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An Introduction to Academic Writing:

Publishable Research Paper


Xu Xiwen

2006, 08

Course Outline
Objectives of the Course To help students 1. develop a critical understanding of genres and conventions of academic writing, and raise awareness of and practice skills in critical reading, skill in searching and assessing various research materials and sources; 2. acquire the ability to use the discourse patterns of academic English and develop competence in structuring papers effectively, including skills in formulating an effective thesis, writing an effective introduction and conclusion, developing arguments and producing effectively-focused and coherent paragraphs; 3. improve competence in conveying a professional tone, and learn to use techniques for incorporating quotations and sources, including using the first person appropriately and in using parallel structure, active voice, and other techniques to write with clarity, precision and concision; 4. become familiar with and practice discipline-specific academic papers, including summaries, abstracts, proposals, applications and recommendations, reports and research papers; 5. develop competence in using formats of in-text documentation and final bibliography, including APA (American Psychological Association) format and MLT ( Modern Language Association) format. Textbooks and Readings Course materials include in-class course readings, handout of samples and additional on-line course support readings. Course Topics and Assignments Introduction to Academic Writing Nature of Academic Writing: Three types of writing --- arguments, narratives, and descriptive writing; differences in rhetoric and academic writings Genre analysis: Title; Authors name; Abstract; Key words; Body; (or) Acknowledgements; References; (or) Appendix; (or) Biodata Body: Introduction(Literature Review); Materials and Experiments (Data); Results (Findings); Discussion; Conclusions; (or) Implications Argumentation and Search of Secondary Sources: documenting sources and critique of other writers, Critical reading skills and skills in using search engine such as Google, Baidu and other academic search engines;

Topic assignments: 1. Find out and print one typical sample of your discipline-specific paper 2. Make a genre analysis Common Patterns of Development: Patterns of academic English sentence structure: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; classification, definition and exemplification Paragraphing: topic sentence and thesis; transitions; coherence and meta-discourse Topic assignments: 1. Outline and practice the patterns of sentence structure 2. Practice the development of a topic sentence and thesis 3. Outline the natures of meta-discourse Voice, Authority and Plagiarism Acknowledging and incorporating sources: conventions and techniques for documenting and quotations, avoiding plagiarism Audience and professional tone: active and passive expressions, the first person expressions, identifying the audience and tone in the introductions, the conclusions, the discussions and the implications Topic assignments: 1. Practice documenting and quotations in one discipline-specific paper 2. Sample analysis of the audience and tone in one typical research paper Argumentative Development and Practice How to write an abstract and a summary: differences and requirements; organizations and practice How to develop a proposal: identifying the thesis, the arguments, the literature review and the research questions; analysis and practice How to write an introduction, make a discussion and draw a conclusion: becoming familiar with the requirements of English academic practice Topic assignments: 1. Practice writing: introduction, conclusion, discussion, and implication in your discipline-related papers 2. Write a research proposal in your own discipline Discipline-Specific Academic Writing Report writing: types of reports ---proposal report, feasibility report, investigation report, and laboratory report; organizations and quality criteria of report writing; analysis and practice

Applications and recommendations: features of letter writing; structures and sample analysis of application letters; C V and resume; and recommendation letters Research papers: types of research papers; format of a research paper; sample analysis and writing process Topic assignments: 1. Write one proposal report 2. Practice CV and resume 3. Sample analysis of one research paper Editing and Formatting Formats of the publications in English academy: APA (American Psychological Association) and MLT (Modern Language Association) Editing a research paper: sample analysis, practice the use of Punctuations, Abbreviation Assessing strength and weakness: Check through the organization, the presentation and the logic of long sentences; Topic assignments: 1. Identify the format errors in Punctuations, Abbreviation 2. Write and organize one of your own reference Course Evaluation Criteria: students enrolled are required to finish in-class assignments, pre-reading assignments and after-class readings, students assignments will be evaluated. Final grades will include the attendance, in-class assignments and final test.

Content Table

Chapter 1
Introduction
Writing for academic purpose in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context concerns how non-native students, in terms of international communications or publications, meet the requirements of the Western academic community. While much of the emphasis of current graduate writing course has been laid on non-native students errors in vocabulary or grammar, the course tries to present typical writing styles, preferences, attitudes and beliefs towards effective academic writing in English, particularly traditional rhetorical patterns within the research report writing format.

1. Research Paper Format


Although different languages and their cultures have different rules for presenting, explaining, and organizing ideas in writing, it is necessary to follow the research report format in order to meet the requirements of academic research and international publications. A publishable research paper in English is supposed to include Abstract (executive summary) followed by Key Words or Index Terms, Introduction ( literature review), Research Methodologies and Procedures, Results and Findings, Discussion and Conclusion, References ( Bibliography) or Appendixes (if any). The following chart is to describe the general functions and fundamentals of different parts of a publishable research paper:

Items
Abstract (Executive Summary) Key Words or Index Terms

Functions
To frame the writers idea To identify the writers contributions To orientate the effective reading of colleagues

Fundamentals
Conceptional description (the scope) Procedures and methodology Main findings, conclusion and implications or suggestions

Introduction ( Literature Review)

To concentrate readers To make a theoretical orientation To review previous research To present arguments and hypothesis

Terms to generalize research concerns The purpose and background of present study The scope and focus to develop the study Problems, argumentation and hypothesis Theoretical framework or models and research design Experimental apparatus and procedures Descriptions of data treatment Figures ( graphs, tables and diagrams) Generalization of the results Comments or explanations of the results A brief review of original hypothesis and other researchers findings Highlights or further explanations of the findings of present study Limitations of the study Suggesting implications Following one of two main types of reference formats: APA (American Psychological Association ); 2) MLA (Modern Language Association

Research Methodologies and Procedures

To specify the methods and procedures conducting the present study To present data collections and treatment To outline the main findings and results To interpret or comments on the most important results

Results and Findings

Discussion and Conclusion

To compare the results with previous studies and the original hypothesis To develop the hypothesis and speculations To present the limitations and implications of the study To indicate the scope and offer the index to replicate or extend the present study To keep consistency of publications

References ( or Bibliography)

. 2. Some basic skills in effective academic writing A well-organized research paper needs to be unified and coherent. In the parts of the Introduction and Discussion, paragraphing skills involve the techniques of opening a

paragraph, of how to develop fully a thesis or argument and state clearly the findings of the study. Technique one--- Exemplification Exemplification is a very common technique used in various academic writing practices. It is most frequently used to support a statement or argument by providing facts, evidence, or data. The following samples are to show how different skills in making examples are used in acceptable research papers.

Sample 1
( Presenting by Time Sequence and Change in Tendency) The use of optical links for the transmission of RF (analog) signals has continued to expand for more than 15 years. Perhaps the first widespread commercial application of analog optical links was the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals. Although perhaps not as large in dollar sales, antenna remoting has been an important application in both commercial and military markets. More recently, RF-over-fiber has been a growing application area for analog optical links.

Sample 2

( Presenting by direct indication expressions)

Initially naive link design merely consisted of connecting the optical output of a diode laser to the input of a photodiode. However, the RF performance of such links was often modest at best, and terrible at worst; typically one would obtain from such a design a link loss of 40 dB and an NF of 50 dB, which severely limited the applications of such links. To address these shortcomings there has grown up over the last 15 years or so the field of link design, which is closely related to, but distinct from, device design. A dramatic early example of the power of link design was the work of Cox et al. , who were able to

achieve RF gain from link components that otherwise would have resulted in substantial link loss There have been at least two other outgrowths of link design. One outgrowth has been to highlight which device parameters will have an impact on link parameters and to quantify that impact. For example, reductions in the threshold current of a diode laser have no impact on link gain, whereas increases in slope efficiency have a major impact. Another outgrowth of link design has been the ability to establish the limits on link performance. Such limits have proven useful in providing a calibration on the progress in link performance that has been made relative to the ultimate progress that at least theoretically should be achievable.

Sample 3

( Presenting by detailings)

During the last decades, attempts have been made to enhance X-rays yield from plasma focus by adjusting different parameters such as capacitor energy, operating voltage, circuit inductance, nature and pressure of working gases, material and shape of electrodes, proper election of anode length and insulator, preionization before initial discharge in addition to normal operating conditions.

Technique Two--- Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast are often used to develop and organize paragraphs in the parts of Literature Review, Results and Findings or Discussion. Comparison deals with the similarities existing between two objects, results or ideas, while contrast deals with the differences existing between them. Making comparison and contrast is to present the readers the weak and strong points between two ideas or results and eventually to reveal writers attitude and suggestion, or support writers preference for one over the other.

Sample 1
( For organizing the literature review)

By comparing the first two topologies, we see that the first one has considerable higher crosstalk. But this topology contains only one filter and the second topology contains two filters, one in front of and one behind the switch. From the calculations in function of the component parameters we see that both topologies are limited by the filter. We can conclude that the mechano-optical space switch performs better than the switch based on gates (even better performance is mentioned in literature), but in both cases the total crosstalk is limited by other components.

Sample 2

( For developing a conclusion)

Although it is common to refer collectively to such links as RF or analog optical links, this may lead to confusion when the modulation consists of a digital signal that is modulated onto an RF carrier. Thus, it is perhaps more technically precise to define analog optical links as ones where the optical modulation depth is sufficiently small that we may use incremental or small signal models of the various link devices. This is in contrast to digital optical links in which the optical modulation depth approaches 100%.
.

Sample 3

( For developing a summary)

To summarize the manner in which the desire for greater analog link gains affects (or ought to affect) opto-electronic component design, we have shown that the slope efficiency of a single directly modulated laser cannot yield a link gain of greater than 0 dB. By contrast, the slope efficiency of an external modulator can theoretically be increased without bound to yield very high gains (as shown in Fig. 2) by reducing V and increasing P, although some practical limitations on the optical power do come into play.

Technique Three--- Classification and Definition Classification is a writing technique of grouping ideas, concepts, results, etc., according to their similarities and differences, while definition explains limits and specifies. By classifying, we can establish classes of the subjects and distinguish the like subjects from the unlike ones so that we can reveal and demonstrate the informational facts. In classification, we must apply some principles consistently to the subjects so as to keep the logical order. On the other hand, by definition, we may capture the essence, set the boundary, and refine the characteristics or qualities of an idea or a concept. Classification and definition are frequently followed by other techniques, including exemplification, comparison-contrast, cause-effect, ect. (See the Sample 1 in the technique one Exemplification.)

Sample 1

( Classification by grouping and examplication)

According to Employee Relocation Council (ERC), upwards of half a million workers relocate annually for job-related reasons. Recent estimates indicate that cost of the relocating employees is $ 45,000 per home-owning employee, with companies spending billions of dollars annually on job-related moves (ERC, 1994). In addition to being a costly investment for organizations, relocation can pose psychological and financial costs to relocated families. These costs can be related to difficulty adjusting to the new location and leaving established social support networks and the negative financial consequences of moving, such as higher costs of living in the new area and the spouse loss of employment (Fisher & Shaw, 1994; Luo & Cooper, 1990). To help employees and their families cope with these and other stresses associated with moving, most organizations offer some sort of relocation assistance (Brett, Stroh, & Reilly, 1990). This can include, among other services, family visits to the new area, real estate assistance, spouse employment assistance, cost-of-living

adjustments, and information on school systems in the new location (Brett et al., 1990; ERC, 1993, 1994).

Sample 2
( Definition and Classification by grouping and presenting cause-effect) With these limitations in mind, this study is an initial attempt to uncover the issues facing those employees and spouses who have recently moved and those who are contemplating future decisions to relocate. Specifically, we explore two main issues. First, because the spouses perspective has been virtually ignored in relocation research, we systematically compare employees and spouses perceptions of the need for relocation assistance. We are interested in determining whether there are differences in the relative importance attached to specific relocation services between employees and spouses. The second objective is to explore whether there are differences in perceived need for assistance across a variety of material and parental status variables. This focus includes comparing male and female employees, single-income and dual-income couples, as well as couples with children living at home. Although there are other comparisons that could be made, these analyses will provide an initial glimpse into the issues facing individuals in a variety of marital and family arrangement.

Sample 3
( classification for contrasting and comparison) To understand the major stressors facing employees and spouses who are contemplating relocation, the research on domestic relocation, international relocation, and work-role transitions was reviewed. From this research, three broad adjustment-related issues were identified: work-related adjustment, general adjustment, and interaction adjustment. Variables were then identified that may be useful in facilitating adjustment to a pending move. Finally, relocation services deal with general and interaction adjustment were identified.

Technique Four--- Cause and Effect The chain of cause-and effect frequently used to explain the relationship existing two or more concepts or ideas. This technique is commonly used to develop a logical paragraph in any part of an academic writing format. As for the arrangement of such a paragraph, it may start from the effect first and then the causes; the reverse order, however, is also preferred when one cause leads to various effects. Comparing the following samples:

Sample 1

( Focus on the cause)

In total one can conclude that the number of fibers can be increased without penalty if the performance of the switch is increased (gate or space switch). The number of wavelengths can be increased but requires higher suppression of other channels (filters or demultiplexers) or regeneration (wavelength converters). Realistic systems require a large number of wavelengths compared with the number of fibers. Therefore, very good filters are required to reduce the crosstalk. If wavelength converters are used, the requirements for the filters are less strict.

Sample 2
( Focus on the effect) At the combiner after the gates, N signals are combined coming from different input fibers. During normal operation one of the N gates is in the on-state and all the others are in the off-state. Because of the non-perfect blocking of the gates in the off-state, some of the power is leaking through the gate. That effect also results in crosstalk.

Sample 3
( Focus on causes) In Fig. 4, there is a wavelength converter between the filter and the combiner. The input of an additional wavelength converter consists of one channel carrying the signal under

study and M-1 suppressed channels. This leads to crosstalk because the output of the wavelength converter depends on the total input power (but the converter has also some regeneration effect). At the output of the wavelength converter there is only one channel. The wavelength converter is used in contra directional mode. Due to this effect, the combiner at the end of the OXC adds no crosstalk because the M input fibers of the combiner carry only one channel, each with a different wavelength.

Tips for using the techniques

Explicit way of using above mentioned techniques could be identified by the transitional expressions which also help achieve the coherence of paragraphs. The following expressions are most frequently used in academic writing papers: Exemplification such () as, as follows, as an example, in particular, particularly, especially; take ( consider) as an example, for example, for instance; generally, in general, on the whole, in many cases Comparison and Contrast by comparing , in comparison with, similarly, likewise, just as, almost the same as; be similar to, resemble, have in common, compare with; in contrast to/ with, otherwise, instead, on the contrary, unlike, nevertheless, however; be different from, differ from, the differences lie in, stands opposition

Classification and Definition be categorized as, fall into, be classified as, be divided into, there are kinds / groups /categories/ types of.. be defined / named / known as, the definition of is ; is widely accepted as the definition of

Cause and Effect therefore, so, as a result, accordingly, hence, thus, consequently; because (of ), as a result of, since, as, due to, on account of, now that, given, so as to, so that, result in, have an effect on, the effect on is

3. Cultural differences in academic writing Non-native student writers may frequently turn to their own culture and language in their writing of academic papers in English. According to Matthews (2002), problems may develop when these students concepts of effective writing clash with those of Western professors or colleagues. Their writings are frequently judged as illogical, lacking focus, poorly organized, or inadequately developed because the rhetorical pattern does not meet the expectations of the Western academic community. Helen Fox (1994) in her book Listening to the world: cultural issues in Academic Writing has noted that cultural differences, learned from early childhood, affect the way the non-native students write, for writing touches the heart of a students identity, drawing its

voice and strength and meaning from the way the student understands the world (p vi). Matalene (1985) suggested that in contrast with the post-Romantic Westerners who subscribe to Aristotles dictum (p. 790), Chinese writers seem to follow some of the fundamental principles of the underlying rhetorical values in Chinese traditional culture (say Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism), and seem to appeal to history and to tradition and to the authority of the past, and always rely on idioms, clichs, and set-phrases. The following chart is to contrast typical writing styles, preferences, attitudes and beliefs between English and Chinese and between the Western academic community and Chinese traditional scholars (Matthews, 2002; Matalene, 1985).

Characteristics of effective academic Writing in English 1. Language is viewed as a tool to transmit information, to accomplish a purpose

Characteristics of effective writing in Chinese Language is viewed as a tool for engaging the emotions through beautiful language Language is used to create a social Experience Language has a role as an art form and as a religious phenomenon ; it is viewed as a conduit in which emotional resonance is stressed Focus on aesthetic(poetic, artistic, emotional)value of writing; therefore, imagery, creative metaphors, analogies, and story-telling are used Information is expected to be highly philosophical Preference for more indirect communication patterns, including ambiguous or circular messages Focus on the richness and beauty of the

2. Language is viewed as a means for record keeping and documentation 3. Focus on informational value of writing; therefore, factual accuracy is stressed

4. Information is expected to be specific, Precise, accurate, and relevant 5. Preference for clear, direct communication patterns; messages are expected to be specific and detailed, avoiding ambiguity or uncertainty 6. Focus on clarity, simplicity, and getting to

the point

7. Style issues focus on improving the clarity and accuracy of the writing 8. One theme is favored 9. Because the backgrounds, experiences, and values of people in this heterogeneous culture are quite diverse, explicit background information and extensive 10. Writers organize ideas hierarchically(with main ideas supported by subpoenas)and often use subordination in their writing 11. Stress on linear developmentpoints are organized sequentially, with a beginning and an end 12. Direct, explicit statement of controlling or main dies(s) at the beginning of a report, essay, research paper, etc.

language Focus on thee ability to repeat ideas in a variety of ways in order to keep the readers attention Use of digression: the writer links the point under discussion the other issues to show his/her wide range of knowledge Style issues focus on improving the emotional or aesthetic value of the writing Multiple themes are favored Because the backgrounds, experiences, and values of people in traditional, homogeneous cultures(such as Arab and Asian cultures)are shared, explicit background information and extensive elaboration are not generally needed Writers organize their ideas through coordination and parallelism Organization is not stressed; the broader picture many be presented without explaining or connecting details No direct statement of main idea(s), with readers expected to infer the writers point Writers supply facts, examples, and support throughout the beginning and middle sections of the paper, with the controlling idea then introduced in the last paragraph(s) In the first section, writers in introduce and discuss a topic; in the next section they introduce a new topic, which needs to have only an implied connection the preceding topic; in the final section, they introduce yet another opinion or topic, which does not necessarily have any connection the what precede it Explicit signals are not necessary; writers shows respect for the readers intelligence to make inferences and to understand the links between ideas which are only suggested in the text The burden of meaning falls on the readerreferred to as reader responsible Writers provide a series of concrete examples to make a point, but may not state the point or relate the examples to each

13. Explicit signalssuch as transitionsare often necessary to show logical links between ideas; writers have the responsibility to make the connections clear 14. The burden of meaning falls on the writerreferred to as writer responsible 15. Writers clearly link examples to generalizations

16. 17.

18. 19.

20.

Emphasis on the value of traditional wisdom and the knowledge shared by the culture Reliance on memorization and manipulation of set phrases and textual forms to emphasize group values over individualistic goals 21. The belief that individual authors own words The belief that educated, knowledgeable and ideas, which requires writers/researchers to readers will recognize the source of the give credit to each author for his/her words and information; students learn to write by ideas imitating the work of great writers, even including the exact words of the original author without citing the source

Heavy use of deductive reasoning(general to specific) Arguments are supported by logical, analytical reasoning-requiring specific evidence such as facts, examples, statistics, etc. Focus on building arguments in a logical, step-by-step process Emphasis on ability of writers to argue persuasively in favor of a particular point of view or take an informed stand on a controversial issue; questioning and challenging authority is accepted and encouraged Emphasis on the value of individuality and originality of ideas; writers want to receive credit for their own unique ideas

other; the writer expects the reader to make inferential bridges among the statements showing respect for the readers knowledge, scholarship, and intelligence Heavy use of deductive reasoning(specific to general) Arguments are supported by intuitive reasoninga single anecdote may constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion Focus on building to an emotional climax Emphasis on ability of writers to present a balanced discussion of both sides of an issuewithout taking a strong, personal issuewithout taking a strong, personal stand; respect for authority is encouraged

Chapter 2
Voice, Authority and Plagiarism
Research paper writing involves adequate sources beyond the knowledge the readers and writers have acquired. So citing reference materials is something common in research paper writing. Meanwhile, based on the relevance materials, the researchers need express their own voice in an acceptable way and build up their own thoughts and viewpoints into the papers. Citing references appropriately may help strengthen the persuasive power of the paper, to show the authoritativeness of the documents and the effectiveness of the argumentation. In this chapter, the focus will be on 1) some techniques to show the writers voice; 2) basic methods to cite reference materials; 3) how to avoid plagiarism.

Section 1. Voice Yourself


Some techniques to show the writers identity To show the authors attitude towards previous research or present argument, and present the researchers contribution to a research paper, the writer is supposed to be objective and avoid the use of spoken words, over-simplified statements and monotonous expressions. Technique One --- Consistent use of formal tone

Influenced by the first language, many second language (L2) writers may be confused about the use of spoken and written expressions. A research paper should convey a concise and objective tone within the academic community. So it is necessary for a L2 writer to acquire some skills of consistent use of formal tone in the academic writing. The repeated use of the following expressions may reduce the consistency of the objective tone. In this (such a) case ( way), I think (believe, argue) that As discussed (mentioned, analyzed) above, my study has confirmed (demonstrated, shown) that Basically ( Actually; Practically; Apparently; Particularly), the study shows that Based on (on the basis of / according to ), we can (may) conclude that Besides (furthermore, in addition), the present study suggests (shows, proves) that As a conclusion (ending of the paper), I would argue (suggest ) that Because of ( Owing to, due to) , we know ( the fact is) that; So .

Sample 1
Study the following abstract, and try to make the underlined parts better In our study, we investigate condensation phase transitions of the symmetric conservedmass aggregation (SCA) model on random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) with degree distribution P (k)~k r. In the SCA model, masses diffuse with unit rate, and unit mass chips off from mass with rate . The dynamics conserves total mass density . Then, in the steady state, on RNs and SFNs with r >3 for , we numerically show that the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those on regular lattices. However, the critical line c ( ) depends on network structures. On SFNs with r 3, the fluid phase of exponential mass distribution completely disappears and no phase transitions occurs. Instead, the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution always takes place for any nonzero density. For the existence of the condensed phase for r

3 at the zero density limit, we investigate one lamb-lion problem on RNs and SFNs. Besides, we numerically show that a lamb survives indefinitely with finite survival probability on RNs and SFNs with r 3, and dies out exponentially on SFNs with r 3. The finite lifetime of a lamb on SFNs with r >3 ensures the existence of the condensation at the zero density limit on SFNs with r 3, at which direct numerical simulations are practically impossible. In addition, at = , we numerically confirm that complete condensation takes place for any > 0 on RNs. Together with the recent study on SFNs, the complete condensation always occurs on both RNs and SFNs in zero range process with constant hopping rate.

Sample 2

Study the following conclusion, and try to make the underlined parts better As a conclusion, we have investigated 2.33.9 kJ Mather-type plasma focus for x-ray emission in the presence of preionization caused by source and without preionization. The preionization, besides improving the shot to shot reproducibility, enhances the x-ray emission about 25% for argon filling and about 17% for hydrogen filling. Further, the pressure range of x-ray emission is broadened. With Pb insert a maximum x-ray yield of about 46.6 J is estimated at 23 kV charging voltage. We also found that at optimum condition, the system with 3.3 kJ input energy generated x rays with efficiency of 1.4%. In particular, degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV. Pinhole images reveal that the x-ray emissions from the anode tip are dominant, apparently by the impact of electrons bombardment.

Technique Two --- Proper use of tenses Generally speaking, most frequently used tenses are: the present future, the present, the present perfect and the past tenses. Proper use of these four tenses in different parts of an

accepted paper may strengthen writers academic attitude and objective tones. The following examples show the most frequently used patterns.

Pattern 1

The present future tense frequently used in the Introduction and of a research report

This paper will present This paper will propose This paper will evaluate This paper will discuss

several approaches to improving

a new method for analyzing a theory that attempts to explain new equations for expressing

Or This paper will argue In this paper, we will propose This report will present evidence to show In this report, we will attempt to show + that / how

Pattern 2

The present perfect tense frequently used in the Abstract, Introduction and Discussion of a research report

Much / Little research Little / No attention Many / Quite few studies Several experiments or

has been carried / conducted on has been devoted to

Or has been performed / focused on have been published / done on

+ Topic

Many investigators have reported Several researchers have found Few / Many researchers have explored / examined / investigated A number of wirters / authors has discussed + that or the Topic

Pattern 3

The past tense may be used in any part of a research report

The study The paper Lee (2003) Rubinstein [ 4 ] or

examined / explored / showed

reported / noted / proposed Or pointed out / observed / suggested considered / studied / indicated

+ Topic

Pattern 4

The present tense may be used in any part of a research report The purpose of this paper is to identify The aim of the present study is to obtain /observe The report presents / describes The paper discusses / proposes Research Topic

Technique Three --- Proper use of the Modal Verbs The use of modal verbs in a research report may convey the researchers attitude and belief towards the present study to the readers or colleagues. A convincing description or introduction of an experiment can build up the persuasiveness of a paper. In practical academic writing, non-native writers are always confused about the proper use of the modal verbs, including the most frequently used modal verbs will / would , could / should, may / might. The following sample is from the part of Materials and Procedures of a research paper.

Normally, a device will be assigned a single talk and single listen address to perform the essential tasks. It may be useful to design a device with multiple talk (or listen) addresses to facilitate system requirements. A device could be assigned two talk addresses (for example, one to output raw data and the other to output processed data). Care should be given to minimize the use of such multiple addresses as later system configurations may be restricted due to excessive use of primary addressing capability.

will / would

The use of will is to show the highest probable degree of a statement while the use of would spells a conditional high probable degree.
Taking the measurement error of 3 mm, equal to the slice thickness, and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration, the calculated differences will not be significant. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus, most likely, lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. Otherwise, for example, the time dependence of P(mo1,t) in the sum would lead to the change of P(mo , t) in time. Given the respiration cycle length (36 s), a moving tumor will most likely not be imaged at its average position in a multislice CT scan. The measurement of a single bed position with PET on the other hand takes about 5 min, and will represent several full respiratory cycles. On a PET image, a moving tumor will thus be smeared out around its average position.

However, in the imaging of moving lung tumors, not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor.

The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper.

could / should

The use of could presents some degree of uncertainty of a statement while the use of should tells a high degree of certainty.
According to oceanographical surveys conducted near the present area [12,14,15], the present specimens could be transported in various directions by the complex currents if their migration is passive. For the existence of an infinite condensate in the steady state, the two masses should aggregate again in the finite-time interval. If not, unit mass continuously chips off from the infinite aggregation, which will finally disappear.

Conversely, aerosol concentration in the atmosphere could be estimated by monitoring lightning activity globally.

Hence the probability of finding two walkers at the same node should depend on the second moment (k2 ).

For the formation of an infinite aggregation of masses at the zero density limit, unit mass chipped off from the infinite aggregation should aggregate again with the aggregation within the finite time interval.

may / might

The use of might presents uncertainty of a statement while may is frequently used to show certain degree of probability.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the source in presence of argon gas. The degradation may be due to enhanced Pb vapors emitted from the anode tip with increasing charging voltage. we anticipated that A might interact with the cell membrane and to form stable ion channels. Therefore, we anticipated that the damage to the cell induced by the action of the A channels might continue despite the absence of A in the media.

Section 2. Bridging up Authority Some basic methods to cite reference materials

To cite reference materials properly is a basic requirement of academic paper writing in English. There are two different styles of references: APA and MLA, which will be

discussed in the later chapter. In this section, we will introduce three basic methods with focus on the in-text citation. 1. Quoting When citing reference materials, the writer may directly quote from the original sources. In such case, the writer should make sure that the quotation is exactly the same as the original, accurate in every aspect including the punctuations. As for a short quotation, the writer should make it a natural part of the whole paper and credit the source of the quotation. The following introductory words or phrases are frequently used to introduce the quotations: According to ( the name of the author), , (the name of the author) writes / says, Just as ( the name of the author) mentioned / suggested / noted , ( The name of the author ) maintained / admitted / claimed / holds / argued that

Sample 1
Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways" ( Long, 1996, pp. 451452). Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback.

Sample 2

Shurmer mentioned the fundamental dilemma is that while strong legal protection of IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights) can exacerbate the difficulties of reaching standards agreements [3]. Warren-Boulton argued copyright is the appropriate form of protection for intellectual property only when the likelihood of an unwarranted grant of monopoly is extremely low [4]. Farrell suggested the intellectual property tradeoff should be tilted more towards efficient diffusion - when the innovation is subject to network effects [5]. Smoot discussed in favor of the IPR protection if society truly believes it needs the technology, it could be always appropriate it by eminent domain by paying its worth [1].

Sample 3
Helen Fox (1994) has noted the impact that cultural differences have on the writing of international students: These differences, learned from early childhood, affect the way students interact with their professors and classmates, their attitudes toward the books they read and the problems they are called upon to solve. They affect how students give oral presentations, from short critiques of articles theyve read to dissertation defenses. They affect how students understand assignments, how they study, and how they comment on their classmates paper. But most of all, these affect the way they write.

2. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing refers to the citing skill to put others words or ideas into your own words on the basis of the writers thorough and accurate understanding of the original materials. In other words, the writer should explain the related concepts or ideas what you have read and keep the exact meaning by using your own words. Paraphrasing is frequently

used in research paper writing because it not only deepens the writers understanding of the original materials but also enhance the expressiveness of the citation. In order to convey the exact meaning of other researchers work, the writer should build up a context or a discussion topic to indicate the paraphrasing parts. There are two typical patterns in APA format to paraphrase other researchers work ( See the Samples 1 and 2 ): Pattern One: The name of the author (s) found / concluded / suggested that Pattern Two: the exact concepts or idea cited or outlined (the name of the researchers, the time) When citing other researchers work, the writer should not use too many direct quotations. In effect, the better approach to cite is to use both quoting and paraphrasing interchangeably if necessary ( See the Sample 3)

Sample 1
While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes, several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. For example, Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners, and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. However, Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners, and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers. Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input

from their peers, and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom, arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers, and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning, and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand, making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i.e. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.e. 712 years).

Sample 2
Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica), production (Gass and Swain), and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey; for review see Gass et al., 1998). There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al., 2000). However, despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong, 1999), most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.

Sample 3

An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 813 years in 96 dyads. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997), she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning, and use a variety of negotiation strategies. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively, socially, and linguistically, they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. 379). 3. Summarizing In any academic paper with a literature review, to summarize the documents related to the paper is an essential skill. To make such a summary, the writer needs to summarize the main points of others in his own words based on his accurate understanding of the original. Similarly, when the writer intends to illustrate his viewpoints by using others authoritative thoughts, he has to summarize the main ideas of others as brief as possible whether he may quote directly or indirectly from the original. The detailed information of summary writing will be discussed in the next chapter. Here by following samples shows how to build up authority by summarizing. Sample 1 shows how to indicate the source of the document including the author and the original work. Sample 2 and Sample 3 present how to combine the direct quotation with the summarizing.

Sample 1
A recent study by Mackey et al. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback, the nature of the feedback, and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. Forty-eight dyads, evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old, and learner-native speaker

and learner-learner pairings, engaged in task-based interactions. Among children, learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads, although only among learner-learner dyads, and only for the nature of and response to feedback, although not for the amount of feedback provided. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i.e. learner vs. native speaker) and learner age.

Sample 2
Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the human essence, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). Although human beings are unusual creatures in many ways, perhaps we are most unusual in our possession of language. Animals communicate, to be sure, but none at least as far as we can tell communicate using anything like human language (see Akmajian, Demers & Harnish, 1992, pp. 31-76; Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2003, pp. 3-30; OGrady & Dobrovolsky, 1996, pp. 583620; Wallman, 1992).

Sample 3

Language may indeed be central to being human, but that does not, of course, mean that human beings even otherwise well-educated human beings are particularly knowledgeable about language (see Bauer & Trudgill, 1998; McWhorter, 2001; Pinker, 1994; Wardhaugh, 1999). In her book The Language Imperative, Suzette Haden Elgin observes that:

It is all too easy to underestimate the power of language . . . because almost every human being knows and uses one or more languages, we have let that miracle be trivialized . . . We forget, or are unaware of, the power that language has over our minds and our lives; we use that power ourselves as casually as we use the electric power in ourhomes, with scarcely a thought given to its potential to help or harm. grounds. (2000, p. 239) We make major decisions about language on the most flimsy and trivial B and often entirely mistaken B

Section 3. Plagiarism

Whether quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing, a writer should acknowledge the sources properly. Plagiarism is the dishonest use of the ideas or words taken from other authors without any acknowledgement. Consciously or unconsciously, the writer is to commit the plagiarism whenever he uses a source in any way without indicating that he has used it. The following approaches may help acknowledge the sources of the original. Put quotation marks around the words or phrase. Separate the quotation, paraphrase or summary of the original source from the writers text. Using the transitional expressions such as according to , based on the work of

Here are some common ways of plagiarizing a source: Coping some words or phrases without mention of the authors name or quotation marks. Confusing the original authors ideas with the writers own without indicating the source. Citing, paraphrasing or summarizing other authors work with the detailed source information omitted. 1. Proper use of the Imitation Strategy As a second language (L2) learning strategy, the imitation strategy is one of most important strategies to follow the L2 writing traditions and format. The proper use of it may help L2 writers build up the genre knowledge of academic writing in English and access the practical skills to make an argumentation in L2 writing.

Genre Knowledge

Generally speaking, genre knowledge of a research paper refers to knowledge of the formats and elements of a paper and the functions of each part in the paper ( See the table in Section one of the first chapter). On the basis of the genre knowledge, a L2 writer may use imitation strategies to brainstorm the main idea and arguments of a research paper

to draft the paper following traditional organizations with focus on the main idea of each part rather than sentence patterns.

to get comments or feedback of colleagues to redraft, edit and format the whole paper

Argumentation

Academic paper writing calls for critical thinking. In specific, a writer should convey his own opinion on his subject by making a claim or statement called arguments. To make an effective argument, the writer should avoid universal statements with such words as always, never, all, none, everyone, no one. The qualified statements to make an effective argument can be categorized by three qualities: whether they are verifiable, evaluative, or advocatory claims; whether they are specific or, if non-specific, whether the qualification strengthens or weakens the claim; whether they serve as conclusions, premises, or support in an argument.

2. Proper use of Internet sources Internet source provides us an immediate access to the colleagues academic papers on an international basis. As such, the use of Internet sources may also cause the issue of

plagiarism. In particular, the Internet search engines like Google ( in English) and Baidu ( in Chinese) has improved the process to access others academic work. However, it is worth noting that there is a high likelihood of committing plagiarism behind the convenience. So the following points should be kept in mind when the Internet source is cited: To identify the authors name and the specific information of the paper such as the issue of the periodical, the page number before you document the material. To indicate the name and other necessary information as required in APA or MLA formats, avoid copying any statement with no author mentioned in the Internet source. To use quotation marks when quoting anything from another author, whether a word or phrase. To separate the summary of other authors opinion from your personal viewpoints when summarizing another authors words To clearly acknowledge the ideas you paraphrased when paraphrasing another authors work.

Chapter 3
Genre Analysis of Publishable Research Paper

Generally, a publishable research report in English as introduced in Chapter One includes Abstract, Introduction, Research Methodologies and Procedures, Results and Findings, Discussion and Conclusion, References or Appendixes (if any). In this chapter, we will discuss in length the genres to these parts of a publishable paper. The genre analysis covers the definition / classification, the function, the essential elements and samples of each part of a publishable paper. At the end of each section, tips for practical writing will be introduced.

Section 1. Summary and Abstract


A summary is a shorter version, in your own words, of what you have read. The summary captures all the most important parts of the original, but expresses them in a much shorter space. Summary writing is not only a common skill in writing any research paper with a literature review, but also a valuable learning process. On the other hand, a research paper abstract, also called executive summary, concentrates on the research findings and what might be concluded from them. Abstract appears at the very beginning of a published paper and helps readers save time deciding

whether or not read your paper, thus they are important to determine how many people may read your paper. Both summary and abstracts should aim to be informative (for example, it should include the main findings of the study) rather than merely indicative, meaning that they indicate the kind of research that was done. The following samples show the different process of writing a summary and an abstract.

Sample 1
Summary Writing Original text At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls, often behind the referee's back. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous position in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves, damage stadiums, or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. [100 words] Summary Unsportsmanlike behavior by footballers may cause hooliganism among spectators. [9 words]

Sample 2

An abstract of a published paper

The Effect of Peer and Teacher Feedback on Student Writing Trena M. Paulus Indiana University

Although teacher and peer feedback, together with required revision, is a common component of the process-approach English as Second Language (ESL) writing classroom, the effect that the feedback and revision process has on the improvement of student writing is as yet undetermined. The researcher analyzed 11 ESL student essay in detail: categorizing the types and sources of revisions made according to Faigley and Wittes (1981) taxonomy of revisions, evaluating the first and final drafts of students essays, and recording students verbal report during revision. While the majority of revisions that students made were surface-level revisions, the changes they made as a result of peer and teacher feedback were more often meaning-level changes than those revisions they made on their own. It was also found that writing multiple drafts in overall essay improvement.

1. Features and Elements Features of summary and abstract: Brevity: to covey in as few words as possible the essential information contained in the text you have read (for summary writing) or written (for your own paper). Objectiveness: to state objectively others or your own ideas and main points in the paper. Integrity: to confine the summary or abstract to a single paragraph with limited words and necessary elements of information. Concise: to define terminally the scope, results and conclusions of a study, identify the authors (or your own) contributions in the research paper, and indicate in simplest terms the significance of the paper. Consistency: to be consistent with the other parts of the whole paper, and never to include what has not been mentioned in the paper. Concentration: to omit such elements of information as figures, tables, or literature references in a summary or abstract, to avoid repeating the unnecessary elements that conventionally appear in other sections of the paper. Completeness: to include what the writer has done and what he has achieved within the scope of the topic, such as the research theories, research methods, investigations and results and conclusions, and to differentiate his paper work from others by stressing this papers contribution.

Typical Elements of a summary of a research paper ( See the sample 1) Who --- who has done the study What--- in what kind of context or scope of the study When--- the time order of similar studies What --- what research approaches have been used and what has been found and implied.

Sample 1
A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. For example, Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners, noting that classroom organization, for example, open versus teacher-centered classrooms, influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities, more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning.

Typical Elements of an abstract and their order ( See the sample 2) Study context: background information Purpose and scope: principle activities of the study and the scope. Methodologies: information about the methodology used in the study Results: the most important results of the study. Conclusions and implications: a statement of conclusion, implication or recommendation if necessary.

Sample 2

Interactional feedback and children's L2 development


Alison Mackey
a , ,a

and Rhonda Oliver

,b

Department of Linguistics, ICC 460, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA b School of Education, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia 6050, Australia Received 2 May 2002; revised 14 June 2002; accepted 17 June 2002. Abstract

The relationship between interactional feedback and second language learning has been the focus of much recent research. Studies have examined the type and effectiveness of interactional feedback in a range of different settings and contexts. However, most of the existing research has focused on adults, despite the fact that there is general agreement that age plays an important role in second language learning outcomes. In the current study, we explored the effects of interactional feedback on children's L2 development in a pretest/posttest design. Twenty-two child ESL learners carried out communicative tasks that provided contexts for targeted forms and interactional feedback to occur. The children interacted in dyads with adult native speakers. During a 3-day treatment period, the experimental group (n=11) received interactional feedback in response to their non-targetlike production of question forms, while the control group (n=11) interacted, but did not receive feedback. Results showed that the experimental group improved more than the control group in terms of question formation. This study that children developed following interactional feedback just as adults have been shown to. Interestingly, the children's interlanguage seemed to be impacted by feedback relatively quickly, while similar studies with adults have demonstrated more delayed effects.

2. Approaches to summary and abstract writing

How to Summarize
The summary should concisely and accurately capture the central meaning of the original. It should be expressed - as far as possible - in your own words. Note that it is not enough to merely copy out parts of the original.

The question will usually set a maximum number of words. If not, aim for something like one tenth of the original. [A summary which was half the length of the original would not be a summary.]

Read the original quickly, and try to understand its main subject or purpose. Then you will need to read it again to understand it in more detail. Underline or make a marginal note of the main issues. Use a highlighter if this helps. Look up any words or concepts you don't know, so that you understand the author's sentences and how they relate to each other. Work through the text to identify its main sections or arguments. These might be expressed as paragraphs or web pages. Remember that the purpose [and definition] of a paragraph is that it deals with one issue or topic. Draw up a list of the topics - or make a diagram. [A simple picture of boxes or a spider diagram can often be helpful.] Write a one or two-sentence account of each section you identify. Focus your attention on the main point. Leave out any illustrative examples. Write a sentence which states the central idea of the original text. Use this as the starting point for writing a paragraph which combines all the points you have made. Remember that it must be in your own words. By writing in this way, you help to recreate the meaning of the original in a way which makes sense for you.

How to write abstract effectively


As a short, concise and highly generalized text, an abstract should be written in formal and academic language. The most frequently used tenses are the present, the past and the present perfect. Besides, the passive voice and the third person are often preferred. Serving as a useful tool in searching for information, helping readers identify the basic content of a document more quickly and conveniently, an effective abstract

should be as concise as possible, without any detailed information or comment on the research. An abstract may directly influence the paper acceptance to a learned journal, so specific expressions to present the main points in the abstract are more favored over general ones. Also, direct description of what the paper has explored is more acceptable. In terms of its form, an abstract should cover all the major aspects dealt with in the paper. In particular, the primary terms used in the paper should be defined within the scope of the study. An abstract will be more widely read than the paper itself, thus producing wider and deeper academic influence than the full text of the paper. An effective abstract should be well organized and can reflect every aspect of the whole paper.

3. Tips for abstract and summary writing The following three steps to draft a summary or an abstract are frequently used: Step One: Introduction---to define the context, the argument, the purpose of the present study Step Two: Contents of the study --- to outline the main participants, the methods and the procedures of the study. Step Three: Results, findings and conclusion --- to present the most important results and related findings, and give suggestions of further study.

Step One

Introduction: the frequently used sentence patterns

To define the context and argument of the present study: This paper describes / presents ( the argument) within( a theoretical context) Although ( the research subject), ( the related problem) is as yet undetermined.

(The research subject), however, ( the related problem)remains unsolved. ( Previous studies) have examined , ( the related problem) is that, despite (Problems in certain research area) are, yet (the present solution) has frequently been questioned, because While ( the debate on certain research subject) seems to, (the present agreement) is still problematic.

To present the purpose of the present study: The purpose / intention of this paper is The primary goal / aim of this research is The overall objective of this study is In this paper / study, we aim at The work / investigation presented in this paper focuses on

Step Two

Contents of the study: the frequently used formats

To introduce the main participants or materials The present study has investigated by using / analyzing( participants / materials) In this study, we inquired / examined / evaluated ( participants / materials) The experiments / investigations of the present study involved( participants / materials). In contrast with ( previous studies or conclusions), the study has focused on ( participants / materials)

To present research methods and procedures The method / approach used in the present study is

The experiment / investigation in the paper is conducted by adopting The procedure the present study followed can be briefly described as The experiment / study consisted of the following steps: Included in the experiment were Based on the idea that, we conducted the present study, categorized , and evaluated.

Step Three
Results, findings and conclusion: Some useful sentence patterns The results of the experiment indicate/ suggest that; it is also found that It is concluded that; the results also imply the further study into The investigation / experiment varied by.... And the results also revealed that These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that The data / results obtained appear to , thus we may conclude that As a result of the current experiments, we concluded that

Section 2. Introduction Writing

The introduction of a research paper functions as a theoretical orientation to the whole paper (also called the research background), a review of previous studies, a transition

to the arguments and hypothesis of the present study. In some cases, the importance of the present exploration and the organizations of the paper are also included in the introduction. 2.1 Construct and Steps The typical introduction of a research paper involves the following steps ( See the Sample 1 and Sample 2 ) : Step One: Research background --- it may involve a theoretical scope and support of the present study, a research focus or subject of current research tendency in a specific discipline, and a definition of research problems in a specific area. Step Two: Literature review --- it presents a series of studies relevant to the present study subject, a further focus on the problematic points of previous experiments (investigations), solutions or findings. Step Three: Argumentation/ Hypothesis --- it points to the research gap: the problems or arguments on the basis of the presentation of the previous studies, most frequently followed by the present researchers hypothesis and assumptions. Step Four: Present study --- it introduces the focus, the purpose, the main

procedures of the present study. Or Step Five: Theoretical role of the present study --- it is a transition of the previous studies to the present study, or an experimental and theoretical comparison of previous findings or solutions with the present one. Step Six: Organization of the paper --- it outlines how the paper will be organized or how the present study is designed and presented in the paper.

To compare the formats and steps of the Introduction of the following two samples, then identify each step used in the two Introductions.

Sample 1 Critical Thinking Pedagogies and the Development of L2 Students Critical Thinking Ability in Academic Writing

Introduction In the field of second language (L2) writing, there have been considerable discussions about the development of culturally diverse L2 students critical thinking ability. Critical thinking is frequently seen in Western tertiary context as a necessary component of academic writing in subject guide-lines, assessment criteria and in written feedback on students assignments (Woodward-Kron, 2002). The widely accepted assumption in the current debate over critical thinking pedagogies (Atkinson, 1997) is based on extensive investigations of ESL students difficulties with argumentative /analytical writing assignments (Ballard and Clanchy, 1991; Fox, 1994; Pally,1997, 2001; Spack, 1997; Stapleton, 2001;Woodward-Kron, 2002). However, disagreements arise about whether critical thinking pedagogies should be adopted in the L2 writing classroom, and how ESL students could be guided towards critical thinking in academic writing. To uncover the underlying reasons why ESL students are faced with so many problems in academic writing, many researchers have offered the cultural explanations (Ballard & Clanchy, 1991; Fox, 1994; Matthews, 2002; Zamel, 1997); some have further explored the framework of critical thinking pedagogies (Benesh, 2001; Pally, 1997, 2001); while others relate critical thinking to the Western social practice tacitly incorporating an ideology of individualism which L2 learners may have serious trouble accessing (Atkinson, 1997; Ramanathan and Atkinson, 1999). With the focus of the debate on whether L2 learners need the pedagogical scaffolding towards critical thinking skills in academic writing, however, these researchers fail to address how the larger L2 student population has succeeded in acquiring or learning the critical thinking skills and accessed the Western academic writing conventions, and to what extent current L 2 writing instructional approaches could facilitate this process. The analysis of critical thinking pedagogies in the present paper will focus on the gap between the Western educational expectations of critical thinking and the reality of L2 learners ability to use critical thinking in the analytical /argumentative/ academic writing. These three terms are used interchangeably to refer to the most important component of academic writing related to critical thinking skills (cf. Atkinson, 1997; Atkinson & Ramanathan, 1995; Fox, 1994; Pally, 2001; Ramanathan & Atkinson, 1999; Spack, 1997). Hereafter, academic writing is merged with analytical writing and argumentative writing.

Then, on the basis of the review of different positions of the importation of critical thinking skills into ESL classroom, I will argue that the conclusive stances on ESL critical thinking pedagogies fail to address the whole issue of L2 students struggles to meet Western academic writing standards. The paper further calls for more empirical studies focusing on a wider range of factors which may facilitate L2 students development of critical thinking ability and on a wider range of perspectives of teaching critical thinking. Finally, it is suggested that further studies on ESL students development of critical thinking ability need to aim at how the large number of L2 student writers succeed in adjusting themselves to Western academic writing conventions and in using critical thinking skills in their academic writing.

Sample 2 Interactional feedback and children's L2 development


Alison Mackey
, ,a

and Rhonda Oliver

1. Introduction
1.1. The interaction hypothesis

Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis proposes that feedback obtained during conversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL) development because interaction "connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways" ( Long, 1996, pp. 451452). Gass and Pica have made similar arguments for the efficacy of interactional feedback. Research on interaction has described the different types of interactional modifications that take place and has sought empirical evidence for the impact of interaction on comprehension ( Loschky and pica), production ( Gass and Swain), and L2 development ( Ellis and Mackey; for review see Gass et al., 1998). There is a move in current interactionist research to explore the specific nature and contribution of different interactional features on L2 learning ( Mackey et al., 2000). However, despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong, 1999), most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. The current study examines the effect of interactional feedback on children's second language development.
1.2. Age differences and SLA

As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. However, research indicates that age seems to affect the rate of acquisition and the end state of second language acquisition. The evidence suggests that while older learners learn language, particularly grammar, more quickly ( Ervin; Harley; Krashen; Long; Snow and Snow), younger learners seem to attain a more native-like command of second languages

( Johnson; Johnson; Oyama; Oyama; Patkowski and Singleton). While some researchers have argued in favor of a critical period, or a defined cut-off point beyond which native-like attainment is impossible ( DeKeyser and Johnson), others have claimed that second language learning is subject to a sensitive period, beyond which the ability to learn a second language gradually declines ( Bialystok; Bialystok; Birdsong and Birdsong). While the specific role of age in second language acquisition is not yet clearly understood, researchers generally acknowledge that there are differences between child and adult SLA. It is therefore not appropriate to apply findings about adult second language learning to children without adequate empirical research. In the current study, we explore the topic of interaction and L2 development of children in the 812 year-old range.

1.3. Children's interactional processes


While there has been relatively little research that directly (and experimentally) addresses the connection between children's interaction and their L2 learning outcomes, several interesting studies have examined different aspects of children's general interactional processes. For example, Scarcella and Higa (1981) found that adult native speakers did more negotiation work when conversing with younger learners, and suggested that younger learners were less active participants in conversations with native speakers. However, Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners, and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers.Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers, and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. Damhuis (1993) analyzed various input and production features while children were engaged in different kinds of activities in the classroom, arguing that the children's play activities produced more input and production opportunities favorable to SLA when there was no teacher involved. Hamayan and Tucker (1980) found that teachers exhibited a tendency towards more explicit correction of errors made by learners than those made by native speakers, and that they corrected errors more explicitly and frequently if they were made by younger learners than by older learners. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning, and negotiated more with teachers when they were in a group situation than individually. Patterson and Kister (1981) found that several of the young children in their study (below the age of 7) failed to negotiate meaning when they did not understand, making the important point that it is obviously important to distinguish between `young children' (i.e. up to 7 years) and `older children' (i.e. 712 years). A number of studies in intact classrooms have examined the characteristics of interaction between teachers and children. For example, Wong-Fillmore (1982) observed interactions in four bilingual kindergarten classes with native and non-native speakers of English at varying levels of proficiency. She found individual differences in the English learning outcome of the learners, noting that classroom organization, for example, open versus teacher-centered classrooms, influenced the access of the child learners to exposure to input. In open classrooms without any teacher-directed activities, more effort was required for the learners to gain access to input for language learning.

Other observational studies of child second language learners in classroom contexts have been carried out by Lyster; Lyster and Lyster. The children in their classrooms were 4th- and 5th-grade learners of French. Lyster and Ranta (1997) found that recasts were the most widely used form of feedback provided by teachers to children. Examining whether or not recasts can lead to students' uptake or repair in the third turn, Lyster and Ranta suggest that recasts led to few student-generated forms of repair. In a later study, Lyster (1998b) focused on the discourse context in which recasts occurred, concluding that recasts serve more than one discourse function and they tend to occur in a similar context to non-corrective repetition in the interactions between teachers and students. Ellis et al. (2001) also examined the rate of uptake in a similar classroom situation, adopting a different operationalization of uptake. Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. The primary focus of the majority of studies involving children's interaction has been interactional patterns between children and adults, mainly their teachers. Intact classes, small groups, and dyads have all been studied. Relatively little research has focused on child-child conversations, especially in relation to children's L2 development. An important exception is Oliver's research into conversational interaction between age-matched children. Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 813 years in 96 dyads. Like Ellis and Heimbach (1997), she found that many children can and do negotiate for meaning, and use a variety of negotiation strategies. Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively, socially, and linguistically, they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding" (p. 379). A recent study by Mackey et al. (in press) focused on adult versus child differences in the amount of interactional feedback, the nature of the feedback, and modified output produced in response to the feedback by adults and children. Forty-eight dyads, evenly divided among adults and children between 8 and 12 years old, and learner-native speaker and learner-learner pairings, engaged in task-based interactions. Among children, learners were more likely to produce modified output in response to feedback from learners than from native speakers. Significant differences were also found between adult and child dyads, although only among learnerlearner dyads, and only for the nature of and response to feedback, although not for the amount of feedback provided. Their study suggests that learners may encounter different linguistic environments depending on interlocutor type (i.e. learner vs. native speaker) and learner age. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers and with their ESL teacher in terms of the provision and use of negative feedback in the interactional patterns of children and adults in teacher-fronted lessons and pair work contexts. In Oliver's study, the children were ESL learners, aged 6 to 12, paired with native age peers. Oliver found differences in the patterns of interaction according to the age of the learners and context of the exchanges. Finally, Van den Branden (1997) examined the effects of negotiation on child learners' output, showing that children who had been pushed in negotiations subsequently produced a greater quantity of output, provided more essential information and displayed a greater range of vocabulary than learners who had not been pushed, although they did not improve in terms of grammatical accuracy or syntactic complexity. Van den Branden suggests, however, that his study "provides a clear indication of the potential effects of negotiation on language acquisition, as

well as empirical evidence for the effects of negotiation on subsequent output production" (p. 626). In summary, the interaction hypothesis (described in Long, 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. Although generally supportive, most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. Interestingly, however, studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons, while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes, have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children, as it has been shown to do with adults. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question.
1.4. Research question

In order to further our understanding of the role of the interaction in SLA and of the possible effects of learner age on SLA, the present study investigated the effects of interactional feedback on children's interlanguage. Specifically, in adult-child dyads we provided interactional feedback on non-targetlike question forms to children, in an attempt to answer the following research question: Does interactional feedback, including negotiation and recasts, facilitate second language development in children? This question led to the following prediction: Child ESL learners who take part in conversations with interactional feedback will develop more than child ESL learners who take part in conversations without such feedback. Polio and Gass (1997) have called for more replication in the field of SLA. The interaction literature shows a clear gap in terms of child learners. Thus, the design of the study partially replicates that of Mackey (1999), in which it was found that interactional feedback facilitated the development of ESL questions in adult learners of ESL.

2.2 Sentence Patterns To follow the steps discussed above, research paper learners can use some typical sentence patterns to introduce research background or literatures, to provide the main purpose, arguments and the organization of the paper. Note that the following sentence

patterns may be the alternative approach to the development of the Introduction in some practical writings. 2.2.1. Research Background Aim: to narrow the scope, to locate the research subject by widely accepted facts in a field. Typical Sentence Pattern: S1 [Facts] + S2 [ detailed information] + (however), S3[ research focus]

Example Because of the thermally unstable nature of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers, generally containing about 85 mol% or greater AN when no stabilizer is present [1], they are processed in the presence of toxic, organic solvents, commonly including dimethlyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). Viscosities for these materials generally become suitable for melt processing when temperatures of approximately 220 8Care approached [1].However, at 220 8C a rapid reaction that produces intramolecular cyclic structures with intermolecular crosslinks takes place, rendering these high AN content copolymers intractable prior to extrusion into fiber form [2]. The crosslinking reaction can be slowed by the presence of a stabilizer, such as boric acid, particularly for relatively low molecular weight AN copolymers containing between 8590 mol% AN [3]. Acrylic fibers from high molecular weight AN precursors, especially containing greater than 90 mol% AN, are typically solution processed at low solids content (730 wt% polymer) using toxic organic solvents [4].

2.2.2. Literature Review: Aim: A summary of a series of relevant studies. Typical Sentence patterns: (for the techniques see Section One Summary Writing) A: Focus on the researchers Several researchers have found / suggested / examined / explored / studied

B: Focus on previous studies A number of studies / articles in literature have presented / shown / suggested

Example 1 Numerous patents and journal articles have been published regarding melt processing of polyacrylonitrile copolymers using a plasticizer [5,816]. The majority of studies focused on the use of water to plasticize an AN homopolymer (or copolymer) for melt extrusion. Coxe [8] showed that water plasticizes AN copolymers and permits melt processing at reduced temperatures, but Porosoff [13] showed that the extrudate needed to be passed through a pressurized solidification zone to prevent foaming of the fiber. Studies have shown that the removal of water from the precursor fiber is quite difficult, and as a result the stabilized and carbonized fibers could not be produced without formation of a microporous structure at the fiber core [5, 16]. To permit removal of the water from the fibers, a process was developed combining acetonitrile, methanol, and water to plasticize AN copolymers and melt process them into carbon fibers [10,11]. The addition of acetonitrile and methanol lowered the boiling point of the water and facilitated its removal from the fibers. However, approximately 2545 wt% plasticizer was necessary for processing, and it still required recovery because of the hazardous nature of acetonitrile, which degrades into cyanide at relatively low temperatures. As a result, the process provided no economic benefit over the solution process once commercial production outputs (greater than 2 106 lb per year) were reached. Example 2

Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are very promising due to their large bandwidth, their large flexibility and the possibility to upgrade the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks [1][8]. WDM has already been introduced in commercial systems. All-optical cross connects (OXC), however, have not yet been used for the routing

of the signals in any of these commercial systems. Several OXC topologies have been presented in the literature, but their use has so far been limited to field trials, usually with a small number of inputoutput fibers and/or wavelength channels [9][20], [27][36]. The fact, that in practical systems many signals and wavelength channels could influence each other and cause significant crosstalk in the optical cross connect, has probably prevented the use of OXCs in commercial systems [21][23], [26], [31], [41], [42].

3. Argumentation / Hypothesis: Aim: a presentation of research gap or the main purpose of the present study. Typical Approaches: A: By means of research questions (see the Sample 2 in this section Interactional feedback
and children's L2 development )

B: [findings or conclusions in the previous studies] + however, [ the problematic point] + So / therefore, the possibility of / the possible [research focus] or

Example After binning the CT and uncorrected PET data into corresponding phases, the tumor and tissue positions on PET and CT match more closely. Therefore, an additional advantage of phase binning is the possible reduction of motion artifacts introduced to the PET scan during CT-based attenuation correction. Applying phase correlated attenuation correction will thus, most likely, lead to a more accurate correction and fewer introductions of motion artifacts. A great advantage of an improved attenuation correction would be the possibility of autosegmentation for delineation of tumors based on the SUV. For radiotherapy of lung cancer patients, the ultimate goal is to adapt the margins needed in delineation of the tumor to the actual movement of the tumor in each patient. The aim of the current study is to show the potential of respiration correlation of PET with retrospective binning and of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET scanning.

4. The (present /current )study: Aim: a transition of the aim or the focus of the present study, sometimes followed by the organizations of the paper. Typical Sentence Patterns: The aim of the present / current study is to [ See the above example] In this paper, the focus is on In this paper, we investigate / examine / explore The paper start from ; Then, (the organization) The outline the paper is as follows.

Example

In this paper, we investigate the effect of network structures on the condensation transitions of the SCA model using random networks (RNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs). As we shall see, on RNs and SFNs with the degree exponent r >3, the SCA model undergoes the same type of condensation transitions as those in a regular lattice across a critical line c () in the - plane with the exponent =5/2. However, on SFNs with r 3 where one or several nodes, so-called hub nodes, have a finite fraction of links, the fluid phase completely disappears and the condensation with exponentially decaying background mass distribution takes place for any nonzero density. The outline of this paper is as follows. In Sec. II, we introduce the SCA model on complex networks. The condensation transitions on RNs and SFNs are discussed in Secs. III and IV. To understand the condensation on SFNs with r 3, we discuss lamb-lion problems on SFNs in Sec. V. In Secs. VI and VII, we discuss the SCA model at = and the effect of diffusion of masses on average mass distribution on degrees, respectively. Finally, we summarize our results in Sec. VIII.

Section 3. Method and Materials

This part is quite differently named in different research disciplines. It may be followed by subtitles related to the research methods and materials. The following titles refer to the same section of a research paper (See the Sample 1):

Research set-up and diagnostics Protocol for (for example, networked measurement and control system) Experimental The study Research Design Method and Procedures Research method and materials

This part should mention: The experimental apparatus and materials used in the study The explanation of the details of the experimental procedures The outline of the original study The reason why the materials, apparatus and approaches were used The special experimental conditions or settings The details of the special methods used The approaches to data collection and analysis

The typical tense used in this experimental procedure is the past while the present is more frequently used in the introduction of the materials. Sometimes, the present tense is used in this whole part so as to keep a objective tone. For example,

The SILL is a self-scoring, paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements. A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. A questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use, including patterns of use. . This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford, 1990). SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels, and by elementary and advanced level students. The passive voice is most frequently used to keep the tone more objective. For example, In addition to the measures described above, the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. The camera is mounted in the radial position, viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. While fixing the source, it is ensured that the source remains below the knifeedged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected.

Sample 1

5. The study 5.1. Overall design of the study The study had three phases, one of which is reported here. In part A, a questionnaire was used to elicit information about reported language learning strategy use, including patterns of use. In part B, selected students from the school were interviewed to explore in more detail individuals patterns of strategy use. Part C consisted of a classroombased study and included a longitudinal dimension as well as teachers perspectives on language learning strategy use. Parts B and C will be reported elsewhere. 5.2. Research setting The setting for the current study was a private English language school for international students in Auckland, New Zealand. Over the period of the study (one year), the population of the school averaged around 100. English courses at the school were spread over seven levels: elementary, mid-elementary, upper elementary, pre-intermediate, midintermediate, upper intermediate and advanced. The school did not accept total beginners, so even the lowest level (elementary) had some English ability and usually scored between 80 and 90 out of 200 on the Oxford Placement Test (for details, see below). The top level students (advanced) were still usually well below native speaker level and typically scored 140150 on the Oxford Placement Test. 5.3. Participants Part A of the study involved 348 students, aged 1464, from 21 different countries: Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, Thailand ,Switzer land, Germany, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Tahiti, Portugal ,Argentina, France, Brazil, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Poland. The majority of the students were from Japan (N=219) and other Asian countries (91%). There were 114 male students and 234 females. There were 172 younger students between the ages of 14 and 23, and 176 between the ages of 24 and 64. The majority of the students (74%) were in their twenties. The socioeconomic status of these students was generally high. Participants levels ranged from elementary to advanced (seven levels, as explained in Section 5.2). Some were new arrivals at the school, while others had been there for several months (see data collection section). Arriving students were given the widely used, commercially available Oxford Placement Test or OPT (Allan,1995 ),consisting of a grammar section and a listening section. The OPT is completed in about an hour and produces a score out of 200 which can be related to a suggested placement framework. The OPT 140 lower threshold for placement at advanced level, for instance, is deemed an independent user, whereas the OPT 90 upper threshold for elementary level is deemed a minimal user. In the 100-item grammar test, which takes about 50 min to complete, students must select one of three options (for instance: In warm climates people like/likes/are liking sitting outside in the sun). The listening test, which takes about 10 min, consists of 100 sentences played on a tape to which the student must listen and choose from two possible answers. The pairs are selected so that either alternative is logically and

grammatically possible so that students cannot guess the answer without listening (for instance: Will you get me some soap/soup at the supermarket?). Entering students were also given an oral interview by a senior member of staff familiar with the levels within the school. The interviewer noted the ability to communicate effectively and fluently and to understand and answer questions with appropriate vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The results of this assessment might influence the decision regarding placement as suggested by the OPT result. If questions remained regarding appropriate placement, a written task might be added. In subsequent weeks students were given regular tests based on the work covered in class, according to which they might be promoted. The level at which a student was working at any particular time, therefore, depended on a combination of the OPT score, the oral interview assessment, possibly an assessment of written competence, and the results of later adjustments and testing following placement. These multiple factors involved in assigning students to a particular level are typical of many language school contexts. 5.4. Instrumentation In addition to the measures described above (which were not part of the study per se, but which were used for placement purposes only) the main instrument in this study was designed for measuring the frequency of language learning strategy use. This measure was the 50-item version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for speakers of other languages learning English (Oxford, 1990). The advantages and disadvantages of any type of self-report questionnaire, including self-report strategy questionnaires, have been debated in the research literature (for instance, Cohen, 1998; Dorrnyei, 2003; Ellis, 1994; Guetal.,1995; Turner,19 93)because of factors such as inability to remember accurately, lack of self-awareness by students, varying interpretations of terms, and the effects of cultural background on response patterns. However, their value for obtaining quantitative data is also recognized by many of the same researchers (Cohen,1998; Dornyei,2003; Ellis, 1994; Oxford,1990 ). The SILL is a self-scoring, paper-and-pencil questionnaire which consists of a series of statements such as I review English lessons often to which students are asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never or almost never) to 5 (always or almost always). The SILL was chosen for this study because it is perhaps the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date (Ellis,1994, p.539) and has been widely used. Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients range from 0.89 to 0.98 in various studies. Concurrent and predictive validity have been found when relating SILL results to measures of proficiency, motivation, learning styles, and other factors (for details, see Oxford,1996 and Oxford and Burry-Stock,1995 ). 5.5. Data collection procedures SILL data were collected from 348 students over a period of a year as part of normal classroom routines aimed at getting a wide-ranging sample of students to reflect on their learning and to raise awareness of strategy options. An initial block of 69 questionnaires was gathered during a school-wide strategy awareness raising exercise and involved all students studying there at the time. The remaining 279 questionnaires were collected in the course of a

special Study Skills class held during the students first week at the school in order to provide orientation to the schools facilities (such as the self-access room) and to raise awareness regarding how to study (as distinct from the usual focus on what was studied). 5.6. Data analysis procedures SILL data were analyzed for mean reported frequencies of use across all levels, and (in order to highlight differences in language learning strategy use by higher and lower level students) by elementary and advanced level students. The data were also analyzed for significant relationships (Pearson correlation), and significant differences (Students t). In addition, a univariate regression analysis was carried out to determine the amount of variance in course level accounted for by strategies reportedly used by the most proficient groups of students at a high frequency level, that is, a mean of 3.5 or above (Oxford, 1990).

Sample 2
II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND DIAGNOSTICS A. Plasma focus facility The experiments are carried out on a conventional Mather-type plasma focus system. The central electrode is made of a copper rod 110 mm long and 18 mm diameter, which is slightly tapered towards the open end. This tapering is found to be suitable in enhancing the charged particles and x rays from the focus region. In one experiment, a hole of 14 mm diameter and 15 mm deep is drilled in the copper rod and filled with Pb. The source is not mounted during the experiment with the Pb inserted anode. Six copper rods each of 9 mm in diameter arranged in a circle of 50 mm inner diameter around the anode formed the cathode. A Pyrex glass sleeve of 23 mm breakdown length is used to separate the anode from the cathode base at the bottom. Further details about the plasma focus device have been reported elsewhere. A 12.5 F single capacitor, charged at 1925 kV, giving a peak discharge current of about 190 245 kA, powered the device. Schematic of the electrodes is illustrated in Fig. 1. B. Preionization A mesh-type radioactive source (28Ni63) having endpoint energy of 67 keV with strength of 0.4 mCi is placed in symmetry around the insulator sleeve to produce preionization, as indicated in Fig. 1. While fixing the source, it is ensured that the source remains below the knife-edged cathode surface so that the field emission from here is not affected. C. p-i-n diode x-ray detector A two channel X-ray spectrometer consisting of Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes having 100 mm2 active area and 125 m active layer thickness masked with suitable absorption filters, is used

to obtain information concerning the x-ray emission in different shots. For the study of Cu K line emission the selected Ross filter pair consists of 20- m-thick Co and 17.5- m-thick Ni foils. The Co filter has the absorption edge at 7.71 keV and allows transmission of x rays in the 47.71 keV window. The absorption edge of Ni filter lies at 8.33 keV and allows transmission of the Cu K line of 8.05 keV. The thickness of the two filters is adjusted to achieve almost equal transmission curves over the entire photon energy range, except within the narrow spectral region between their K-absorption edges. Thus subtracting the signal recorded by p-i-n diode masked with Co filter from the signal of the p-i-n diode covered with Ni filter corresponds to the Cu K line radiation. The detectors are placed along the periphery of a 190.1 cm circle concentric to the anode axis, and elevated at 1.50.1 cm from the anode tip. Transmission curves of filters and computed sensitivities of p-i-n diodes along with the filters for each channel are displayed in Fig. 2. The data for absorption coefficients are taken from the Handbook of Spectroscopy. During the experiment with Pb insert, a set of Mo (10 m), Ag (50 m), and Pb (55 m) covers three p-i-n diode detectors. The transmission curves and the detectors response along with corresponding filters are presented in Fig. 3. D. Multichannel pinhole camera For time-integrated analysis a pinhole camera equipped with 200- m diameter multipinhole apertures is used. The pinholes are masked separately with 10- m-thick Co and Ni filters. The camera is mounted in the radial position, viewing the plasma region as well as tip of the anode. During the experiment with Pb insert, the filtration foils of different materials and thicknesses are used. The film holder can move or rotate freely in the box and record five snaps without disturbing the vacuum. The pinhole images are recorded on Fuji medical x-ray film. E. Electrical diagnostics A high-voltage probe is used to record the transient high voltage across the focus tube. Current is measured at the base plate of the plasma focus electrodes by a Rogowski coil. A four channel 200 MHz Gould 4074A digital storage oscilloscope is deployed to record electrical signals.

Section 4. Results
The Results section of the paper presents the most important findings of the study in both figures (such as graphs, tables and diagrams) and written texts. It is always followed by researchers comments or interpretations of these findings. The figures show the complete

and detailed findings of the study in numerical terms and data while the accompanying text focuses readers on the most important points of the results. An effective introduction of results should present: An outline of the results based on the data in the figures (See the Sample 1), A statement of the most important findings of the study ( See the italicized parts in Sample 1& 2), Comments on or explanations of the results ( See the underlined parts in Sample 2 & 3)

The typical sentence patterns to outline the data from the figures are: Fig. 2 / Table 1 shows the influences of on As Fig. 2 shows, the influences of As shown in Table 2, the effect of Data in Table 1 shows that the influences of The effect of on is shown / summarized in Fig. 2. The effect of onhas ( Fig. 2)

Sample 1
3. Results 3.1. Developmental stage increase In order to be designated as having a sustained increase in stage, a participant had to produce at least two different question forms at a higher level in at least two tasks on at least two of the posttests. This sustained stage increase analysis can be seen in terms of individuals who changed stage. The results of sustained stage increase for each group, in terms of the number of participants who increased developmental stage, are summarized in Table 5. As can be seen, 8 out of 11 child learners in the interaction and feedback group showed sustained development, whereas only 3 out of 11 learners in the interaction control group showed this sustained development. This difference was significant according to Fisher's

exact test table probability, which was 0.0211 (P<0.05). Fig. 1 graphically represents a summary of sustained development for each of the groups. The typical statements of the most important findings are: As can be seen / found, the first group of while the second. The main difference was ... The probability (the results) in Case 1 was / showed greater than those of Case 2, but there was little difference in These results suggested that the effect of was either close to or slightly lower than that of

Sample 2
The method to calculate x-ray emission in certain energy window has been reported elsewhere in detail. The variation of the x-ray yield for 20 shots at 25 kV charging voltage for optimum argon filling pressure with and without source is depicted in Fig. 4. The shot to shot variation of energy radiated in the form of x rays is much less and the peak value of xray yield is more reproducible with source as compared to without source for argon as well as hydrogen. This suggests that the source improves the stability of the system. It is considered that the improvement is mainly due to the increase in the uniformity of the current sheath.

The comments or explanations in the Results section may involve i) a generalization of the results; ii) an explanation of possible reasons for the results; and iii) a comparison or contrast with results from previous studies. The typical sentence patterns are: These findings accord with / are consistent with those of These changes (data) suggest that the possible reason is There is ( a general statement) , the possible reason is that It is considered / found that, these may suggest the reason why.

Sample 3
It is evident from Figs. 58 that the characteristic radiation emission first increases with the filling gas pressure, attains the maximum value at the optimum pressure, and then decreases with further increase in the filling gas pressure. The optimum pressure for the highest emission in case of both the gases shifts towards higher values with increase in the charging voltage. It is also found that the optimum pressure with and without source is different for each working gas at the same charging voltage. If one compares the Cu K and total x-ray emissions for hydrogen and argon fillings, it is found that the Cu K and total x-ray yields are two times with argon as compared to the hydrogen filling. In the presence of preionization, there is an increase in characteristic as well as in continuum x-ray emission. But there is a significant increase in the x-ray emission with argon as compared with hydrogen. The possible reason might be the higher stopping power of argon as compared to hydrogen. Hence more efficient preionization condition may be created by the source in presence of argon gas. This preionization prior to pulse discharge plays an important role in the breakdown phase of the plasma focus device due to the reduction of current sheath lift-off time. It is found that source broadens x-ray emission pressure range, enhances x-ray emission, and improves shot to shot reproducibility.

Section 5. Discussion and Conclusion

As the ending part of a research paper, the Discussion and Conclusion section should directly point out the writers explanation and speculation of the results. It aims to answer the following questions:

Do the results of the present study accord with the original research design? If not, why?

According to these results, what conclusion or inferences may be made? And why? Do these results or theoretical analysis accord with the ones of other researchers? If not, why?

Is there any suggestion of further study or research methodology to identify or provide disproof for the results?

Do these results support or disagree with the present assumptions or theories? Are there any practical applications of these results? What are they? To answer these questions, the writer may focus the readers on the researchers

contribution by presenting i) a contrast or comparison of the most important findings in the present study with the original hypothesis or the assumption, ii) an explanation or a speculation of the findings, iii) claims of the limitations and implications of the study, and iv) a suggestion of further study or possible applications of the most important results. Given the close relationship between the Results section and the Discussion and Conclusion section, the Discussion part sometimes is put as a separate part in between the Results section and the Conclusion section (See the Sample 1).

Sample
IV. DISCUSSION

This phantom study showed that phased attenuation correction of RCPET images compared to non-RC attenuation correction leads to a more accurate localization of the tumor, an improved tumor volume definition, and a more precise determination of the activity concentration; in particular, the maximum activity concentration. Respiration correlated scanning and phased attenuation correction will therefore offer new and more precise information of the tumor, thus providing a better basis for radiation treatment planning.

With information of tumor motion, internal margins can be determined for each patient individually and adapted to the actual movement in each direction. Moreover, with respiration correlation and phased attenuation correction, an SUV determination is more reliable and thus better suited for use in tumor characterization and automatic delineation. To achieve good image quality in RCPET imaging in patients, an optimal acquisition time and number of bins should be further investigated by a patient trial. In Fig. 4, the image with non-RC attenuation correction shows that the maximum activity is clearly misplaced. In clinical practice, such a motion artifact could result in a mislocalization of the tumor. Moreover, the average maximum activity concentration found in the sphere is lower than in the data that was corrected with phased CTs. In a recent study with a gated prospectively binned PET protocol, Nehmeh et al.15 compared attenuation correction with a non-RC CT to RCCT. They found that phased attenuation correction led to an improved match of CT and PET data of up to 41%, while maximum SUV was increased by a maximum of 16%. Pevsner et al. found an underestimation of the activity concentration in the sphere between 19 and 75%. In the current study, the difference in average maximum activity concentrations between the two attenuation correction methods reached up to 31%, with an average of about 17% for the two experiments combined. It must be kept in mind, however, that in our experiments the spheres were simply placed in air, and little actual attenuation occurred. One could argue that the difference between phased and non-RC attenuation correction might therefore be even bigger in the presence of more attenuation. However, in the imaging of moving lung tumors, not all the attenuating tissues will move to the same degree as the tumor. The correction of attenuation that was caused by less mobile tissues will therefore not improve distinctly with the use of phased attenuation correction. The benefits of phased attenuation correction will largely depend on the relative contribution to the attenuation by moving tissues as compared to the more stationary tissues and might thus not be as striking as suggested by the results presented in this paper. The volume of the sphere is greatly underestimated in non-RC CT images in this study, up to 46% deviation from the true volume. Others have found volume deviations between minus 35% and plus 79% in non-RC CT in comparison with RCCT.15,21 This large range, both underestimating and overestimating the volume, emphasizes again the importance of using corresponding RCCT images for attenuation correction. Volumes determined from the respiration correlated CT and PET images both show only minor deviations from the true volume, 1.9% and 1.4% on average for the respective modalities. This good result demonstrates the accuracy of both the phase binning process and the phased attenuation correction. Various publications have reported a decrease in tumor volume when using gated PET as compared to non-RC scanning, regardless of their attenuation correction methods. The volumes determined in the current study from the non-RC data confirm that in PET smearing appears with a non-RC scanning protocol (Table III). When the motion amplitude is smaller than the spheres diameter, as was the case in Experiment 1 with a 2.5 cm amplitude, non-RC PET data showed an average maximum activity concentration that was 7% higher than the average maximum activity concentration found with the RCPET data. This high average maximum activity concentration was found in the center region of the motion, where some part of the sphere was present in every phase. In the 3.9 cm amplitude experiment, the average maximum activity concentration found in the non-RC data

was 75% lower than found with RCPET. Since the volume is determined with a threshold of 34% of the maximum activity concentration, the threshold value is set too low and will thus cause an even bigger overestimation of the PET volume than smearing alone. The difference in the ratio between the sphere diameter and the motion amplitude thus can explain the relatively bigger overestimation of the PET volume with the non-RC PET scan in Experiment 2, which had a deviation of 370% from the actual volume as compared to a deviation of 156% in Experiment 1. The motion amplitudes found with RCPET and RCCT (Table II) correspond well with the actual displacement. Taking the measurement error of 3 mm, equal to the slice thickness, and the partial volume averaging effect into consideration, the calculated differences will not be significant. This suggests an accurate phase binning for both modalities. The CT and PET phases in Experiments 2 and 3 (motion amplitudes of 3.9 and 4.8 cm, respectively) show good correlation. The determinations of the sphere center in Experiment 1, however, indicate that a slight phase shift was still present. Because the respiratory signals were recorded with different devices, the starting point of the first phase bin in CT and PET was determined with different software. For both systems, the maximum amplitude of the respiratory signal was set as the starting point. Differences in the respiration measurement techniques of the two systems may have caused the resultant phase shift. Synchronization of both modalities with a single device for respiration correlation will most likely dispose of this resulting phase difference. V. CONCLUSION Valuable information is lost when scans, either CT or PET, are not correlated with respiration. Appropriate attenuation correction is at least as important. Phased attenuation correction not only gives a more accurate overall correction, but perhaps even more important, it provides a better match of PET and CT and results in a more reliable SUV and tumor volume. Combining RC-CT/PET scanning with phased attenuation correction will result in images with less smearing, less motion artifacts, and thus in improved volume estimation and localization and quantification of the activity concentration. In future studies, the feasibility of phased attenuation correction in RC-CT/PET for lung cancer patients will be examined.

5.1

Typical sentence patterns to present the contrast or comparison of the findings with the original hypothesis or the assumption To make an effective contrast or comparison of the results of the present with the

original hypothesis or assumption in this section, the writer usually needs start from a reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study, followed by a review of the most important findings, then show the differences or the matching degree between them,

sometimes followed by possible reasons about the differences or the inferences. The following are the typical sentence patterns: This research investigated the differences between . The results (or data) show that ; The possible reason is The aim of this research was to propose a novel methodology which. In the present study, it was found that ; because This study attempted to investigate whether there are differences in. However, the findings show that.; it is found that ( the fact ) results in This paper has proposed a detailed assessment of . The results presented above show thatThis suggests that This study has presented a specific method for measuring; It is considered that .; The results, however, show that In this paper, we have reported the significant effect of; The mismatches between the original assumption and the results presented in the study suggest that; Therefore In this paper (study), the differences between ( the significant effect of) were investigated (has been reported). The results demonstrate that We originally assumed that ; The results in this study show that ; The reason why is that It was originally assumed that ; The differences between are ; This suggests that Existing theories suggested that ; The results, however, show that. This evidence led us to (infer that) . Thus, We originally hypothesized that the effect of ; The data in the present study show that ; The possible reason may 5.2 Typical sentence patterns to present a further explanation of the results The detailed results and the followed explanations have been presented in the Results section. A further explanation, however, is an important support for the conclusions. It could

be both specific to the present study and general to a series of studies in one area. When it functions as a specific explanation for the present study, the past tense is frequently used. In contrast, when it is for a general explanation of a series of studies, the present tense is preferred. The most frequently used modal verb in either of them is may as shown in the following sentence patterns. For the present study: It may be that the error in Equation caused the inaccuracy of It is possible ( likely, unlikely ) that an erroneous value was attributed to ( due to) One reason for this could be that inadequate use of increased These results can be explained by assuming that the increase ( decrease) in resulted in

For the general This inaccuracy seems to show ( indicate ) that the materials used are This rapid increase ( decrease ) in is attributed to The enhancement in may be caused by It is likely ( unlikely) that the inaccuracy is attributed to ( due to) One reason for this can be explained by assuming that the inadequate use of increases

5.3

Typical sentence patterns to make conclusions or inferences The conclusions and the inferences should be made based on the results and the study

itself. Any overstated conclusion and general inference may confuse the readers thus lessen the persuasiveness of the paper. Compare the following two examples:

A: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback may lead to L2 development in children, as it has been shown to do with adults. B: The findings are comparable with previous research in that interactional feedback led to L2 development in children, as it has been shown to do with adults.

A: In the current study, the feedback seemed to lead to more immediate interlanguage destabilization and restructuring, and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development appeared to be earlier than has been reported in adult studies.

B: In the current study, the feedback led to more immediate inter-language destabilization and restructuring, and the effects of interactional feedback on L2 development were observed earlier than has been reported in adult studies.

The typical sentence patterns are: These results indicate (suggest, show, imply ) that The data reported here imply (suggest, indicate, confirm ) that Our conclusion is that Therefore we may infer that These findings support the hypothesis that Our data provide the evidence that It appears ( seems, suggests ) that

5.4

Typical sentence patterns to imply the limitations of the present study The limitations of the study may refer to different aspects of the research design.

They could be the research methodology, the results of the study, the theoretical models, or the limitation of the samples. To present different aspects of limitation may need different tense in the writing. For example, the present tense is to show the limitations of the research

methodology, model or data treatment while the past tense is frequently used to present the limitations of what has been done in the experiments. The proposed model in this study is based on the reviewed three simplified assumptions. Our analysis neglects several potential important conditions. The method for one of this research design presented here is accurate, but cannot implemented in real time applications.

The number of the participants in this survey was relatively small. Only three groups of samples were tested in the current study. Other elements which may cause this change were assumed as the constant in the formula.

When there is any condition or effect which may influence the results, the present tense and modal verbs may or might are frequently used. For example, Tests on this parameter with other kind of participants might yield different results. The findings may be valid if above-discussed conditions are changed within the accuracy limits. An experiment employing different TM Scanning approaches might produce different results. Sometimes, writers may start with we and use admit or recognize to directly present the limitations of the research methods or results. For example, We recognize that the method adopted in current study does not cover the variety and complexity of melting rate and heat transfer due to vibrating motion of heating wall.

We readily admit that a single short test on this parameter may not fully identify the performance of the new type compressor.

5.3

Typical sentence patterns to suggest the practical applications or further study A publishable research paper should function as a transition from the previous studies

to the further research or practical applications of the results. Thus, it is necessary for a research paper to recommend or suggest a further research study or practical use. In practice, the following sentence patterns are frequently used. A further experiment should be conducted with [ a new research method] in order to generalize the effect of [ the results in current study] Future research could explore the possibility to apply [ a new aspect of the theory] to In the future, the effect of [ the unsolved problems of this study] will be examined. Another interesting topic would be to examine how [ the other aspect of the present study] An important direction for further work might be to study [ the unsolved question in the study] as it operates in practical tasks. The generality of [ the identified effect in the present study] could be assessed in studies using other types of [research materials or procedures] The results in the study may lead to the development of effective methods for [ the practical applications] The results presented in this paper should ( may) be useful in [ a practical area] such as Further studies should focus on the practical use of [ the results] into [ a practical area]

To present a direct suggestion or recommendation, a writer may introduce what he or his study is going to do (or doing) on the same topic, or use we suggest that and we recommend that. For example, We suggest that a series of similar studies be conducted with [ other research methods] We recommend that these experiments be replicated using a wider range of [ different materials or procedures] In the future, we will investigate the effect of [ the results in present study] in a series of studies. Researchers of this paper are now conducting experiments with [ other research method]

Chapter 4
Reference Styles
Different journals may use quite different reference styles. The researchers need know well about the reference styles before they submit their papers so as to avoid wasting their time on re-formatting their papers. As Nature (424,127; 2003) noted, the improper use of a journal specific formatting style may cause the high likelihood of a submitted paper being rejected, thus waste the researchers more time on re-formatting citation lists and resubmitting elsewhere. Generally, two reference styles, APA (American Psychological Association) style, MLA (Modern Language Association) style are widely used reference formats of in-text documentation and final reference list. APA format is most frequently used in some papers of Social and Natural Sciences while MLA is used in many papers of Liberal Arts. Besides, the citation approach to listing by order is also frequently used in some journals of Sciences and Technologies.

Section 1. APA-Style References

APA-Style References includes two types: in-text documentation, which is cited in text with an author-date citation system and final bibliography reference list, in which references are listed alphabetically. Although the edition of APA style may be modified every year, the typical citation system is the same. The following presented here is the typical format ( For the details, see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association).

1. In-text Documentation: Author-date Citation System

Quoting directly or indirectly within the text, the writer must provide the source of documented information. The source should be cited entirely clear without duplication and unnecessary clutter. APA journals use the author-date method of citation; that is, the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication are inserted in parentheses in the text at the appropriate point.

1.1 Direct or Indirect Citation of One or Two Authors(s) work If you summarize the authors work in your text, cite only the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the authors name. Otherwise, place both the name and the year, separated by a comma, in parentheses; include only the year, even if the reference includes month and year. When you refer to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the reference appears. Within the parentheses use an ampersand (&), but within you text spell out the word and. For example, Oliver (1998) investigated interactions between children aged 813 years in 96 dyads. Oliver's (2000) study also compares the interaction of both adults and children with age-matched peers. Despite the fact that there is general agreement that age differences can affect SLA outcomes ( Birdsong, 1999), most of the existing interaction research has focused on adult learning. Ellis and Heimbach (1997) found that children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning.

Children varied in terms of their individual ability to negotiate meaning (Ellis & Heimbach, 1997).

When your documentation contains a direct quotation and includes the name of the author, place the year of publication and page number on parentheses. Abbreviate the word page or pages(p. Or pp.). The year of publication follows the name of the author the page number follows the end of he quotation. As Bill Johnston (2003) has recently argued, English language teaching . . . is not merely a matter of training students in a particular set of skills. Rather, with values, and these values with dilemmas and conflict ( p. ix). This is actually a far more complex matter than it might at first seem, since linguistic human rights are preeminently social, in that they are only comprehensible in relation to a group of other human beings with whom the language is shared and from which personal and cultural identity is achieved (MacMillan, 1982, p. 420). Hoffmeister and Bahan (1996) have argued, internationally recognized language rights are almost universally violated when it comes to signed language minorities ( p. 422). Noam Chomsky, arguably the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, once commented that, When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the human essence, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3). If quoted section appears in different authors work, whether quoting directly or indirectly, you should provide all the sources you could identify. The alphabetical order of

the surname is used and the surnames and the years of publication are separated by semicolons within the parentheses. For example, However, the researcher's input was pre-modified using the system outlined in such studies as Gass and Varonis (1994) and Pica (1992). In other words, to what extent, and in what ways, are language rights human rights? Also relevant here is the related question of whether linguistic human rights apply only to the individual, or whether there are rights which are group rights (see Coulombe, 1993; Tollefson, 1991, 1995, 2000). It is interesting in this respect that many states in the U.S. have passed legislation, or at least considered legislation, that recognizes American Sign Language (see Pelletier, 2005; Wilcox, 1988; Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). This having been said, the concept of group rights is itself somewhat problematic, potentially leading to an apartheid-style mandate of ethnic obligation, even as the alternative of linguistic imperialism looms large (see Durand, 2001; Maurais & Morris, 2003; Pennycook, 1994, 1998; Phillipson, 1992; Reagan, 2001b, 2002a; Skutnabb-Kangas, 1994; Tollefson, 1995, 2000, 2002; Tonkin & Reagan, 2003).

1.2 Quotation of One Work by Multiple authors When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.. For example,
Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (see, e.g., Albakry, 2004; Dirsmith, Samuel, Covaleski & Heian, 2005; Mantero, 2004; Martnez-Roldn, 2005; Pandey, 2005), addressing a wide range of issues. , For example, Dirsmith et al. (2005) claimed that

There has been a growing interest in and concern with issues of language rights, as a subset of more general human rights, at the international level in recent years (see,

for instance, Breton, 1993; Hassanpour, 1999; Kontra, Phillipson, SkutnabbKangas & Vrady, 1999).

Robert Phillipson, Mart Rannut and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas argue that, The history of human rights shows that the concept of human rights is not static. It is constantly evolving in response to changed perceptions of how humans have their fundamental freedoms restricted, and the challenge to the international community to counteract injustice (1995 , p. 16). , According to Phillipson et al. (1995),

When a work has Six or more Authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al (not underlined and with a period after al) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list you should provide the initials and surnames of each author. For example, As discussed in a recent paper on the effects of age on interactional structure (Mackey et al., in press), the literature is divided in terms of the specific nature of age-related differences, as well as the sources of differences between adult and child learners of second language. Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in student-initiated focus on form episodes. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessity to distinguish the two references, followed by et al. For example,
Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, Tim, Vrady and Woods , (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, Thypody, Woerdy and Woods , (1999)

The In-text quotation should be:


Kontra, Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas, et al (1999) Kontra, Phillipson, Sussan, et al (1999)

When you cite works by two or more authors with the same last name, use initials to identify the authors in the text even if the dates of publication differ. For example, Other observational studies of second language learner strategies in classroom contexts have been carried out by R. Scollon (1994), R. Scollon and S. W. Scollon (1994).

1.3 Quotation of Some Special Sources A. To quote the work identified by title When a work is noted in the reference list by title alone, a shortened version of the title is used to identify the work parenthetically in the text. Within the text, whether in parentheses or not, titles are presented differently from the way they are in the reference list. All words are capitalized, except conjunctions, short prepositions, and articles; the title of a book, report, brochure, or periodical is underlined; and the title of an article of chapter appears within quotation marks. For example, According to the administering office of TOEFL---the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States, there is much added value in the Computer-Based TOEFL Test (ETS Bulletin, 2003, p.3). The negative washback of CET affected the learning process in a wide range of stakeholders involved in College English (1998) and College Core English (1996). B. To quote the work with the groups as Authors When citing a work by a group author, you use the name of the corporation or organization as the author. If a well-known abbreviation of the name of a corporation author is cited in subsequent parenthetical references or on the text itself (for example, you may use

NSF for National Science Foundation), your first reference to the group or organization should include the abbreviation you intend to use.
The challenges that face policy-makers with respect to the general problem of language rights for the deaf are, in large measure, the same as those that they face in dealing with the needs and desires of any minority community. ( TESOL News Letters, 2002, P. ii)

The Symposium (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages [TESOL] Canada, 2005) stressed that; The TESOL Canada Symposium (2005) suggested .;

C. To quote Classical Works When a work has no date of publication, cite in text the authors name, followed by a comma and n.d. for no date. When a date of publication is inapplicable, such as for some very old works, cite the year of the translation you used, preceded by trans, or the year of the version you used, followed by version. When you know the original date of publication, include this in the citation.(Aristotle, trans. 1931); James(1890/1983) D. To quote from the secondary sources When the source of a direct or indirect quotation is a secondary source, refer to the source you actually used within parentheses and in the reference list. For example, Darwins metaphors (as quoted by Gould,1989) The theory of Reheating System ( as quoted by Hypolsa, 2000)

E. Specific Parts of a Source

To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotations. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations: In short, as Karabel and Halsey observed in the late 1970s, Teachers and pupils do not come together in a historical vacuum: the weight of precedent conditions the outcome of negotiation over meaning at every turn (1977, p. 58). As David Corson argued, Neither schools nor the people within them are willing dupes of power forces that are outside their control . . . the discourses of power that exist within schools can be used to improve the human condition, to oppress people, or to do almost anything in between. (1999, pp. 24-25)

2. Reference List In APA style, the list of sources is entitled References. References cited in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. Make sure that the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year. Failure to do so can result in considerable time wasted on formatting citation after a manuscript is set in type. 2.1 The Construct of Reference List An effective reference list should follow the following rules: Elements of Each entry: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data. For example:
Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

The list must be double-spaced, and arranged in alphabetical order. Entries should
start with a paragraph indent (Start on the fifth space). For example,

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman. Fettes, M. (1992). A guide to language strategies for First Nations communities. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations.

Alphabetizing names: to arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. For example,

Fromkin, V., & Rodman, R. (1993). An introduction to language (5th ed.). Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace. Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. & Hyams, N. (2003). An introduction to language (7th ed.). Boston: Heinle. Georgakopoulou, A., & Goutsos, D. (1997). Discourse analysis: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first. For example,

Janks, H. (1991). A critical approach to the teaching of language. Educational Review 43: 191199. Janks, H. (1997). Critical discourse analysis as a research tool. Discourse: Studies in the Politics of Education 18: 329-342.

On-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. For example,

Gass, S.M. (1997). Input, Interaction and the Second Language Learner. , Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ (1997).

Gass, S.M., Mackey, A. and Pica T. (1998). The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: an introduction. Modern Language Journal 82 (1998), pp. 299307. Gass S.M. & Varonis, E.M. (1994). Input, interaction, and second language production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16 (1994), pp. 283302.

References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, and so on. For example,

Fromkin, V., & Rodman, R. (1993). An introduction to language (5th ed.). Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace. Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. & Hyams, N. (2003). An introduction to language (7th ed.). Boston: Heinle.

Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial.

Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Johnston, S. (1993). Language choice, language identity: A sociolinguistic study of deaf college students. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press.

2.2 The Forms of Reference List In APA style, different sources may use quite different forms in the reference list. There are some common acceptable abbreviations in the different forms of the reference list: Chap. Ed. 2 nd ed. Ed. (Eds.) Trans. & Chapter Edition Second edition Editor(Editors) Translator(s) and

P. (PP.) Vol. vols. No. pt. tech.Rep. Suppl.

page(pages) Volume Volumes Number Part Technical Report Supplement

In general, the reference sources can be classified into two types: periodicals and nonperiodicals. Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, and so on. And non-periodicals include items published separately: books, reports, brochures, certain monographs, manuals, and audiovisual media. For a basic entry, they can be presented as follows: Periodical
Author, A. A., Author, B.B.,Author, C.C.(1994). Title of Article. Title of Periodicals, XX, XXX-XXX.

Nonperiodical:
Author, A.A.(1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

For articles from periodicals: The basic entry for an article in a periodical begins with the last name(s), followed by the initials (not the entire first names), of all authors, The year of publication follows in parentheses; For magazine and newspaper articles, give the month and day. Next comes the title of the article, not enclosed in quotation marks; the italicized title of the periodical, the volume number. A period follows the author, the date, the title of the article, and the end of the entry. The name of the periodicals, the volume number, and the page numbers are separated by commas. Only the first work of the article title, the first word of the subtitle, and proper names within both are capitalized. All words

except articles and prepositions are capitalized in the title of the periodical. The abbreviation p.or pp. is used in references to daily newspapers but not to journals. For example, Article by One Author
Smith, J. (2006). The title of the article. The title of Journal, 1, 101-105.

Article by Two Authors


Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (2005). Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 2, 137-156.

Journal paginated by Issue


Reagan, T. (1996). Bilingualism and the dual culture of the deaf. South African Medical Journal 86 (1), 797-799.

Magazine Article The entry for an article in a magazine or newsletter with a volume number includes the month and day (if any), as well as the year, the volume, and the pages. For example,
Douglasa, S. (2005, Nov.14th ). The language rights of the deaf.. Science of Psychology, 38(2), 1829-1840.

Newspaper Article Entries for articles in newspapers are constructed according to the principles for magazines, except that the volume number is omitted and the abbreviation p. or pp. is used to indicate page(s). For example,

Sussan, G. (2006, June, 20th ). Gas crisis in the world. New York Times, P. B12.

For articles from non-periodicals: including books by one author, edited books and work cited in another work. The entry for a book begins with the last name of the author, followed by a comma and the initials of the authors first names, followed by periods. The date of publication appears in parentheses, followed by a period. Only the first word of the

book title, the first word of the subtitle, and proper names within both are capitalized. The entire title is italicized and followed by a period. Facts of publication include the city of publication and, if the city might be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another location, the name of the state. Use U.S. Postal Service abbreviations for states. The name of the location is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. The entry ends with a period. The names of university presses are spelled out. For example,
Spring, J. (2001). Globalization and educational rights. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Two or More Authors For a book by more than one author, list he names of all the authors. Use commas to separate surnames and initials. Place an ampersand()before the name of the last author. For example,
Tollefson, J., & Tsui, A. (Eds.). (2004). Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Edition other than the first Identify an edition other than the first within parentheses following the title with capitalized In and the number of the edition in serial from(2nd, 3rd,4th, etc.) or, if it is a word, abbreviated (Rev. Ed. eds). Use parentheses to the page numbers. For example,
.Sussan.G.(2002). Second language acquisition (3rd ed.) New York: Harp& Row

Reprinted Work The entry for a reprinted work indicates the original date of publication within parentheses. For example,
Darwin, c. (1964). On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (In trod. Ernst Mayer). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1859)

Edited Volume Indicate that a book is an edited volume by pacing the abbreviation for editor(Ed.) or editors (Eds.) within parentheses in the author position. For example,
Stanton, D.C. (Ed.). (1987).The female autograph: theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter or article in edited book In a reference to a chapter or article in an edited book, place the name of the author of the chapter in the author position. The second part of the entry identifies the book in which the article appears. The name(s) of the editor(s) (are) not inverted. The page numbers for the individual chapter or article appear in parentheses after the title of the book. For example,
Tollefson, J. (2000). Policy and ideology in the spread of English. In J. Hall & W. Eggington (eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. 7-21). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Technical and Research Reports Entries for technical and research reports should follow the basic format for a book entry. The identifying title, series, or number of the report, if any, should be placed in parentheses immediately after the title. The name of the agency publishing the report should not be abbreviated as an acronym, even if it is well known. For example,
Woods, D. (1999). Educational and training opportunities in sustainable agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture). Beltsville, MD: National Agriculture Library.

Unpublished paper in process or presented at meeting For an unpublished paper in process, present by in press within parentheses; If it is presented at a conference or symposium, indicate the date of the presentation within parentheses after the name of the author and identify the conference as fully as necessary

after the title. If the name of the city is well known, the name of the state may be omitted; otherwise, include both city and state. For example,
Mackey, A., Oliver, R., Leeman, J. (in press). Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNS-NNS adult and child dyads. Language Learning (in press). Leeman, J. (2003, October). A study on Adult learners incorporation of feedback. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of Canadian TESL, Toronto, ONT. McDonough, K. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Modified Output and L2 Learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Electronic Media The citation for an electronic source, including E-journals and CD-ROM, should provide sufficient information to permit your reader to locate the material. Because electronic sources can be easily altered or erased, it requires more information than you normally need for print sources. The minimum information for an electronic source includes the author, if any; the date; the title of the section you used; a description of the mediumOn-line Journals, CD-ROM, diskette, etc. ---placed within brackets; the title of the entire source underlined; a statement about availability of the product; an the method or path used to retrieve the material. APA does not place a period at the end of an electronic address. For example,
Woods, D. (1997). Decision-making in language learning: A lens for examining learner strategies. The Language Teachers Online [On-line], 21 (10). Available: http//langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/oct/woods.html Taylor, J., Eignor, S. and Kirsch, B. (1998). The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based test tasks. RR-61[On-line]. Available: www.toefl.org/rrpts.html

Section 2. MLA-style References


Similar to the APA style, Modern Language Association (MLA) format presents parenthetical citation within the text. Citation within the text provides such information as the name of the author and the page number(s), to orientate readers to the accompanying bibliographical entries. According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, a list of works cited in the text should be supplied and located at the end of a publishable research paper in alphabetizing entries. 1. In-text Documentation Unlike APA format, MAL requires the name of the author and the page numbers rather than the year of publication presented in the in-text citation section, whether in the form of direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. The documentation should be entered in a way that makes the identity of the source entirely clear while avoiding duplication and unnecessary clutter. Most parenthetical citations do not include the intervening comma. When the authors name appears in the introduction the material, you need not repeat the name within parentheses, as the following examples indicate: Recently, there has been a wide discussion about the development of genetic algorithm ( Woods 189). Woods series of studies have proposed a new method to explore the genetic algorithm (189-190).

1.1 To quote from authors less than four

When citing the resources with the author named in the text, you should put the page number at the end of the cited section. For example, Helen investigated a group of non-native graduate writers and presented their encounters in her book Listening to the World (2).

When you cite from the author not named in text, the initial name of the authors should be included in the parentheses. For example, Several scholars have studied recent developments in academia in the context of the history of university teaching (e.g., Graff). Modern literary studies have their origin in classical studies (Graff 19-35).

When you cite an entire work by the name of the author alone or by author and title, you do not need a parenthetical reference, a reader will be able to find bibliographical information by looking up the authors name in your list of works cited. For example, Slades revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook. When you have more than one author with the same last name, include the first initial in subsequent references. For example, use the subsequent references ( H. Jansen 43) and ( S. Jansen 112) to distinguish two different sources Harper Jansen and Smith Jansen. When the two authors are father and son, with the son designated as Jr., include the designation Jr. in the reference, preceded by a comma. That book chronicles visionary experiences in early modern Spain (Christian, Jr. 67).

1.2 To quote Work with four authors or a cooperate author

When a work has four or more authors, you may list all four authors or give only the

last name of the first author followed by er al. Use the same form of reference you choose for the text in the list of works cited. For example, The authors of Womens Ways of Knowing make a distinction between separate knowing and connected knowing (Belenky et al. 100-30) or (Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Taule 100-30) For a corporate author, use the name of the organization (abbreviated if it is lengthy, after the first citation) in place of the name of the author. The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12, hereafter AMNH) .. (AMNH 15). 1.3 To quote by editor or compiler List the names of editors, compilers or translators without the accompanying abbreviation that appears in the list of works cited: Many of the articles in Research on Composing advocate further exploration of the motivation for writing (Cooper and Odell). 1.4 To quote the work listed by title only or material cited in another source For a work listed only by title in your list of works cited, use the title in parentheses, shortening it to two or three words. Your abbreviate title must include the word by which the title is alphabetized in your list. You would not want to abbreviate the title in the example below to Pharaoh, for example, because the entry should be alphabetized by ancient. Due to air pollution, Egypt plans to move the status of Ramses II the main railroad station in Cairo to the west bank of the Nile (Ancient Pharaoh Statue).

When you quote material from a source other than the original, introduce the name of the source with qtd, In. The author and title of the source you actually consulted appear in the list of works cited. For example, Goethe wrote that it takes more culture to perceive the virtue of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects (qtd. In Newman 2:104) 1.5 To quote multivolume work or two or more works by the same author To cite an entire volume of a multivolume work, use the authors name and the abbreviation vol.. For example, This valuable reference work surveys the major operas of Mozart and Puccini (Newman, vol. 2). To cite a portion of a volume of a volume of a multivolume work, use an Arabic numeral to indicate the volume followed by a colon and the page number(s). For example, Newman discusses the controversy about the quality of Mozarts The Magic Flute (2:104-05). When you have two works or more by the same author, use a shortened vision of the title in each reference. For example, Shaughnessy points out that the beginning writer does not know how writers behave (Errors 79) When you need to include more than one work in a parenthetical citation, separate entries with a semicolon. For example, to use (Errors 79; Diving in68; Brooks and Warren 5)

2. Reference List in MLA In MLA-style reference list, the alphabetizing entries and italicized names of article titles or books are employed in accord with the parenthetical in-text documentation.

2.1 Construct of the reference list In general, the reference list in MLA should follow the guidelines: All the entities in the reference list are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the surname of the author without the use of any Arabic numbers before each entity. The first word of each entry in the list should be written as the first (surname) + comma + the last name . Each entity in the list begins at the very beginning of the line without any space. If you cannot finish within one line, you should continue into the second line. The second line begins with five spaces indented to serve the purpose of giving the prominent place of the author. For example, Oliver, Richard. The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. Modern Language Journal 86 (2002): 97111. Oyama, Sussan. A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (1976): 261285.

When using an edited volume or compilation and refer to more than one of the articles in it, you must list each article by author in the works cited section, along with the editor of the volume. For example,

Pienemann M. and Johnston, M. Factors influencing the development of language proficiency. Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. Ed Nunan, D. New Zealand: National Curriculum Resource Center, AMEP, Adelaide, 1987: 45141. MLA-style shortens the names of publishers to one word whenever possible. The name of the publishing house can be abbreviated. For example, University Press

can be abbreviated as UP or U.P. For the famous publishing house, it can only be noted down as: Harper, Dell, etc, (the key words only). MLA also puts the name of the imprint, or division, of a publisher before the name of the publisher, citing a book published Harper and Rows Colophon series as Colophon-Harper. For example, Hakelly, Fox. Revisting the Washback. Ed. Dorothy Collin. Intod. Martin Dodsworth. Harmondsworth, Eng. : Penguin, 1996. The page(s) of eh magazine articles and the chapters of a book should be be written in the following ways: A) the two digit numbers: it should be written out completely. Such as 17-18; 28-59; 80-88; B) the three digit numbers: you just write down the first number completely, the second number can be done with the last two numbers only. EG: 127-51; 311-19; For example, Long, M.H. The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. Handbook of Language Acquisition, vol. 2. Second Language Acquisition. Ed. Ritchie C. and Bhatia. T.K. New York : Academic P. 1996. 41368.

2.2 Forms of the reference list The basic forms of the reference list are: Books 1) the name of the author, compilers, etc. 2) the title of the book (Italicized) 3) the place of the publishers 4) the name of the publishing house 5) the time of publication Magazines 1) the name of the author 2) the title of the article 3) the name of the magazine

4) the series number (if any) 5) the date of the publication 6) the page number 2.1.1 Reference List for Books Cited The reference list for books cited includes the name(s) of the author(s) or of the editor(s), compiler(s), the title of the book with any subtitle; and the facts of publication, which include the city of publication. Each portion ends with a period followed by on space. Invert the first authors name, placing a comma after the surname and a period after the first name(s), which should be spelled out in their entirety unless the title page displays initials; the names of any additional authors are not inverted. Italicize the complete title and subtitle, but not the final period. Take the facts of publication form the title page or the copy right page. Abbreviate the publishers name. If several cities are listed, cite only the first. If the state is needed for clarification, use U.S. Postal Service Abbreviations, And if the country or province is needed, include a standard abbreviation, available in most dictionaries. For example, Book by a single author Winfield, Richard Dien. Law in Civil Society. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1995. Book by two or three authors Simons, Wendy, and Barbara Katz Rothman. Centuries of Solace: Grief in Popular Literature. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1992. Book by four or more authors

Instead of presenting the names of all authors, the abbreviation et al., meaning and others, is preferred. McPherson, William, et al. English and American Literature: Sources and Strategies for Collection Development. Chicago: ALA, 1987. An edited, compiled, or translated volume The name (s) of the person(s) responsible for the book go(es) in the authors position, followed by an abbreviation for ed. comp. or trans. [ed. for editor; eds. for editors; comp. for compiler; comps. for compilers; and trans. for translator(s) ] . Baum, Robert, ed. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road through Tiananmen. New York: Rutledge, 1992. Group or corporate author: Bicycling Magazine. Reconditioning the Bicycle. New York: Rodale, 1989. When the corporate author is also the publisher, the name is not repeated. American Museum of Natural History. Annual Report. 1993-1994. New York, 1995. 2.1.2 Reference List for Journal Articles In general, the reference List for Journal Articles include: (1) the name of the author or editor provided as the ones in books; (2) the full title of the article within quotation marks; and (3) the information of publication, which usually includes the name periodical (italicized), the series name and number if any, the volume number (for a scholarly journal only), the date of publication followed by a colon, and the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears. Omit any introductory article in the periodical title (Los Angles Times, not the Los Angeles Times). For example, Article in a scholarly journal Fox, Janna. Technical Writing Skills. Second Language Writing 3 (1999): 202-16.

Article in journal paginating each issue separately: Gardner, Thomas. An Interview with Josie Graham. Denver Quarterly 26.4(1979): 22. Journal using only issue numbers When a journal numbers by issue rather than by volume, treat the issue number like a volume number. Nwezeh, C.E. The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature. Year book of General and Comparative Literature 28 (1979): 22. Article in journal with more than one series Identify the series immediately after the title by ordinal number (2nd, 3rd ) or ns for new series and os for old series. Klein, Milton M. The Pleasures of Teaching and Writing History. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 52(July 1995):483-87. Erickson, Peter. Singing America: From Walt Whitman to Adrienne Rich. Kenyon Review ns 12.1(1995): 103-19. Article in a newspaper For a quotation of an article in a newspaper, use the name of the newspaper as it appears on the masthead, excluding any introductory article, such as the. Mercer, Pamela. U.S.Venture Bets Colombian Coal. New York Times 27 July 1995, late city ed.: D7. When a particular edition of a newspaper is specified, include its designation, abbreviated, after the date (natl. for national, intl. for international, and do on.) Donnelly, John. Unrest in Iraq May Be a Mirage. Miami Herald 22 July 1995, intl. ed.:1A+. Article in a magazine

For a weekly magazine, give day, month, and year; for a monthly, give the month and year only. Abbreviate all months except May, June, and July. Kinoshita, June. The Mapping of the Mind. New York Times Magazine 18 Oct. 1992: 44+. Brody, Howard. How Would a Physicist Design A Tennis Racket? Physics Today Mar. 1995:26-31. Anonymous magazine article Weather Satellite Finally Fit for Work. Science News 18 Mar. 1995:171. Entry for the entire edited volume BNattaglia, Debbora, ed. Rhetorics of Self-making. U of California P, 1995. Entry for article in the edited volume, one article or more cited When you use only one article in an edited volume or compilation, your entry begins with the author of the article. Marcus, George E. On Eccentricity. Battaglia 43-58. Wagner , Roy. If you have the advertisement you dont need the product. Battaglia 59-76. Shaughnessy, Mina P. Diving Introduction to Basic Writing. The Writing Teachers Sourcebook. Ed. Gary Tate and Edward P.J. Corbett. New York: Oxford UP, 1981. 6268. More than one work by same editors: For the quotation of more than one work by the same editor(s) or compiler(s), use a shortened form of the title to identify the compilation when listing individual articles. Lloyd-Jones, Richard. Primary Trait Scoring. Cooper and Odell, Evaluating Petty, Walter T. The Writing of Young Children. Cooper and Odell, Research 73-84. 2.1.3 Reference List for Electronic Sources:

The reference list for an electronic source requires more information than you normally need for print sources. The minimum information for the list of an electronic source includes the author, if any , the title of the section you used, in quotation marks; the title of the entire source, italicized; volume or issue number; year or date of publication (in parentheses); number of pages (if applicable); a description of the medium(CD-ROM, diskette, etc.); the name of the computer network or vendor and, if it is not well known, an assess preceded by the word Available from; the date of electronic publication, if necessary for your purpose. The equipment required to run it; and, in the case of on-line or E-mail materials, the date you accessed the source. You may supply the electronic address or path at the end of the entry. For example,

On-line Journals or E-Journals Linery, E. Gardern, Paul. Georing, P. et al. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: a study on molecular mechanism. Br J Psych [serial online] 1998 Apr [ cited in 2002]; 189 (2): 300-03 Available from: URL: http:// biomed.niss.ac.uk Articles or materials from CD-ROM Microsoft Windows XP 2003. [Computer software]. Version.4. CD-ROM. Redmond, WA: Microsoft,2003.DOS 3.31, Windows 4.0, 6MB. Materials from multimedia (database) CDATA 98 with supermap: database for England. [ disk]. Release 2.1 rev. Hawthone East, Vic.: Space-time Research 1998.

Chapter 5
Proofreading and Editing --- to Finalize the Draft
A process of research paper writing may involve four stages before submitting: planning, drafting, proofreading for redrafting and editing to finalize the draft. It is an important stage to redraft a research paper by proofreading and do the editing by checking through its presenting formats and styles. Generally, to do the proofreading of a research paper, you need identify i) coverage and organization; and ii) presentation. When editing the final draft, you need follow the acceptable format and style as a publishable journal article required.

Section 1. Proofreading

1.1 Coverage and Organization A checklist of coverage and organization may include the work of checking through the paper with 1) focus on argumentation 2) focus on forms. Focus on Argumentation: Is the argument fit in the subject of the journal in which you hope to publish you paper? Does the literature you reviewed cover most important studies related to your argument? Do you present clearly and effectively what you are trying to argue in this paper? Is your study or experiment valid enough to support your argument?

Do you concentrate on the argument in the presentation of the paper, in particular in the sections of the Abstract, the Introduction and the Findings and Discussions?

Focus on Forms: Does your abstract cover your study and main findings? Does your introduction indicate the relevant studies sufficiently? Are your procedures of study presented clear enough to be duplicated? Do you provide enough information about the validity of your study results? Do you make the effective contrasts and comparisons in your discussion and conclusions?

1.2 Presentation A checklist of presentation of the paper may involve the work to check through scientific and technical ( or formal ) language uses, capitalization and punctuation. To be specific, you may start the proofreading from i) wording; ii) spelling; iii) logic of long sentences.

I. Wording
Wording is important part for a non-native writer to draft an acceptable research paper. The goal to do the wording is to avoid the bulky or informal expressions and achieve conciseness. The following examples come form some typical mistakes in the academic paper writing ( Cheng, 2005; Ren, 2004 ).

Informal or bulky expressions a lot of a majority of a number of a small number of accounted for the fact that after this has been done all of along the lines of an innumerable number of an order of magnitude are found to be are in agreement are known to be are of the same opinion as a consequence of as far as our own observations ascertain the location of as whether or not at the present time (moment) based on the fact that be comprised of bright green in color by means of carry out cause injuries to completely filled contemporaneous in age covered over definitely proved despite the fact that dies out due to the fact that during that time during the course of exposed at the surface fall off few in number first initiated for a distance of 10 km for the purpose of examining for the reason that future plans give rise to goes under the name of has been shown to be

Concise use for academic writing many, several most many, several a few because then all like innumerable, countless, many 10 times are agree are agree because of we observed find whether now, at present because comprise bright green by, with perform injured filled contemporaneous covered proved although ends because, due to while, when during, when exposed decline few initiated 10 km to examine because plans cause is called is

Informal or bulky expressions has the capability of if conditions are such that if it is assumed that in (my, our) opinion it is not an in a satisfactory manner, in all cases in case in close proximity to in connection with in consequence of this fact in length in order to in spite if the face that in the case of . in the course of in the event that in the near future in the vicinity of in the those areas where in view of the fact that is in a position to is known to be is appears that is has been reported by Jones it is clear that it is likely that it is often the case that it is possible that it is possible that the cause is it is this that it is worth pointing out that it would appear that it would thus appear that lacked the ability that large in size large numbers of lenticular in character locate in, locate near look after masses are of large size necessitates the in collusion of of great importance of such hardness that on account of on behalf of

Concise use for academic writing can, is able if, when if (I, we) think satisfactorily, adequately always, in variably if near about, concerning therefore, consequently long to although In , for. during, while if soon near where because can, may is apparently Jones reported clearly likely often possible the cause may be this note that apparently apparently could not large many lenticular in, near watch masses are large, large masses needs, requires important so hard that because for

Informal or bulky expressions on the basis of on the ground that on the order of original source oval in shape, oval-shaped owing to the fact that over past history plans exhibited good growth prior to (in time) prove up red in color referred to as reported in the literature results so far achieved round in shape serves the function of being small in size subsequent to take into consideration the fish in question the majority the question as to whether the tests have not as yet the treatment having been there can be little doubt that through the use of throughout the entire area throughout the whole of the experiment two equal halves was of the opinion that with a view to getting with the result that

Concise use for academic writing form, by, because because about source oval because, due to more than history plants grew well before test red called reported results so far, result to date round is mall after consider this fish, these fish most whether the tests have not after treatment this probably is by, with (not via) throughout the area throughout the experiment halves believed to get so that

II. Spelling
It is quite complex for Chinese scholars as non-native writers to learn to use correct spellings in academic paper writing in English in Chinas EFL (English as Foreign language) context. Because when they were EFL learners they had to follow different requirements of spelling and pronunciation in terms of their learning encounters with American and British

English in spoken and written languages. As a basic requirement, to do the proofreading requires the writer to distinguish the American English spellings from British ones, especially of those frequently used listed below (Lu, 1996), in the paper.

American 1 e ameba anapest anemia anesthesia (anesthetic) cesium diarrhea edema encyclopedia esophagus esthetic estrogen etiology fetus hematology leukemia maneuver medieval pediatrician (2) -er center fiber goiter liter maneuver meter somber theater to omit -e acknowledgment aging judgment likable -ction

British ae, oe amoeba anapast anaemia anaesthes(anaesthetic) caesium diarrhoea oedema encyclopaedia oesophagus aesthetic oestrogen aetiology foetus haematology leukaemia maneuvre mediaeval pediatrician -re centre fibre goitre litre maneuvre metre sombre theatre -e acknowledgement ageing judgement likeable -xion

(3)

(4)

connection deflect inflection retroflection (5) im, inimpanel incase inquiry insure -ize analyze apologize modernize realize -l concilor jewelry level (levelled) quarrel (quareled) woolen travel ( traveled) skillful fulfill -log analog catlog dialog -lyze analyze(analysis) catalyze(catalysis) civilize(civilization) organize(organization) tationalize (tationalization) -o armor behavior clamor color favor flavor

connexion deflexion inflexion retroflexion em-, enempanel encase enquiry ensure -ise analyse apologise modernise realse -ll councillor jewellry levell (levell) quarrell (quarrelled) woollen travell (travelled) skilful fulfil -logue analogue catlogue dialogue -lyse analyse(analysis) catalyse(catalysis) civilise(civilisation) organise(organisation) tationalise(tationalisation) -ou armour behaviour clamour colour favour flavour

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

humor labor odor vigor mold smolder (11) -se defense license offense practise pretense aluminum artifact check draft leukemia mold program sulfur antenna apartment assignment basement calendar cell-phone custom-made disk district fall faculty faucet flashlight gas high school kerosene motor period railroad recess resume senior sick

humour labour odour vigour mould smoulder -ce defence license offence practice pretence aluminium artefact cheque draught leukaemia mould programme sulphur aerial flat homework cellar diary mobile-phone made to order disc division autumn staff (university) tap torch petrol secondary school paraffin engine full stop mackintosh break curriculum vitae, C.V. undergraduate ill

(12)

(13)

sidewalk sophomore store stock suspenders transmission wrench zero zip code

pavement undergraduate shop shares braces gearbox spanner nought postcode, post code

III. Logic of long sentences


Any publishable research paper has limits of words. So the writer has to condense the sentences and paragraphs with more information included. As such, skills in dealing with long sentences may play a critical role in writing a journal article. The logic of long sentences concerns (i) correct use of conjunctions; (ii) agreement of contexts; and (iii) completeness of structures. For example, Correct use of conjunctions The following conjunctions are most frequently used by mistake: To express Condition: if , when, as ( see the examples below from a published paper)
When the battery is charged, lithium ions on the cathode migrate to the anode. As the battery is used, the ions migrate back to provide the energy. In the charged state, the cathode without most of its ions is highly unstable. If a spark occurs, the temperature of the cathode can exceed 275 degrees.

To express Reason: because , for, as, since To present Attributive: that, where, as, which (see the examples below from published papers)

In the steady state, as masses can perform random walks with a finite rate, the mass of a hub node (mhub) diffuses to different nodes with the probability of being at node i given as Eq. (5). The inset of Fig. 6 (b) shows the snapshot of the mass distribution of nodes with degree k for a single sample at time t = 4105 on SFN with =2.4 for =3.0 and =1.0. As shown, there is a peak which may be formed at khub as in ZRP. However, the peak of mass m is not always located at khub but diffuse around nodes according to Pi [Fig. 6(b)]. Hence by taking the average, the peak soaks into the average mass mk, unlike in ZRP where all samples have the peak at khub. To see this more explicitly, we derive the relation, mk ~k, based on the assumption that the diffusion (the random walks of masses) is the only relevant physical factor to decide P(m)in the steady state.

To indicate Results: therefore, thus, so, so that, To express Transition: however, hence, but, while, although (see the examples above and below from published papers)

In summary, the interaction hypothesis (described in Long, 1996) has made important predictions about the contributions of various features of interaction to second language development. Although generally supportive, most of the empirical tests of the interaction hypothesis have been conducted with adult language learners. Interestingly, however, studies of child language learners and child-adult comparisons, while generally not focusing on developmental outcomes, have indicated that the patterns and immediate outcomes of interaction may be different for children and adults. It is therefore a crucial next step to examine if and how interaction also facilitates second language development for children, as it has been shown to do with adults. It is the goal of this study to begin to address this question.

Agreement of contexts The agreement of context involves the relationship of the numbers of concepts or nouns (including the choice of countable and uncountable nouns) with the relevant verbs and pronouns. While paragraphing, the writer should follow the rules in specific contexts, such as how to define an countable and uncountable noun, the proper use of articles and single or

plural forms of pronouns. To study the following materials from a published paper, you may notice the agreement of the highlighted parts in the whole paragraph.
The potential for fire in a lithium-ion battery is a result of its chemical composition. Contained in that small package are all the elements needed for a fierce blaze: carbon, oxygen and a flammable fluid. The battery is made of a thin layer of lithium cobalt oxide, which serves as the cathode, and a strip of graphite, the anode. These are separated by a porous insulator and surrounded by fluid, a lithium salt electrolyte that happens to be highly flammable.

Completeness of structures Proper use of structures, such as parallel structures and absolute structures, may help build up clearness and conciseness. However, incomplete structure may confuse readers and editors as well. The following examples are typical in practical use in research paper writing. Parallel Structure by idioms or collocations
Hirvonen (1985) concluded that child speakers were able to modify their speech when addressing child learners, and to differentiate between their peers who are native speakers and those who are non-native speakers.

Parallel Structure by clauses Cathcart-Strong (1986) also observed that young children used various communicative strategies to obtain large amounts of modified input from their peers, and that child learner productions involved a wider variety of communicative acts and syntactic structures when the child had control of the activity they were engaged in. Parallel Structure by modifiers Oliver claims that although children are less developed cognitively, socially, and linguistically, they are still "aware of their conversational responsibility and attempt to work towards mutual understanding"

Absolute structure as ending Ellis et al. (2001) concluded that uptake occurred in 73.9% of the focus on form episodes where it was possible, noting that amounts were higher and more successful in studentinitiated focus on form episodes. Absolute structure as inserted modifier The volatility of batteries in laptops, and those powering millions of portable consumer devices from cell-phones to power drills, was made apparent Monday with Dells recall of 4.1 million laptop batteries. Dell said the batteries, made by Sony, could catch fire because of a problem in the manufacturing process.

Section 2. Editing: Final Draft

Apart from following the documentation formats, including the styles of in-text citation and reference list, as discussed in Chapter 4, to meet the requirements of Abbreviation, Capitalization and Punctuation in academic paper writing is also a necessity of finalizing the draft by editing. In this section, the focus will be on some basic rules of employing abbreviation, capitals and punctuations in research paper writing.

1. Abbreviation Abbreviations benefit both readers and writers in some extent to which the frequently used academic terms in the relevant research area could be accepted and to which the presentation could be simplified to collect concentration of reading. Generally, they are more frequently used in Abstract and Introduction. If the abbreviation is needed, the term should

be used in a complete form for the first time with the abbreviation followed in the parenthesis. Any abbreviated term should be capitalized. For example, The 4 pipeline stages were: Instruction Fetch and Decode (IFD), Execute (EX), Memory (MEM), and Write-Back (WB). The IFD stage contained the Instruction Memory and the Register File. The EX stage had the ALU. The MEM stage had the read-only Data Memory, which was modeled as an uninterpreted function that took as input an address term computed by the ALU in the EX stage and produced a term for the data at that address. Both the ALU and load instructions had two data operands.

Most abbreviation omits the prepositions, articles and the conjunction word and . For example, Presented are abstraction techniques that accelerate the formal verification of pipelined processors with value prediction. The formal verification is done by modeling based on the logic of Equality with Uninterpreted Functions and Memories (EUFM), and using an automatic tool flow. Applying special abstractions in previous work had resulted in EUFM correctness formulas.

Some typical abbreviations should be used in a proper manner without complete forms provided. For example, The journal-specific abbreviations (see the appendix II for the abbreviations of publishers): IEEE --- in the journals of Electronic Engineering SLA --- in the journals of Applied Linguistics O, P, I, Li, , ( the chemical elements) --- in the journals of Chemistry CPU, ROM, RAM, PC --- in the journals of computer sciences

The abbreviations in the reference list The first name of authors, such as Kim, L.S. ; Fox, J.; Smith, D.

The names omitted by et al. ( means and others) Ed. Or Eds. ( Editor or editors); 2 nd ed. ( Second edition); Rev. Ed. ( Revised edition) P. or pp. ( page or pages); Vol. ( volume); Chap. ( chapter); No. ( number) The names of the states of America

The abbreviations of units of measures and weights 7 units in SI (International System of Units ): m (meter), s (second), K(kelvin), kg (kilogram), A (ampere); mol (molal); cd( candela) Time: s (second); min (hour); h (hour) d (day) Length: m (meter); km (kilometer); dm (decimeter); mm (millimeter); (micron) Area: sq. m. (square meter) sq. km (square kilometer); Weight and mass: mg (milligram); g (gram); kg ( kilogram); t ( ton) Capacity: l. (liter); ml (milliliter); cl ( centiliter); kl (kiloliter)

2. Capitalization The following are some basic rules for capitalization in research paper writing besides the ones discussed in the Abbreviation part above:

Any sentence should start from a word with the first letter capitalized, including the sentences in the quotation mark and the parentheses. For example,

This example shows the native speaker recasting the first two question forms into a more target-like "Did three little ones fall down?"

The first letter of the words in the title or subtitle of an article should be capitalized with the exception of the articles and prepositions. For example,
The title of an article

The Explanatory Power of Critical Language Studies: Linguistics with an Attitude


The title of a book cited

Critical discourse analysis has featured prominently as a powerful research methodology in recent issues of Critical Inquiry in Language Studies The first letter of any specialized nouns, such as the persons name, the country, the nationality, the language, the widely accepted names, etc. for example,

Klemperers thesis, in essence, was that the public and official language use of the Nazi state served as a political and ideological tool, and that the distortion of language facilitated the creation of a Nazified culture and society by contributing to a mindset that was shared by both the Nazis and the opponents.

The capitalization in formula, diagram or graph may vary from journal to journal, but the agreement of the capitalized letters should be kept in the text. For example,

3. Punctuation English punctuation often confuses Chinese research paper writers because there is much similarity in English and Chinese punctuations. On the other hand, there are still a lot of differences between them. The following examples are the mistakes frequently made by Chinese students (Wang, 2005; Yu, 2004). Period ( ) To compare the two sentences
Noam Chomsky once commented that, The distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as

we know, unique to man (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p. 3).

Noam Chomsky once commented that, The distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as

we know, unique to man. (quoted in Fromkin & Rodman, 1993, p 3)

Comma (,) To study the two sentences, which one is better? Why? The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests, rather than on immediate responses, and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. ( )

The emphasis in the current study is on learning outcomes measured through posttests rather than on immediate responses and the form or type of the feedback is not the focus here. ( )

To tell which one is right: (1) The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur as discussed above and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments such as clarifications of meaning to take place. ( )

The tasks used in this study: (a) provided contexts for the targeted structures to occur, as discussed above, and (b) provided opportunities for interactional adjustments, such as clarifications of meaning, to take place. ( )

(2) However research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than other factors, such as timing and developmental readiness. This is of course an empirical question. ( )

However, research has shown children can and do provide feedback to their peers and we suggest that the quantity of feedback may be less important as an aid to development than

other factors, such as timing and developmental readiness. This is, of course, an empirical question . ( )

Ellipsis ( ) To study the following example ending with . The native speaker did not indicate any lack of comprehension, but simply moved on with the conversation and the task as in "I haven't got that" and "ok, I've got a dad and a son...." In the formula The subscripts 1, 2, , refer to the respective nuclei. N = S0 + S0 K + S0 K1+ S0K2 + S0 K(n-1) Dj, where j = 1, 2, 3, , n.

Appendix I Typical Abbrs in Reference List of Journal Articles


Words Abstracts Academy Accounts Acoustical Acta Advanced Advancement Advances African Agricultural AIAA AIDS Alcoholism America American Anesthesia Anales Analgesia Analysis Analyst Analytica Analytical Anatomy Andrology Anatomical Anesthesia Anesthesiology Angewte Animal Annalen Annales Annals Annual Anthropological Antibiotics Antimicrobial Applied Aquatic Arbeiten Archiv Archive Archives Archivio Abbrs Abstr Acad Accounts Acoust Acta Adv Adv Adv Afr Agric AIAA AIDS Alcohol Am Am Anaesth An Analg Anal Analyst Anal Anal Anat Androl Anat Anesth Anesthesiol Angew Anim Ann Ann Ann Annu Anthropol Antibiot Antimicrob Appl Aquat Arb Arch Arch Arvh Arch Words Arteriosclerosis Assisted Association Astrointestinal Astronomy Astrophysical Astrophysics Asymmetry Atmospheric Atomic Australian Automatic Bacteriological Bacteriology Bakteriologie Behavior Berichte Biochemica Biochimica Biochemical Biochemistry Bioengineering Biologial Biologie Biology Biomechanics Biomedical Bioscience Bioparasitology Biophysica Biophysical Biophysics Biotechnology Blood Botanical Botanisches Botany Brain British Bulletin Bureau Canadian Cancer Abbrs Arterioscl Assist Assoc Astrointest Astron Astrophys Astrophys Asymmetr Atmos At Aust Automat Bacteriol Bacteriol Bacteriol Behav Ber Biochim Biochem Biochem Biochem Bioeng Biol Biol Biol Biomed Biomed Biosci Bioparasit Biophys Biophys Biophys Biotechnol Blood Bot Bot Bot Brain Br Bull Bur Can Cancer

Words Carbohydrate Cardiology Cardiovascular Catalysis Cell Cellular Ceramic Ceramic Cerebral Chemica Chemical Chemie Chemi Chemistry Chemists Chemotherapy Childhood Chimica Chimie Chronicle Chromatography Circulation Clinic Chinese Clinical Clinica College Commonwealth Communications Comparative Complement Comptes Computational Computer Conference Contemporary Contributions Control Coordination Cosmochimica Critical Crystallographica Crysallography Council Culture

Abbrs Carbohyd Cardiol Cardiovasc Catal Cell Cell Cer Cer Cerebr Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chem Chemother Child Chem Chem Chron Chromatogr Circ Clin Chin Clin Clin Coll Commw Commum Comp Complement C Complement Comput Conf Contemp Contrib Contr Coordin Cosmochim Crit Crystallogr Crystallogr Counc Cult

Words Abbrs Current Curr Cytochemistry Cytochem Dairy Daiiry Dental Dent Dermatolgoy Dermatol Design Des Development Dev Developmental Dev Devices Dev Dialysis Dial Diagnosis Diagn Diagnosis Diagn Directions Dir Directors Dir Document Doc Digestive Digest Disease Dis Disease Dis Drug Drug Ecology Ecol Economics Econ Edition Ed Egyptian Egypt Electric Electr Electrical Electr Electrocardiology Electrocardiol Electrochimica Electrochim Electroencephalograph Electroencpalogr Electronics Electronb Embryo Embry Embryology Embryol Emergency Emerg Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endocrine Endocr Endocrinology Endocrinol Endoscopy Endosc Engineering Eng England Engl Entomologia Entomol Entomologica Entomol Entomological Entomol Environment Environ Environmental Environ Enzymology Enzymol

Words Epidemiology Ergebnisses Espanola Ethnology European Evolution Excerpa Exercise Experimental Fauna Federal Federation Fertility Fish Fisheries Flora Flow Folding Folia Food Forest Forschung Francais Freshwater Gastroenterology General Genes Genetics Geochimica Geochimical Geological Geologische Geolophysical Geriatrics Gesellechaft Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology Haematology Heart Helvetica Hepatology Histochemistry History Human

Abbrs Epidemiol opeanErgeb Esp Ethnol Eur Evol Excerpa Exer Exp Fauna Fed Fed Fertil Fish Fish Flora F Fold Folia Food For Forsch Fr Freshwater Gastroenterol Gen Gene Genet Geogchim Geogr Geol Geol Geophys Geriatr Ges Gynaec Gynecol Gynecol Haematol Heart Helv Hepatol Histochem Hist Hum

Words Hygiene Hypertension Immunity Immunology India Indian Industrial Infection Information Inorganica Institute Instruments Interactions Interface Internal International Investigation Investigation Investigative Irish Israel Italiana Jahrbuch Jahresberichte Japan Japanese Journal Kinetics Laboratory Lecture Letters Leukocyte Limnology Macromolecular Magazine Magnetic Magneticsm Management Marine Material Materials Mathematical Mathematics Matter Mechanical

Abbrs Hyg Hypertens Immun Immunol India Indian Ind Infect Inform Inorg Inst Intrum Interact Interf Intern Int Invest Invest Invest Ir Isr Ital Jahrb Janresber Jpn Jpn J Kinet Lab Lect Lett Leukcoyte Limnol Macromol Mag Magn Magn Manage Mar Mat Mat Math Math Mat Mech

Words Abbrs Mechanics Mech Medical Med Medicine Med Metabolism Metab Media Media Mexico Mex Metals Met Methods Methods Microbiological Microbiol Microbiology Microbiol Mineral Miner Mineralogist Mineral Modern Mod Molecular Mol Monographs Monogr Monthly Mon Morphology Morphol Mutation Mutat National Natl Natural Nat Naturalist Nat Nature Nat Naunyn-schmiedebergs N-S Nephrology Nephrol Nervous Nerv Nervosa Nerv Neurobiology Neurobiol Neurochemistry Neurochem Neuroimmunology Neuroimmunol Nurological Neurol Neurology Neutol Neuropathologica Neuropathol Neuropathsiology Neuropath Neurophaysiology Neuropahysiol Neurophysiology Neurophysiol Neuroradiology Neuroradiol Neuroscience Neurosci Neurosurgery Neurosurg New York NY New Zealand NZ Non-Crystalline Non-Cryst Nursing Nurs Nonferrous Nonferr Notices Not Nuclear Nucl

Words Numerical Nutrition Obstetrical Obstetrical Obsterics Oceanography Official Oncology Ophthalmology Opinion Optical Optics Organe Organic Organization Organometallic Organs Otology Orthopaedics Otolaryngology Paediatrica Paleontology Paleontology Panamericana Pan American Pathology Pediatrics Perspectives Petrology Pflugers Pharmaceutical Pharmacology Photobiology Pharmacy Photochemistry Photonics Physical Physik Physiologia Physiological Physiology Phytologist Planetry Plastic Pollution

Abbrs Nmuer Nutr Obstet Obstet Obdtet Oceanogr Off Oncol Ophthalmol Opin Opt Opt Organe Org Organ Organmet Organs Otol Orthop Otolaryngol Paediatr Paediatr Paleontol Panam Pan Am Pathol Pediatr Persp Petr Pflug Pharm Pharmacol Photobiol Pharm Photochem Photonic Phys Phys Physiol Physiol Physiol Phytol Planet Plast Pollut

Words Polymer Proceedings Process Processes Public Podiatry Progress Psychiatrica Psychologicalchl Psychology Publications Quarterly Radiation Radiology Reconstructive Record Rehabilitation Related Rendus Report Reports Reproduction Research Resources Resources Respiratory Review Reviews Revista Revue Rheumatic Rheumatism Rheumatology Rivista Roentgenology Royl Scandinvia Science Sciences Scientific Scinavica Scinavican Seminars Series Service

Abbrs Polym Proc Process Processes Public Podiatry Prog Psychiat Psychol Psychol Publ Q Radiat Radiol Reconstr Rec Rehab Relat R Rep Rep Reprod Res Reson Resour Respir Rev Rev Rev Rev Rheum Rheum Rheumatol Riv Roentgenol R Scand Sci Sci Sci Sc Sc Semin Ser Serv

Words Society South African Special Spectroscopy Sports Statistical Statistics Sterility Structural Structural Studies Supplement Surface Surgery Surgical Survey Symposia Symposium System Systematic Technical Technik Technology Theoretical Therapeutics Therapy Thermal Thoracic Thrombosis Tomography Toxicology Transactions Transfer Transplantation Tropical Ultrasound Ultrastructure Union United states University Untersuchung Urological Urology Vacuum Vascular

Abbrs Soc S Afr Spec Spectros Sport Stat Stat Steril Struct Struct Stud Suppl Surf Surg Surg Surv Symp Symp Syst Syst Tech Tech Technol Theor Ther Ther Therm Thorac Thromb Tomo Toxicol Trans Tran Transplantation Trop Ultrasound Ultrastruct Union U.S. Univ Unters Urol Urol Vac Vas(Vasc)

Words Veterinary Virology Virus Visual Vitamin

Abbrs Vet Virol Virus Vis Vitam

Words Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zoologle Zoology

Abbrs Wiss Z Zool Zool

Appendix II Abbrs. of Most-frequently Cited Publishers


Publishers
A.A.Balkamaia Academic Press Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Alan R. Liss American Chemical Society American College of Physicians American Institute of Physics American Mathematical Society ASP Press Antheneum Publishers Blackwell Scientific Publications, Inc. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone, Inc. Cornell University Press CRC PressInc. David R.Godine, Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication, Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. Futura Publishing Co., Inc. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row,Publishers, Inc. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co., Inc, Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers, Inc. Les Editions INSERM Little, Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.,Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill ,Inc Merck& Co.,Inc Merriam-Webster Inc., Publishers

Abbrs
AA Balkama Academic Pr Addision-Wesley AR Liss American Chemical Soc American Coll of Physicians American Inst of Physics American Mathematical Soc APS Pr Atheneum Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata IOS Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little, Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster

Publishers
Blackwell Scientific Publications, Inc. Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge University Press Churchill Livingstone, Inc. Cornell University Press CRC PressInc. David R.Godine, Publisher Douglas & McIntyre Dover Publication, Inc Editions Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Editions Flammarion Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. Futura Publishing Co., Inc. Geological Society of American Graphics Press Harper & Row,Publishers, Inc. Harvard University Press Henry Holt &Co., Inc, Inkata Press Pry Ltd International Organization for Standardization Jackdaw Press Jones Wiley & Sons Jones &Bartlett Publishers, Inc. Les Editions INSERM Little, Brown and Company Longman Group Macmillan Publishing Co.,Inc McGraw-Hill Book Company McGraw-Hill ,Inc Merck& Co.,Inc Merriam-Webster Inc., Publishers Modem Language association of American National Academy Press New York Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press Pergamon Press Plenum Publishing Corp Presses Universities de France Raven Press Routledge, Chapman &Hall Sage Publication, Inc Sinauer Associates Smithsonian Institution Press SPB Academic Publishing BV

Abbrs
Blackwell Scientific Butterworth-Heinemann Cambridge Univ Pr Churchill Livingstone Cornell Univ Pr CRC Pr DR.Godine Douglas & McIntyre Dover Cepadues Editions EIF-Aqutaine Flammarion Elsevier Science Futura Geological Soc of America Graphics Pr Harper & Row Harvard Univ Pr Henry Holt Inkata ISO Jackdaw Pr J Wiley Jones &Bartlett Editions INSERM Little, Brown Longman Macmillan McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Merck Merriam-Webster Modem Language assoc of America National Acad Pr N Y Acad of Sciences Oxford Univ Pr Pergamon Plenum Prs Univ France Raven Routledge, Chapman &Hall Sage Sinauer Smithsonian Inst Pr SPB Academic Publishing

Publishers
Springer Publishing Company Springer _ Verlag St. Martins Press State University of New York Press The Analytic Press, Inc. The Galileo Press The Johns Hopkins University Press The Keynes Press The MIT Press(the press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) The Readers Digest Association, Inc The Shoe String Press, Inc. The University of Chicago Press United Stated Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold Company W. B. Saunders Company W.H. Freeman & Company Williams& Wilkins

Abbrs
Springer Publishing Springer _ Verlag St. Martins State Univ New York Pr Analytic Pr Galileo Johns Hopkins Univ Pr Keynes MIT Pr Readers Digest Assoc Shoe String Univ Chicago Pr US Pharmacoperial Convention Van Nostrand Reinhold W B Saunders WH Freeman Williams& Wilkins