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## PEME 2200 2011/ MW

Course Work
PEME 2200 Process Engineering Systems
Part I: Principles of Electricity, Flow
Measurement and Auto control
Course works
Only one assignment is required, which is based on the end number of the
student registration:
1-2:Assg.1; 3-4:Assg.2; 5-6:Assg.3; 7-8:Assg.4; 9-0:Assg.5
The course work must be typed with word processing software and submitted in
the format of either WORD or PDF. All figures must be drawn by the submitter
unless they are given in the assignment. Electronic scanned texts or figures are
number on the front page of your work. No tolerance will be given to
plagiarism. No mark will be given to the incorrect selection of assignment.
The deadline for the submission of the course work is,
Monday, 5
th
December 2011
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 1
a) Explain how to operate (ON/OFF) the machine [3 marks]
b) Explain the three major functions of Pilot Switch [2 marks]
Discuss how the control circuit meets the below safety criterion:
d) Broken earth and Disconnected trailing cable protection [1 marks];
e) Supply failure and Self start protection [1 marks];
f) Short circuited trailing cable protection [1 marks];
g) Calculate the voltage value of the internal power for the control circuit.
h) Calculate the current through the main power supply and the voltage drops across R
and XL of the machine (ignoring the power consumption of the control circuit) [1 marks];
i) Calculate the Power Factor of the machine [1 marks];
j) Estimate the apparent power and the actual power [1 marks];
k) Propose a method to correct the power factor and calculate the current if the power
factor is corrected to 1 [4 marks];
l) Discuss the problem to power supply if the load has a low power factor [4 marks].
Aprocess machine control circuit with some safety protection functions is given in Figure 1.
According to the pilot circuit, the machine can be described as a load of a resistor and an
inductor connected in series. A 50 Hz, 240 V (effective value) ac power supply is used to drive
the machine. For safety consideration, the control circuit is powered from a low voltage, which
is supplied by the secondary coil of the internal transform with transforming ratio 20:1. In order
to operate the device, you have to fully understand the operational principles of the device
and the safety protection function. It may be also considered to correct the power factor of the
machine. The estimation of daily energy consumption is required.
2
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
Control circuit
20:1
~240 V
R = 50O
XL= 25O
R
XL
Figure 1
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 2
a) Please identify a manipulated variable and possible disturbances [2 marks]
b) Draw a physical layout based on your control strategy [2 marks]
c) Draw a block diagram with text definition to reflect your strategy [2 marks]
d) Using symbols to denote the each element in the block diagram, derive the transfer
function of the feedback control system [5 marks]
e) Assuming a cascade control system to be applied for the auto control, re-draw the
physical layout based on your control strategy [2 marks]
f) Draw a block diagram with text definition to reflect your strategy [2 marks]
g) Using symbols to denote the dynamics of each element in the block diagram, derive the
transfer function of the cascade control system [5 marks].
Consider the continuous stirred tank reactor given in Figure 2, please answer below
questions, assuming a feedback control loop to be applied for the control.
Figure 3.9 A CSTR system
A > B
T
Product
Coolant out
Coolant in ( ) F
c
T
c
Feed ( ) F
i
T
i
Figure 3.9 A CSTR system
A > B
T
Product
Coolant out
Coolant in ( ) F
c
T
c
Feed ( ) F
i
T
i
Figure 2
3
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 3
Give very brief definition to below questions (each 1 marks, total 8 marks)
1) What is Turndown Ratio of a flow meter?
2) What is Peak Value (amplitude) of an ac electricity supply if its effective voltage is V?
3) What are Absolute pressure, Gauge pressure and Differential pressure?
4) What is the difference between the definitions of Pressure and Shear stress?
6) What are the basic principles of the methods used for Intrinsically Safe Equipment?
7) What is the most common criterion for a Good Control?
8) State the Order of Tuning the primary (outer) and secondary (inner) loops of a
Answer below questions (each 3 marks, total 12 marks)
9) Describe the devices or equipment that can be utilised to prevent electrical sparking
from being a source of danger in a mine?
10) Briefly state the two methods of generating electricity from electromagnetic induction.
11) Describe the flow similarity.
12) Why the offset (or error) cannot be completely eliminated by the use of Proportional
controller?
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 4

P
m
V
A

=
2
1
1
2
2
2 1
1
2
, P P P
A
A
m =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
The principle of differential flow meters can be described using Bernoullis ideal flow
equation that states the sum of the static energy (pressure head), the kinetic energy
(velocity head) and the potential energy (elevation head) of the fluid are approximately
conserved in the flow across a constriction in a pipe.
where is the fluid density, g denotes gravitational constant, P the pressure, V the fluid flow
velocity and Z the elevation head.
Considering the principle of the flow continuity for an incompressible fluid through a
horizontal pipe as shown in Figure 5,
(a)Prove that the flow speed V2 at A2 can be described by the equation below (assuming
the cross section areas A1, A2 of the pipe and the pressures P1 and P2 at A1 and A2 to be
known) [10 marks] .
where and is the density
of the flow.
constant
2
2
= + +

Z
g
V
g
P

A
2
V
2
P
2
A
1
V
1
P
1
A
2
V
2
P
2
A
2
V
2
P
2
A
1
V
1
P
1
A
1
V
1
P
1
Figure 5
4
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 4
(b) Design a flow rate measurement device using a venturi (Figure 5) and a U-tube
manometer (Figure 6) for a horizontal liquid flow measurement [5 marks].
(c) Calculate the fluid flow velocity at A2 for a pressure drop of 1 meter measured from the
manometer (assuming the gravitational acceleration is 9.8m/s2, m=A2/A1=0.8 and the
liquid density in the manometer is the same as that of the liquid flowing through the
venturi) [5 marks] .
level 1
level 2
high pressure low pressure
Figure 6
PEME 2200 2011/ MW
ASSIGNMENT 5
A process device can be modelled by an equivalent circuit of an electrical resistor (R = 20.0
O) in series connection with an inductor (X
L
= 5.0 O) as shown in below figure 7. The effective
value of an ac voltage (E = 240 V) is supplied to the device.
1)determine the equivalent impedance of the device; [4 marks]
2)calculate the effective value of current supplied by the power; [2 marks]
3)calculate the effective value of voltage drop on the resistor; [2 marks]
4)calculate the effective value of voltage drop on the inductor; [2 marks]
5)estimate the apparent power of the device; [2 marks]
6)estimate the actual power of the device; [2 marks]
7)determine the power factor of the device; [2marks]
8)suggest a method to enhance the power factor to 1; [2 marks]
9)re-estimate the actual power of the device after the enhancement. [2 marks]
~ E
R
L
Process
device
Figure 7