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IEEE San Francisco Power Engineering Society

DG Fundamentals Workshop
October 18, 2003

Registration 8:00 AM

1. Introductory Remarks 8:15 AM

2. DG Principles –Mechanical systems Brian Sekula (Altran) 8:30 AM


• Renewable types
• PV module orientation, shading & insolation level
• Wind turbine
• Small hydro
• Fuel types
• Fuel Cell
• Combustion Turbines
• Conventional gas turbine
• Micro-turbine
• Steam turbines
• Reciprocating Engine

3. DG Principles – Electrical systems Prof. Liou (SFSU) 9:00 AM


• PV cell & module
• Induction Generator
• Synchronous Generator
• Inverters
• Electrical characteristics of the above devices
• Fault duty
• Voltage and frequency regulation capability

4. Distribution System Characteristics – Willie Chew (PG&E Dist. Planning) 9:30 AM


• Radial Configuration
• Protection
• Voltage Regulation
• Network Configuration
• Protection
• Voltage Regulation
• Typical Load Profile
• Typical distribution system load and fault capabilities

Break 10:30 AM
IEEE San Francisco Power Engineering Society
DG Fundamentals Workshop
October 18, 2003
(continued)

5. Typical DG systems & DG applications – Gary Olson (Cummins) 10:45 AM


• Typical sizes/configurations/costs
• $/kW installed
• $/kWH
• Emission level & air quality restrictions
• Stand-alone/Standby/Parallel/utility-interactive/certified/load management
• Generator/facility Protection
• Considerations for one or more generator operations
• Voltage Regulation
• Frequency Regulation
• Load Sharing/following/shedding

Lunch 12:15 PM

6. System Impact Review/Interconnection Study 1:15 PM


– Mohammad Vaziri (PG&E System Protection)
• DG compatibility with existing distribution system design at the point of interconnection
• Potential system modifications
• Interconnection study example

Break 2:15 PM

7. Standards and references - Chuck Whitaker (Endecon) 2:30 PM


• CPUC Rule 21 and supplementary review guideline for low and moderate penetration systems
• IEEE-929 for utility interactive PV inverter systems
• UL-1741 for certifying utility interactive systems
• IEEE-1547 and sister standards

8. Bonus presentation on DG interconnection - Anthony Mazy (CPUC/ORA) 3:30 PM


On the way to a Plug and Play DG

9. Q&A 3:40 PM

Adjourn 4:00 PM
San Francisco
Power Engineering Society
Distributed Generation Course
Introductory Remarks
Chase Sun
PG&E
October 18, 2003
Concerns that spurred interest in
DG & interconnection areas
• Cost
– California Energy Crisis
– Interconnection cost
• Environmental
– Emissions from fuel fired plants
– Green House Gases
• Reliability
– Aging infrastructure
– Power generation capacity did not keep pace with load
growth and led to inadequate reserve margin
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Distributed Generation Course
Major factors for power system
design
• Safety
• Required Capacity Level
• Required Reliability Level
• Required Power Quality Level
• Minimum Cost

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Distributed Generation Course
Transmission System
Characteristics
• Multiple paths to load
• Spare capacity in each path
• Potential bi-directional power flow in each path
• Ability to clear line fault with no interruption to
load. Designed for one or more contingencies
• Traditional method to interconnect generator
• Complex to operate
• High cost & high reliability
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Distributed Generation Course
Distribution System
Characteristics
• Radial – unidirectional power flow but may have
backtie
• Moderate reliability
• Line fault will interrupt downstream load
• Designed to provide acceptable voltage and
frequency from zero load to maximum load in the
load direction.
• Low cost
• Simple to operate
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Existing System
• Existing distribution system is engineered to
safely serve a given level of load at a given level
of reliability with minimal cost.
• The distribution system is dynamic and changes to
meet the requirements of load growth and other
customer needs.
• The radial distribution system is configured
similar to a tree, with the feeder outlet being the
trunk and the leaves/fruits being the loads,
supported by branches of progressively smaller
sizes. So, no two circuit are exactly alike.
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Existing System (Continued)
• We have an interconnected system where
disturbance at one location can propagate to
other locations. We have seen this
demonstrated in the 8/14/03 NE Blackout.
• It is very important that the utilities and DG
developers work together to reduce the DG
interconnection costs while preserving the
power system integrity.

October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 7 of 7


Distributed Generation Course
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

MECHANICAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW


Brian Sekula
Altran

IEEE San Francisco PES DG Fundamentals Workshop


San Francisco State University
October 18, 2003

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INTRODUCTION

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What is a Distributed Energy System?

‰ A power source close to the end user of electricity (at


a home, business or industrial site)

‰ Typically less than 10MW in size

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History

‰ Early power plants were distributed since the


transmission and distribution system were not
well developed and many users had to
provide the power themselves.

‰ Before WWII, many industries had on-site


generation

‰ After WWII, utilities developed large power


stations to take advantage of the economics
of scale and the improved efficiency of larger 4 of 42
power plants
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Why is Distributed Energy Attractive
Today?
Reliability
9 The end user can have a higher reliability source of power.
Can Reduce Electrical Grid Expenditures
9 Local energy production can reduce the load on the
transmission and distribution grid if done properly and properly
coordinated with the utility.
Efficiency
9 Distributed energy systems that utilize cogeneration can have a
higher efficiency than central power plants that only produce
electricity.
Low Emissions
9 Fossil fuel powered, distributed energy systems are now
available with very low emissions and alternative energy
systems may have zero emissions. 5 of 42
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
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Photovoltaics

Principles of Operation
‰ Direct conversion of sunlight to DC electric power

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Photovoltaics
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ 100’s of watts to MW size
‰ Depends on efficiency, insolation, orientation and shading
¾ Insolation varies throughout the day. Peak is about 1000

watts/square meter. Daily average is about 250 watts/


square meter.
¾ A fixed panel is cheaper than a tracking system but power

output is reduced.
¾ A typical system will produce about 100 peak watts/square

meter and about 200kwh/year per square meter.

Special Requirements
‰ Requires an inverter to produce 60Hz AC power of sufficient
voltage.
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Photovoltaics
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ No emissions
‰ No moving parts
‰ Low maintenance
‰ Long life Potential

Disadvantages
‰ Initial Cost
‰ Low utilization factor
‰ Low energy density, a large surface is required
‰ PV output will decrease if shaded by adjacent buildings or trees
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Photovoltaics
(cont’d)

Good Applications
‰ Low power remote applications away from the grid
‰ Large flat roofed warehouses and stores are an ideal location

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Wind Turbine

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Wind Turbine
(cont’d)

Principle of Operation
‰ Convert the kinetic energy of the wind to rotational motion of a
generator
‰ Use of variable speed generators and inverters allows variable
speed operation
¾ Increases efficiency

¾ Reduces blade loads and weight

‰ The most successful designs are horizontal axis with 3 blades.

Efficiency
‰ Approximately 20 –40%

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Wind Turbine
(cont’d)

Power Output
‰ 100s of watts to 5MW
‰ Power is proportional to wind speed cubed and diameter
squared
‰ A 25ft diameter wind turbine produces about 10KW at 25mph
wind speed
‰ Typical capacity factor approximately 25%

Special Requirements
‰ Need to be in areas of consistent high wind speeds

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Wind Turbine
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ Relatively low cost
‰ No emissions

Disadvantages
‰ The end user of electricity rarely is in a high wind area and there
are restrictions on installation of towers.
‰ Weather dependent

Good Applications
‰ Limited use by individuals in remote areas
‰ Principal use is in large wind farms
¾ Not a typically distributed generator

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Small Hydro

Principle of Operation
‰ Converts the potential energy of falling water into rotation of a
generator.
‰ Typically use Pelton wheels

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Small Hydro
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ About 80%

Power Output
‰ 100’s of watts to MW’s
‰ A function of available head and water flow

Special Requirements
‰ Require penstocks and sometimes dams

Advantages
‰ Low cost

Disadvantages
‰ Limited sites
‰ Permitting is difficult
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course
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San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Small Hydro
(cont’d)

Good Applications
‰ Remote sites

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Engineering Society
Conventional Gas Turbine

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Engineering Society
Conventional Gas Turbine
(cont’d)

Principles of Operation
FUEL

COMBUSTOR

GENERATOR

AIR
COMPRESSOR TURBINE ~ POWER

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Conventional Gas Turbine
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ 20-40% (size dependent)
‰ Up to 80% when used for cogeneration

Fuels
‰ Natural gas, liquid fuels

Power Output
‰ 500 KW – 100 MW
‰ Dependent on ambient conditions

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
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Conventional Gas Turbine
(cont’d)

Special Requirements
‰ High pressure gas or gas compressor required
‰ To meet California emissions limits
¾ Use only natural gas and

¾ Steam injection or

¾ Selective catalytic reduction

‰ In hot areas inlet air chillers or evaporative cooling helps


maintain power output

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Conventional Gas Turbine
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ Low capital cost
‰ Proven technology

Disadvantages
‰ Air permitting required
‰ Relatively skilled operating and maintenance personal required

Good Applications
‰ MW size cogeneration at industrial facilities

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Engineering Society
Microturbine

Principles of Operation
‰ Similar to conventional gas turbines but typically use single
stage compressor and turbine.

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Engineering Society
Microturbine
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ 20-28%
‰ Up to 80% when used for cogeneration

Power Output
‰ 25-500KW

Fuels
‰ Natural gas, liquid fuels, landfill gas (down to 350 BTU/scf)

Special Requirements
‰ Require 100psi gas or compressor
‰ Cogeneration works best when providing hot water

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Engineering Society
Microturbine
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ Physically small, packaged systems available with all controls
and electrical protective functions
‰ Relatively low capital cost
‰ Meet California emissions requirements
‰ If used base loaded, yearly maintenance is limited to air filter
replacement

Disadvantages
‰ 5 year life
‰ Life will be reduced by frequent starts and stops and cycling

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Engineering Society
Microturbine
(cont’d)

Good Applications
‰ Cogeneration at commercial and industrial sites
‰ Landfill power

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Internal Combustion Engines

Principles of Operation
‰ Use either Otto cycle (similar to automotive engines) or diesel

Efficiency
‰ 25-45%

Fuels
‰ Natural gas, diesel, landfill gas, digester gas

Power Output
‰ 5KW - 7MW

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
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Internal Combustion Engines
(cont’d)

Special Requirements
‰ To meet California emissions requirements require SCR and
use of natural gas

Advantages
‰ Technically mature, widely used technology

Disadvantages
‰ High noise
‰ Emissions
‰ Maintenance

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Internal Combustion Engines
(cont’d)

Good Applications
‰ Cogeneration (using jacket water) at commercial and industrial
sites

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Engineering Society
Steam Turbine

Principles of Operation
‰ Expand steam to produce rotation of a generator

Efficiency
‰ Approximately 20-40% cycle efficiency

Fuels
‰ Boiler required
¾ Can burn a variety of fuels

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Steam Turbine
(cont’d)

Power Output
‰ KW – MW size

Special Requirements
‰ Requires a boiler with sufficient pressure and temperature
steam
‰ Requires overspeed protection

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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Steam Turbine
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ Low cost if boiler exists

Disadvantages
‰ Typical commercial and industrial boilers do not provide high
pressure steam

Good Applications
‰ Limited uses for distributed generation
‰ May be part of a combined cycle plant in which gas turbine
waste heat is recovered in a heat exchanger to run a steam
turbine.
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Fuel Cells

Principles of Operation
‰ Four types under development
¾ Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)

¾ Molton Carbonate (MCFC)

¾ Solid Oxide (SOFC)

¾ Proton Exchange Membrane (PEMFC)

‰ Similar to a battery (chemical reaction)

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Fuel Cells
(cont’d)

‰ Hydrogen mixes with air, is broken down into protons


and electrons, and positively charged ions move
through the electrolyte across a voltage to produce
electric power

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Fuel Cells
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ 30-60%

Fuels
‰ Natural gas, hydrogen. Some can use landfill gas, propane, and
diesel

Power Output
‰ 1 KW-10MW

Special Requirements
‰ Non hydrogen fuels must be reformed into hydrogen (e.g.,
steam reformer for methane)
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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
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Fuel Cells
(cont’d)

Advantages
‰ High efficiency
‰ Potentially 0 emissions

Disadvantages
‰ Complex
‰ Still experimental
‰ High cost

Good Applications
‰ Once perfected could have very wide application

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Fuel Cells
(cont’d)

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Engineering Society
Hybrid Fuel Cell/Microturbine

Principles of Operation
FUEL FUEL

FUEL CELL COMBUSTOR

GENERATOR
POWER

AIR
COMPRESSOR TURBINE ~ POWER

‰ O Fuel cell efficiency is improved at high pressure


O Combines a solidoxide fuel cell with a microturbine
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October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course San Francisco Power
Engineering Society
Hybrid Fuel Cell/Microturbine
(cont’d)

Efficiency
‰ 60-70%

Fuels
‰ Natural gas, hydrogen

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Engineering Society
Hybrid Fuel Cell/Microturbine
(cont’d)

Power Output
‰ KW – MW
‰ Advantages
‰ Extremely high fuel to electric conversion efficiency
‰ Low emissions
‰ Disadvantages
‰ Very high cost
‰ Infant technology
Good Applications
‰ If perfected will have very wide applicability

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Installed Costs

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CONCLUSIONS

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Many technologies are available and proven

‰ Distributed generation has barely made inroads in a


potentially massive market

‰ Distributed generation has huge potential to reduce


fossil fuel consumption via the high efficiency of
cogeneration v.s. centralized power plants

‰ For more information, see:


www.energy.ca.gov/distgen

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Distributed Generation Principles
Electrical Systems

Presented by Dr. ShyShenq Liou


San Francisco State University

IEEE San Francisco Power


Engineering Society
DG Fundamentals Workshop
San Francisco State University
October 18, 2003
Solar Power
•Fundamentals
•Electrical Characteristics
•Cell, Module, and Array
•Maximum Power Tracker
•Power Electronics Circuits
Incoming p-type mateiral
Photon
Hole

EHP

n-type material
Electron

Basic Operation of Solar pn Junction


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Distributed Generation Course
V-I Characteristics of Solar Cell

 qV

I = I l − I o  e kT
− 1 
 
I l is the current from Photon
−19
q =1.6 ×10 coul
− 23
k =1.38 ×10 j/K
T is the cell temperatur e in K
V is the voltage of the cell
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Distributed Generation Course
I SC = I l
kT I l + I o
VOC = ln
q Io
Pmax = I m Vm = FF I SC VOC
FF is the cell fill factor
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Distributed Generation Course
Cell Current

Illumination Level

Cell Voltage

I-V Characteristics of Solar Cell

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Distributed Generation Course
I
Cell

Module
V
Array

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Distributed Generation Course
Blocking Diode

Bypass Diode

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Distributed Generation Course
Concept of Maximum Power Tracker

Load Line
Cell Current

Load Line
Illumination Level

Load Line

Cell Voltage

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Distributed Generation Course
D
Vout = Vin
1− D
MOSFET

Diode
Inductor

Capacitor

Resistor
Cell
Module

Buck-Boost DC to DC Converter
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Distributed Generation Course
Overview of Fuel Cell
•Brief Introduction
•Fundamentals
•Electrical Characteristics
Brief Introduction
• Fuel Cell was invented by William R.
Grove in 1839. It was called
“Gaseous Voltaic Battery

• Fuel Cell is an electrochemical


“device” that continuously converts
chemical energy into electric energy
(and some heat) for as long as fuel
and oxidant are supplied.
Three Major Applications
• Transportation
–Automobiles

• Stationary Power Generation


–Low CO2 emission
–CHP

• Portable Applications
–Camping
–Yachting
Type of Fuel Cell
FC Type Electrolyte Operatin Fuel Electric Power
g Temp. Efficiency Range
AFC KOH 60-120 C Pure H2 35-55% < 5 kW

PEMFC Solid 50-100 C Pure H2 35-45% 5-250 kW


Polymer
PAFC Phosphoric ~220 C Pure H2 40% 200 kW
acid (CHP)
MCFC Lithium & ~650 C H2, CO, > 50% 200 kW to
Potassium CH2, and MW
Carbonate others
SOFC Solid Oxide ~1000 C H2, CO, >50% 2 kW to
CH2, and MW
others
AFC: Alkaline FC PEMFC: Proton Exchange Membrane FC
PAFC: Phosphoric Acid FC MCFC: Molten Carbonate
SOFC:
October 18, Solid
2003 Oxide FC San Francisco Power Engineering Society 14 of 38
Distributed Generation Course
Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEMFC

e−
+
H
Anode

Cathode
H+ H +

H 2 in H+ O2 in
+
H
M em brane

G as D iffusion
Layer/S ubstrate C atalyst Layer

H 2 O out
H 2 → 2H + + 2 e−
1
O 2 + 2 H + + 2 e − → H 2 O ( E r = 1 . 23 V )
2
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Distributed Generation Course
V-I Characteristic of Fuel Cell
Cell Potential in volt

E ffic ienc y of F C ~ to C ell Voltage

Power C urve

C ell C urrent in A /(c m square)

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Distributed Generation Course
Wind Power

• Major components
• Typical Wind Turbine Power Curve
• Possible choices of generator
• Power Electronics

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Distributed Generation Course
Major Components of a Wind Turbine
Control

Hub
Drive Train Generator

Main Frame/Yaw System

Rotor
Balance of
Electrical System

Tower

Foundation

October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 18 of 38


Distributed Generation Course
Typical Wind Turbine Power Curve

C u t-ou t
(~ 2 0 m /s )
Power

R ated
C u t-in
(~ 7 m /s )

W in d S peed, m /s
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Distributed Generation Course
Possible Generators

• Synchronous Machine
• Induction Machine
• Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
• Direct Drive Generator
• Switched Reluctance Generator
• DC Machine
– DC Shunt Machine
– High Maintenance and high cost
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Distributed Generation Course
Induction Machine
• Motoring when speed is less than
synchronous speed
– 2-pole: 3600 RPM
– 4-pole:1800 RPM
– 6-pole: 1200 RPM
• Generating when speed is above the
synchronous
• Slip is usually 2% to 3%
• Self starting using wind!
• Run as induction motor to start!
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Distributed Generation Course
Torque/Power Speed Curve for
Induction Generator/Motor

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Distributed Generation Course
Synchronous Machine

• Usually started by the wind


• Synchronization is needed to connect to
existing AC power system
• Active rotor speed control maybe needed

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Distributed Generation Course
Permanent Magnet Machine

• Generator of choice for <10 kW unit


• Permanent magnets mounted on rotor
provides field excitation
• Armature on stator is stationary! No need
to have commutator, slip rings, brushes!
• AC output has variable frequency and
magnitude.
• Rectified to DC, inverted to AC, then
connected to grid.
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Distributed Generation Course
Direct Drive Generator

• Synchronous Generator of special design


• Large no. of poles so it can be coupled to
the wind turbine rotor. No gearbox is
needed.
• Diameter is large!
• Power Converters are needed to cope with
varying magnitude and frequency!

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Distributed Generation Course
Switched Reluctance Machine

• a.k.a. Variable Reluctance Machine


• A huge stepper motor or generator
• Popular in traction applications
• Electrical characteristics are similar to
those of series DC machines
• Made possible because of power
electronics and digital control
• Difficult to compete against Induction
Machines economically
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Distributed Generation Course
Power Converter

• Block diagram of a motor drive where the power


flow is unidirectional
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Distributed Generation Course
Diode-Rectifier with a Capacitor Filter

• Power electronics load is represented by an equivalent load


resistance
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Distributed Generation Course
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

• Commonly used

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Distributed Generation Course
Three-Phase Inverter

• Three inverter legs; capacitor mid-point is


fictitious
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Distributed Generation Course
Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter

• Block diagram of a motor drive where the power


flow can be bi-directional
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Distributed Generation Course
Vdc A VAB B

Single-Phase DC-AC Inverter


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PWM to Synthesize Sinusoidal Output

• The dotted curve is the desired output; also the


fundamental frequency
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Distributed Generation Course
Three-
Phase
PWM
Waveforms

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Distributed Generation Course
Vdc A VAB B

Single-Phase DC-AC Inverter


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Distributed Generation Course
X

Current I

AC AC

VAB
VSource

I
VSource jIX
VAB
pf = 0, leading
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Distributed Generation Course
X

Current I

AC AC

VAB
VSource

pf = 0, lagging VAB jIX

I
VSource

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Distributed Generation Course
Vdc A B C

Three-Phase DC-AC Inverter

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Distributed Generation Course
Distribution System Characteristics

Presented by Willie Chew


Pacific Gas & Electric Company

IEEE San Francisco Power Engineering Society


DG Fundamentals Workshop
San Francisco State University
October 18, 2003
Radial Distribution

Most Common Type Used by most Utilities


• Single Path of Supply – One primary
source, one transformer, one secondary
source
• Main Line Usually Connected at
various points to Adjacent Circuits
by Switches
Distributed Generation Course
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Radial Primary Feeder

Mainly used for overhead distribution systems


• Customers exposed to outages when
equipment fails
• Easy to locate trouble and faults
• Cost effective to install

Distributed Generation Course


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Radial Primary – Overhead

Distributed Generation Course


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Overhead Line Protection

• Fuses
• Line Reclosers
• Circuit breaker at substation has automatic
reclosing
-- Typical 3 shots to lockout

Distributed Generation Course


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Radial Loop Primary

• Mainly for Underground Distribution


Systems
• Provides 2 Supply Paths for Loads
• Usually installed where there is a
concentration of Commercial or Industrial
Customers

Distributed Generation Course


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Radial Loop - Primary

Distributed Generation Course


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Underground Protection

Subsurface Fused Switches


• Interrupters
• Circuit breaker at substation has no
automatic reclosing

Distributed Generation Course


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Most Common Causes of Faults

• Wind and Trees (46%)


• Equipment Failure (12%)
• Human Error ( 9%)
• Weather (26%)
• Foreign Objects (1.5%)

Distributed Generation Course


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Voltage Regulation

• Load Tap Changers (LTC) on substation


banks
• Station Capacitor Banks
• Field Capacitor Banks
• Autoboosters

Distributed Generation Course


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Low Voltage AC Network
Distribution Systems

‘ Uses Redundant Facilities to Provide


almost 100% Service Reliability
‘ Intended to serve Commercial Loads in a
High Density Areas
‘ Design for Underground Installations
‘ Two Types – Grid & Spot Networks
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 11 of 21
Grid or Dispersed Network

‘ Used for Small to Medium Commercial Loads


‘ Transformers dispersed over a Large Area
‘ Has a “Grid” of Interconnected Cables
energized at 120/208 Volt, 3 phase
‘ Grid energized at multiple points by
Transformers
‘ Multiple Primary Circuits operate in parallel to
supply power to Grid Transformers
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 12 of 21
Dispersed Network

Distributed Generation Course


October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 13 of 21
Spot Networks

‘ For Large Concentrated, Commercial Loads


‘ Has Same Reliability and Operating Features as
a Grid
‘ Secondary Voltage is usually 277/480 Volt
‘ Usually Serves only one Customer
‘ Types of Customers: High Rise Office Bldgs
and Hotels, Computer Facilities,
Communication Centers, & Retail Centers
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 14 of 21
Spot Network

Distributed Generation Course


October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 15 of 21
Disadvantages

‘ High Secondary Fault Currents – Up to 200,000


Amp. In Certain Areas
‘ Large Space Requirement for Transformer
Vaults
‘ Cost of Purchasing Multiple Transformers and
Extension of Multiple Primary Circuits
‘ Reliability affected by Bulk Power Source
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 16 of 21
Distribution Systems

‘ RADIAL ‘ NETWORK
‘ One source ‘ Multiple sources
‘ One transformer ‘ Multiple
‘ One sec path. transformers
‘ Reliability: ‘ Multiple sec paths
~95% for some rural areas ‘ Reliability: >99.999%
~99.85-99.95 % for urban
areas

Distributed Generation Course


October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 17 of 21
Measured Reliability of
Distribution Systems
Overhead Underground Automatic
Grid Spot
Type of System Radial Loop Radial Loop Radial Transfer
Network Network
System System Scheme

Outages Per Year 0.3 - 1.3 0.4 - 0.7 0.4 - 0.7 0.1 - 0.5 0.005 - 0.020 0.02 - 0.10

Average Outage
90 65 60 180 135 180
Duration (min)

Momentary
Interruptions Per 5 - 10 10 - 15 4-8 4-8 ~0 0-1
Year

Table extracted from ELECTRICAL WORLD, May 1992


Based on information supplied by Consolidated Edison
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 18 of 21
Fault Capabilities
(3 phase RMS symmetrical)

Voltage Radial Network

Primary 600 to 21,000 8600 to 21,000 A.


Amp. 13,500 t0 12,000 A.
(4 to 34.5 KV)
Secondary 10,000 to 3,000 to
(208 & 240 V) 42,000 Amp 200,000 Amp

Secondary 18,000 to 36,000 to


(460 & 480 V) 52,000 Amp 175,000 Amp
Assymmetry Factor : 1.0 to 1.6
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 19 of 21
Commercial Load Pattern

Distributed Generation Course


October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 20 of 21
Residential Load Pattern

Distributed Generation Course


October 18, 2003 San Francisco Power Engineering Society 21 of 21
Commercially Available
DG Systems & Applications –
Gary Olson
Cummins Power Generation

October 18, 2003


DG Fundamentals Workshop 1 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
DG Concept „ Changing load dynamics
z Move to service economy
z Flexible manufacturing (automation)
z Deregulation
7,000
z Available technology is more flexible
Peak
•Capacity… 25% to 20% „ US market size
•Energy… 2.5% to 2.5% z 13GW new load per year*
z Peaking and shoulder = 7.5GW new load

Shoulder „ Targeted Generation delivers lowest


•Capacity… 30% to 30% cost energy
100 •Energy… 12.5% to 17.5% z Use base load assets to supply base load
$/MWh

z Efficient Intermediate assets remove need


for true “peak” assets
„ Market uncertainty creates a premium
Base for flexible assets
•Capacity… 45% to 50%
•Energy… 85% to 80%
20

3,000 4,800 8,760

Annual Running Hours


DG Fundamentals Workshop 2 of 55 *Source: EIA/DOE Annual Energy Outlook 2002 -2020
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Drivers for New Technology
–Lower total cost
• Equipment
• Fuel efficiency
–Lower emissions
–Power quality

DG Fundamentals Workshop 3 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Technologies Reviewed
• Recip Diesel Engines
• Advanced Recip Gaseous Fuel
Engines
• Gas Turbines
• Microturbines
• Fuel cells
• Wind/Solar

DG Fundamentals Workshop 4 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
How do the Technologies and
Markets Fit Together?
Fuel Cell
Ultra low emissions
Diesel Recip High efficiency
Low $/kW Cogen options
High efficiency Very high $/kW
NOx/PM Issues Size Issues

Application needs
Hours operation?
Capital availability?
Permitting requirements?
Fuel availability? Microturbine
Natural Gas Recip Fuel tolerant
Low emissions Very low emissions
Low $/kW Compact size
Cogen options Cogen options
Size Issues High $/kW
Fuel issues

DG Fundamentals Workshop 5 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Distributed Generation
Growth rate of DG is highly dependent on assumptions and
variables.
Factors Expectations Impact
Ratio ofavg utility rates to DOE Short term estimate = regional TBD
gas fuel prices DOE Long term estimate. = Negative
declining
Peak utility rates in high Political pressure to hold retail Positive if utilities rebate
service cost areas (< 5% of pricing, utility rebates are a
service) possibility (to promote getting off the
grid)
- Utility generating Positive
reserve capacity New gas plant additions
diminishing
Positive
- Utility transmission More capacity with efficient
capacity diminishing management

Utility support of dist. gen. Improving due to growing Positive


deregulation

Energy service companies Entrepreneurial adoption of new Positive


technology

DG Fundamentals Workshop 6 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Market Trends
• Standby
– Significant growth in IT and Telecom
• Interruptible and Peak shaving
– Growth
• Distributed Generation
– Potential for Growth

DG Fundamentals Workshop 7 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Distributed Generation Application Issues
• Equipment cost
• Operating costs
– Fuel (consumption and price)
– Maintenance
• Emissions regulations
• Utility interconnection issues
• Utility Rate Structure
– Demand, energy, backup
– Evaluate based on site conditions

DG Fundamentals Workshop 8 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Pros and Cons for DG
• Pro: • Con:
– Low risk venture – Most Customers are not in the
– Returns can be very good power generation business
– Improves Facility Power – Return may not be as high as
System Reliability other projects competing for
capital
• “Free” Standby
– More complex power system
– Test/Exercise Benefits
• less reliable?
– Environmental Issues
• Exhaust
• Noise

DG Fundamentals Workshop 9 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Equipment Costs Vs Technology
3000 FY03 TQG
Fuel Cells Near Term

2500

DOE Fuel Cell


Better

2000 Program Targets


Price ($/kWe)

Long Term

1500

Microturbine Gas Turbine


1000 (Recuperated) (Non-recuperated)

500
Natural Gas Diesel Recip
Recip
0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Power (Kw)

DG Fundamentals Workshop 10 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Thermal Efficiency Vs. Technology
0.55 Fuel Cell/
M icroturbine
Target 60-70%
0.50 Fuel Cells Diesel Recip
Efficiency (full load)

0.45
Natural Gas Recip
0.40 (Lean Burn)
Stationary
0.35 DOE Fuel
Cell Target
0.30
Mobile
Electrical

0.25
Better

0.20 Gas Turbine Gas Turbine


Natural Gas Recip Recuperated (Non-recuperated)
0.15 (Stoichiometric)

0.10
1 10 100 1000 10000
Power (kWe)
Hydrocarbon Fuels
DG Fundamentals Workshop 11 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
CHP = Cogeneration

Mechanical Electrical output 42%

HT circuit (90-100°C)16% Total


efficiency
Lube Oil circuit (75-90°C) 5%
Thermal 87 %
Exhaust gas ( -> 120°C) 24%

Generator losses 1% Losses 14 %


Cooling circuit CAC 2%
Engine radiation 3%

Exhaust gas (120° + unburnt HC.) 8%


DG Fundamentals Workshop 12 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Market Segment Drivers
Market Operation Low Low low Low
Segment Hours per Initial Fuel Maint. Emissions
Year Cost Use ($/hr)

Standby <200

Interruptible 100-500

Peaking 1000-2000

Distributed >2000
Generation

Importance: High = green


Medium = yellow
Low = red
DG Fundamentals Workshop 13 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Economic Evaluation

Cost Benefit
Initial/Leased Cost Lower Cost Power
vs.
Operating Cost Business Doesn’t
fail with the power

DG Fundamentals Workshop 14 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Emission level & air quality restrictions

DG Fundamentals Workshop 15 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Emissions Requirements
• There are no federal genset emissions standards for
stationary gensets
• Local state or county regulations exist in air quality non-
attainment areas.
– Often federal Mobile Off Highway (MOH) regulations
are adapted for diesel generators in non emergency
standby applications >200 hr/yr.
• Many states have no specific genset emissions
regulations
– General site emissions permitting requirements apply
– Typical solutions to issues are increasing exhaust
stack to increase dispersion
DG Fundamentals Workshop 16 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Some Emissions Basics
Cx Hy Sz + O2 + N2 CO2 + H2O + N2 + O2 + NOx + HC + CO + SOx + C

Diesel Air Major exhaust Exhaust components found


fuel constituents in trace concentrations

• NOx (NO & NO2) is a function of combustion when N2 and O2 react


under high temperatures
– Reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to form ozone, a
component of photochemical smog
• CO is a function of combustion completeness
– Excess air, and stratified charge helps
• CO2 is a function of engine thermal efficiency
• Particulate matter is a function of fuel type and delivery system
(mainly a diesel engine issue with incomplete combustion of carbon)
• Low emissions can be attained by
– Fuel selection
– Engine technology
– Exhaust aftertreatment
DG Fundamentals Workshop 17 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Emissions Standards and Controls
Technology Options

Aftertreatment
Gas Turbine+ SCR 0.02 MOH - Mobile Off-
Highway
Lean burn gas recip + SCR 0.03

Tier 3 Diesel+ SCR 0.16 SCR - Selective


Catalytic Reduction
Tier 2 Diesel + SCR 0.27
TWC - Three-Way
Tier 1 Diesel+ SCR 0.42
Catalyst
Rich burn gas recip + TWC 0.45

Base Plant

Fuel Cell 0.01

Microturbine 0.40

Gas Turbine 0.76

Lean burn gas recip 1.5

US Utility Average 3.4

MOH Federal Regulations


Tier 3 Diesel 8.2
Tier 2 Diesel 13.6
Tier 1 Diesel 20.9

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00


NOx (lb/MWe-hr)

DG Fundamentals Workshop 18 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
SCR Systems
• Effective, Rapidly Developing Technology
• High Cost
– Initial cost
– Operating cost
• Risks

2 MW Diesel DG Module with SCR

DG Fundamentals Workshop 19 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Noise
dBA
Noise Level vs. Technology
85
84
83
82 Open GenSet
81
80 85 dBA
79
78
77 Attenuated modular Microturbine
76 GenSet or custom
75 GenSet
74 Stage I 71 dBA
73 73 dBA
72 Stage II 67 dBA
71 63 dBA w/silencer Fuel Cell
70 option
69
59 dBA est..
68
67
66
65 Ref., commercial air
64 conditioner is 61 dBA
63
62
61 Common Property Line Requirement:
60
59
58
50 dBA
57
DG Fundamentals Workshop 20 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
60 KW @ 7 Meters - Uninstalled
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Hythane
• Potential to introduce H2 using existing distribution and minor
engine modifications
• 20% H2 and 80% NG can provide a 50% reduction in NOx
emissions at equivalent efficiencies

Hydrogen
• Easily used in turbines and fuel cells
• Advance reciprocating engines can provide low emissions and
good fuel economy
• Fuel cells provide an incremental improvement in fuel efficiency
and emissions over turbines and reciprocating engines
•A challenge is to produce and distribute hydrogen at a
commercially viable cost
DG Fundamentals Workshop 21 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Fuel Storage Volume and Cost Comparison

Fuel Storage Capacity Required gal/kW-hr Fuel Cost Comparison for <10kW Generation

1.80 $5.00
Industrial $4.38
1.54 $4.50 "A"
1.60
Fuel Storage Volume Req'd gal/kW-hr

Cylinder
$4.00
1.40
$3.50
1.20

Fuel Cost $/kW-hr


$3.00 Industrial
1.00
Bulk Gas
$2.50
Pricing
0.80
$2.00
DOE-GTI
0.60 $1.63
$1.50 NG
Reforming
0.40
0.25 $1.00 Study
0.20 0.13
$0.50 $0.28
$0.11 $0.29
0.00
$-
#2 Diesel Fuel LPG H2 @ 3600 PSI Diesel Genset LPG Genset PEM Cell
(Genset 1/2 (Genset 1/2 (PEM Cell) (1/2 load) (1/2 load) on H2
Load) Load) no tax no tax

DG Fundamentals Workshop 22 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Fuel Cell Technologies

Germanischer Lloyd

DG Fundamentals Workshop 23 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Attributes of fuel cell technologies

Technology Size Eff. Operating Maturity COST FEATURES ISSUES


N gas fuel Temp C 5-8 yr
< 100KW 36% 20 - 120 C medium high fast complex
PEM
response reformer
3M, Ballard 28% sm.
Phosphoric >100KW 40% 160 - 650 C high very mature expensive
Fuel Cells Int'l.
high
Carbonate >100KW 50% 600 - 650 C medium high efficient •low density
FuelCell Energy •therm.cycle

Solid Oxide 5-1000KW 50% 900 - 1,000 C low high efficient •maturity
Westinghouse
SOFCo 30% sm. •start time

Highest potential for broad applications

DG Fundamentals Workshop 24 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Gaseous Recip Fuel Engines
• Stoichiometric Engines
– Carburated, spark plug ignition
• Lean Burn Engines
– Close fuel/air ratio control, spark ignited
• Fumigation Techniques
– Diesel start and pilot ignition, gas induction
– 5% diesel in operation = lower maintenance
• High Pressure Injection
– Higher power (+30%), efficiency (+2%)
– Lower emissions (1/2 g/bhp-hr NOx w/o aftertreat)

DG Fundamentals Workshop 25 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Direct Gas Injection Technology
• Gas is compressed on
the engine and Injected in
the cylinder at 3600psi

• Diesel fuel is injected to


initiate combustion
Natural Gas Jet
(approx.. 5% of fuel) A

• The lean gas/air mixture


burns to completion

DG Fundamentals Workshop 26 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Microturbine Manufactures

Elliott 45 kW System Cummins Power Generation


NREC 80 kW System
30KW and 60 KW Systems

DG Fundamentals Workshop 27 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
What Makes Up a Microturbine System?
EXHAUST

Recuperator

Combustor Fuel
Compressor FUEL

Power AC
AIR Compressor Turbine Generator Inverter POWER

60 Hz, 480
VAC

DG Fundamentals Workshop 28 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Block Diagram:
Microturbine system with CHP

DG Fundamentals Workshop 29 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Integrating DG into a Site
New Systems:
– Traditional Practical Limit for Synchronous Generator
Sets: >600A
• New breaker and control technologies make “electrically”
practical down to approx. 200A
– NO DISTURBANCE
• Soft Transfer Systems
» Hard closed transition doesn’t work
• Paralleling/Soft Transfer Systems
» To stay connected, or not: that is the question...
– Cogen/Renewable any size

• Retrofit Systems
– Paralleling and Large Generator Sets

DG Fundamentals Workshop 30 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
New Installations
Utility

GenSet
52 = CIRCUIT BREAKER

R R = UTILITY PROTECTION

52 52

52

52 52 52

DG Fundamentals Workshop 31 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
New Multiple Unit Installations
Utility

GenSet GenSet GenSet

R 52 52 52

52 52

52

52 52 52
52 = CIRCUIT BREAKER

DG Fundamentals Workshop 32 of 55 R = UTILITY


San Francisco Power
PROTECTION
Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Typical Small DG or CHP

Utility
52 = CIRCUIT BREAKER

R = UTILITY PROTECTION

52

52 52 52

52 GenSet

DG Fundamentals Workshop 33 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Retrofit: Single Generator Set
Utility

GenSet

R 52 52
52

52 52 52 52 52 52 52

ATS

CRITICAL LOADS

ATS

CRITICAL LOADS

ATS
DG Fundamentals Workshop 34 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems
CRITICALand Applications
LOADS
Retrofit: Multiple Gensets
Utility GenSet GenSet

R 52 52 52
52

52 52 52 52 52 52

ATS

CRITICAL LOADS

ATS

CRITICAL LOADS

ATS
DG Fundamentals Workshop 35 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems
CRITICALand Applications
LOADS
Closed Transition Transfer
Closed Transition Watch For:
• Compliance to Rule 21
Transfer Equipment
– Fail to disconnect
IS • Compliance to NEC
UTILITY – Labeling
– Protection
PARALLELING
– Load Control (?)
EQUIPMENT • Performance you NEED
– Fast transfer = sudden load
change
– Transient Performance of
Genset

DG Fundamentals Workshop 36 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Stand-alone/Standby/Parallel/utility-
interactive/certified/load management

(No Utility Service or Standby Only)


PRIME Stand-Alone (Prime) Stand-Alone (Prime)
Power to Loads Power to Loads
SYSTEM DOWN
Standby Standby

STANDBY Utility Power Utility Power

Power to Loads Power to Loads


SYSTEM DOWN ON
Standby Standby NORMAL FAILURE
Standby
STANDBY
AND UTILITY Utility Power Utility Power
INTERACTIVE Power to Loads Power to Loads

time SYSTEM DOWN ON


LOAD SHARE
DG Fundamentals Workshop 37 of 55 NORMAL FAILURE
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
System Protection
UTILITY
PROTECTION
G G G

12470 V
2000
(TYP 3)
480 V
GENERATOR
PROTECTION
4000
4000

SWITCHGEAR &
FEEDER PROTECTION

DG Fundamentals Workshop 38 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
REMOTE
Generator Protection
• I/O availability in digital controls
EC makes anything possible
ENGINE • Difficulty of:
GOV Protection vs. Reliability
• Protection Tuned for the Generator
AVR GEN – Overcurrent
– Over/Under Voltage
– Over/Under Frequency
CB – Loss of Field/Reverse Power
– Differential

POWER
TO
DG Fundamentals Workshop 39 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 LOAD DG Systems and Applications
Control and Protective Functions
GENSET

SURGE SUPPRESSORS
AM SW KW KWH PF 40 32 65 90 51V

VM SW HZ 27 81U 59

86
VM SW HZ 47 SYNC 25

SS
DIGITAL CONTROL

SWITCHGEAR TRIP

CLOSE

DG Fundamentals Workshop 40 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Utility Protection
• Design Depends • Common Protective
on: Devices:
– Local conditions – Over/Under Volts,
– Codes and Hz
Standards – Reverse Power
– Utility Practice – Directional Current
– More Variety than • Distribution
Generator Changes

DG Fundamentals Workshop 41 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Voltage Regulation/Frequency Regulation
• To the generator guy:
– The difference between steady state no load
and full load voltage or frequency, as a
percentage of nominal level
– Describes how well the machine can maintain
nominal levels over time
– Typical: +1% for voltage, +0.25% for Hz
• To a utility:
– An attempt by a device to change the voltage
or frequency of the utility service

DG Fundamentals Workshop 42 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
REMOTE
Synchronous Generator Control
EC

ENGINE
• Active Controls include:
– Governor
GOV
• Measures speed
• Controls fuel rate AVR GEN
– AVR
• Measures voltage
• Controls excitation (field strength)
CB
• Both work like a cruise control

POWER
TO
DG Fundamentals Workshop 43 of 55 LOAD
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
The Need for Load Sharing

A
B RED: Phases
C Blue: Neutral
N
Green: Ground
G

DG Fundamentals Workshop 44 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Intertied Synchronous Generator Control
System
REMOTE
UTILITY/
MAINS
ALARM
PROT EC

ENGINE
LOAD SHARE
DATA

SENSE
LOGIC
GOV
I/E VAR/PF METER PROT SYNC ILS
25
AVR GEN

CB CB

POWER
TO
LOAD

DG Fundamentals Workshop 45 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Load Sharing/Following/Shedding
Utility
Sharing/Following:
GenSet
• 2 or more Sources
• Equal load share
R • Base load DG
52 52 • Track Utility

Shedding: Utility Only Source


• Peak Shave
52 • Drop Part Load
• Discontinue Operations
52 52 52

DG Fundamentals Workshop 46 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Mechanical Considerations
• Where are you going to put it?
• Mechanical Issues
– Getting waste heat out
– Using as much as practical
– Exhaust
– Vibration/Noise
– Fuel Storage and System Design

DG Fundamentals Workshop 47 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
No Problem, we have PLENTY of room…

DG Fundamentals Workshop 48 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
GenSet Energy Balance
• Recip Engine Burns Fuel--creates:
– Rotating mechanical energy/electrical power
– Heat
Exhaust 30%
Radiated Heat 10%
Cooling System 25%
Power Out 35%
Mechanical Energy

DG Fundamentals Workshop 49 of 55 Fuel (BTU) In


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Wind Effects on HVAC

DG Fundamentals Workshop 50 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Noise Concerns
130 Pneumatic Riveter (130)
120 • Noise Ordinances Strict
110
100 Jet @ 1000ft (103) • Noise Levels of Many DG
90 Power Mower (96) 2000KW
High
80 Heavy Street Traffic (85) Genset Range
70 • 50KW
Cost of Noise Treatment is
60 Normal Conversation (65)
High
50 Light Traffic @ 100ft (55)
40 Library (40) – Particularly if you screw up
30
20 Broadcast Studio (20)
• Uncertain Enforcement

DG Fundamentals Workshop 51 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Fuel Storage…

DG Fundamentals Workshop 52 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society


October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Big Things to Remember…
• Best technology for a site depends on:
– Fuel availability, cost
– Emissions Restrictions
– Efficiency
– Mechanical Concerns
• There is no one best technology that will
work for every site
• Technology is driving costs down, so
owners need to keep watching for
opportunities
DG Fundamentals Workshop 53 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Prognosis
• DG will grow
– Big Incentives Nationally
– Economic viability to User
• Risk needs to be reduced
• Success depends on
– Planning
– Cooperative Venture between:
• User
• Developer/Supplier
• Utility
• Regulators
DG Fundamentals Workshop 54 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Questions?

Gary Olson
Cummins Power Generation
763-574-5055
Gary.L.Olson@cummins.com
DG Fundamentals Workshop 55 of 55 San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 2003 DG Systems and Applications
Effects of Generation on
Radial Distribution Feeders
An IEEE Presentation
October 18, 2003
San Francisco State University

By

Mohammad Vaziri, Ph.D., P.E.


Generation Effects on:

A) Planning & Design


• Feeder Loading
• Voltage Regulators (Steady State)
• Voltage Flicker (Transient)
• Capacitor Controls
• Stability concerns

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 2 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
B) System Protection
• Overstress on equipment
• Protective equipment desensitization
• Islanding Conditions
• Ferro-resonance
• Nuisance Tripping

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 3 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
"Comparison of "Open Delta" and "Closed Delta"
Distribution Line Regulators.

1 - Phasor Diagram for the "Open-Delta" regulators


shows the Neutral Shift associated with Open Delta
regulators under "Full 10% Boost" condition.
2 - Phasor Diagram for the Closed Delta regulators
shows the derivation of the 15% regulation capability (
under full boost condition) when the 10% regulators are
connected in a Closed Delta configuration.

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 4 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
A’
1) A,B,C & N are source side phase &
neutral references
2) A’,B’C & N’ are load side phase &
A
0%

neutral references.
11

3) Matched regular steps assumed.


0%
10

N’
N
B

B’ C C’
BA = 100% AA’ = 10% Regulation
KVLL = BA’ = 110% of BA
NN’ = 5.8%(of line to line value = 10% of line to neutral value) = Neutral Shift

Source: M. Vaziri, “Effects of Co-Generation on Distribution System”, Thesis, CSUS 1991

1) Phasor Diagram – Open Delta Regulators


October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 5 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Consider the triangle AA’C, where angle A=120° and the sides AC’=a=1.1p.u. and AA’=b=0.1p.u. (assuming 10%
boost for the regulators).

Then; c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab Cos(A)


= 1.12 +0.12 -2(0.1)(1.1) Cos(120°) That is; 10% regulators are capable of 15%
regulation in a closed delta configuration. To
Then; c = √ 1.33 = 1.153
limit the regulation to a maximum of 10%, then
each regulator must be blocked at 87%.

b = 0.1 A’ 1) A,B,C & N are source side phase &


A’ neutral references
120° 2) A’,B’C & N’ are load side phase &
A neutral references.

c=
A 3) Matched regular steps assumed.
5%

Calculating the maximum

1.1
11

a
1.
possible shift;

5
0
0%

1.
Using the law of sines,

1
10


N, °N’ sin 120° = sin X°

B 1.15 .1
0.
1

C’ solving for X;
B’ C C’
X = 4.3°

BA = 100% AA’ = 10%


KVLL = B’A’ = 115%
NN’ = 0 Neutral Shift

Source: M. Vaziri, “Effects of Co-Generation on Distribution System”, Thesis, CSUS 1991

2) Phasor Diagram – Closed Delta Regulation

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 6 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
A’

1) A,B,C & N are source side phase &


0%
A neutral references

100 %
11

110 %
2) A’,B’C’ & N’ are load side phase &
0%
neutral references.
10

3) Matched regular steps assumed.


N, N’
B
C
C’
B’

NA = 100% AA’ = 10% L-N Regulation


KVLL = NA’ = 110%
NN’ = 0

Source: M. Vaziri, “Effects of Co-Generation on Distribution System”, Thesis, CSUS 1991

1) Phasor Diagram – WYE Connected Regulators


October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 7 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 8 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 9 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Thevenin Equivalent of sequence networks at resonance neglecting resistance
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 10 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Connection of sequence networks for a single phase-to-ground fault
Distributed Generation Course
October 18, 2003 11 of 21
Sanon thePower
Francisco 12.47 feeder
Engineering Society
Line Drop Compensator Circuitry in Voltage Regulators

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 12 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
I2t for a 3-phase fault on a 12.47 Kv feeder with a dispersed
synchronous generator

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 13 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
I2t for a phase-to-ground fault on a 12.47 Kv feeder with a
dispersed synchronous generator connected through grounded wye-
October 18, 2003
delta transformer of equal
Distributed Generation Course capacity 14 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Open Delta Regulation:
• Usually installed on 3 wire systems
•Generates the same % neutral shift (of the line to neutral value) as the regulator contacts move away
from their neutral points. This neutral shift translates into E0 voltage, which means each stage of open
deltaOctober 18, 2003can produce a maximum Distributed
regulation
Generation Course
E0. Engineering Society
of 10%Power 15 of 21
San Francisco
fault

~ 10%

As it can be seen from the aboveDistributed


sequence network, E seen by the relay can be
Generation Course0
October 18, 2003 16 of 21
effected by the E0 generatedSan
byFrancisco
open deltaPowerregulators.
Engineering Society
Coordination Against Nuisance Tripping
Single Line, Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence Diagram
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 17 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Coordination Against Nuisance Tripping Using Xd’
Three Phases and Three Io Currents for Faults at F2
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 18 of 21
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Desensetization of Recloser R1 after Interconnection of SDG
Three Phases Io Currents for Faults at F1
October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 19 of 21
Grounded Y- Connection
San Francisco for SDG
Power Main Transformer
Engineering Society is assumed
References
1) Mohamad Y. Vaziri P.E., “Effects of GO Generation on
Distribution System”, M.S.EE Thesis CSUS 1991
2) Richard M. Moffatt, Customer Generation on the Distribution
System. Presented at the 34th Annual Conference for
Protective Relay Engineers, Texas A&M University, Collage
Station, Texas. April 13-18, 1981.
3) Roger C. Dugan and Dwight T. Rizy, “Electric Distribution
Protection Problems Associated with the Interconnection of
Small, Dispersed Generation Devices”. IEEE Transactions on
Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-103 No. 6 June 1984

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 20 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
4) N.H. Malik, and A.A. Mazi, “Capacitance Requirements for
Isolated Self-Excited Induction Generators”, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems 86 WM 219-0 pp. 62-69,
March 1987
5) Robert H. Jones, Measuring the Effects of Dispersed
Generation, Rochester Gas and Electric Company. Published
by Transmission & Distribution, a Cleworth Publication, pp.
50-54, August 1987.

October 18, 2003 Distributed Generation Course 21 of 21


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
Distributed Generation
Interconnection
Standards & Guidelines
Chuck Whitaker
Endecon Engineering

IEEE San Francisco PES DG Fundamentals Workshop


San Francisco State University
October 18, 2003

ENDECON
ENGINEERING
Interconnection Standards & Guidelines

• Regulatory Agency Interconnection Rules


– Muni Boards, State PUCs (i.e. Rule 21), FERC
• Equipment and Facility Requirement Standards
– IEEE 929, IEEE 1547, IEEE 1547.2
• Product Testing Standards
– UL1741, UL2200, IEEE C37.X , IEEE P1547.1, NEMA,
etc.

October 18, 2003 2 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Presentation Overview

• California Electric Rule 21


• IEEE 929
• IEEE 1547 Family
– 1547
– 1547.1
– 1547.2
• UL 1741

October 18, 2003 3 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
California Electric Rule 21

Standard for Interconnecting


Distributed Resources with Electric
Power Systems

(Thanks to Scott Tomashefsky)

October 18, 2003 4 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
What Is Rule 21?

• A term commonly referred to as interconnection


rules.
• Specific rule contained in the electricity tariff
booklets of the utilities under CPUC jurisdiction.
• Documentation of technical and procedural criteria
for connecting generation equipment to the utility
systems.
• Technology and size neutral.

October 18, 2003 5 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Why Did Rule 21 Need Refinement?

• Rule was not designed for small-scale


DG interconnections.

• It did not address the benefits of


having a standardized rule in place.
– Increased cost to DG manufacturers.
– Larger degree of customization
required.

• It did not obligate utilities to review


applications within a particular
timeframe or provide any detailed
cost estimate to applicant.

October 18, 2003 6 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
What Were the Guiding Principles?

• Rules, protocols and processes should be clear and


transparent.
• Rules should be technology neutral, except when
differences are fully justified.
• A level playing field should be established for all DG
providers.
• Rules should be uniform throughout California.
• Utilities should be fairly compensated for
distribution services that support DG installations
and customers.

October 18, 2003 7 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 - Highlights
™CPUC Jurisdictional Projects Only
™ Application Process
▲ Standard CPUC Form

▲ Application Fee:

➤ $800: Initial Review Only


➤ $600 Additional: Supplemental Review
➤ Cost Estimate for IC Study
▲ Utilities to Complete Within 10/20 Days

(Initial/Supplemental
October 18, 2003
Reviews Only) 8 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Issues Addressed by the Rule 21 Working
Group
• Interconnection Fees
• Testing and Certification
Procedures
• Clear Engineering Review Process
• Interconnection Agreements
• Application Forms (Paper and
Electronic)
• Process for Continuing
Refinement

October 18, 2003 9 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Technical Basis for Rule 21

™ Safety Is First Priority

™ Performance-Based
Technical Requirements

™ Identify Review Time and Potential


Costs

™ Technology-Neutral

October 18, 2003 10 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements

™ Section D - Design & Operating


Requirements
1. General
• Protective Functions
• Momentary Paralleling
• Equipment Requirements
• Visible Disconnect
• Drawings Required DG Section D

October 18, 2003 11 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)

™ Section D - Design & Operating


Requirements
2. Prevention of Interference
• Normal Voltage Operating Range
• Flicker
• Frequency
• Harmonics
• Power Factor
October 18, 2003 12 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)

™ Section D - Design & Operating


Requirements

3. Control & Protective Functions


• Technology Specific Requirements
• Mitigation of Unintended Islanding
• Fault Detection

October 18, 2003 13 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)
™ Section I - Review Process
Determines:

• Simplified Interconnection (via Initial


Review)

• Supplemental Review Determines If There


Are Additional Requirements for
Interconnection or...

• If an Interconnection Study Is Required


October 18, 2003 14 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
“The Networked Secondary System?
Yes
Review/ No
Screening Power Exported? Yes

Process” No
No
Supplemental
Equipment Certified?
Review
Yes
Aggregate Capacity < 15% of
No
Line Section Peak Load?
Yes $600
Starting Voltage Drop No
Screen Met?
Qualifies for Yes Yes
Simplified 11 kVA Or Less? No
Interconnection “or”
No
Meets Short Circuit Current No
Contribution Screen? Utility Provides
Qualifies Cost &
Yes
Yes for Schedule for
Meets Line
Interconnection Interconnection
Configuration Screen? Study

ENDECON
$800 Distributed
October 18, 2003
Generation Course
15 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)
™ Section I - Supplemental Review

– Guideline Developed in 2002 Through


Rule 21 Working Group Process

– Goals: Identify Review Criteria and


Study Requirements
– Draft Issued in January
2003
October 18, 2003 16 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)
™ Section J - Testing and Certification
– Certification Criteria

– Type Testing
CERTIFICATION

• Individual Tests - By Technology Type

• UL 1741 Referenced

• Surge Withstand Test

October 18, 2003 17 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
Rule 21 Technical Requirements
(cont.)
™ Section J - Testing/Certification
- Production Testing

- Commissioning Testing
• General Requirements
• Protective Functions to Be
Tested
• Impact of Certification
• Verification of Settings
• Trip Test

October 18, 2003 18 of 97


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ENGINEERING
For More Information...

Scott Tomashefsky
California Energy Commission
Stomashe@energy.state.ca.us
www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/interconnection/interconnection.html

October 18, 2003 19 of 97


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ENGINEERING
Other State Requirements

• NY SIR
http://www.dps.state.ny.us/distgen.htm
• Texas:
http://www.puc.state.tx.us/electric/projects/21965/21965.cfm
http://www.puc.state.tx.us/rules/subrules/electric/25.211/25.211ei.cfm

• Good resource: www.irecusa.org


– Sign up for Steve Kalland’s newsletter

October 18, 2003 20 of 97


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ENGINEERING
IEEE Standards Classifications
1. Standards: documents with
mandatory requirements (shall)
2. Recommended Practices: documents in which
procedures and positions preferred
by the IEEE are presented (should)
3. Guides: documents in which alternative approaches
to good practice are suggested but
no clear-cut recommendations are made (may)
IEEE Standards are Voluntary.

October 18, 2003 21 of 97


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ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000
P929
Recommended Practice for
• Passed by IEEE Utility Interface of
Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
Standards Board
in January, 2000.
Prepared by the Utility Working Group of

• Provides an
Standards Coordinating Committee 21, on Photovoltaics

Copyright © 1998 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

excellent primer
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017, USA
All Rights Reserved

on PV inverter This is an IEEE Standards Project, subject to change. Permission is hereby granted for
IEEE Standards committee participants to reproduce this document for purposes of
IEEE standardization activities, including balloting and coordination. If this document

interconnection
is to be submitted to ISO or IEC, notification shall be given to the IEEE Copyrights
Administrator. Permission is also granted for member bodies and technical committees
of ISO and IEC to reproduce this document for purposes of developing a national
position. Other entities seeking permission to reproduce portions of this document for

issues. these or other uses must contact the IEEE Standards Department for the appropriate
license. Use of information contained in the unapproved draft is at your own risk.

IEEE Standards Department


Copyrights and Permissions
445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA

October 18, 2003 22 of 97


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ENGINEERING
The Need for PV Interconnection
Standards
● Many utilities were using rotating machinery
requirements for PV systems
● Many of the Interconnection Requirements
were established in early “PURPA” days
• too many requirements
• telemetery and “Utility Grade” relays
• special (and costly) engineering was needed for
each specific utility requirement

October 18, 2003 23 of 97


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ENGINEERING
Purpose of IEEE 929

“This recommended practice contains guidance


regarding equipment and functions necessary to
ensure compatible operation of photovoltaic
systems which are connected in parallel with
the electric utility. This includes factors
relating to personnel safety, equipment
protection, power quality and utility system
operation.”

October 18, 2003 24 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929 Working Group
Consisted of Utilities and Industry
John Stevens, Chair D. Lane Garrett Miles Russell, Secr.
Sandia National Labs Southern Co. Services Ascension Technology
Mike Behnke Steve Hester, John Moriarty
Trace Technology UPVG Raytheon

Bill Brooks John Hoffner, Planergy Chet Napikoski


N. Carolina Sol. Center (ex Austin Electric) Arizona Public Service
John Bzura Barry Hornberger Jean Posbic
New England Electric PECO Energy Solarex
Steve Chalmers (Ret.) Bob Jones Jodi Smythe
Salt River Project Rochester G&E Underwriters Labs
Joe Chau Greg Kern Chase Sun
Florida Power & Light Ascension Technology Pacific Gas and Electric
Doug Dawson (Ret.) Leslie Libby Rick West
Southern Cal Edison Austin Electric UPG
Dick DeBlasio Don Loweberg Chuck Whitaker
Chair – IEEE SCC 21 IPP Endecon
Tom Duffy Tron Melzl Robert Wills
Central Hudson G&E Omnion Advanced Energy Sys.
Chris Freitas Tim Zgonena
Trace Engineering Underwriters Labs

October 18, 2003 25 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
What Does IEEE 929 Really Impact?

Utility Inverter PV Array


M
System

October 18, 2003 26 of 97


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ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929 Outline

• Introduction
• 1. Overview (scope & purpose)
• 2. References
• 3. Definitions (inverter, islanding, PCC,
quality factor, etc.)
• 4. Power quality
• 5. Safety and protection functions
• Annexes
October 18, 2003 27 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
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ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000 Power Quality

• Power quality problems in general are rising


because of proliferation of non-linear loads on
utility systems -- all customers suffer
• PV should not add to that problem

October 18, 2003 28 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000 Power Quality
• Power Quality
– 1. Service Voltage
• Inverters inject current, don’t regulate voltage
• Voltage operating range is a protective function
– 2. Voltage Flicker
• IEEE 519-1992
– 3. Frequency
• Frequency operating range is a protective function
– 4. Waveform Distortion
• IEEE 519-1992
– 5. Power Factor
• >0.85 at >10% of rated output power

October 18, 2003 29 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000
Safety and Protection Functions
• Response to Abnormal Utility Conditions
– Voltage Disturbances
– Frequency Disturbances
– Islanding Protection
• Annex A Anti-Islanding Test
– Reconnect After a Utility Disturbance
• 5 min delay
• Direct Current Isolation
– <0.5% of rated output current
• Grounding
– Meet local codes
• Manual Disconnect
– Not required for non-islanding inverters

October 18, 2003 30 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000 Response to
Abnormal Utility Conditions
Voltage (at PCC) Maximum Trip Time*
V< 60 (V<50%) 6 cycles
60≤V<106 (50%≤V<88%) 120 cycles
106≤V≤132 (88%≤V≤110%) Normal Operation
132<V<165 (110%<V<137%) 120 cycles
165≤V (137%≤V) 2 cycles
Frequency (at PCC) Maximum Trip Time*
<59.3 Hz 6 cycles
59.3 - 60.5 Hz (normal) --
>60.5 Hz 6 cycles
*”Trip time” refers to the time between the abnormal condition being applied and the
inverter ceasing to energize the utility line. The inverter will actually remain
connected to the utility to allow sensing of utility electrical conditions for use by the
“reconnect” feature.
October 18, 2003 31 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000
Manual Disconnect Switch

PV Array

Local
Loads

Utility
System M Inverter

October 18, 2003 32 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 929-2000 - Annexes

• Annex A (Normative) – Minimum Test Procedure for


a Non-Islanding PV Inverter
• Annex B (Informative) - Bibliography
• Annex C - PV Inverters and the Utility Interface
(Terminology)
• Annex D - Disconnect Switches & Utility Procedures
• Annex E - Islanding as it Applies to PV Systems
• Annex F - The PV Inverter Under Utility Fault
Conditions
• Annex G - Dedicated Distribution Transformer
October 18, 2003 33 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
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ENGINEERING
IEEE 1547-2003

Standard for Interconnecting


Distributed Resources with Electric
Power Systems

(Thanks to Richard DeBlasio and Tom Basso)

October 18, 2003 34 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE 1547 Body of Standards
1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems
Guide for Networks
Guide for Impacts
P1547.3
Draft Guide for Monitoring,
Information Exchange and Guide for Islanding &
Control of DR
Guide Anti-Islanding
Interconnected with EPS For
Interconnection
P1547.2 P1547.1
System Draft Standard for
Draft Application
Guide for IEEE Certification Conformance Test
P1547 Draft Procedures for
Standard for Equipment
Interconnecting Interconnecting
Distributed Distributed
Resources with Resources with
Electric Power Electric Power
DR Specifications and
Systems Systems
Performance
October 18, 2003 35 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE P1547
Drafts 7 and 8 Ballot Status
Requirements for adoption: 75% ballot return, 75% affirmative

Round 1-- Draft 7 Round 2 -- Draft 8


• Balloting completed 4/1/01 • Recirculation completed 10/2/01
• 91% ballot returns • 96% ballot returns
• 66% affirmative • 66% affirmative
• Addressed negative comments • New Draft TBD

Voter Category Affirm Negative Voter Category Affirm Negative


- User 30 23 - User 25 33
- Producer 35 12 - Producer 43 6
- General Interest 28 15 - General Interest 35 14

October 18, 2003 36 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
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ENGINEERING
IEEE P1547 Draft 10 Ballot Status
Requirements for adoption: 75% ballot returns, 75% affirmatives

Ballot Results
• Ballot Action August 28 - September 26, 2002
• 93% ballot returns (230 in ballot group)
• 90% affirmatives
• 10% negatives
• 3% abstentions

Voter Category Affirmatives Negatives


- User 63 9
- Producer 57 4
- General Interest 59 6
- Government 8 1
Voting Tally 187 20
October 18, 2003 37 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
IEEE P1547 Draft 11 Ballot Status
Requirements for adoption: 75% ballot returns, 75% affirmatives

D
• June 2003: IEEE Standards Board Meeting

V E Ballot Results

O
• Ballot Action February 7 - 28, 2003
• 95% ballot returns (230 in ballot group)

P R
• 89% affirmatives
• 9% negatives

P
• 2% abstentions

A
October 18, 2003 38 of 97
San Francisco Power Engineering Society
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ENGINEERING
1547: Interconnection Is The Focus

Area
Distributed Interconnection Electric
Resource Power
(DR) System System
unit (EPS)

October 18, 2003 39 of 97


San Francisco Power Engineering Society
ENDECON Distributed Generation Course
ENGINEERING
1547 Interconnection Terms
Area Electric Power System (EPS)

Point of Common
PCC PCC
Coupling (PCC)

Point of DR
Connection Point of DR
Connection

Load DR unit DR unit Load

Local EPS 1 Local EPS 2 Local EPS 3


Note: There can be any
October number of Local EPSs.
18, 2003 40 of 97
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ENGINEERING
IEEE 1547-2003 Contents

INTRODUCTION
1.0 OVERVIEW
1.1 Scope
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Limitations

2.0 REFERENCES

3.0 DEFINITIONS

October 18, 2003 41 of 97


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IEEE 1547-2003 Contents
1.1 Scope
This standard establishes criteria and requirements for interconnection of
distributed resources (DR) with electric power systems (EPS).
1.2 Purpose
This document provides a uniform standard for interconnection of distributed
resources with electric power systems. It provides requirements relevant to
the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance
of the interconnection.
The requirements shall be met at the point of common coupling (PCC),
although the devices used to meet these requirements can be located
elsewhere. This standard applies to interconnection based on the aggregate
rating of all the DR units that are within the Local EPS. The functions of the
interconnection system hardware and software that affect the Area EPS are
required to meet this standard regardless of their location on the EPS.
The stated specifications and requirements, both technical and testing, are
universally needed for interconnection of DR, including synchronous
machines, induction machines, or power inverters/converters, and will be
sufficient for most installations.1
1 Additional technical requirements and/or tests may be necessary for some limited situations.
situations.

October 18, 2003 42 of 97


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ENGINEERING
IEEE 1547-2003 Contents
4.0 INTERCONNECTION TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND
REQUIREMENTS
4.1 General Requirements
4.2 Response to Area EPS Abnormal Conditions
4.3 Power Quality
4.4 Islanding
5.0 INTERCONNECTION TEST SPECIFICATIONS AND
REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Design Test
5.2 Production Tests
5.3 Interconnection Installation Evaluation
5.4 Commissioning Tests
5.5 Periodic Interconnection Tests

ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) BIBLIOGRAPHY


October 18, 2003 43 of 97
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IEEE 1547-2003 Contents
4.1 General Requirements
4.1.1 Voltage Regulation (Don’t!)
4.1.2 Integration with Area EPS Grounding (Coordinate)
4.1.3 Synchronization (<5% voltage fluctuation, no flicker)
4.1.4 Distributed Resources on Distribution Secondary Grid and Spot
Networks
4.1.4.1 Distribution Secondary Grid Networks
4.1.4.2 Distribution Secondary Spot Networks
4.1.5 Inadvertent Energization of the Area EPS (Don’t!)
4.1.6 Monitoring Provisions
4.1.7 Isolation Device (Disconnect Switch)
4.1.8 Interconnect Integrity
4.1.8.1 Protection from Electromagnetic Interference (C37.90.2)
4.1.8.2 Surge Withstand Performance (C62.41 or C37.90.1)
4.1.8.3 Paralleling Device (withstand 220% of rated voltage)
October 18, 2003 44 of 97
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IEEE 1547-2003 Contents
4.2 Response to Area EPS Abnormal Conditions
4.2.1 Area EPS Faults (detect faults, cease to energize)
4.2.2 Area EPS Reclosing Coordination (coordinate)
4.2.3 Voltage (<60V,106V – 132V, >144V)
4.2.4 Frequency (59.3 – 60.5 Hz)
4.2.5 Loss of Synchronism (not required unless there is flicker)
4.2.6 Reconnection To Area EPS (up to 5 min, C84.1 Range B)
4.3 Power Quality
4.3.1 Limitation of DC Injection (>0.5% of rated output current)
4.3.2 Limitation of Flicker Induced by the DR (Don’t)
4.3.3 Harmonics (~IEEE 519)
4.4 Islanding
4.4.1 Unintentional Islanding (Don’t)
4.4.2 Intentional Islanding (Don’t know)

October 18, 2003 45 of 97


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IEEE 1547-2003 Contents

5.0 INTERCONNECTION TEST SPECIFICATIONS AND


REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Design Test
5.1.1 Response to Abnormal Voltage and Frequency
5.1.2 Synchronization
5.1.3 Interconnect Integrity Test
5.1.3.1 Protection From Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
5.1.3.2 Surge Withstand Performance
5.1.3.3 Paralleling Device
5.1.4 Unintentional Islanding
5.1.5 Limitation of DC Injection
5.1.6 Harmonics
5.2 Production Tests

October 18, 2003 46 of 97


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IEEE 1547-2003 Contents
5.3 Interconnection Installation Evaluation
5.3.1 Grounding Integration with Area Electric Power System
5.3.2 Isolation Device
5.3.3 Monitoring Provisions
5.3.4 Area EPS Faults
5.3.5 Area EPS Reclosing Coordination.
5.4 Commissioning Tests
5.4.1 Unintentional Islanding Functionality Test
5.4.1.1 Reverse-Power or Minimum Power Test
5.4.1.2 Non-Islanding Functionality Test7
5.4.1.3 Other Unintentional Islanding Functionality Tests
5.4.2 Cease to Energize Functionality Test
5.5 Periodic Interconnection Tests

October 18, 2003 47 of 97


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IEEE P1547.1
Draft Standard for Conformance Test Procedures
for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems

• Verifies Conformance to IEEE 1547-2003


• Provides Test Procedures and order, but does
not define a comprehensive Certification
Process

October 18, 2003 48 of 97


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ENGINEERING
IEEE P1547.1
Draft Standard for Conformance Test Procedures
for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems

Scope:
This standard specifies the type, production, and
commissioning tests that shall be performed to
demonstrate that the interconnection functions
and equipment of a distributed resource (DR)
conform to IEEE Standard P1547.
October 18, 2003 49 of 97
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IEEE P1547.1
Purpose:
Interconnection equipment that connects
distributed resources (DR) to an electric power
system (EPS) must meet the requirements
specified in IEEE Standard P1547. Standardized
test procedures are necessary to establish and
verify compliance with those requirements. These
test procedures must provide both repeatable
results, independent of test location, and
flexibility to accommodate a variety of DR
technologies.
October 18, 2003 50 of 97
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ENGINEERING
IEEE P1547.1 Outline
1.0 Overview
2.0 References
3.0 Definitions
4.0 General Requirements
5.0 Type Tests
6.0 Production Tests
7.0 Commissioning Tests
Annex A (Normative) Test Signals
Annex B (Informative) Bibliography
Annex C (Informative) Sample Data Pages for
Temperature Stability Test
October 18, 2003 51 of 97
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IEEE P1547.1 Outline

4.0 General Requirements


4.1 Test result accuracy (verify Mfg stated accuracy)
4.2 Testing Environment (-5 to +40°C minimum)
4.3 Measurement accuracy and calibration of the
testing equipment
4.4 Product information
4.5 Test Reports
4.6 Source requirements
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5.1 Test for Response to Abnormal Voltage Conditions
5.1.1 Test for Overvoltage (Separate magnitude and timing)
5.1.2 Test for Undervoltage
5.2 Test for Response to Abnormal Frequency Conditions
5.2.1 Test for Overfrequency (Separate magnitude and timing)
5.2.2 Test for Underfrequency
5.3 Test for Synchronization
5.3.1 Synchronization Control Function using Simulated
Sources (Method 1) (vary V, f, Φ)
5.3.2 Synchronization Control Function using Actual
Generator Equipment (Method 1)
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5.4 Interconnection Integrity Tests
5.4.1 Protection From Electromagnetic Interference
(EMI) (C37-90.2)
5.4.2 Surge Withstand Performance (C62.41/C37-90.1)
5.4.3 Paralleling Device (Hi Pot)
5.5 Test for Limitation of DC Injection
5.5.1 DR with interconnection transformer (Saturation)
5.5.2 Inverter-based DR without interconnection
transformer
5.6 Unintentional Islanding
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IEEE P1547.1 Draft 2: Islanding

• Unintentional Islanding of exporting DR is a bad thing


• Inverter/induction-based DR that is not attempting to
regulate voltage is nearly impossible to make island
• For now, “nearly” is enough of a concern
• PV inverter Islanding testing goes back more than 20 yrs
• Sandia responsible for development of 929/1741 test
procedure (www.sandia.gov/pv/docs/Invertesintro.htm )

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IEEE P1547.1 Draft 2: Islanding

• Resonant Tank circuit used to stabilize island


voltage and frequency
• Real load to generation match determines
operating voltage
• Capacitance to Inductance match determines
operating frequency
• Quality factor, Q, defines circuit resonance:
kVAR L × kVAR C
Q=
kW
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Anti-Islanding Test Circuit

S1
S2 S3

Simulated
Utility R L C DR

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IEEE P1547.1 Draft 2: Islanding

• Test performed over range of output power


levels with Q=1.8 (IEEE 929 and current 1741
use Q=2.5)
• Under stable, matched conditions, such as
specified in the procedure, an inverter relying
only on frequency and voltage trip points will
run on indefinitely
• Additional detection methods must be
employed to meet 2 second trip requirement
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IEEE P1547.1 Draft 2: Islanding

• Test is intended to be detection-method


neutral
• Other method-specific or less rigorous tests are
being considered

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5.7 Reverse Power (for unintentional islanding)
5.7.1 Reverse-Power Magnitude Test
5.7.2 Reverse-Power Time Test
5.8 Cease to Energize Functionality and Loss of
Phase Test Requirements
5.9 Reconnect Following Abnormal Condition
Disconnect (restart magnitude and delay)
5.10 Harmonics
5.11 Temperature Stability Test
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IEEE P1547.1 Outline

6.0 Production Tests (simplified versions of Type


Tests)
6.1 Response to Abnormal Voltage
6.2 Response to Abnormal Frequency
6.3 Synchronization
6.4 Documentation

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IEEE P1547.1 Outline
7 Commissioning Tests
7.1 Verifications and Inspections
7.2 Field Conducted Type and Production tests
7.3 Permission from Area EPS operator to parallel DR
7.4 Unintentional Islanding
7.4.1 Unintentional Islanding Procedure for Synchronous
machine
7.4.2 Unintentional Islanding Procedure for Inverter

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IEEE P1547.1 Status

• Writing Committee is preparing Draft 3 for


review at Nov 12-14 workgroup meeting
• Section 5 (Type Tests) is fairly well developed
• Section 6 (Production Tests) has first cuts for
most elements
• Section 7 (Commissioning Test) is under initial
development
• Expect to have document approved by June
2005
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IEEE P1547.2
Draft Application Guide For IEEE Std. 1547,
Standard For Interconnecting Distributed
Resources With Electric Power Systems

Thanks to Tom Basso and Richard Friedman

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IEEE P1547.2

Scope:
This guide provides technical background and
application details to support the
understanding of IEEE 1547, Standard for
Interconnecting Distributed Resources with
Electric Power Systems.

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IEEE P1547.2

Purpose:
This document facilitates the use of IEEE Std. 1547 by
characterizing the various forms of distributed resource
technologies and the associated interconnection issues.
Additionally, the background and rationale of the
technical requirements are discussed in terms of the
operation of the distributed resource interconnection with
the electric power system. Presented in the document are
technical descriptions and schematics, applications
guidance and interconnection examples to enhance the
use of IEEE 1547.
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What P1547.2 is Intended to Do
Support understanding and facilitate use of IEEE 1547 by
• Providing technical background
• Providing application details
• Characterizing various forms of DR technologies
• Characterizing associated interconnection issues
• Discussing background and rationale of the technical
requirements in terms of the operation of the
interconnection
• Presenting good practice approaches

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What P1547.2 Will NOT Do

• Interpret IEEE 1547


• Introduce new requirements to IEEE 1547
• Address issues not covered in IEEE 1547, other
than as needed to help enhance the user's
understanding of IEEE 1547
• Provide a "guarantee" that IEEE 1547
requirements will be met

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Other IEEE SCC21
Interconnection Projects
Title Scope and Purpose
P1547.3: Draft • This document provides guidelines for monitoring, information
Guide for exchange, and control for distributed resources (DR) interconnected
Monitoring, with electric power systems (EPS).
Information • This document facilitates the interoperability of one or more
distributed resources interconnected with electric power systems.
Exchange and
It describes functionality, parameters and methodologies for
Control of monitoring, information exchange and control for the
Distributed interconnected distributed resources with, or associated with,
Resources electric power systems. Distributed resources include systems in
Interconnected the areas of fuel cells, photovoltaics, wind turbines, microturbines,
with Electric other distributed generators, and, distributed energy storage
Power Systems systems.

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69
SCC 21 Contact Information
• Dr. Richard DeBlasio ddeblasi@nrel.gov (303) 275 - 4333
• Mr. Tom S. Basso thomas_basso@nrel.gov (303) 275 - 3753

• IEEE SCC21 -- IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on Fuel Cells,


Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, & Energy Storage
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/

• 1547 web sites


• http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547
• http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547.1/1547.1_index.html
• http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547.2/1547.2_index.html
• http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547.3/1547.3_index.html

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70
UL 1741

Standard for Inverters, Converters and


Controllers for Use In Independent
Power Systems

(Thanks to Tim Zgonena of UL)

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UL 1741 Addresses

• Electric Shock Hazards


• Fire Hazards
• Mechanical Hazards
• Utility Compatibility and
Interconnection for Grid Tied
Applications
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Electric Shock Hazards (Testing)

• Testing for prevention of electric shock


includes:
– Earth ground paths ability to carry current
– Dielectric tests verify insulation systems
– Induced faults to verify suitability of electrical
insulation and operation of protective devices such
as fuses, circuit breakers and thermal cut offs

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Electric Shock Hazards
(Construction)
• Enclosure and Barriers
• Insulate accessible live parts for both
end users and service personnel
• Insulation between circuits of different
potential or separation of circuits
• Markings and labeling

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Fire Hazards

• Verification of normal operating temperatures


• Acceptable operation of transformers under
short circuit and overload conditions
• Under no circumstances shall a product emit
sparks, flames or molten metal

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Mechanical Hazards
– Sharp Edges
– Mounting means
– Stability

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UL 1741

• Many of the performance issues


associated with the grid interactive
operation of DG products are important
Safety Issues. This is unlike many other
product categories covered by UL
Standards.

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Utility Compatibility and
Interconnection Concerns
• The following performance parameters
are safety issues
– Utility operating voltage and frequency
parameters
– Islanding protection
– Output Power Quality

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Utility Voltage and Frequency
Operating Parameters
• Products ability to detect and cease
exporting power to the utility grid during
a utility grid over / under voltage or
over / under frequency situations
– The normal operating Voltage window is
nominal -12% to +10%
– The normal operating Frequency window is
nominal -0.7Hz to +0.5Hz

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Voltage Frequency Variation Test
for 120V Rated Unit
CALCULATIONS FROM TABLE 46.1

Condition Simulated Utility Source Maximum Trip Time


Voltage, V Frequency, Hz seconds cycles
A 60 Rated 0.1 6
B 105.6 Rated 2 120
C Rated Rated Normal Condition
D 132 Rated 2 120
E 164.4 Rated 2/60 2
F Rated 59.3 0.1 6
G Rated 60.5 0.1 6

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Under-Voltage Test
50% of Rated for 120V Unit
Scope Readout for Transient by Simulated Utility
dX: 100.0 ms
X: 0 s

1> T

1) Simulated Utility: 50 Volt 20San


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Islanding Protection

• Islanding is when a distributed source continues


to operate, feeding power into a portion of the
grid when the utility source is no longer
present. This situation presents many hazards
including lethal electric shock to utility service
personnel that think that the load side of the
utility transmission line is “electrically dead.”
• Utility and DG equipment damage.

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Anti-Islanding Test Circuit

S1
S2 S3

Simulated
Utility R L C DR

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Power Quality
• These utility interconnected DG products
must meet minimum output power quality
requirements
– Output power Factor 0.85% or higher
– Harmonic Distortion <5% at full output power
– DC Injection minimized to < 0.5% of rated output
current

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UL 1741 Covers
Utility Interactive, Stand-alone,
and Multi-Mode Products.
• Utility Interactive - Products that operate in
parallel with or backfeed power to the utility
grid to supply common loads.
• Stand Alone - Products that supply power to
loads independent of the utility grid.
• Multimode - Products that can operate in both
utility interactive and stand-alone modes in case
of utility failure.

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UL 1741 Expansion to Cover the
Interconnect of All Types of DG
• UL1741 New Title - The Standard For Inverters,
Converters and Controllers For Use In Independent
Power Production Systems.
– Photovoltaic Modules
– Fuel Cells
– Micro-turbines
– Wind and Hydro Turbines
– Engine Gen-Set Interconnect Controllers

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UL 1741 Status

• Harmonized with IEEE 1547 and IEEE


P1547.1
• Developed as an ANSI Standard

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• UL1741 is being harmonized with
IEEE 1547 and IEEE P1547.1

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For More Information...
Tim Zgonena
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
333 Pfingsten Rd.
Northbrook, IL 60062

847-272-8800 ext. 43051


timothy.p.zgonena@us.ul.com

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On the Road to
‘Plug-&-Play’
DG?
Anthony Mazy, PE
CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION
Office of Ratepayer Advocates
An epilogue . . .

. . . about the limits of:

z what we know
z what we agree upon
z what we believe
CPUC regulates revenues, rates, and rules of service
for investor-owned electric, gas, telecom, and water utilities

ORA represents the interests of small ratepayers


Anthony Mazy, PE
Energy Auditor of over 225 Commercial/Industrial facilities,
Utilities Engineer for two major USAF bases,
Commercial/Industrial Lighting/Power/Controls Design
ORA Project Coordinator, DG Policy
Disclaimer
The Opinions Expressed
Are Those of the Individual Speaker
and Do Not Necessarily Represent The Opinions
of the California Public Utilities Commission,
The Office of Ratepayer Advocate,
or Their Managements
We don’t know as much as we
like to think we do

z Industry (or gov’t) isn’t well documented


z Utilities, Developers, Regulators all make
decisions without adequate information
z Example: Documentation of Unintended Islanding
Example:
Documentation of Islanding
(Unintended Islanding, not Microgrids)

z Utility Engineers universally aver


existence, significance of islanding
z Academic researchers universally
deride probable significance
z Almost no actual documentation exists
We disagree more than we
really like to talk about

z Technical decisions have business implications


z Institutions are highly risk-averse
z Example: Utility Discretion
Example:
The Problem with “Discretion”
How to distinguish between . . .

“Good” Discretion “Bad” Discretion


Resolve problems with (i.e., “Market Power”)
and
z Undefined situations z Reward affiliates
z New situations z Punish competitors
z Unintended unfairness z Rogue individuals
We have radically divergent
beliefs about what’s
. . . “good,”
. . . “progress,” and
. . . “the future”
z “Well-bred people never discuss their
religion, money, or politics”
z DG as a triple-point
z Example: T&D Architecture
Example:
T & D Architecture
Should It Continue to Should It Evolve into a
“Transmit” & “Distribute” “Physical Marketplace”
“Public Utility” Power to Between “Willing Sellers”
Retail Customers and “Willing Buyers” of
or
Competitive Energy
With: With:

z Hierarchical structure, protection z Negotiable structure, protection


z Nominally “predictable” power flow z Explicitly unpredictable power flow
z “Low Cost” Strategy z “High Value” Strategy
The Upshot
z Developers and Utilities frequently
disagree about . . .
– What Rule 21 is trying to accomplish,
– What Rule 21 means, and even
– What Rule 21 says.
z Should Not Be Cause for Despair!
Example:
How “non-exporting”?

z Rule 21 includes “screens” for


Simplified Interconnection
z Screen 2: “Will power be exported
across the PCC?”
z If “No,” four options, three
implicitly addressing some export.
Bottom Line

z Only the CPUC sets Rules for utility service


z Rule 21 is the only applicable
interconnection rule
z Rule 2, etc., apply just as they apply to all
other electric service installations
z “Interpretations” of Rule 21 must be fair,
reasonable, and consistent
Where to Get More Information
z California Attorney General investigates
violations of state law
z CPUC Consumer Affairs Board, investigates
violations of regulatory rules, rates, or utility
service standards
z CPUC Energy Division investigates
noncompliance with Commission policies
z CPUC Office of Ratepayer Advocates
investigates abusive, unfair, or unreasonable
utility policies or practices
For Further Assistance:
Write: Anthony Mazy, PE
Project Coordinator, DG Policy
Office of Ratepayer Advocates
California Public Utilities Commission
505 Van Ness Avenue, 4th Floor
San Francisco, California 94102

E-mail: amazy@cpuc.ca.gov

Or, Call: (415) 703-3036