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Kevin ruehle

10/10/11

4th hour

Study questions chapter 8 part 1


1. The Arabian desert runs around the outside and cuts off the southern regions from the interior 2. The nomads of the Arabian Desert dominated trade and their main source of income was renting out camels, acting as guides through the desert, and safe passages through the desert and other lands. 3. Because it had protection from the empires to the north and lands to the southeast because it was too far away for them to attack. 4. Muhammad claims that he saw the angel Gabriel come to him while he was meditating 5. They started to call him gods messenger or prophet, 6. Because Jerusalem, which is where they started praying too, was also where the Christians and the Jews prayed, and the Muslims believed that their religious books were incorrect as they were revised by man. 7. Because Meccas leaders started arresting some members of his group and also tried turning his children against him, they did this because they feared losing their political and social power if they accepted Muhammad as gods messenger, so Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina, which marked the hijra, or the beginning of the Muslim calendar. 8. Muhammads group, or his umma, joined forces with desert nomads and other believers and warred with Mecca, which led to Mecca surrendering and accepting Muhammad as gods messenger. 9. Abu Bakr became the Caliph after Muhammad died. 10. Accept that there is only one god and Muhammad was his messenger; pray five times a day, fast during the lunar month of Ramadan, pay charity to the church, make a trip to Mecca at least once in your life time. 11. The religious book of the Muslims and Arabs. 12. Muhammads cousin, they believed that the seat of the Caliph should be based on a kinship not on religious descendents. 13. They were the people of tradition and community, they believed whoever was the leader of the land was also the leader of the Muslim community. 14. Umar, The second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate

Kevin ruehle

10/10/11

4th hour

15. Arabs were not allowed to own any conquered land to keep the peace in the countryside, where most of the people in conquered lands lived, and people were not forced to convert to Islam if they didnt want to. 16. They ruled from the conquered land of Tunisia. 17. Because the money had religious phrases on it, showing that Islam played a huge role in the government. 18. Religious law was applied in the courts, and scholars went around and studied the readings of the prophets. 19. From the Tigris river, because an increasing number of non-Arabic people converted to Islam. 20. They faced debt because people refused to pay taxes to the capital, and they controlled a vast empire, so messages got around very slowly, so if there was a revolt, by the time the central government found out, it would be too late. 21. The fact that Muslims began to realize that a centralized government didnt necessarily meet the needs of the people, so they began conquering land for themselves and formed principalities. 22. They were Turkish slaves that the Caliphate bought and established them as their army, if they didnt get paid, they would see to it that the current leader get replaced by one that would pay them. 23. They had no strong, centered leader, and they got attacked by Mountain warriors from northern Iran, with the help of a Shiite family