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# Example 5:

m2

m1

m1=12kg m2=3kg F=45N Find the tension in the rope connecting the two masses Find the acceleration of the two masses

Friction
Friction is a result of contact between dry solid surfaces. Even though friction is considered as a restricting force and a waist of energy, such as in car engine.. In many other cases it is very important. For example: 1) Motion of a wheel 2) Walking 3) Tying knots 4) Holding things 5) And much more

## What is the source of friction?

Friction is the sum of all the forces acting between the surface atoms of one body and the surface atoms of another body. Therefore the better the contact is the larger the friction.

## How do we see friction?

1) If we send an object sliding horizontally across a table it slows down.
v

2) In order to move and object on a smooth surface with constant velocity we have to constantly apply a force.

Exploring friction
FN

Friction, f = 0
FN F mg

mg FN

2F mg

FN

F mg

FN F mg f

## What happens during motion?

Once the object starts moving we usually feel a relief. This is because the friction force opposing the motion is reduced. The friction between sliding surfaces is less than between static surfaces.

fs > fk

Summary:

f
fs,max fk

F (applied)
Start of motion

## What determines fs and fk?

Will f increase when we add the mass on top?
f F

Will f increase when we push the object down without increasing the mass?

The force that is changing in both cases is FN. Conclusion f is proportional to FN.

The friction is also dependent on the interaction between the two surfaces involved. That determines the coefficient of proportionality between f and FN.

Finally:

FN

But since, the static friction is different than the kinetic friction it implies that the coefficient is different.

f s ,max

FN

fk

FN

Conceptual Question 1:
A block of mass 10 kg lies on the floor. What is the magnitude of the frictional force acting on it from the floor?

## A)98 N B)0 N C)50 N D)49 N

Conceptual Question 2:
If a horizontal force of 50 N is now applied to the block but the block does not move. What is the magnitude of the frictional force on it? A)98 N B)0 N C)50 N D)49 N

Conceptual Question 3:
If the maximal static frictional force fs,max is 100 N. Will the block move if we push it with a horizontal force of 98 N? A)Yes B)No

Conceptual Question 4:
If the maximal static frictional force fs,max is 100 N. What will be the magnitude of the frictional force on the block if we push it with a horizontal force of 98 N? A)100 N B)49 N C)98 N D)2 N

Numerical Example:
A truck is trying to unload its cargo by lifting its container in an angle. At what angle will the cargo start sliding down assuming its a one mass m and that the coefficient of static friction between the cargo and the floor of the container is s ?

Drag Force
The Drag Force is caused by a FLUID. Fluid is anything that can flow (gas, liquid). The Direction of the drag, as friction, always against the direction of the motion.

## What does Drag depend on?

Fluid density Effective cross-sectional Area of the object The velocity of the object A v

Dimensional Analysis
mass M volume L3 Area L2 Length L time t
D Force Length mass time 2 L M 2 t

A v

A v

Finally:

1 2 C Av 2

C is called the DRAG COEFFICIENT and it is determined experimentally. Typical values range 0.4 1.0

Question:
What happens to an object which is dropped from a very high building if we consider the drag force? Remember: the drag force increases with the velocity It reaches a maximum velocity called Terminal Velocity given by:

vt

2F C A

Example
Calculate the magnitude of the drag force on a missile 53cm in diameter cruising at a 250m/s at low altitude, where the air density is 1.2kg/m3, assuming C=0.75. What will the propelling force of the missile have to be?

Fp d

D v

Conceptual Question 1:
If an object that is being dragged by a force F through air has a terminal velocity v. What will be its terminal velocity if we drag it with the same force through another gas of density that of air? A) v B) v C) 2 v D)4 v