488 0.000 1.213 2.137 2.852 3.412 3.853 4.199 4.468 4.675 4.830 4.942 5.016 5.059 5.074 5.066 5.038 4.991 4.930 4.854 4.767 4.669 4.563 4.449 4.328 4.201 4.069 3.934 3.795 3.654 3.510 3.366 3.221 3.076 2.931 2.787 2.645 2.504 2.365 2.230 2.097 1.967 24.263 18.468 14.311 11.206 8.811 6.917 5.391 4.140 3.100 2.227 1.486 0.854 0.309 -0.161 -0.570 -0.926 -1.236 -1.507 -1.744 -1.951 -2.130 -2.286 -2.420 -2.535 -2.631 -2.711 -2.776 -2.826 -2.864 -2.889 -2.902 -2.904 -2.896 -2.878 -2.850 -2.814 -2.769 -2.716 -2.655 -2.588 -2.514

12 10

Position (m)

6 5

Speed (m/s)

8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2

Time t (s) Position Speed

4 3 2 1 0 3 4 5

Problem 4.176

Problem 4.176

Problem *4.177

Problem 4.133

Problem *4.177

Problem *4.177

Problem *4.178

*4.179 *4.179

*4.179

Problem *4.178

Problem *4.179

4.137

Problem *4.179

Problem *4.179

Problem *4.179

Problem *4.180

Problem *4.180

Problem *4.165

Problem *4.181

Example 4.6

[2]

Problem *4.182

[3]

Problem *4.168

Problem *4.183

[3]

Problem *4.169

Problem *4.184

[3]

Problem *4.170

Problem *4.185

[3]

Problem *4.186

[3]

The given data is

Data on rotating spray system Torque required to hold stationary; steady-state speed

= 999

kg m

3

kg mflow = 15 s

D = 0.015 m

ro = 0.25 m

ri = 0.05 m

= 0.005 m

For no rotation ( = 0) this equation reduces to a single scalar equation Tshaft = r Vxyz Vxyz dA 2 2 2 2 Tshaft = 2 r V V dr = 2 V r dr = V ro ri r r

i i mflow ro ro

or

V =

2 ro ri

)

mflow ro + ri Tshaft = 4 ro ri

2

Hence

Tshaft = 1 4 15 kg

2

( (

) )

( 0.25 + 0.05)

Tshaft = 16.9 N m

varies with r. This variation can be found from mass conservation For an infinitesmal CV of length dr and cross-section A at radial position r, if the flow in is Q, the flow out is Q + dQ, and the loss through the slot is Vdr. Hence mass conservation leads to ( Q + dQ) + V drdQQ = V dr = 0 Q ( r) = V r + const

Q = Qi =

mflow 2

Hence

Q = Qi + V ri r =

mflow mflow + ri r 2 ro ri 2

) (

Q =

mflow 1 + 2

ri r mflow ro r = ro ri ro ri 2

v ( r) =

mflow ro r Q = A 2 A ro ri

r 2 V dV becomes xyz

o mflow ro r r 2 Vxyz dV = 4 A r v ( r) dr = 4 r dr 2 r ro ri i r i r ro

or

ro

Recall that

3 2

Hence equation

becomes

Solving for

3 ro ri V ro ri = 3 2 mflow ro + ri 2 ri 3 ro

= 461 rpm

Problem *4.187

[3]

The given data is

Data on rotating spray system Torque required to hold stationary; steady-state speed

= 999

kg m

3

kg mflow = 15 s

D = 0.015 m

ro = 0.25 m

ri = 0.05 m

= 0.005 m

For no rotation ( = 0) this equation reduces to a single scalar equation Tshaft = r Vxyz VxyzdA Tshaft = 2 r

ro

or

r V V dr

i

where V is the exit velocity with respect to the CV. We need to find V(r). To do this we use mass conservation, and the fact that the distribution is linear r ri V ( r) = Vmax ro ri so V ( r) =

( (

) ) ) )

and

mflow 1 2 Vmax ro ri = 2

mflow r ri 2 ro ri

Hence

mflow r ri 2 r Tshaft = 2 r V dr = 2 r r r i o i r

ro

ro

) 2 )

dr

mflow ri + 3 ro Tshaft = 6 ro ri

( (

Tshaft =

1 6

15

kg

Tshaft = 30 N m

For the steady rotation speed the equation becomes r 2 Vxyz dV = r Vxyz Vxyz dA

r 2 V dV The volume integral term must be evaluated for the CV. The velocity in the CV xyz varies with r. This variation can be found from mass conservation

For an infinitesmal CV of length dr and cross-section A at radial position r, if the flow in is Q, the flow out is Q + dQ, and the loss through the slot is Vdr Hence mass conservation leads to m m flow r ri flow r ri dr = Qi dr Q ( r) = Qi 2 2 ro ri ro ri r r

r

( Q + dQ) + V dr Q = 0

dQ = V dr

) )

) )

Q = Qi =

mflow 2

Hence

mflow r ri Q ( r) = 1 2 ro ri

( (

) 2 )

2

mflow r ri Q v ( r) = = 1 A 2 A ro ri

( (

) 2 )

2 ro

i ro 2

ro r v ( r) dr = 4 4 A r i

mflow r ri r 1 2 ro ri

( (

) dr 2 )

2

or

2

Recall that

Hence equation

2

becomes

Solving for

mflow ri + 3 ro

r 2 + 2 r r 3 r 2 r r i o i ( o i) o

= 1434 rpm

Problem *4.188

[3]

Problem *4.189

[3]

Problem *4.175

Problem *4.190

[3]

Problem *4.176

Problem *4.191

[3]

Problem *4.192

[4]

Problem *4.178

Problem *4.193

[4]

Problem *4.179

Problem *4.194

Problem *4.194

Problem *4.180

Problem *4.195

Problem *4.195

Problem *4.195

Problem *4.181

Problem *4.196

Problem *4.196

Problem *4.197

Problem *4.197

Problem 4.183

Problem 4.198

[2]

Problem 4.199

[3]

Assumptions: 1) Adiabatic 2) No work 3) Neglect KE 4) Uniform properties at exit 5) Ideal gas From continuity t t MCV + mexit = 0 MCV = mexit where mexit is the mass flow rate at the exit (Note: Software does not allow a dot!)

0 =

p p u dM + u + mexit = u M + M u + u + mexit t t t

Hence

But

3

For air

p R T

= 20 10

kg K 1 6 N 2 286.9 N m ( 60 + 273) K m

3 2

Hence

Problem 4.200

[3]

Basic equations:

3

3

h1 = 0.2 m

Assumptions: 1) Adiabatic 2) Only shaft work 3) Steady 4) Neglect u 5) z = 0 6) Incompressible 7) Uniform flow

2 2 V1 V2 Ws = p1 v1 + m + p v + m 2 ( rate) 2 2 2 ( rate)

Then Since

mrate = Q

and

V1 = V2

(from continuity)

Ws = Q p2 v2 p1 v1 = Q p2 p1 p1 = Hg g h Ws = Q p1 p2 = Ws Pin or

)

p1 = 26.7 kPa The negative sign indicates work in

Problem 4.187

Problem 4.201

[2]

Problem 4.186

Problem 4.202

[2]

Problem 4.188

Problem 4.203

[2]

Problem 4.204

[3]

zmax V2 z x

CV (b)

CV (a)

Data on fire boat hose system Volume flow rate of nozzle; Maximum water height; Force on boat

Assumptions: 1) Neglect losses 2) No work 3) Neglect KE at 1 4) Uniform properties at exit 5) Incompressible 6) patm at 1 and 2

V 2 2 Ws = + g z2 mexit 2

mexit = V2 A2

where mexit is mass flow rate (Note: Software cannot render a dot!) which is a cubic for V2!

1 V 2 + g z V A = W 2 2 2 2 s 2

To solve this we could ignore the gravity term, solve for velocity, and then check that the gravity term is in fact minor. Alternatively we could manually iterate, or use a calculator or Excel, to solve. The answer is Hence the flow rate is Q = V2 A2 = V2 D 2 4

2

V2 = 114

ft s

To find zmax, use the first law again to (to CV (b)) to get zmax = = g mexit g Q Ws Ws zmax = 15 hp

550 ft lbf s 2 3

ft Q = 0.622 s

Q = 279 gpm

1 hp

s 0.622 ft

3

slug ft s lbf

2

zmax = 212 ft

For the force in the x direction when jet is horizontal we need x momentum

Then

Rx = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 = 0 + V2 Q Rx = 1.94 slug ft

3

R x = Q V 2 Rx = 138 lbf

0.622

Problem 4.189

Problem 4.205

[3]

Problem *4.191

Problem *4.206

Problem *4.206

Problem 4.192

Problem 4.207

Problem 4.207

Problem 5.1

[1]

Problem 5.2

[2]

Basic equation:

u+

v +

w =0

2

v ( x , y , z , t ) = 2 y z + x y z y x

2

w ( x , y , z , t) = z

1 2 2 3 4 x z + x y 2

2

u ( x , y , z , t) 2 z

v ( x , y , z , t ) x z 2 z y z

w ( x , y , z , t) x z

Hence

u+

v +

w =0

2

INCOMPRESSIBLE z 2 x t y t 2

2

b)

u ( x , y , z , t) = x y z t x

v ( x , y , z , t ) = x y z t y x

2

w( x , y , z , t) = z

) )

u ( x , y , z , t) t y z

v ( x , y , z , t ) t x z

w( x , y , z , t ) z t x t y

(2

Hence

u+

v+

w =0

INCOMPRESSIBLE

c)

u ( x , y , z , t) = x + y + z

v ( x , y , z , t) = x y + z

w ( x , y , z , t) = 2 x z + y + z

u ( x , y , z , t) 2 x

y x

v ( x , y , z , t) 1

w ( x , y , z , t) 1 2 x

Hence

u+

v+

w =0

INCOMPRESSIBLE

Problem 5.3

[1]

Problem 5.4

[2]

Basic equation:

x component of velocity y component for incompressible flow; Valid for unsteady?; How many y components?

( u) +

( v) +

( w ) +

=0

Integrating

y2 v ( x , y) = A ( y B) dy = A B y + f ( x) 2 This basic equation is valid for steady and unsteady flow (t is not explicit) There are an infinite number of solutions, since f(x) can be any function of x. The simplest is f(x) = 0 v ( x , y) = A

y2 2

B y

v ( x , y) = 6 y

y 2

Problem 5.5

[2]

Basic equation:

x component of velocity y component for incompressible flow; Valid for unsteady? How many y components?

( u) +

( v ) +

( w) +

=0

( x3 3 x y2) = ( 3 x2 3 y2)

Integrating

2 2 2 3 v ( x , y) = 3 x 3 y dy = 3 x y + y + f ( x) This basic equation is valid for steady and unsteady flow (t is not explicit) There are an infinite number of solutions, since f(x) can be any function of x. The simplest is f(x) = 0 v ( x , y) = y 3 x y

3 2

Problem 5.6

[2]

Problem 5.7

[2]

Basic equation:

( u) +

( v ) +

( w) +

=0

2 2 2 2 A x y y x = A x y x + A x y 2 y y

Integrating

3 2 3 2 2 1 4 u ( x , y) = A 3 x y x dx = A x y + A x + f ( y) 2 4

This basic equation is valid for steady and unsteady flow (t is not explicit) There are an infinite number of solutions, since f(y) can be any function of y. The simplest is f(y) = 0 u ( x , y) = 1 4 3 2 2 A x A x y 4 2 u ( x , y) = 1 4 2 2 x 3 x y 2

Problem 5.8

[2]

Basic equation:

x component of velocity y component for incompressible flow; Valid for unsteady? How many y components?

( u) +

( v) +

( w ) +

=0

x y = A e b cos y v = u = A e cos y x x b b b

x b

Integrating

x x A b y dy = A e b sin y + f ( x) v ( x , y) = e cos b b b

This basic equation is valid for steady and unsteady flow (t is not explicit) There are an infinite number of solutions, since f(x) can be any function of x. The simplest is f(x) = 0

x b x 5

y v ( x , y) = A e sin b

y v ( x , y) = 10 e sin 5

Problem 5.9

[3]

Basic equation:

( u) +

( v) +

( w ) +

=0

2 x y y 2 2 x +y

Integrating

u ( x , y) = u ( x , y) = 1

x +y u ( x , y) = 1 x +y

2

2 y

2 2

(x

+y

+ f ( y)

2 y

2 2

(x2 + y2)

2

Note: Instead of this approach we could have verified that u and v satisfy continuity 1

x x2 + y2

2 y

Problem 5.10

[2]

Problem 5.11

[3]

Problem 5.12

[3]

Problem 5.13

[3]

Data on boundary layer y component of velocity ratio; location of maximum value; plot velocity profiles; evaluate at particular point

3 y 1 y 3 u ( x , y) = U 2 ( x) 2 ( x)

3 3 y 1 y u ( x , y) = U 2 c x 2 c x

and

( x) = c x

so

u+

v =0

Hence

d v ( x , y) = u ( x , y) dy dx y3 x5 y x3 3 v ( x , y) = U dy c3 2 c 2 4

4 y2 y v ( x , y) = U 3 5 8 2 3 2 2 c x c x

and

du 3 y = U 5 dx 4

3

y c x

3 2

3 2 c x

so

v ( x , y) =

2 4 1 y y U 2 8 x

y=

vmax =

1 U 1 1 8 x 2 3 vmax U = 0.00188

To find when v /U is maximum, use Solver v /U 0.00188 v /U 0.000000 0.000037 0.000147 0.000322 0.000552 0.00082 0.00111 0.00139 0.00163 0.00181 0.00188 y /d 1.0 y /d 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

1.0 0.8 y / 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0000

0.0005

0.0010 v /U

0.0015

0.0020

Problem 5.14

[3]

Problem 5.15

[3]

Problem 5.16

[4]

Problem 5.17

Consider a water stream from a jet of an oscillating lawn sprinkler. corresponding pathline and streakline.

[5]

Describe the

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Consider a water stream from a jet of an oscillating lawn sprinkler. Describe the corresponding pathline and streakline. Discussion: Refer back to the discussion of streamlines, pathlines, and streaklines in Section 2-2. Because the sprinkler jet oscillates, this is an unsteady flow. Therefore pathlines and streaklines need not coincide. A pathline is a line tracing the path of an individual fluid particle. The path of each particle is determined by the jet angle and the speed at which the particle leaves the jet. Once a particle leaves the jet it is subject to gravity and drag forces. If aerodynamic drag were negligible, the path of each particle would be parabolic. The horizontal speed of the particle would remain constant throughout its trajectory. The vertical speed would be slowed by gravity until reaching peak height, and then it would become increasingly negative until the particle strikes the ground. The effect of aerodynamic drag is to reduce the particle speed. With drag the particle will not rise as high vertically nor travel as far horizontally. At each instant the particle trajectory will be lower and closer to the jet compared to the no-friction case. The trajectory after the particle reaches its peak height will be steeper than in the no-friction case. A streamline is a line drawn in the flow that is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors of the fluid motion. It is difficult to visualize the streamlines for an unsteady flow field because they move laterally. However, the streamline pattern may be drawn at an instant. A streakline is the locus of the present locations of fluid particles that passed a reference point at previous times. As an example, choose the exit of a jet as the reference point. Imagine marking particles that pass the jet exit at a given instant and at uniform time intervals later. The first particle will travel farthest from the jet exit and on the lowest trajectory; the last particle will be located right at the jet exit. The curve joining the present positions of the particles will resemble a spiral whose radius increases with distance from the jet opening.

Problem 5.18

[2]

Problem 5.19

[3]

Basic equation:

1 1 r Vr + V z + = 0 V + r r r z t

( )

( )

or

V =

(r Vr) = r r

cos ( ) r

cos ( ) r

2

Integrating

2

+ f ( r)

There are an infinite number of solutions as f(r) can be any function of r The simplest form is V ( r , ) = sin ( ) r

2

Problem 5.20

[2]

Problem 5.21

[4]

169 5.2c.

(3.19)

(Page 169)

5.2c.

Problem 5.22

[3]

The velocity field Whether or not it is a incompressible flow; sketch various streamlines

A r

V =

B r

1 d 1 d r Vr + V = 0 r dr r d 1 d 1 d r Vr + V = 0 r dr r d dr r d = Vr V 1 dr = A d r B

A B

( (

) )

1 d r Vr = 0 r dr Flow is incompressible

2

1 d V =0 r d

Hence

r dr r d = A B

so

Integrating

ln ( r ) =

A + const B

Equation of streamlines is r = C e

2 2

r=e

2 4 2 0 2 4

Problem *5.23

[2]

Problem *5.24

[3]

Basic equation:

( u) +

( v) +

( w ) +

=0

u=

v=

2 x ( x + 1) y 0 y

Hence

u = y ( 2 x + 1) =

2

2 2 y ( x , y) = y ( 2 x + 1) dy = x y + + f ( x) 2

and

v = x ( x + 1) y = x x 3 2

2 3 2

3 2 x x 2 2 ( x , y) = x ( x + 1) y dx = + x y + g ( y) 3 2

Comparing these

f ( x) =

and

2 3

g ( y) =

y 2

y x 2 x + x y 2 2 3

Checking

u ( x , y) =

2 2 3 x x y + x y2 u ( x , y) = y + 2 x y 2 3 y 2 2 2 3 x x y + x y2 v ( x , y) = x2 + x y2 2 3 x 2

v ( x , y) =

Problem *5.25

[2]

Problem *5.26

[3]

The velocity field Whether or not it is a incompressible flow; sketch stream function

A r

V =

B r

1 d 1 d r Vr + V = 0 r dr r d 1 d 1 d r Vr + V = 0 r dr r d = r Vr = A

( (

) )

1 d r Vr = 0 r dr Flow is incompressible

1 d V =0 r d

Hence

= A + f ( r )

Integrating

B = V = r r

= B ln ( r ) + g( )

= A B ln ( r )

Problem *5.27

[3]

Basic equation:

Velocity field Whether it's 1D, 2D or 3D flow; Incompressible or not; Stream function

( u) +

( v) +

( w ) +

=0

v=

w =

Assumption: Incompressible flow; flow in y-z plane (u = 0) Velocity field is a function of y and z only, so is 2D y z

v+

w =0

2 2 2 2 y y 3 z 3 y 3 z y

2 2 2 2 z z 3 y 3 z 3 y z

Hence

v+

w =0

Flow is INCOMPRESSIBLE

Hence

v = y y 3 z

(2

)=

2 2 3 3 ( y , z) = y y 3 z dz = y z y z + f ( y) 2 2 3 3 ( y , z) = z z 3 y dy = y z + z y + g ( z) and g ( z) = 0

and

w = z z 3 y

(2

) =

Comparing these

f ( y) = 0

3 3

( y , z) = z y z y z

Checking

u ( y , z) =

(z y3 z3 y) u (y , z) = y3 3 y z2 (z y3 z3 y) w (y , z) = z3 3 y2 z

w ( y , z) =

Problem *5.28

[3]

Problem *5.29

U h y x

[3]

Basic equations:

u=

v=

y and we have u = U h

v=0

y U 0 x h Hence x u+ y v =0

00

Flow is INCOMPRESSIBLE

2 U y y ( x , y) = U dy = + f ( x) 2 h h

Hence

u = U

y = h y x

and

v=0=

( x , y) = 0 dx = g ( y) and

2

Comparing these

f ( x) = 0 U y ( x , y) = 2 h

h

g ( y) =

U y 2 h

U U h Q = u dy = y dy = 0 0 h 2 Q = 0 2

2 hhalf

U u dy = h 0

hhalf

y dy =

U hhalf 2 h

Hence

hhalf =

1 2 h 2

Problem *5.30

[3]

Problem *5.31

[3]

Problem *5.32

[3]

Problem *5.33

[3]

Data on boundary layer Stream function; locate streamlines at 1/4 and 1/2 of total flow rate

3 y 1 y 3 u ( x , y) = U 2 2

For the stream function u =

and

( x) = c x

3 y 1 y 3 = U y 2 2 3 y 1 y = U + f ( x) 4 8 3

2 4

Hence

3 y 1 y 3 = U dy 2 2

Let = 0 = 0 along y = 0, so f(x) = 0, so The total flow rate in the boundary layer is

3 y 2 1 y 4 = U 4 8

3 y 2 1 y 4 1 5 0 = U = U 4 8 4 8

y y 24 4 = 5

2 4

or

4 X 24 X + 5 = 0

where

X = 24 +

y 24 4 4 5 = 5.784 2 4

2

24

24 4 4 5 2 4

X = 0.216

X = 0.465

y y 12 2 = 5 The solution to the quadratic is X = y = 12 12 4 2 5. 2 2

2 2 4

or

2 X 12 X + 5 = 0

where

X = 12 +

y 12 4 2 5 = 5.55 2 2

2

X = 0.450

Hence

X = 0.671

Problem *5.34

[3]

Problem *5.35

[3]

Problem 5.36

[3]

Basic equations

u+

v =0

(4

2 2

) (

v ( x , y) = A 4 x y 4 x y

) ) ( )

Checking Hence

4 2 2 4 3 2 A x 6 x y + y A 4 x 12 x y x

3 3 3 2 A 4 x y 4 x y A 4 x 12 x y y

u+

v =0

ax = u

u + v

u

4

ax = A x 6 x y + y ax = 4 A x x + y ay = u x v + v y

2

(4

2 2

y

(2

)3 )

A (4 x y3 4 x3 y) + A (4 x y3 4 x3 y) A (4 x y3 4 x3 y)

y

v

4

ay = A x 6 x y + y ay = 4 A y x + y Hence at (2,1)

2

(4

2 2

(2

3 3

1 1 2 2 ax = 4 4 3 2 m ( 2 m) + ( 1 m) m s

2

m ax = 62.5 2 s m ay = 31.3 2 s a = ax + ay

2 2

3 1 1 2 2 ay = 4 1 m ( 2 m) + ( 1 m) 4 3 m s

a = 69.9

m s

2

Problem 5.37

[2]

Problem 5.38

[2]

Problem 5.39

[2]

Problem 5.40

[3]

Basic equations

x component of velocity field Simplest y component for incompressible flow; Acceleration of particle at (1,3)

u=

v =

We are given

u ( x , y) = A x 10 x y + 5 x y

(5

3 2

) ) ( )

10 3 3 5 3 2 4 5 5 Hence for incompressible flow ( x , y) = u dy = A x 10 x y + 5 x y dy = A x y 3 x y + x y + f ( x) v ( x , y) = Hence The simplest is The acceleration is given by x xy =

( )

2 3 5) ( 4 + F ( x) 4 2 3 5 v ( x , y) = A ( 5 x y 10 x y + y )

v ( x , y) = A 5 x y 10 x y + y

ax = u

u + v

ax = A x 10 x y + 5 x y

2

(5

3 2

x

2

y

4

ax = 5 A x x + y ay = u x v + v y

(2

ay = A x 10 x y + 5 x y

2

(5

3 2

ay = 5 A y x + y Hence at (1,3)

x

2

y

4

4 1 1 2 2 ax = 5 1 m ( 1 m) + ( 3 m) 2 4 m s 4 1 1 2 2 ay = 5 3 m ( 1 m) + ( 3 m) 2 4 m s 2

ax = 1.25 10

4m 2

ay = 3.75 10

4m 2

a =

ax + ay

a = 3.95 10

4m 2

Problem 5.41

[2]

The given data is

Velocity field Whether flow is incompressible; expression for acceleration; evaluate acceleration along axes and along y = x

A = 10 x x

m s

u ( x , y) =

A x x +y

2 2

v ( x , y) =

A y x +y

2 2

u+

y y

v =0

Hence, checking

u+

v = A

Incompressible flow

2

(2

ax =

A x

(x2 + y2)2

A y

2

dv dv A x 2 A x y A y A x y ay = u + v = + 2 2 2 2 2 2 dx dy x + y x2 + y2 x + y x2 + y2

2

(2

ay =

(x2 + y2)

A 100 ax = = 3 3 x x ax = 0 A x r

4 2 2

ay = 0 A 100 ay = = 3 3 y y

2

ax = r=

100 x r

4

ay =

A y r

4

100 y r

4

where

x +y

For this last case the acceleration along the line x = y is a= A A 100 2 2 2 2 ax + ay = x + y = = 4 3 3 r r r

2 2

a=

A r

100 r

3

In each case the acceleration vector points towards the origin, proportional to 1/distance3, so the flow field is a radial decelerating flow

Problem 5.42

[2]

Problem 5.43

[2]

Problem 5.44

[4]

Flow in a pipe with variable diameter Expression for particle acceleration; Plot of velocity and acceleration along centerline

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Flow profile remains unchanged so centerline velocity can represent average velocity Basic equations Q = V A D 4

2

Q = V A = V

But

D = Di +

( Do Di) x

L

where Di and Do are the inlet and exit diameters, and x is distance along the pipe of length L: D(0) = Di, D(L) = Do.

2

Hence

( Do Di) x Di + D i L Vi = V

2

V = Vi

Di

2 2

(Do Di) x Di + L

m s

Vi

1 +

Do 1 Di x L L m V = 2.56 s 2

V ( x) =

Vi

1 +

V ( L) = 16 m s

Do 1 Di x L

ax = V

ax =

Vi

1 +

Do 1 Di x L

Di = 2 5 x Do Do x 1 1 Di Di L x + 1 1 + L L

Vi

2 Vi

2 Do

2 V i ax ( x) =

2 Do

Di

Do x 1 Di L + 1 L

m Some representative values are ax ( 0 m) = 0.75 2 s The following plots can be done in Excel

20 15

m L ax = 7.864 2 2 s

m ax ( L) = 768 2 s

V (m/s)

10 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x (m)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

a (m/s2)

x (m)

Problem 5.45

[2]

Problem 5.46

[2]

Problem 5.47

[4]

Data on pollution concentration Plot of concentration; Plot of concentration over time for moving vehicle; Location and value of maximum rate change

D =u +v +w + Dt x y z t

u=U v=0 w =0

x x a 2 a c ( x) = A e e

x

Hence

Dc dc U A 1 2 a 2 a a d a = u e e e = U A e = Dt dx a 2 dx

We need to convert this to a function of time. For this motion u = U so x = U t Dc U A 1 2 a = e e Dt a 2 The following plots can be done in Excel

U t

U t a

10

c (ppm)

x (m)

510

Dc/Dt (ppm/s)

0 510 110

5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

t (s)

The maximum rate of change is when d Dc d U A 1 2 a a e e = 0 = dx Dt dx a 2

U A a 1 2 a e e =0 2 4 a

or

x 2 a

1 4

Dcmax

Dcmax Dt

= 1.25 10

5 ppm

= 20

m 1 1 5 10 ppm 1 s 1 m 2

= 1 10

4 ppm

Problem 5.48

[2]

Problem 5.49

[2]

Problem 5.50

[3]

Problem 5.51

[3]

Problem 5.52

[3]

Problem 5.53

[3]

Problem 5.54

[3]

Problem 5.55

[3]

Problem 5.56

[3]

Problem 5.57

U y x

[4]

Basic equations

Flow in boundary layer Expression for particle acceleration ax; Plot acceleration and find maximum at x = 0.8 m

3 v 1 y 1 y = U x 2 3

u y y = 2 U

= c x

ax = u

u + v y ( x)

u so u 2 = 2 U v 1 1 3 = U x 2 3 d 1 2 = c x dx 2

1 2 1

( x , y) =

Then

du d y d u = = U ( 2 2 ) 2 dx d dx x 1 u = U ( 2 2 ) c x x 2

1 2

U = u = U ( 2 2 ) x 2 x x

1 = U ( 2 2 ) c x 1 2 2 c x

2

2 2 y 2 U y y 2 U 2 = u = U 2 = 2 y y

Hence

ax = u

u + v

u = U 2

2 2 U

) (

) + U 1 1 3 2 U ( 2)

x 2 3 y

Collecting terms

2 2 2 3 4 U 2 4 3 1 4 U y 4 y 1 y ax = + = + x x 3 3 3 3 2 dax U 2 4 3 =0= 2 + 4 d x 3

or

1 + 2 y = 0.634

2 2 = 0 3

3 3 2

= 0.634

At = 0.634

2

m ax = 5.22 2 s

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

y/d

a (m/s2)

Problem 5.58

Problem 5.58

Problem 5.59

[3]

Problem 5.60

[3]

Problem 5.61

Problem 5.61

A0 = L = b = = U0 =

0 5 10 60 t= 2 2 2 x (m) a x (m/s ) a x (m/s ) a x (m/s ) a x (m/s2) 0.0 1.00 1.367 2.004 2.50 0.5 1.05 1.552 2.32 2.92 1.0 1.11 1.78 2.71 3.43 1.5 1.18 2.06 3.20 4.07 2.0 1.25 2.41 3.82 4.88 2.5 1.33 2.86 4.61 5.93 3.0 1.43 3.44 5.64 7.29 3.5 1.54 4.20 7.01 9.10 4.0 1.67 5.24 8.88 11.57 4.5 1.82 6.67 11.48 15.03 5.0 2.00 8.73 15.22 20.00 For large time (> 30 s) the flow is essentially steady-state

Acceleration in a Nozzle

22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 0.5 1.0

Acceleration ax (m/s2)

1.5

2.0

2.5 x (m)

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Problem 5.63

Problem 5.63

Problem 5.64

5.53

[4]

5.53

5.53

Problem 5.65

[4]

Problem 5.66

[2]

u =0

(a)

x x x

y y y

2 2 2 2 2 u = 3 x + y 2 y 2 y x = 4 x + y 4 y 0

) (

Not irrotional

(b)

u = ( 2 y + 2 x) ( 2 y 2 x) = 4 x 0

Not irrotional

(c)

u = t

( 2) (2) = t2 2 0

Not irrotional

(d)

u = ( 2 y t) ( 2 x t) = 2 x t 2 y t 0

Not irrotional

Problem 5.67

[3]

7 5 2 3 4

u+

6

v =0

Irrotationality

6

u =0

2 5 7 6

u ( x , y) = x 21 x y + 35 x y 7 x y x

6 4 2 2 4

v ( x , y) = 7 x y 35 x y + 21 x y y

6

4 3

u ( x , y) 7 x 105 x y + 105 x y 7 y y

v ( x , y) 7 x 105 x y + 105 x y 7 y

4 2

2 4

Hence

u+

v 0

7 5 2 3 4 6

COMPRESSIBLE

6 4 3 2 5 7 5

b)

u ( x , y) = x 21 x y + 35 x y 7 x y x v ( x , y) 42 x y 140 x y + 42 x y y

5 3 3

v ( x , y) = 7 x y 35 x y + 21 x y y y

5 3 3

u ( x , y) 42 x y 140 x y + 42 x y

Hence

u 0

ROTATIONAL

v ( x , y) = 7 x y 35 x y + 21 x y y

4 3

2 5

Problem 5.68

[2]

5.12

Problem 5.69

[2]

Problem 5.70

[2]

Problem *5.71

[3]

Basic equations:

x y x Note: The fact that exists means the flow is incompressible, but we check anyway ( x , y) = x 15 x y + 15 x y y

6 4 2 2 4 6 4 5

Incompressibility

u+

v =0

Irrotationality

u =0

Hence

u ( x , y) =

( x , y) 60 x y 30 x y 6 y

2 3

v ( x , y) =

( x , y) 60 x y 6 x 30 x y

3 2

2 2 4 4

u ( x , y) 120 x y 120 x y y

v ( x , y) 120 x y 120 x y

u+

v =0

INCOMPRESSIBLE

u ( x , y) 30 x 180 x y + 30 y

2 2

u =0

IRROTATIONAL

Problem *5.72

[3]

Basic equations:

x y x Note: The fact that exists means the flow is incompressible, but we check anyway ( x , y) = 3 x y 10 x y + 3 x y

5 3 3 5 4

Incompressibility

u+

v =0

Irrotationality

u =0

Hence

u ( x , y) =

( x , y) 3 x 30 x y + 15 x y

3 2

v ( x , y) =

( x , y) 30 x y 15 x y 3 y

2 3

3 3

u ( x , y) 15 x 90 x y + 15 y y

2 2

v ( x , y) 90 x y 15 x 15 y

2 2

u+

v =0

INCOMPRESSIBLE

u ( x , y) 60 x y 60 x y

u =0

IRROTATIONAL

Problem *5.73

[2]

The stream function Whether or not the flow is incompressible; whether or not the flow is irrotational

2 x + y u = d = dy

(2

A

2

)

2

A y x +y

(2

v=

d = dx

A x x +y

(2

)2

Incompressible

Because a stream function exists, the flow is: Alternatively, we can check with x x For a 2D field, the irrotionality the test is x x u+ y y y y v =0 4 A x y x +y u =0 4 A x y x +y

u+

v =

=0

Incompressible

u =

A x 3 y

( 2 2) A (3 x2 y2) = 2 A 0 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x + y ) ( x + y ) ( x + y )

Not irrotational

Problem *5.74

[2]

Problem *5.75

[3]

Problem *5.76

[2]

Problem *5.77

[2]

Problem *5.78

[2]

Problem 5.79

[3]

Problem *5.80

[3]

Problem 5.81

[3]

Problem 5.82

[2]

Problem 5.83

[3]

Problem 5.84

[3]

Problem 5.85

[2]

Problem 5.86

[2]

Problem 5.87

N =4 x = 0.333 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 x 0.000 0.333 0.667 1.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.750 0.563 0.422 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 (RHS) 1 0 0 0 Result 1.000 0.750 0.563 0.422 Exact 1.000 0.717 0.513 0.368 Error 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.040

N =8 x = 0.143 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1 1.000 0.875 0.766 0.670 0.586 0.513 0.449 0.393 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 (RHS) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.019

N = 16 x = 0.067 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 x 0.000 0.067 0.133 0.200 0.267 0.333 0.400 0.467 0.533 0.600 0.667 0.733 0.800 0.867 0.933 1.000

Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380 x 0.333 0.143 0.067

2 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

4 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

6 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

7 8 9 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

11 12 13 14 15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000

16 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067

(RHS) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Result 1.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380 Exact 1.000 0.936 0.875 0.819 0.766 0.717 0.670 0.627 0.587 0.549 0.513 0.480 0.449 0.420 0.393 0.368 Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009

0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380

0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938

N 4 8 16

u

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.1

0.01

0.001 0.01

0.10

1.00

Problem 5.88

ui 1 + (1 + x )ui = 2x sin( xi )

N =4 x = 0.333 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 x 0.000 0.333 0.667 1.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.750 0.563 0.422 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 (RHS) 0 0.21813 0.41225 0.56098 Result 0.000 0.164 0.432 0.745 Exact 0.000 0.099 0.346 0.669 Error 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.066

N =8 x = 0.143 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1 1.000 0.875 0.766 0.670 0.586 0.513 0.449 0.393 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 (RHS) 0 0.04068 0.08053 0.11873 0.15452 0.18717 0.21599 0.24042

Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.032

N = 16 x = 0.067 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 x 0.000 0.067 0.133 0.200 0.267 0.333 0.400 0.467 0.533 0.600 0.667 0.733 0.800 0.867 0.933 1.000

Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380 x 0.333 0.143 0.067

2 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

4 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

6 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

7 8 9 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

11 12 13 14 15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000

16 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067

(RHS) 0 0.00888 0.01773 0.02649 0.03514 0.04363 0.05192 0.05999 0.06779 0.07529 0.08245 0.08925 0.09565 0.10162 0.10715 0.1122 Result 0.000 0.008 0.024 0.048 0.078 0.114 0.155 0.202 0.253 0.308 0.366 0.426 0.489 0.554 0.620 0.686 Exact 0.000 0.004 0.017 0.037 0.065 0.099 0.139 0.184 0.234 0.288 0.346 0.407 0.470 0.535 0.602 0.669 Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.016

0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380

0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938

N 4 8 16

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.0

.01

0.10

1.00

Problem 5.89

ui 1 + (1 + x )ui = x xi2

N =4 x = 0.333 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 x 0.000 0.333 0.667 1.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.750 0.563 0.422 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 (RHS) 2 0.03704 0.14815 0.33333 Result 2.000 1.528 1.257 1.193 Exact 2.000 1.444 1.111 1.000 Error 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.009 0.128

N =8 x = 0.143 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1 1.000 0.875 0.766 0.670 0.586 0.513 0.449 0.393 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.143 (RHS) 2 0.00292 0.01166 0.02624 0.04665 0.07289 0.10496 0.14286

Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.057

N = 16 x = 0.067 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 x 0.000 0.067 0.133 0.200 0.267 0.333 0.400 0.467 0.533 0.600 0.667 0.733 0.800 0.867 0.933 1.000

Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380 x 0.333 0.143 0.067

2 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

4 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

6 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

7 8 9 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

11 12 13 14 15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.067 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000

16 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.067

(RHS) 2 0.0003 0.00119 0.00267 0.00474 0.00741 0.01067 0.01452 0.01896 0.024 0.02963 0.03585 0.04267 0.05007 0.05807 0.06667 Result 2.000 1.875 1.759 1.652 1.553 1.463 1.381 1.309 1.245 1.189 1.143 1.105 1.076 1.056 1.044 1.041 Exact 2.000 1.871 1.751 1.640 1.538 1.444 1.360 1.284 1.218 1.160 1.111 1.071 1.040 1.018 1.004 1.000 Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.027

0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405 0.380

0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432 0.405

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461 0.432

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492 0.461

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524 0.492

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559 0.524

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597 0.559

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637 0.597

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679 0.637

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724 0.679

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772 0.724

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824 0.772

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879 0.824

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938 0.879

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.938

N 4 8 16

0.0

0.2

0.4

1.0

.01

0.10

1.00

Problem 5.90

u du du A = A = dt dy

Equation of motion:

du A + u = 0 dt M du + k u = 0 dt

u i 1 + (1 + k x )u i = 0

N =4 t = 0.333 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 t 0.000 0.333 0.667 1.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.484 0.234 0.113 0.000 2.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.067 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.067 (RHS) 1 0 0 0 Result 1.000 0.484 0.234 0.113 Exact 1.000 0.344 0.118 0.041 Error 0.000 0.005 0.003 0.001 0.098

A = = = M = k =

0.01 0.25

m2 mm

N =8 t = 0.143 Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1 1.000 0.686 0.471 0.323 0.222 0.152 0.104 0.072 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.457 (RHS) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Error 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.052

N = 16 t = 0.067 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 t 0.000 0.067 0.133 0.200 0.267 0.333 0.400 0.467 0.533 0.600 0.667 0.733 0.800 0.867 0.933 1.000

Eq. 5.34 (LHS) 1 1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Inverse Matrix 1.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098 0.081 0.067 0.055 t 0.333 0.143 0.067

2 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3 0.000 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

4 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

6 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

7 8 9 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

11 12 13 14 15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000 1.213 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.000

16 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.213

(RHS) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Result 1.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098 0.081 0.067 0.055 Exact 1.000 0.808 0.653 0.527 0.426 0.344 0.278 0.225 0.181 0.147 0.118 0.096 0.077 0.062 0.050 0.041 Error 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.027

0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098 0.081 0.067 0.055

0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098 0.081 0.067

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098 0.081

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119 0.098

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145 0.119

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175 0.145

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213 0.175

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258 0.213

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313 0.258

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380 0.313

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461 0.380

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560 0.461

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679 0.560

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824 0.679

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.824

N 4 8 16

u (m/s)

t (s)

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.1

0.01 0.01

0.10

1.00

Problem 5.91

ui =

2 u g i 1 + x u g i

1 + 2 x u g i

x =

0.333 x

Iteration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exact

Residual R

u

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Iteration N

Problem 5.92

ui =

2 ug i 1 + x ug i

1 + 2x ug i

x =

0.0667 x 0.467 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.693 0.682

Iteration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Exact

0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

0.067 1.000 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.941 0.938

0.133 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.882

0.200 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.841 0.833

0.267 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.799 0.789

0.333 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.760 0.750

0.400 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.714

0.533 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.664 0.652

0.600 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.625

0.667 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.612 0.600

0.733 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.589 0.577

0.800 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.589 0.568 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.567 0.556

0.867 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.589 0.568 0.548 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.547 0.536

0.933 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.589 0.568 0.548 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.517

1.000 1.000 0.941 0.889 0.842 0.799 0.761 0.726 0.694 0.664 0.637 0.612 0.589 0.568 0.548 0.529 0.512 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.511 0.500

1.0

0.9

0.8

u

0.7

0.6

Problem 5.93

ui = ui u g i 1 1 1 ui 1 = ui ug i + ui u g i ug i

ui ui 1 1 + =0 ui x ui ui 1 1 ui ug i 1 + ug i ug i x ui ui 1 1 2 ui + x ug i ug i =0

=0

x 2x ui 1 2 = ui 1 u ug i gi 2x ui 1 ug i ui = x 1 2 ug i

0.667 x 0.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 0.133 0.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 0.133 2.000 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 1.931 0.267 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 1.859 0.400 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 1.785 0.533 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 1.706 0.667 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 1.624 0.800 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 1.538 x 0.933 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.445 1.067 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.346 1.200 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.239 1.333 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.120 1.467 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 0.991 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 1.600 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 0.991 0.836 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 0.822 1.733 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 0.991 0.836 0.639 0.601 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.599 1.867 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 0.991 0.836 0.639 0.329 0.899 0.363 9.602 0.572 0.225 0.359 3.969 0.537 0.191 0.300 0.600 0.246 0.403 -0.345 -11.373 0.623 0.261 0.442 -0.013 -0.027 -0.059 -0.136 -0.414 5.624 0.554 0.209 0.329 0.919 0.367 -11.148 0.624 0.262 0.443 -0.010 -0.019 -0.041 -0.090 -0.231 -1.171 0.916 0.366 -18.029 0.614 0.256 0.426 -0.097 2.000 2.000 1.931 1.859 1.785 1.707 1.625 1.539 1.447 1.348 1.242 1.124 0.991 0.836 0.639 0.329 2.061 0.795 0.034 -0.016 -0.034 -0.070 -0.160 -1.332 0.797 -0.182 -0.584 1.734 0.097 0.178 0.572 -19.981 0.637 -0.234 -1.108 0.255 1.023 -0.366 132.420 -0.416 27.391 0.545 -0.510 1.749 0.802 0.044 0.252 0.394 -2.929 0.542 -0.918 0.322 3.048 -0.180 -0.402 -2.886 1.025 0.122 2.526 0.520 -0.509 1.962 0.667 2.000 1.600 1.577 1.577 1.577 1.577 1.577 1.633 1.333 2.000 1.600 1.037 0.767 1.211 0.873 0.401 1.155 2.000 2.000 1.600 1.037 -0.658 -5.158 1.507 -0.017 0.000

Exact

2.000

1.932

1.862

1.789

1.713

1.633

1.549

1.461

1.366

1.265

1.155

1.033

0.894

0.730

0.516

0.000

u

1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

x

2.5 2.0 1.5 Iterations = 20 Iterations = 40 Iterations = 60 Exact Solution

u

1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Problem 5.94

du 2 = k (U u ) dt v =U u dv = du M M dv = kv 2 dt dv k 2 v =0 + dt M

2 vi2 2v g i vi v g i

vi vi 1 k 2 + 2vg i vi vg i = 0 t M k 2 t v g i v g i 1 + M vi = k 1 + 2 t v g i M

t =

1.000

k = M = t

10 70

N.s2/m2 kg

Iteration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

0 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500

1 7.500 4.943 4.556 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547 4.547

2 7.500 4.943 3.496 3.153 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139 3.139

3 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.364 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350 2.350

4 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.870 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857 1.857

5 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.536 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525 1.525

6 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.297 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288 1.288

7 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.119 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112 1.112

8 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.982 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976 0.976

9 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.874 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.868

10 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.786 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781 0.781

11 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.752 0.713 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709

12 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.752 0.686 0.653 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649 0.649

13 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.752 0.686 0.629 0.601 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598 0.598

14 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.752 0.686 0.629 0.581 0.557 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554 0.554

15 7.500 4.943 3.496 2.623 2.061 1.679 1.407 1.205 1.051 0.930 0.832 0.752 0.686 0.629 0.581 0.540 0.519 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.516

8 7 6

u (m/s)

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

14

16

t (s)

Problem 6.1

[2]

u ( x , y) = A y x x

(2

) B x ( )

v ( x , y) = 2 A x y + B y

ax = u

u + v

2 2 2 2 2 2 u = A y x B x A y x B x + ( 2 A x y + B y) A y x B x y x y

ax = ( B + 2 A x) A x + B x + A y ay = u x v + v

2 2 v = A y x B x ( 2 A x y + B y) + ( 2 A x y + B y) ( 2 A x y + B y) y x y

2 2 ay = ( B + 2 A x) ( B y + 2 A x y) 2 A y B x + A x y

Hence at (1,1)

1 2 2 ft ax = ( 1 + 2 1 1) 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 s s 1 ft 1 2 2 ft ay = ( 1 + 2 1 1) ( 1 1 + 2 1 1 1) 2 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 s s s s a = ax + ay

2 2

ft ax = 9 2 s ft ay = 7 2 s a = 11.4 ft s

2

= atan

ay ax

= 37.9 deg

lbf 2

2

p = gx ax = 2

slug ft

3

ft s

2

lbf s slug ft

x

2

p = 18

ft

ft

lbf

= 0.125

psi ft

p = gy ay = 2

slug ft

3

( 32.2 7)

ft s

2

lbf s slug ft

p = 78.4

ft

ft

= 0.544

psi ft

Problem 6.2

[2]

Basic equations

u ( x , y) = A x B y ax = u x x u + v y y u = ( A x B y) x x

v ( x , y) = A y ( A x B y) + ( A y) y ( A x B y)

2

ax = A x ay = A y m ax = 0.7 2 s m ay = 2 2 s

2

ay = u

v + v

2

v = ( A x B y)

( A y) + ( A y)

( A y)

Hence at (0.7,2)

1 ax = 0.7 m s 1 ay = 2 m s a = ax + ay

2 2 2

= atan

ay ax

2

a = 2.12

m s

2

= 70.7 deg

2

p = 700

Pa kPa = 0.7 m m

p = 11800

Pa kPa = 11.8 m m

Problem 6.3

[2]

Problem 6.4

[2]

Problem 6.5

[2]

Basic equations

u ( x , y) = A x y ax = u x u + v y

(2

) 3 B x (2

2

v ( x , y) = 2 A x y + 3 B y

u = A x y

) 3 B x )

A ( x2 y2) 3 B x ...

+ ( 2 A x y + 3 B y) ax = ( 2 A x 3 B) A x 3 B x + A y ay = u x v + v y v = A x y

2 2 A x y 3 B x y

(2

) 3 B x )

( 2 A x y + 3 B y) + ( 2 A x y + 3 B y)

( 2 A x y + 3 B y)

ay = ( 3 B y 2 A x y) ( 3 B 2 A x) 2 A y A x y Hence at (1,1) 1 2 2 ft ax = ( 2 1 1 3 1) 1 1 3 1 1 + 1 1 s s

(2

) 3 B x ( )

lbf 2

2

ft ax = 1 2 s ft ay = 7 2 s a = 7.1 ft s

2

ax + ay

= atan

ay ax

= 81.9 deg

x y

p = gx ax = 2

slug ft

3

ft s

2

2

x y

p = 2

ft

ft

= 0.0139

lbf

psi ft

p = gy ay = 2

slug ft

3

( 32.2 7)

ft s

2

p = 78.4

ft

ft

= 0.544

psi ft

Problem 6.6

[3]

The given data is

Velocity field Expressions for local, convective and total acceleration; evaluate at several points; evaluate pressure gradient

A = 2

1 s

= 1 x x

1 s v =0

= 2

kg m

3

u = A x sin ( 2 t)

v = A y sin ( 2 t)

u+

y y

Hence

u+

v = A sin ( 2 t) A sin ( 2 t) = 0

Incompressible flow

x - component

t t

u = 2 A x cos ( 2 t)

y - component

v = 2 A y cos ( 2 t)

For the present steady, 2D flow, the convective acceleration is x - component u x x u + v y y u = A x sin ( 2 t) ( A sin ( 2 t) ) + ( A y sin ( 2 t) ) 0 = A x sin ( 2 t)

2 2

y - component

v + v

x - component

t t

u + u

x x

u + v

y y

u = 2 A x cos ( 2 t) + A x sin ( 2 t)

y - component

v + u

v + v

v = 2 A y cos ( 2 t) + A y sin ( 2 t)

2

and

12.6

m s

2

Convective

m s

2

and

m s

2

m s

2

and

12.6

m s

2

t = 0.5 s

Local

12.6

m s

2

and

12.6

m s

2

Convective

m s

2

and

m s

2

Total

12.6

m s

2

and

12.6

m s

2

t = 1 s

Local

12.6

m s

2

and

12.6

m s

2

Convective

m s

2

and

m s

2

Total

12.6

m s

2

and

12.6

m s

2

The governing equation (assuming inviscid flow) for computing the pressure gradient is Hence, the components of pressure gradient (neglecting gravity) are x y Evaluated at (1,1) and time Du Dt x x

(6.1)

p =

p = 2 A x cos ( 2 t) + A x sin ( 2 t)

( (

)

2

p =

Dv Dt

p = 2 A y cos ( 2 t) + A y sin ( 2 t)

t = 0 s t = 0.5 s t = 1 s

25.1 25.1

Pa m

25.1

Pa m Pa m

Pa m Pa m

25.1 25.1

25.1

Pa m

Problem 6.7

[2]

Basic equations

Velocity field Simplest y component of velocity; Acceleration of particle and pressure gradient at (2,1); pressure on x axis

u ( x , y) = A x

u+

v =0

so

v ( x , y) = u dy = A dy = A y + c x

v ( x , y) = A y ax = u ay = u x x u + v y y

2

ax = A x ay = A y m ax = 8 2 s a = 8.94 m s

2 2

v + v

2

v = A x

( A y) + ( A y)

2

( A y)

Hence at (2,1)

2 ax = 2 m s a = ax + ay

2 2

2 ay = 1 m s = atan

m ay = 4 2 s = 26.6 deg

ay ax

2

3 2

x y N s kg m

2

p = 12

Pa m

p = 6

Pa m Pa m

( 9.81)

x

m s

2

y

x

p = 14.7

1 2 2 2 p p0 = gx ax dx = A x dx = A x 0 2 0

p ( x) = 190 kPa

1 2

1.5

2 N s 2 x 3 s kg m m kg

p ( x) = 190

3 1000

(p in kPa, x in m)

Problem 6.8

[3]

Velocity field Expressions for velocity and acceleration along wall; plot; verify vertical components are zero; plot pressure gradient

q = 2

m s

m q x

h = 1 m q x

= 1000

kg m

3

u=

2 x + ( y h)

2

2 x + ( y + h)

2

v=

q ( y h) 2 x + ( y h)

2 2

q ( y + h)

2 2 2 x + ( y + h)

2

x - component

ax = u

u + v

u =

(2

)2 h2 (h2 4 y2)

2

x2 + ( y + h) 2 x2 + ( y h) 2 2

v = q y x + y

2

y - component

ay = u

v + v

(2

)2 h 2 ( h 2 + 4 x2)

2 2

2 2 2 2 2 x + ( y + h ) x + ( y h )

y = 0 m q x x h x +h

2 2

u=

x + h

(2

v=0

ax =

(2

2

ay = 0

The governing equation (assuming inviscid flow) for computing the pressure gradient is Hence, the component of pressure gradient (neglecting gravity) along the wall is

2

(6.1)

p =

Du Dt

p =

q x x h x +h

2

(2

(2

The plots of velocity, acceleration, and pressure gradient are shown in the associated Excel workbook. From the plots it is clear that the fluid experiences an adverse pressure gradient from the origin to x = 1 m, then a negative one promoting fluid acceleration. If flow separates, it will likely be in the region x = 0 to x = h.

q = h = =

2 1 1000

m3/s/m m kg/m3

x (m) u (m/s) a (m/s2) dp /dx (Pa/m) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 0.00 0.32 0.25 0.19 0.15 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.00000 0.00000 0.01945 0.00973 0.00495 0.00277 0.00168 0.00109 0.00074 0.00053 0.00039 0.00 0.00 -19.45 -9.73 -4.95 -2.77 -1.68 -1.09 -0.74 -0.53 -0.39

0.35 0.30 u (m/s) 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 x (m) 6 7 8 9 10

0.025 0.020 a (m/s2) 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 -0.005 0 1 2 3 4 5 x (m) 6 7 8 9 10

5 dp /dx (Pa/m) 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 x (m) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Problem 6.9

[2]

Problem 6.10

[2]

Problem 6.11

[2]

Problem 6.12

[2]

Problem 6.13

[3]

The given data is

3 3

q = 2

m s

K = 1

m s

= 1000

kg m

3

Vr =

q 2 r

V =

K 2 r

The total acceleration for this steady flow is then r - component V V ar = Vr Vr + r r r V V a = Vr V + r r m ar = 0.101 2 s m ar = 0.101 2 s m ar = 0.0127 2 s r p = ar ar = q

2 2 3

4 r q K

- component

a =

4 r

2 3

2 2 3

4 r

p = 101

p = 12.7

Problem 6.14

[3]

Problem 6.15

[4]

Flow in a pipe with variable area Expression for pressure gradient and pressure; Plot them

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Flow profile remains unchanged so centerline velocity can represent average velocity Basic equations Q = V A

Q = ui Ai = u A

A = Ai

(Ai Ae) x

L

so

Ai u ( x) = ui = ui A

Ai

2 2

(Ai Ae) x L

2

Ai

Ai A L ui Ae Ai = i ui ax = u u + v u = ui 3 x y Ai Ae x Ai Ae Ai L + Ae x Ai x x x Ai Ai L L

Ai

) )

p = ax gx =

Ai L ui Ae Ai

2 2

)

x

(Ai L + Ae x Ai x)

and

dp =

p dx

x 2 2 2 Ai L ui Ae Ai dx p pi = p dx = x 3 Ai L + Ae x Ai x 0 0

x x

p = ax = u

1 2 u = u 2 x x

( )

Hence

2 2 2 p pi = p dx = u dx = u ( x = 0) u ( x) x 2 x 2 0 0

( )

2 2 p ( x) = pi + ui u ( x) 2

2 ui p ( x) = pi + 1 2

2

(Ai Ae) x Ai L

Ai

30

20

10

0.5

1.5

x (m)

250

Pressure (kPa)

x (m)

Problem 6.16

[4]

Flow in a pipe with variable area Expression for pressure gradient and pressure; Plot them

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Flow profile remains unchanged so centerline velocity can represent average velocity Basic equations Q = V A

Q = u0 A0 = u A A0 u ( x) = u0 = A

x x a 2 a A ( x) = A0 1 + e e

u0

x x a 2 a 1 + e e

ax = u

u + v

u =

u0

x x x x a 2 a 1 + e a 1 + e e x 2 a

u0

u0 e = x 3 x x 2 a a 2 a e 2 a e e + 1

x 2 a

x 2 a 2 e 1

p = ax gx =

u0 e

x 2 a 2 e 1

3

x x a 2 a 2 a e e + 1

x

and

dp =

p dx

x x x 2 2 a 2 a 2 e 1 u0 e dx p pi = p dx = x 3 x x 0 a 2 a 2 a e e + 1 0 x 1 2 u = u 2 x x

p = ax = u

( )

Hence

2 2 2 p pi = p dx = u dx = u ( x = 0) u ( x) x 2 x 2 0 0

( )

2 2 p ( x) = p0 + u0 u ( x) 2 u0 p ( x) = p0 + 1 2

2

x x a 2 a 1 + e e

1

0.1

10

x (m)

200

Pressure (kPa)

199.9

199.8

199.7

10

x (m)

0.1

Area (m2)

0.09

0.08

0.07

10

x (m)

Problem 6.17

[3]

The given data is

Nozzle geometry Acceleration of fluid particle; Plot; Plot pressure gradient; find L such that pressure gradient < 5 MPa/m in absolute value m s kg m

3

Di = 0.1 m

Do = 0.02 m D ( x) = Di + Do Di L x

L = 0.5 m

Vi = 1

= 1000

From continuity

Q = V A = V

2 2 D = Vi Di 4 4

Q = 0.00785

m s

Hence

V ( x)

2 D ( x) = Q 4 Vi

V ( x) =

4 Q Do Di x D i + L

2

or

V ( x) =

Do Di x 1 + L D i

The governing equation for this flow is

Do Di x 1 + L D i

Do Di x 1 + L D i

ax ( x) =

( ) 5 (Do Di) x D L 1 +

2 V i D o D i

2

Di L

This is plotted in the associated Excel workbook From Eq. 6.2a, pressure gradient is x p = ax x p = 2 Vi Do Di

2

)

5

(Do Di) x Di L 1 + Di L

This is also plotted in the associated Excel workbook. Note that the pressure gradient is always negative: separation is unlikely to occur in the nozzle At the inlet x p = 3.2 kPa m At the exit x p = 10 MPa m

To find the length L for which the absolute pressure gradient is no more than 5 MPa/m, we need to solve MPa p 5 = m x 2 Vi Do Di

2

)

5

(Do Di) x Di L 1 + Di L

2

Hence

Do

Di

p x

L 1 m

This result is also obtained using Goal Seek in the Excel workbook

The acceleration and pressure gradient are given by Di = Do = L = Vi = = 0.1 0.02 0.5 1 1000 m m m m/s kg/m3

x (m) a (m/s2) dp /dx (kPa/m) 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.420 0.440 0.460 0.470 0.480 0.490 0.500 3.20 4.86 7.65 12.6 22.0 41.2 84.2 194 529 843 1408 2495 3411 4761 6806 10000 -3.20 -4.86 -7.65 -12.6 -22.0 -41.2 -84.2 -194 -529 -843 -1408 -2495 -3411 -4761 -6806 -10000

For the length L required for the pressure gradient to be less than 5 MPa/m (abs) use Goal Seek L = 1.00 m

12000 10000 a (m/s2) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 x (m) 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

0 0.0 dp /dx (kPa/m) -2000 -4000 -6000 -8000 -10000 -12000 x (m) 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Problem 6.18

[3]

The given data is

Diffuser geometry Acceleration of a fluid particle; plot it; plot pressure gradient; find L such that pressure gradient is less than 25 kPa/m

Di = 0.25 m

Do = 0.75 m D ( x) = Di + 2 2 D = Vi Di 4 4 V ( x) = 4 Q Do Di L x

L = 1 m

Vi = 5

m s

= 1000

kg m

3

From continuity

Q = V A = V

Q = 0.245

m s

Hence

V ( x)

2 D ( x) = Q 4

Do Di x D i + L

or

V ( x) =

Vi

Do Di x 1 + L D i

d V = dx

Vi

Do Di x 1 + L D i

d 2 dx

Vi

Do Di x 1 + L D i

Hence

ax ( x) =

( ) 5 (Do Di) x D L 1 +

2 V i D o D i

2

Di L

This is plotted in the associated Excel workbook From Eq. 6.2a, pressure gradient is x p = ax x

2

p =

2 Vi Do Di

)

5

(Do Di) x Di L 1 + Di L

This is also plotted in the associated Excel workbook. Note that the pressure gradient is adverse: separation is likely to occur in the diffuser, and occur near the entrance

At the inlet

p = 100

kPa m

At the exit

p = 412

Pa m

To find the length L for which the pressure gradient is no more than 25 kPa/m, we need to solve x kPa m 2 Vi Do Di

2

p 25

)

5

(Do Di) x Di L 1 + Di L

2

Hence

L 4 m

This result is also obtained using Goal Seek in the Excel workbook

The acceleration and pressure gradient are given by Di = Do = L = Vi = = 0.25 0.75 1 5 1000 m m m m/s kg/m3

x (m) a (m/s2) dp /dx (kPa/m) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 -100 -62.1 -40.2 -26.9 -18.59 -13.17 -9.54 -5.29 -3.125 -1.940 -1.256 -0.842 -0.581 -0.412 100 62.1 40.2 26.93 18.59 13.17 9.54 5.29 3.125 1.940 1.256 0.842 0.581 0.412

For the length L required for the pressure gradient to be less than 25 kPa/m use Goal Seek L = 4.00 m

0 0.0 -20

2 a (m/s )

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

x (m)

120

dp /dx (kPa/m)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

x (m)

Problem 6.19

[4]

Problem 6.20

[4]

Problem 6.20

Problem 6.21

[5]

Problem 6.22

Problem 6.22

Problem 6.23

[5]

Problem 6.24

[2]

Problem 6.25

[2]

Basic equations

Vr ( r , ) =

r

2

cos ( )

V ( r , ) =

r

2

sin ( )

Vz = 0

2 V V V gr p = Vr Vr + r r r r r

Ignoring gravity

p = cos ( ) cos ( ) + 2 r 2 r r r

For momentum Ignoring gravity g

sin ( ) 2 r cos ( ) r r2

2 sin ( ) 2 r r

p =

2 r

5

V Vr V 1 p = Vr V + V + r r r r

p = r cos ( ) sin ( ) + r 2 2 r r

The pressure gradient is purely radial

sin ( ) 2 r sin ( ) + r r2

sin ( ) cos ( ) 2 2 r r r

p =0

Problem 6.26

[2]

Problem 6.27

[2]

Problem 6.28

[3]

Basic equation

Velocity field for free vortex flow in elbow Similar solution to Example 6.1; find k (above)

p =

V r

with

c V = V = r

r2

so

p =

c V d = p = 3 r dr r

Hence

2 2 2 2 c r2 r1 c 1 1 dr = = 3 2 2 2 2 2 r r r2 2 r1 r2 1 2

(1)

2 2 w c r2 dr = w c ln Q = V dA = V w dr = r r r1 1 r 1 r r

Hence

c=

Q w ln

r2 r1

2 2 2 c r2 r1 2 2

Using this in Eq 1

p = p2 p1 =

2 2 2 Q r2 r1

2 r1 r2

r2 2 2 2 w ln r1 r2 r1

2

Solving for Q

2 r1 r2 r2 Q = w ln p 2 2 r1 r2 r1

2 r1 r2 r2 k = w ln 2 2 r1 r2 r1

Problem 6.29

or

Eq. 1

Eq. 2

Instead of plotting as a function of inner radius we plot as a function of r 2/r1 r2/r1 1.01 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 Eq. 1 0.100 0.226 0.324 0.401 0.468 0.529 0.586 0.639 0.690 0.738 0.785 0.831 0.875 0.919 0.961 1.003 1.043 1.084 1.123 1.162 1.201 1.239 1.277 1.314 1.351 1.388 1.424 1.460 1.496 1.532 1.567 Eq. 2 0.100 0.226 0.324 0.400 0.466 0.526 0.581 0.632 0.680 0.726 0.769 0.811 0.851 0.890 0.928 0.964 1.000 1.034 1.068 1.100 1.132 1.163 1.193 1.223 1.252 1.280 1.308 1.335 1.362 1.388 1.414 Error 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.7% 2.1% 2.4% 2.8% 3.2% 3.6% 4.0% 4.4% 4.8% 5.2% 5.7% 6.1% 6.6% 7.0% 7.5% 8.0% 8.4% 8.9% 9.4% 9.9% 10.3% 10.8%

10.0%

7.5%

Error

5.0%

2.5%

0.0% 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 r2/r1 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6

Problem 6.30

Problem 6.30

Problem 6.31

[4]

Basic equations

Velocity field Constant B for incompressible flow; Acceleration of particle at (2,1); acceleration normal to velocity at (2,1)

u ( x , y) = A x + B x y x x u ( x , y) + y y

v ( x , y) = A y + B x y x

v ( x , y) =

( A x3 + B x y2) + ( A y3 + B x2 y) = 0

y

u ( x , y) +

v ( x , y) = ( 3 A + B) x + y

2 3

(2

)=0

3

Hence

2

B = 3 A

B = 0.6

1 m s

2

u ( x , y) = A x 3 A x y ax = u x u + v y

v ( x , y) = A y 3 A x y

2

u = A x 3 A x y

2

( (

) (A x3 3 A x y2) + (A y3 3 A x2 y) (A x3 3 A x y2)

x y

ax = 3 A x x + y For ay ay = u x v + v y

(2 (

)2

3 2

v = A x 3 A x y

2

) (A y3 3 A x2 y) + (A y3 3 A x2 y) (A y3 3 A x2 y)

x y

ay = 3 A y x + y

2

Hence at (2,1)

2 0.2 2 2 ax = 3 2 m ( 2 m) + ( 1 m) 2 m s 2 0.2 2 2 ay = 3 1 m ( 2 m) + ( 1 m) 2 m s 2

2

a =

ax + ay

3 2

r V

r a

ay accel = atan ax

1 accel = atan 2

= accel vel m an = a sin ( ) = 6.71 sin ( 106 deg) 2 s

Problem 6.32

Problem 6.32

Problem 6.33

Problem 6.33

Problem 6.34

[4]

The given data is

x component of velocity field y component of velocity field; acceleration at several points; estimate radius of curvature; plot streamlines

= 2

m s

u=

x y

(2

(x2 + y2)2

u+

v =0 du dy = dx

Hence

v =

2 x x 3 y

(2

( x2 + y2)

) dy

v=

2 x y

(x2 + y2)2 (2 ) (2 )

Alternatively, we could check that the given velocities u and v satisfy continuity x y

u=

(2

x x

(x2 + y2)2

u =

2 x x 3 y

(x2 + y2)3

y v =0

v=

2 x y

(x2 + y2)2

v =

2 x x 3 y

(x2 + y2)3

so

u+

ax =

x v + v y v

ax =

2 x

(x2 + y2)3

y - component

ay = u

ay =

m s m s m s v = 0 m s m s m s

2

ay =

2 y

(x2 + y2)3

u = 2

m ax = 0 2 s m ax = 0 2 s m ax = 0 2 s

m ay = 8 2 s m ay = 0.25 2 s m ay = 0.0333 2 s r= u ay

2

u = 0.5

v = 0

u = 0.222

v = 0

or

y = 1m

2 m s r =

8 m s

2

r = 0.5 m

y = 2m

0.5 m s r =

0.25 m s

2

r = 1m

y = 3m

0.2222 m s r =

0.03333 m s

2

r = 1.5 m

The radius of curvature in each case is 1/2 of the vertical distance from the origin. The streamlines form circles tangent to the x axis

dy v = = dx u

2

2 x y

so

2 x y dx + x y dy = 0

2 dy y

First we try

R=

F=e

1 y

2

x x y 2 dx + dy = 0 2 y y

2 x x u = 2 dx = + f ( y) y y

(2

So

and

u=

2 2

y

2

Comparing solutions

x +y y

or

x + y = y = const y

These form circles that are tangential to the x axis, as shown in the associated Excel workbook

This function is computed and plotted below y values 2.50 2.75 5.00 5.02 4.53 4.59 4.10 4.20 3.73 3.86 3.40 3.57 3.13 3.32 2.90 3.11 2.73 2.95 2.60 2.84 2.53 2.77 2.50 2.75

2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00

0.10 62.6 50.7 40.1 30.7 22.6 15.7 10.1 5.73 2.60 0.73 0.10

0.25 25.3 20.5 16.3 12.5 9.25 6.50 4.25 2.50 1.25 0.50 0.25

0.50 13.0 10.6 8.50 6.63 5.00 3.63 2.50 1.63 1.00 0.63 0.50

0.75 9.08 7.50 6.08 4.83 3.75 2.83 2.08 1.50 1.08 0.83 0.75

1.00 7.25 6.06 5.00 4.06 3.25 2.56 2.00 1.56 1.25 1.06 1.00

1.25 6.25 5.30 4.45 3.70 3.05 2.50 2.05 1.70 1.45 1.30 1.25

1.50 5.67 4.88 4.17 3.54 3.00 2.54 2.17 1.88 1.67 1.54 1.50

1.75 5.32 4.64 4.04 3.50 3.04 2.64 2.32 2.07 1.89 1.79 1.75

2.00 5.13 4.53 4.00 3.53 3.13 2.78 2.50 2.28 2.13 2.03 2.00

2.25 5.03 4.50 4.03 3.61 3.25 2.94 2.69 2.50 2.36 2.28 2.25

3.00 5.08 4.69 4.33 4.02 3.75 3.52 3.33 3.19 3.08 3.02 3.00

3.25 5.17 4.81 4.48 4.19 3.94 3.73 3.56 3.42 3.33 3.27 3.25

3.50 5.29 4.95 4.64 4.38 4.14 3.95 3.79 3.66 3.57 3.52 3.50

3.75 5.42 5.10 4.82 4.57 4.35 4.17 4.02 3.90 3.82 3.77 3.75

4.00 5.56 5.27 5.00 4.77 4.56 4.39 4.25 4.14 4.06 4.02 4.00

4.25 5.72 5.44 5.19 4.97 4.78 4.62 4.49 4.38 4.31 4.26 4.25

4.50 5.89 5.63 5.39 5.18 5.00 4.85 4.72 4.63 4.56 4.51 4.50

4.75 6.07 5.82 5.59 5.39 5.22 5.08 4.96 4.87 4.80 4.76 4.75

5.00 6.25 6.01 5.80 5.61 5.45 5.31 5.20 5.11 5.05 5.01 5.00

x values

Problem 6.35

Problem 6.35

Problem 6.36

[5]

Basic equations

Velocity field Constant B for incompressible flow; Equation for streamline through (1,2); Acceleration of particle; streamline curvature

u ( x , y) = A x 6 x y + y x x u ( x , y) + y y v ( x , y) =

(4

2 2

) (

v ( x , y) = B x y x y

(3

) )

4 2 2 4 3 3 A x 6 x y + y + B x y x y = 0 x y

u ( x , y) +

v ( x , y) = B x 3 x y

(3

B = 8 1 m s

3

B = 4 A

u = A x 6 x y + y

2

(4

2 2

y

ax = 4 A x x + y For ay ay = u x v + v y

(2

)3

4

v = A x 6 x y + y

2

(4

2 2

y

ay = 4 A y x + y For a streamline dy v = dx u so

(2

dy = dx

4 A x y x y

A x 6 x y + y

(4

(3

2 2

(x4 6 x2 y2 + y4)

dy du = x +u dx dx

4 x y x y

(3

Let

u=

y x

1 y d d du 1 dy x 1 dy y x so = = + y = dx dx dx x dx x dx x2

Hence

dy du 4 x y x y 4 1 u 4 1 u = x +u = = u+ 4 2 2 4 dx dx 1 6 u + u3 1 6 u + u3 x 6 x y + y u u

(3

2

du 4 1 u = u u 10 u + 5 = u+ 1 4 2 dx 3 u 6 u + 1 u 6 u + u

2

(4

) )

Separating variables

dx = x

u (u

u 6 u + 1

4

10 u

+ 5)

du

1 5 3 ln ( x) = ln u 10 u + 5 u + C 5 y 10 y x + 5 y x = const

5 3 2 4

(u5 10 u3 + 5 u) x5 = c

For the streamline through (1,2) y 10 y x + 5 y x = 38

5 3 2 4

Note that it would be MUCH easier to use the stream function method here! To find the radius of curvature we use V an = R

2

or

R =

V an

We need to find the component of acceleration normal to the velocity vector At (1,2) the velocity vector is at angle

3

(3

r V

r a

4 ( 2 8) vel = atan 1 24 + 16

2 accel = atan 1 Hence the angle between the acceleration and velocity vectors is The component of acceleration normal to the velocity is then At (1,2) ax = 4 A x x + y ay = 4 A y x + y a =

2 2 2

2

= 137 deg a= ax + ay

2 2

where

(2 (2

)3 = 500 m7 A2 = 500 m7

)3 = 1000 m7 A2 = 1000 m7

a = 4472 s

2 m = 2000 3 2 s m s 2 m = 4000 3 2 s m s m s

2 2

2000 + 4000

2 m 2 4

an = a sin ( )

3

m an = 3040 2 s V = u + v = 50

2 2

u = A x 6 x y + y

2

(4

2 2

) = 14 m

s m s

2

v = B x y x y

2

(3

) = 48 m

s

m s

Then

R =

an

R = 50

1 s 3040 m

R = 0.822 m

Problem 6.37

[1]

Basic equation

pdynamic = h =

1 2 V 2

2 2

p = Hg g h = SGHg g h

Hence

2 2

h =

h = 1.37 in

Problem 6.38

[1]

Problem 6.39

[1]

For air

= 0.00238

slug ft

3

We need an estimate of the area of a typical hand. Personal inspection indicates that a good approximation is a square of sides 9 cm and 17 cm A = 9 cm 17 cm A = 153 cm

2

The governing equation is the Bernoulli equation (in coordinates attached to the vehicle) patm + 1 2 V = pstag 2

where V is the free stream velocity Hence, for pstag on the front side of the hand, and patm on the rear, by assumption, 1 2 F = pstag patm A = V A 2 V = 30 mph ft 1 ft 22 12 1 1 slug s 2 2 F = V A = 0.00238 30 mph 153 cm 3 2 2 15 mph 2.54 cm ft (b) V = 60 mph ft 1 ft 22 12 1 1 slug s 2 2 F = V A = 0.00238 60 mph 153 cm 3 2 2 15 mph 2.54 cm ft

2 2 2 2

(a)

F = 0.379 lbf

F = 1.52 lbf

Problem 6.40

[2]

Basic equation

Air jet hitting wall generating pressures Speed of air at two locations

p air

V + g z = const 2

air =

p Rair T

p = Hg g h = SGHg g h

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the jet and where it hits the wall directly patm air For air Vj 2

2

= lbf in

pwall air

2 2

pwall =

air Vj 2

3 slug 3

air = 14.7

144 in 1 ft

2

2

air = 2.42 10

ft

Hence

pwall = SGHg g h =

air Vj 2

so

3

Vj =

Hence

Vj =

2 13.6 1.94

slug ft

3

2

pwall air

2

V 2

V =

Vj

3

2 pwall air

Vj

2 SGHg g h air ft s

Hence

V =

V = 54.1

Problem 6.41

[2]

Problem 6.42

[2]

Problem 6.43

[2]

Problem 6.44

[2]

Problem 6.45

4.123

[4]

Problem 6.46

[2]

Problem 6.47

[2]

Problem 6.48

[2]

Basic equation

p gas

V + g z = const 2

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the gas tank free surface and the siphon exit patm gas Hence The flow rate is then V = = patm gas + V g h 2

2

where we assume the tank free surface is slowly changing so Vtank <<, and h is the difference in levels

2 g h D 2 g h 4

2 2

Q = V A = Q =

1 ft 2 ( 1 in) 2 4 144 in

2 32.2

ft s

2

1 ft 2

Q = 0.0309

ft s

Q = 13.9

gal min

Problem 6.49

[2]

Basic equation

p ben

V + g z = const 2

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the pipe and the rise height of the benzene ppipe ben Hence From Table A.2 Hence = patm ben + g h where we assume Vpipe <<, and h is the rise height where ppipe is now the gage pressure

3

32.2

ft s

2

25 ft

lbf s slugft

pben = 1373

lbf ft

2

(gage)

Problem 6.50

[2]

Basic equation

p Coke

V + g z = const 2

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the coke can and the rise height of the coke pcan Coke Hence From a web search Hence = patm Coke + g h where we assume VCoke <<, and h is the rise height where ppipe is now the gage pressure

3

SGRegularCoke = 1.11 ft s

2

pDiet = 1 1.94

32.2 slug ft

3

20 in ft s

2

2

pDiet = 104

lbf ft

2

2

(gage)

Hence

32.2

20 in

pRegular = 116

Problem 6.51

[2]

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline From continuity V = Q 4 Q = 2 A D V = 4 ft 1 12 in 0.7 s 2 in 1 ft

3 2 2

V = 32.1

ft s

Hence, applying Bernoulli between the free surface and point A patm Hence = pA + g h + V 2

2

2

V pA = patm g h 2

From the steam tables, at 70oF the vapor pressure is This is the lowest permissible value of pA Hence V pA = pv = patm g h 2 h = ( 14.7 0.363) lbf in

2 2

2

or

3

h=

2

2 g

2 2

Hence

12 in

1 ft

h = 17.0 ft

Problem 6.52

[2]

H=

h1 =

(h2)

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

p = g h

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the free surface and the manometer location patm Hence For the manometer = p V g H + 2

2

2

V p = patm + g H 2

2 2

Note that we have water on one side and mercury on the other of the manometer or V = 2 g H SGHg h2 + h2

)

V = 7.29 m s m s

3

2 9.81 D 4

2

Q = V

Q =

Q = 0.0143

Problem 6.53

[2]

Problem 6.54

[2]

Problem 6.55

[2]

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

p = R T

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the upstream point (1) and the point on the wing (2) p1 + V1 2

2

p2 V2 = + 2

2

V2 = =

V1 + 2

( p1 p2 )

= ( 75 + 101) 10 kg K 1 3 N 2 286.9 N m ( 4 + 273) K m = 2.21 kg m V = 262 m s

3

p R T

2

Then

V =

60 m + 2 m ( 75 3) 103 N kg m 2 2 2.21 kg s m N s

NOTE: At this speed, significant density changes will occur, so this result is not very realistic

Problem 6.56

[2]

Problem 6.57

[2]

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the inlet (1) and exit (2) p1 But we have + V1 2

2

p2 V2 = + 2

2 2

Q = V1 A1 = V1

4

D d = V2 A2 = 4 4 2 p2 p1

so

2 2 d V2 V2 = D

d V 1 = V 2 D

Hence

V2 =

2 p1 p2

1

2

D

3

4 d

Then

V2 =

1 1 3

2

slugft lbf s

2

V2 = 124

ft s

d Q = V2 4

1 Q = 124 ft 4 s 12 ft

ft Q = 0.676 s

Q = 304

gal min

Problem 6.58

[2]

Problem 6.59

[2]

Problem 6.60

[3]

The given data is

Velocity field for plane doublet Pressure distribution along x axis; plot distribution

= 3

m s r

2

= 1000 r

2

kg m

3

p0 = 100 kPa

Vr =

cos ( )

V =

sin ( )

where Vr and V are the velocity components in cylindrical coordinates (r,). For points along the x axis, r = x, = 0, Vr = u and V = v = 0 u= x

2

v = 0

The governing equation is the Bernoulli equation p 1 2 + V + g z = const 2 so (neglecting gravity) p 1 2 + u = const 2 where V = u +v

2 2

Apply this to point arbitrary point (x,0) on the x axis and at infinity At At point (x,0) x u= x Hence the Bernoulli equation becomes p0 = p + 4 2 x

2 2

u 0

p p0

or

p ( x) = p0

2 x

x (m) p (Pa) 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 99.892 99.948 99.972 99.984 99.990 99.993 99.995 99.997 99.998 99.998 99.999 99.999 99.999 99.999 99.999 100.000

100.0

p (kPa)

100.0

99.9

99.9

99.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 x (m) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Problem 6.61

[3]

The given data is

Velocity field Pressure distribution along wall; plot distribution; net force on wall

3

q = 2

m s

m q x +

h = 1 m q x 2 x + ( y + h)

2 2

= 1000

kg m

3

u=

2 x + ( y h)

2

v =

q (y h ) 2 x + ( y h )

2 2

q (y + h )

2 2 2 x + ( y + h )

2 2

Apply this to point arbitrary point (x,0) on the wall and at infinity (neglecting gravity) At At point (x,0) x 0 u= u 0 q x

2

v 0

V 0 V =

x + h

v=0

x + h patm = p 1 q x + 2 2 x2 +h

2

(2

q x

q x p ( x) = 2 2 2 x + h

(Alternatively, the pressure distribution could have been obtained from Problem 6.8, where the momentum equation was used to find the pressure gradient leads to the same result for p(x)) The plot of pressure is shown in the associated Excel workbook. From the plot it is clear that the wall experiences a negative gage pressure on the upper surface (and zero gage pressure on the lower), so the net force on the wall is upwards, towards the source The force per width on the wall is given by F= pupper plower dx 10 h

10 h

p =

q x x h x +h

2

(2

(2

2 2 q x dx F= 2 2 2 2 2 x +h 10 h

10 h

The integral is

2 2

(x2 + h2)

q

2 2

dx

x atan h 2 h

x 2 h + 2 x

2 2

so

F=

2

kg

F = 278

N m

x (m) p (Pa) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 0.00 -50.66 -32.42 -18.24 -11.22 -7.49 -5.33 -3.97 -3.07 -2.44 -1.99

0 0 -10 p (Pa) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 x (m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Problem 6.62

[3]

Rx

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the inlet (1) and exit (2) p1 But we have + V1 2

2

p2 V2 = + 2

2 2

Q = V1 A1 = V1

4

D d = V2 4 4 2 p2 p1

so

2 2 d V2 V2 = D

d V1 = V2 D

Hence

V2 =

2 p1 p2 1

4 d D 3

V2 =

m 3 N ( 700 0) 10 2 1000 kg m

2

1 1

25 75

kg m N s

2

V2 = 37.6

m s

d Q = V2 4

Q =

37.6

m s

( 0.025 m)

Q = 0.0185

m s

Q = 18.5

L s

Rx + p1 A1 = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 Rx = p1

2 2 2 D D d + Q V2 V1 = p1 + Q V2 1 4 4 D

Rx = 700 10

Rx = 2423 N

This is the force of the nozzle on the fluid; hence the force of the fluid on the nozzle is 2400 N to the right; the nozzle is in tension

Problem 6.63

[3]

Problem 6.64

[3]

Problem 6.65

[3]

Basic equations:

Flow through reducing elbow Mass flow rate in terms of p, T1 and D1 and D2

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline 5) Ignore elevation change 6) p2 = patm Q = 20 gpm Q = 0.0446 ft s

3

Available data:

D = 1.5 in

d = 0.5 in

= 1.94

slug ft

3

From contnuity

V1 =

D 4

V1 = 3.63

ft s

V2 =

d 4

2

V2 = 32.7

ft s

Hence, applying Bernoulli between the inlet (1) and exit (2)

p1

V1 2

p2

V2 2

p1g =

2 2 V V1 2 2

From x-momentum

2

because

u1 = V1

u2 = 0

Problem 6.66

[2]

Basic equation

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the inlet (1) and exit (2) p1 But we have + V1 2

2

p2 V2 = + 2

2

Q = V1 A1 = V1

D 1 4

= V 2

D 2 4

so

D2 V 1 = V 2 D1

Note that we assume the flow at D2 is at the same pressure as the entire section 2; this will be true if there is turbulent mixing Hence V2 V2 V2 =

2 2 D2 4

= D1

2 p2 p1

2 p1 p2

D 4 2 1 D1

D 2 4

2

2 p1 p2

)

4

D 2 1 D1

D 2

2

D 2

2 2

D 4 2 1 D 1

Using

p = R T

mflow =

2 2

p p1

D 4 2 R T1 1 D1

k= D 2

2

mflow = k p

where

2 2

p1

D 4 2 R T 1 1 D1

We can expect the actual flow will be less because there is actually significant loss in the device. Also the flow will experience a vena co that the minimum diameter is actually smaller than D2. We will discuss this device in Chapter 8.

Problem 6.67

[4]

Basic equation

Flow through branching blood vessel Blood pressure in each branch; force at branch

p V + + g z = const 2

Q=0

CV

Q = V A

p = g h

Q = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 = 0

CV

so

Q3 = Q1 Q2

Q3 = 1.5

L min

2

2

V1 = 0.849

m s

Similarly

V2 =

4 Q2 D 2

2 2

V3 = 5.09

m s

Hence, applying Bernoulli between the inlet (1) and exit (2) p1 + V1 2 = p2 + V2 2

2

3

2

0.1 m

N s kg m

p1 = 13.3 kPa

Hence

p2 = 13300

N m

2

3 2

p2 = 13.2 kPa

h2 =

p2 SGHg g

h2 = 98.9 mm

2 2 p3 = p1 + V1 V3 2 p3 = 13300 N m

2

3 2

p3 = 706 Pa

In mm Hg

h3 =

p3 SGHg g

h3 = 5.29 mm

Note that all pressures are gage. For x momentum Rx + p3 A3 cos ( 60 deg) p2 A2 cos ( 45 deg) = u3 Q3 + u2 Q2

) )

2

3 3 2

L m L m 10 m 1 min N s kg + 1000 2.5 0.943 cos ( 45 deg) 1.5 5.09 cos ( 60 deg) 3 1 L kg m min s min s 60 s m For y momentum Ry p3 A3 sin ( 60 deg) p2 A2 sin ( 45 deg) = v3 Q3 + v2 Q2

Rx = 0.375 N

) )

2

3 3 2

L m L m kg 10 m 1 min N s + 1000 2.5 0.943 sin ( 45 deg) + 1.5 5.09 sin ( 60 deg) 3 1 L kg m min s min s 60 s m

Ry = 0.553 N

Problem 6.68

[3]

Problem 6.69

Problem 6.69

Problem 6.70

[4]

V CS

W y x

Ry

Basic equation

Flow through kitchen faucet Area variation with height; force to hold plate as function of height

p V + + g z = const 2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Incompressible flow 2) Inviscid 3) Steady 4) Along a streamline Hence, applying Bernoulli between the faucet (1) and any height y V1 2 Hence

2

+ g H =

V + g y 2

2

V ( y) =

V1 + 2 g ( H y) V1 = 0.815 m s V ( 0 m) = 3.08 m s

5 4

V (m/s)

3 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

y (cm)

The speed increases as y decreases because the fluid particles "trade" potential energy for kinetic, just as a falling solid particle does! But we have Hence Q = V1 A1 = V1 A = V1 A1 V D = V A 4 A ( y) =

2 2

D 1 V 1 4 V1 + 2 g ( H y)

45 30 15

A ( H) = 1.23 cm

A ( 0) = 0.325 cm

2 0 0.5 1 1.5

y (cm)

A (cm2)

The area decreases as the speed increases. If the stream falls far enough the flow will change to turbulent. For the CV above Ry W = uin Vin Ain = V ( Q) Ry = W + V A = W + Q V1 + 2 g ( H y) Hence Ry increases in the same way as V as the height y varies; the maximum force is when y = Hymax = W + Q V1 + 2 g H R

2 2 2

Problem 6.71

[4]

An old magic trick uses an empty thread spool and a playing card. The playing card is placed against the bottom of the spool. Contrary to intuition, when one blows downward through the central hole in the spool, the card is not blown away. Instead it is sucked up against the spool. Explain.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: An old magic trick uses an empty thread spool and a playing card. The playing card is placed against the bottom of the spool. Contrary to intuition, when one blows downward through the central hole in the spool, the card is not blown away. Instead it is sucked up against the spool. Explain. Discussion: The secret to this parlor trick lies in the velocity distribution, and hence the pressure distribution, that exists between the spool and the playing cards. Neglect viscous effects for the purposes of discussion. Consider the space between the end of the spool and the playing card as a pair of parallel disks. Air from the hole in the spool enters the annular space surrounding the hole, and then flows radially outward between the parallel disks. For a given flow rate of air the edge of the hole is the crosssection of minimum flow area and therefore the location of maximum air speed. After entering the space between the parallel disks, air flows radially outward. The flow area becomes larger as the radius increases. Thus the air slows and its pressure increases. The largest flow area, slowest air speed, and highest pressure between the disks occur at the outer periphery of the spool where the air is discharged from an annular area. The air leaving the annular space between the disk and card must be at atmospheric pressure. This is the location of the highest pressure in the space between the parallel disks. Therefore pressure at smaller radii between the disks must be lower, and hence the pressure between the disks is sub-atmospheric. Pressure above the card is less than atmospheric pressure; pressure beneath the card is atmospheric. Each portion of the card experiences a pressure difference acting upward. This causes a net pressure force to act upward on the whole card. The upward pressure force acting on the card tends to keep it from blowing off the spool when air is introduced through the central hole in the spool. Viscous effects are present in the narrow space between the disk and card. However, they only reduce the pressure rise as the air flows outward, they do not dominate the flow behavior.

Problem 6.72

Problem 6.72

Problem 6.73

CS

[4]

Air jet striking disk Manometer deflection; Force to hold disk; Force assuming p0 on entire disk; plot pressure distribution

Basic equations: Hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli, and momentum flux in x direction p = SG g h p V + + g z = constant 2

2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying Bernoulli between jet exit and stagnation point patm air But from hydrostatics +

2 p0 V = +0 2 air

so

2

3 2

h = 0.55 ft

h = 6.60 in

For x momentum

2 d Rx = V air A V = air V 4

The force of the jet on the plate is then F = Rx 1 2 p0 = patm + air V 2

The force on the plate, assuming stagnation pressure on the front face, is 1 2 D F = p0 p A = air V 4 2

F =

F = 18.5 lbf

Obviously this is a huge overestimate! For the pressure distribution on the disk, we use Bernoulli between the disk outside edge any radius r for radial flow patm 1 1 2 p 2 + vedge = + v 2 air air 2 We need to obtain the speed v as a function of radius. If we assume the flow remains constant thickness h, then Q = v 2 r h = V d 4

2

v ( r) = V

d 8 h r

We need an estimate for h. As an approximation, we assume that h = d (this assumption will change the scale of p(r) but not the basic shap Hence v ( r) = V d 8 r

2 2

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

2.75

3.25

3.5

3.75

p (psi)

r (in)

Problem 6.74

Problem 6.74

Problem 6.75

[4]

Problem 6.76

[4]

Problem 6.77

[4]

Water flow out of tube Pressure indicated by gage; force to hold body in place

2

Q = V A

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying Bernoulli between jet exit and stagnation point p1 + V1 2

2 2 2

p2 V2 V2 = + = 2 2

p1 =

2 2 V2 V1 2

2 A1 D V2 = V1 = V1 2 2 A2 D d

ft 2 V2 = 20 s 22 1.52

2

V2 = 45.7

ft s

Hence

p1 =

) ft

s

lbf s slugft

p1 = 1638

lbf ft

2

p1 = 11.4 psi

(gage)

The x mometum is

F + p1 A1 p2 A2 = u1 V1 A1 + u2 V2 A2 F = p1 A1 + V1 A1 V2 A2

2 2

)

2 2 2 2

2 2

F = 11.4

lbf in

2

2 2

1 ft lbf s 12 in slugft

F = 14.1 lbf

Problem 6.78

Problem 6.78

Problem 6.79

Problem 6.79

Problem 6.80

[5]

Describe the pressure distribution on the exterior of a multistory building in a steady wind. Identify the locations of the maximum and minimum pressures on the outside of the building. Discuss the effect of these pressures on infiltration of outside air into the building.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Describe the pressure distribution on the exterior of a multistory building in a steady wind. Identify the locations of the maximum and minimum pressures on the outside of the building. Discuss the effect of these pressures on infiltration of outside air into the building. Discussion: A multi-story building acts as a bluff-body obstruction in a thick atmospheric boundary layer. The boundary-layer velocity profile causes the air speed near the top of the building to be highest and that toward the ground to be lower. Obstruction of air flow by the building causes regions of stagnation pressure on upwind surfaces. The stagnation pressure is highest where the air speed is highest. Therefore the maximum surface pressure occurs near the roof on the upwind side of the building. Minimum pressure on the upwind surface of the building occurs near the ground where the air speed is lowest. The minimum pressure on the entire building will likely be in the low-speed, lowpressure wake region on the downwind side of the building. Static pressure inside the building will tend to be an average of all the surface pressures that act on the outside of the building. It is never possible to seal all openings completely. Therefore air will tend to infiltrate into the building in regions where the outside surface pressure is above the interior pressure, and will tend to pass out of the building in regions where the outside surface pressure is below the interior pressure. Thus generally air will tend to move through the building from the upper floors toward the lower floors, and from the upwind side to the downwind side.

Problem 6.81

[5]

Imagine a garden hose with a stream of water flowing out through a nozzle. Explain why the end of the hose may be unstable when held a half meter or so from the nozzle end.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Imagine a garden hose with a stream of water flowing out through a nozzle. Explain why the end of the hose may be unstable when held a half meter or so from the nozzle end. Discussion: Water flowing out of the nozzle tends to exert a thrust force on the end of the hose. The thrust force is aligned with the flow from the nozzle and is directed toward the hose. Any misalignment of the hose will lead to a tendency for the thrust force to bend the hose further. This will quickly become unstable, with the result that the free end of the hose will flail about, spraying water from the nozzle in all directions. This instability phenomenon can be demonstrated easily in the backyard. However, it will tend to do least damage when the person demonstrating it is wearing a bathing suit!

Problem 6.82

[5]

An aspirator provides suction by using a stream of water flowing through a venturi. Analyze the shape and dimensions of such a device. Comment on any limitations on its use.

Open-Ended Problem Statement: An aspirator provides suction by using a stream of water flowing through a venturi. Analyze the shape and dimensions of such a device. Comment on any limitations on its use. Discussion: The basic shape of the aspirator channel should be a converging nozzle section to reduce pressure followed by a diverging diffuser section to promote pressure recovery. The basic shape is that of a venturi flow meter. If the diffuser exhausts to atmosphere, the exit pressure will be atmospheric. The pressure rise in the diffuser will cause the pressure at the diffuser inlet (venturi throat) to be below atmospheric. A small tube can be brought in from the side of the throat to aspirate another liquid or gas into the throat as a result of the reduced pressure there. The following comments can be made about limitations on the aspirator: 1. It is desirable to minimize the area of the aspirator tube compared to the flow area of the venturi throat. This minimizes the disturbance of the main flow through the venturi and promotes the best possible pressure recovery in the diffuser. 2. It is desirable to avoid cavitation in the throat of the venturi. Cavitation alters the effective shape of the flow channel and destroys the pressure recovery in the diffuser. To avoid cavitation, the reduced pressure must always be above the vapor pressure of the driver liquid. 3. It is desirable to limit the flow rate of gas into the venturi throat. A large amount of gas can alter the flow pattern and adversely affect pressure recovery in the diffuser. The best combination of specific dimensions could be determined experimentally by a systematic study of aspirator performance. A good starting point probably would be to use dimensions similar to those of a commercially available venturi flow meter.

Problem 6.83

[5]

Problem 6.84

[2]

Carefully sketch the energy grade lines (EGL) and hydraulic grade lines (HGL) for the system shown in Fig. 6.6 if the pipe is horizontal (i.e., the outlet is at the base of the reservoir), and a water turbine (extracting energy) is located at (a) point , or (b) at point . In Chapter 8 we will investigate the effects of friction on internal flows. Can you anticipate and sketch the effect of friction on the EGL and HGL for cases (a) and (b)?

(a)

Note that the effect of friction would be that the EGL would tend to drop: suddenly at the contraction, gradually in the large pipe, more steeply in the small pipe. The HGL would then hang below the HGL in a manner similar to that shown.

EGL

Turbine

HGL

(b)

Note that the effect of friction would be that the EGL would tend to drop: suddenly at the contraction, gradually in the large pipe, more steeply in the small pipe. The HGL would then hang below the HGL in a manner similar to that shown.

EGL

Turbine

HGL

Problem 6.85

[2]

Carefully sketch the energy grade lines (EGL) and hydraulic grade lines (HGL) for the system shown in Fig. 6.6 if a pump (adding energy to the fluid) is located at (a) point , or (b) at point , such that flow is into the reservoir. In Chapter 8 we will investigate the effects of friction on internal flows. Can you anticipate and sketch the effect of friction on the EGL and HGL for cases (a) and (b)?

(a)

Note that the effect of friction would be that the EGL would tend to drop from right to left: steeply in the small pipe, gradually in the large pipe, and suddenly at the expansion. The HGL would then hang below the HGL in a manner similar to that shown.

EGL

Flow

Pump

HGL

(b)

Note that the effect of friction would be that the EGL would tend to drop from right to left: steeply in the small pipe, gradually in the large pipe, and suddenly at the expansion. The HGL would then hang below the HGL in a manner similar to that shown.

EGL

Flow

HGL Pump

Problem *6.86

[2]

Basic equation: Unsteady Bernoulli Assumptions: 1) Unsteady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying unsteady Bernoulli between reservoir and tube exit

2 2 2 p V dV V + + g h = V ds = + 1 ds t 2 2 dt 1 1 2

Hence

p =

V2 2

g h +

dV L dt

Hence

p = 1.94

p = 263

lbf ft

2

p = 1.83 psi

(gage)

Problem *6.87

[2]

Basic equation: Unsteady Bernoulli Assumptions: 1) Unsteady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying unsteady Bernoulli between reservoir and tube exit

2 p V ds = dV 1 ds = a L + g h = x t dt 1 1 2

Hence

1 p ax = + g h L

Hence

2 3

ft ax = 10.5 2 s

Note that we obtain the same result if we treat the water in the pipe as a single body at rest with gage pressure p + gh at the left end!

Problem *6.88

[5]

Problem *6.89

[4]

Problem *6.90

[4]

Unsteady water flow out of tube Differential equation for velocity; Integrate; Plot v versus time

Basic equation: Unsteady Bernoulli Assumptions: 1) Unsteady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction 4) Flow along streamline 5) Uniform flow 6) Horizontal flow (gx = 0) Applying unsteady Bernoulli between reservoir and tube exit

2 2 2 2 V p dV dV V V + + g h = V ds = + 1 ds = + L t 2 2 dt 1 2 dt 1 2

dV V 1 p + = + g h dt 2 L L L dV = dt 2 p V + g h 2

V ( t) =

25 20

p + g h p 2 + g h tanh t 2 L2

V (ft/s)

15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

t (s)

+ g h

V = 22.6

ft s

Problem *6.91

Problem *6.91

4.44

Problem *6.92

[5]

Problem *6.93

[2]

Problem *6.94

[2]

Stream function If the flow is irrotational; Pressure difference between points (1,4) and (2,1)

2

u=

v=

Irrotationality

u =0

(A x2 y)

x

u ( x , y) = A x

v ( x , y) = x

( x , y) =

(A x2 y)

v ( x , y) = 2 A x y x y

Hence

v ( x , y)

u ( x , y) 2 A y

u 0

Since flow is rotational, we must be on same streamline to be able to use Bernoulli At point (1,4) ( 1 , 4) = 4 A and at point (2,1) ( 2 , 1) = 4 A V ( x , y) = V1 = 20.2

2

Hence these points are on same streamline so Bernoulli can be used. The velocity at a point is Hence at (1,4) V1 = V2 = p1 +

u ( x , y) + v ( x , y) m s m s

p2 1 1 2 2 V1 = + V2 2 2 1 2 1200 kg m

3 2

Hence at (2,1)

V2 = 14.1 p =

Using Bernoulli

2 2 V2 V1 2

p =

14.1 20.2

2 2

N s kg m

p = 126 kPa

Problem *6.95

[2]

Problem *6.96

[3]

Data from Table 6.2 Stream function and velocity potential for a source in a corner; plot; velocity along one plane

( r , ) =

q 2 q y atan 2 x

( r , ) =

q ln ( r) 2 q 2 2 ln x + y 4

( x , y) =

( x , y) =

To build flow in a corner, we need image sources at three locations so that there is symmetry about both axes. We need sources at (h,h), (h,- h), (- h,h), and (- h,- h) Hence the composite stream function and velocity potential are ( x , y) = q y h y + h + atan y + h + atan y h atan + atan 2 x h x h x + h x + h q q 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ln ( x h) + ( y h) ( x h) + ( y + h) ( x + h) + ( y + h) ( x + h) + ( y h) 4 4

( x , y) =

2 2

q ( x h) 2 ( x h) + ( y + h)

2 2

q ( x + h) 2 ( x + h) + ( y + h)

2 2

q ( x + h)

2 2 2 ( x + h) + ( y + h)

2 2

q ( x h) 2 ( x h) + h

2 2

q ( x + h) 2 ( x + h) + h

2 2

q ( x + h) 2 ( x + h) + h

2 2

or

u ( x) =

xh x+h q + ( x h) 2 + h2 ( x + h) 2 + h2

Stream Function

#NAME?

Stream Function

Velocity Potential

Velocity Potential

Problem *6.97

[3]

The velocity field is

Velocity field of irrotational and incompressible flow Stream function and velocity potential; plot

u =

qx 2 x + ( y h )

2 2

qx 2 x + ( y + h )

2 2

v =

q (y h ) 2 x + ( y h )

2 2

q (y + h )

2 2 2 x + ( y + h )

u=

v=

u =

v =

( x , y) =

q y h y + h atan + atan 2 x x

q 2 2 2 2 u ( x , y) dx = ln x + ( y h) x + ( y + h) + f ( y) 4 q 2 2 2 2 v ( x , y) dy = ln x + ( y h) x + ( y + h) + g ( x) 4 q 4

2 2 2 2 ln x + ( y h) x + ( y + h)

( x , y) =

Stream Function

Velocity Potential

#NAME? Stream Function

Velocity Potential

Problem *6.98

[3]

Data from Table 6.2 Stream function and velocity potential for a vortex in a corner; plot; velocity along one plane

( r , ) =

K 2 q y atan 2 x

( r , ) =

K ln ( r ) 2 q 2 2 ln x + y 4

( x , y) =

( x , y) =

To build flow in a corner, we need image vortices at three locations so that there is symmetry about both axes. We need vortices at (h,h), (h,- h), (- h,h), and (- h,- h). Note that some of them must have strengths of - K! Hence the composite velocity potential and stream function are ( x , y) = K yh y + h + atan y + h atan y h atan atan 2 xh xh x+h x + h

( x , y) =

(x h ) + (y h ) (x + h ) + (y + h ) K ln 4 ( x h ) 2 + ( y + h ) 2 ( x + h ) 2 + ( y h ) 2

2 2 2 2

2 2

K ( y + h) 2 ( x h) + ( y + h)

2 2

K ( y + h) 2 ( x + h) + ( y + h)

2 2

K ( y h)

2 2 2 ( x + h) + ( y h)

2 2

K h 2 ( x h) + h

2 2

K h 2 ( x + h) + h

2 2

K h 2 ( x + h) + h

2 2

or

u ( x) =

1 1 K h ( x h) 2 + h2 ( x + h) 2 + h2

y Stream Function

Velocity Potential

#NAME? Stream Function #NAME?

Velocity Potential

[2]

Problem *6.100

[2]

5

u=

v=

u=

v=

x

3 2

u =0

4 3 3

( x , y) = x 10 x y + 5 x y u ( x , y) = y x y ( x , y)

u ( x , y) 20 x y 20 x y

2 2 4 4

v ( x , y) =

( x , y)

v ( x , y) 30 x y 5 x 5 y

x Hence

v ( x , y) x y

u ( x , y) 0

4 2 3 5

u=

so

v=

so

Problem *6.101

[2]

Problem *6.102

[2]

6

u = v =0

6

v =

u =

v =

x

4 2

u+

( x , y) = x 15 x y + 15 x y y u ( x , y) = x y y ( x , y)

2 4

u ( x , y) 60 x y 6 x 30 x y

4 2 3

3 2

v ( x , y) = x

( x , y)

v ( x , y) 30 x y 60 x y + 6 y

Hence

u ( x , y) + y x

v ( x , y) 0

3 3 5 5

Hence

u=

so

v=

so

Problem *6.103

[4]

Complex function Show it leads to velocity potential and stream function of irrotational incompressible flow; Show that df/dz leads to u and v u= y v= x x y u= x v= y

6 2 4 6

Incompressibility f ( z) = z = ( x + i y) Expanding

6 4 2 6

u+

v =0

Irrotationality

u =0

f ( z) = x 15 x y + 15 x y y + i 6 x y + 6 x y 20 x y

6 4 2 2 4 6

3 3

)

5 5 3 3

4 2 3 3 2 5 4

v ( x , y) =

( x , y)

v ( x , y) 30 x y 60 x y + 6 y

( x , y)

u ( x , y) 6 x 60 x y + 30 x y

2 3 4

3 2

x Note that the values of u and v are of opposite sign using and !different which is the same result using ! To resolve this we could either let f = -+i; altenatively we could use a different definition of that many authors use: u= x x x y y v= y

v ( x , y) =

( x , y)

v ( x , y) 60 x y 30 x y 6 y

Hence

v ( x , y)

u ( x , y) 0

Hence

u ( x , y) +

v ( x , y) 0

df d z = dz dz

Hence the results are verified; u = Re

df = u i v dz

dz

df

and

v = Im

dz

df

Problem *6.104

[4]

Basic equations:

Complex function Show it leads to velocity potential and stream function of irrotational incompressible flow; Show that df/dz leads to u and v

u= x

v=

u=

v=

y d d d f = i f = i f dz dz y dz z

First consider

f =

d d d f = 1 f = f dz dz x dz z

(1)

2

and also

f =

(2)

2

2 2

Hence

x Combining

f =

x x

2 2

f =

2 2

d d d f = 2f dz dz dz f d

2 2

2 2

and

f =

y y

f = i

d d d i f = 2 f dz dz dz

2 2

f +

f =

f =0

dz

dz

Any differentiable function f(z) automatically satisfies the Laplace Equation; so do its real and imaginary parts!

We demonstrate derivation of velocities u and v From Eq 1 d d f = ( + i ) = ( + i ) = + i = u i v dz dz x x x 1 d d f = ( + i ) = ( + i ) = i + = i v + u i y dz dz y y u = x v = y or in other words, as the negative of our definition

From Eq 2

There appears to be an incompatibilty here, but many authors define as Alternatively, we can use out but set Then From Eq 1

f = + i

d d f = ( + i ) = ( + i ) = + i = u i v dz dz x x x 1 d d f = ( + i ) = ( + i ) = i + = i v + u i y dz dz y y df = u i v dz if we set u = x v = y

From Eq 2

Problem *6.105

[2]

Problem *6.106

[3]

Problem *6.107

Problem *6.107

Problem *6.108

[3]

Problem *6.109

Problem *6.109

Problem *6.110

[2]

Problem *6.111

[3]

Consider flow around a circular cylinder with freestream velocity from right to left and a counterclockwise free vortex. Show that the lift force on the cylinder can be expressed as FL = U, as illustrated in Example 6.12. Open-Ended Problem Statement: Consider flow around a circular cylinder with freestream velocity from right to left and a counterclockwise free vortex. Show that the lift force on the cylinder can be expressed as FL = U, as illustrated in Example 6.12. Discussion: The only change in this flow from the flow of Example 6.12 is that the directions of the freestream velocity and the vortex are changed. This changes the sign of the freestream velocity from U to U and the sign of the vortex strength from K to K. Consequently the signs of both terms in the equation for lift are changed. Therefore the direction of the lift force remains unchanged. The analysis of Example 6.12 shows that only the term involving the vortex strength contributes to the lift force. Therefore the expression for lift obtained with the changed freestream velocity and vortex strength is identical to that derived in Example 6.12. Thus the general solution of Example 6.12 holds for any orientation of the freestream and vortex velocities. For the present case, FL = U, as shown for the general case in Example 6.12.

Problem *6.112

[3]

Problem *6.113

[3]

Problem *6.114

[3]

Problem *6.115

Problem *6.115

Problem *6.116

[4]

Problem *6.117

Problem *6.117

Problem *6.118

Problem *6.118

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