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IQA INDICE DE QUALIDADE DA AGUA ( WQI WATER QUALITY INDEX)

Clculo de ndice de Qualidade da gua - NSF ndice de qualidade da gua uma escala de 100 pontos, que resume os resultados de um total de nove medidas diferentes quando completar: 1. Temperatura 2. pH 3. oxignio dissolvido 4. turbidez 5. coliformes fecais 6. Demanda bioqumica de Oxignio 7. Fosfatos totais 8. nitratos 9. Slidos Suspensos Totais De acordo com o Manual de Campo do livro de Monitoramento da Qualidade da gua, a Fundao Nacional de Saneamento pesquisou 142 pessoas, representando uma ampla variedade de posies no local, estadual e nacional, cerca de 35 testes de qualidade da gua para possvel incluso em um ndice. Nove fatores foram escolhidos e alguns foram julgados mais importantes que outros, ento uma mdia ponderada usada para combinar os valores. De modo que medies de campo poderia ser convertido em valores de ndice, os entrevistados foram convidados atravs de um questionrio para o grfico do nvel de qualidade da gua (0 a 100) correspondentes s medies de campo (por exemplo, pH 2-12). As curvas foram, ento, em mdia, e so pensados para representar o melhor julgamento profissional dos entrevistados. Quando os resultados do teste de menos de todas as nove medidas esto disponveis, preservamos os pesos relativos de cada fator e da escala total para que o intervalo permanece 0 a 100. Fatores de Qualidade de gua e pesos Water Quality Factors and Weights Factor Weight Dissolved oxygen 0.17 Fecal coliform 0.16 pH 0.11 Biochemical oxygen demand 0.11 Temperature change 0.10 Total phosphate 0.10 Nitrates 0.10 Turbidity 0.08 Total solids 0.07 Water Quality Index: Fecal Coli

Nota: Se o nmero de colnias de coliformes fecais maior do que 100.000, o ndice de qualidade igual a 2. Water Quality Index: Total Solids

Nota: Se slidos totais superior a 500 ppm, o ndice de qualidade igual a 20. Water Quality Index: DO sat (%)

Nota: Se o oxignio dissolvido superior a 140%, o ndice de qualidade igual a 50. Water Quality Index: pH

Nota: Se o pH inferior a 2,0 ou superior a 12,0, o ndice de qualidade igual a 0. Water Quality Index: Turbidity

Nota: Se a turbidez maior que 100 NTU, o ndice de qualidade igual a 5. Water Quality Index: BOD

Nota: Se a demanda bioqumica de oxignio maior do que 30 ppm, o ndice de qualidade igual a 2.

Water Quality Index: Nitrate

Nota: Se azoto ntrico superior a 100 ppm, o ndice de qualidade igual a 1.

Nota: Se o fosfato total superior a 10 ppm, o ndice de qualidade igual a 2. FONTE : Vhttp://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm 1. Temperatura:

Por que a temperatura Importante Temperatura um parmetro crtico de qualidade de gua e ambientais porque governa os tipos e tipos de vida aqutica, regula a concentrao de oxignio dissolvido mxima da gua, e influencia a velocidade das reaes qumicas e biolgicas. Os organismos dentro do ecossistema tm preferido regimes de temperatura que a mudana em funo da poca de idade organismo, ou fase da vida, e outros fatores ambientais. Em relao a reaes qumicas e biolgicas, quanto maior a temperatura da gua, maior a taxa de reaes qumicas e metablicas.

Variaes sazonais de temperatura fluxo pode ser causado pela alterao da temperatura do ar, ngulo solar, eventos meteorolgicos, e uma srie de aspectos fsicos relacionados com o fluxo e de bacias hidrogrficas. Estas caractersticas fsicas incluem a origem de fluxo, velocidade, tipos de vegetao e cobertura, configurao de fluxo, uso da terra, eo percentual de rea impermevel. Por exemplo, um estreito, litoral bem-shaded profunda reduz o impacto do aquecimento pelo sol e que, uma corrente larga e rasa seria mais afetado pelo aquecimento solar. Em um dos cursos d'gua quente, as temperaturas no devem ultrapassar 89 graus Fahrenheit). Correntes de gua fria no deve exceder 68 graus (Fahrenheit). Muitas vezes, o calor do vero pode causar mortandade de peixes em lagoas, porque as altas temperaturas reduzem o oxignio disponvel na gua. Temperatura (Calculadora ndice de Qualidade gua) Baseado em mudana de temperatura de um site de referncia

Source of Image: http://www.nsf.org/consumer/just_for_kids/wqi.asp Great Site ! 1. No local de controle coloque o termmetro cerca de 0,5 centmetros da parte inferior ou alguns centmetros abaixo da superfcie da gua. Mantenha o termmetro na gua at que uma leitura constante atingida (aproximadamente dois minutos). Estes tentam recolher temperatura em uma parte do fluxo que sombreada. 2. Grave a sua medida em graus Celsius. (Para converter Fahrenheit para Celsius, subtrair 32 e multiplicar por 5/9.) 3. Repita a temperatura de ensaio em seu site de teste. 2. Subtraia a temperatura a montante do local de referncia a partir da jusante da temperatura e anote o resultado da mudana de temperatura (C). 3. Tentar recolher dados de temperatura em condies semelhantes e usando o mesmo termmetro. o termmetro dever ser legvel a 0,1 C. 4. Mudana de entrada a temperatura para a Calculadora Javascript ou interpretar a partir do grfico.

Se voc se lembrar da lio 1, os peixes so o alimento preferido das guias americanas. Dado que os peixes vivem na gua e podem ser afetados pelo que est na gua, importante saber se um lago ou rio "saudvel". Em uma tentativa de conceber um sistema para comparar rios e lagos em vrias partes do pas, o National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) criou e projetou um ndice padro chamado de ndice de Qualidade da gua (IQA). O IQA um dos mais utilizado de todos os procedimentos de qualidade de gua existentes. Os resultados globais dos nove testes separados podem ser usados para determinar se um determinado trecho do rio saudvel. O IQA composto por nove testes: Oxignio dissolvido Coliformes fecais pH DBO (Demanda Bioqumica de Oxignio) Temperatura Fosfato total Nitratos Turvao Slidos totais Depois de completar os nove testes, os resultados so registrados e transferidos para um grfico de curva de ponderao, onde um valor numrico obtido. ". Fator de ponderao" para cada teste, o valor numrico ou Qvalor multiplicado por um (. Ver testes individuais para mais informaes sobre Q-valor) Por exemplo, oxignio dissolvido tem um factor de ponderao relativamente alta (0,17), porque mais significativo na determinao da qualidade da gua do que os outros testes. Os nove valores resultantes so ento adicionados para se chegar a um ndice global da qualidade da gua (IQA). A maior pontuao de um corpo de gua pode receber 100. Faixas de ndice de Qualidade da gua 9-10 70-90 50-70 25-50 0-25 Se voc no conseguir executar todas as nove provas e que quer calcular o "ndice de Qualidade da gua geral," os alunos poderiam determinar o valor Q de dados em falta atravs da anlise de dados conhecidos. Por exemplo, se o "coliformes fecais" teste no foram executados, os resultados ou Q-valor de trs testes relacionados (oxignio dissolvido, nitratos, fosfato total) pode ser a mdia para obter uma pontuao para esse teste. Usando a tabela abaixo como exemplo, a mdia Q valor dos trs testes de 62 - ou uma contagem de coliformes fecais de 20 colnias por 100 ml de gua. Excelente Bom Mdio Ruim Muito Ruim

Ento, essa gua excelente, bom, mdio, ruim ou muito ruim?

a seguinte tabela para inserir seus prprios dados.

Nota sobre Amostragem importante ter cuidado na forma como as amostras so coletadas para anlise. A amostra coletada deve ser representativa do rio ou lago que est sendo testado. Perto da costa amostras podem no ser representativos do rio naquele local. Se possvel, amostras de gua devem ser coletadas de uma ponte sobre o rio, a partir de um barco, ou fora da extremidade de uma doca. A regra de ouro para a amostragem a amostra no meio do caminho atravs do rio e abaixo da superfcie. Um dispositivo simples pode ser construdo a partir de uma srie de hastes de metal que pode ser estendido e tubos de borracha anexado que contm o frasco da amostra. Este dispositivo pode ser estendido para fora da costa no se pontes esto disponveis e principalmente se o rio estreito ou superficial. Um taco de golfe tambm pode ser adaptado facilmente para este fim.

http://translate.google.com.br/translate?hl=ptBR&sl=en&u=http://www.indiana.edu/~bradwood/eagles/wqi.htm&ei=plOhTtjNOImSgQfR571Z&sa=X&oi=translate &ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEEQ7gEwBA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DWQI%26hl%3Dpt-BR%26biw %3D1348%26bih%3D561%26prmd%3Dimvns

Water Quality Index Protocol


In an effort to develop a system to compare water quality in various parts of the country, over 100 water quality experts were called upon to help create a standard Water Quality Index (WQI). The index is basically a mathematical means of calculating a single value from multiple test results. The index result represents the level of water quality in a given water basin, such as a lake, river, or stream. It is important to monitor water quality over a period of time in order to detect changes in the water's ecosystem. The Water Quality Index, which was developed in the early 1970s, can give an indication of the health of the watershed at various points and can be used to keep track of and analyze changes over time. The WQI can be used to monitor water quality changes in a particular water supply over time, or it can be used to compare a water supply's quality with other water supplies in the region or from around the world. Additional discussion of the tests and potential protocols for the nine tests are available through the title links below. These are not the only protocols that can be used to obtain results but the units of the test used should be the same as the units listed in these protocols. To determine the WQI, the following nine water quality parameters are measured: Biochemical Oxygen Demand The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (or BOD) is a measure of the amount of food for bacteria that is found in water. Bacteria utilize organic matter in their respiration and remove oxygen from the water. The BOD test provides a rough idea of how much biodegradable waste is present in the water. (Biodegradable waste is usually composed of organic wastes, including leaves, grass clippings, and manure). Dissolved Oxygen The dissolved oxygen test measures the amount of life-sustaining oxygen dissolved in the water. This is the oxygen that is available to fish, invertebrates, and all other animals living in the water. Most aquatic plants and animals need oxygen to survive; in fact, fish will drown in water when the dissolved oxygen levels get too low. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in water are a sign of possible pollution. Fecal Coliform Fecal coliform is a form of bacteria found in human and animal waste. Nitrates Nitrates are a measure of the oxidized form of nitrogen and are an essential macronutrient in aquatic environments. Nitrates can be harmful to humans, because our intestines can break nitrates down into nitrites, which affects the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Nitrites can also cause serious illnesses in fish. pH The pH level is a measure of the acid content of the water. Most forms of aquatic life tend to be very sensitive to pH. Water containing a great deal of organic pollution will normally tend to be somewhat acidic. Water with a pH of 7 is considered neutral. If the pH is below 7, it is classified as acidic, while water with a pH greater than 7 is said to be alkaline. The pH of tap water in the U.S. is usually between 6.5 and 8.5. Temperature Change The water temperature of a river is very important, as many of the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of a river are directly affected by temperature. Most waterborne animal and plant life survives within a certain range of water temperatures, and few of them can tolerate extreme changes in this parameter. Using the same thermometer, the water temperature should be checked at the test site and at a similar site one mile upstream. Care should be taken when taking the temperature upstream to ensure that the amount of sunlight and the depth of the river are similar to the original test site. Total Dissolved Solids This is a measure of the solid materials dissolved in the river water. This includes salts, some organic materials, and a wide range of other things from nutrients to toxic materials. A constant level of minerals in the water is necessary for aquatic life. Concentrations of total dissolved solids that are too high or too low may limit growth and lead to the death of many aquatic life forms. Total Phosphate Phosphates are chemical compounds made from the elements phosphorous and oxygen; they are necessary for plant and animal growth. Phosphates can be present in water in many forms, so total phosphate gives an estimate of the total amount of phosphate potentially available in a given water supply. Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the dispersion of light in a column of water due to suspended matter. The higher the turbidity, the cloudier the water appears. If water becomes too turbid, it loses the ability to support a wide variety of plants and other aquatic organisms.

After the nine water quality tests are completed and the results recorded, a "Q" value is calculated for each parameter, and the overall WQI for the sampling site is then calculated.

Calculating the Overall Water Quality Index


After the nine water quality tests are completed and the results recorded, you can calculate the Water Quality Index (WQI) for the sampling area you tested. To calculate the overall WQI, you must first compute what are known as Q-values for the results you obtained for each of the nine tests and record them on the WQI Worksheet. This section outlines the procedures for computing these values: 1. 2. 3. 4. Locate and print the chart for the appropriate test parameter, using the links below). Locate and mark your test result on the bottom, or horizontal axis, of the chart. Beginning at your mark, draw a vertical line up until it intersects the curve on the chart. From the point where your line intersected with the curve, draw a horizontal line to the left until you reach the vertical axis of the chart. 5. Record the value where this horizontal line intersects the vertical axis of the chart on the form. This would be the Q-value for the test. 6. Repeat each of these steps to find the Q-value for each of the remaining tests results. You can select each of the following test parameters to view and print a copy of the Q-value chart for that parameter. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Dissolved Oxygen Fecal Coliform Nitrate pH Temperature Change Total Dissolved Solids Total Phosphate Turbidity

Make sure you record the correct Q-value in the appropriate column next to each test parameter on the WQI Worksheet before you proceed to the next step.

Completing the WQI Calculation


The Q-value for each test should then be multiplied by the weighting factor shown on the Worksheet for each test, and the answer should be recorded in the "Total" column. The weighting factor indicates the importance of each test to overall water quality. For example, the weighting factor for fecal coliform is 0.16, so it is considered more important in evaluating the overall water quality than nitrates, which only has a 0.10 weighting factor. Finally, add the numbers shown in the Total column to determine the overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for the water source tested. Compare your Index result to the scale shown in Table I to determine the water quality rating for the water supply tested.

What Does the WQI Mean?


The Water Quality Index uses a scale from 0 to 100 to rate the quality of the water, with 100 being the highest possible score. Once the overall WQI score is known, it can be compared against the following scale to determine how healthy the water is on a given day.

Table I - WQI Quality Scale 91-100: 71-90: 51-70: 26-50: Excellent water quality Good water quality Medium or average water quality Fair water quality

Table I - WQI Quality Scale 0-25: Poor water quality

Water supplies with ratings falling in the good or excellent range would able to support a high diversity of aquatic life. In addition, the water would also be suitable for all forms of recreation, including those involving direct contact with the water. Water supplies achieving only an average rating generally have less diversity of aquatic organisms and frequently have increased algae growth. Water supplies falling into the fair range are only able to support a low diversity of aquatic life and are probably experiencing problems with pollution. Water supplies that fall into the poor category may only be able to support a limited number of aquatic life forms, and it is expected that these waters have abundant quality problems. A water supply with a poor quality rating would not normally be considered acceptable for activities involving direct contact with the water, such as swimming.

Water Quality Monitoring: Dissolved Oxygen


Dissolved Oxygen

Fish, invertebrates, plants, and aerobic bacteria all require oxygen for respiration. Much of the dissolved oxygen in water comes from the atmosphere. After dissolving at the surface, oxygen is distributed by current and turbulence. Algae and rooted aquatic plants also deliver oxygen to water through photosynthesis. The main factor contributing to changes in dissolved oxygen levels is the build-up of organic wastes. Decay of organic wastes consumes oxygen and is often concentrated in summer, when aquatic animals require more oxygen to support higher metabolisms. Depletions in dissolved oxygen can cause major shifts in the kinds of aquatic organisms found in water bodies. Temperature, pressure, and salinity affect the dissolved oxygen capacity of water. The ratio of the dissolved oxygen content (ppm) to the potential capacity (ppm) gives the percent saturation, which is an indicator of water quality.

Test Equipment

LaMotte Dissolved Oxygen Test Kit (Code 5856) Gloves and goggles Towel Waste container Small brown paper bag

Kemmerer Sampler

Please note that the dissolved oxygen sample is not taken with a Kemmerer sampler or any other, but rather with an open bottle, due to water depth at the sampling site. The Kemmerer sampler reduces the amount of atmospheric oxygen added during sampling. Nearby tests with the sampler indicate that DO levels may be approximately 1.0 ppm less than values shown in the tables and graphs. The corresponding water quality indices may therefore be up to 18 percentage points lower.
Additional Data

In order to convert dissolved oxygen in parts per million (ppm) to percent saturation (%sat), the water temperature and barometric pressure or altitude are needed. We have been approximating altitude at the sampling location at 6 meters.

Procedure

Collection & Treatment of the Water Sample

1. Put on gloves and goggles. To avoid contamination, thoroughly rinse the water sampling bottle (0688-DO) with sample water three times. 2. Hold the uncapped bottle face down and perpendicular to the creek at arm's length. Submerge it straight down into the water, rotate it to point upstream, then tilt it slightly up until it fills with water. 3. Tap the sides of the submerged bottle to dislodge any air bubbles clinging to the inside. Replace cap while the bottle is still submerged. 4. Retrieve bottle and examine it carefully to make sure that no air bubbles are trapped inside. Repeat steps 1-4 with a second sample bottle, which will be used for the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test, for which a dissolved oxygen measurement is also needed. Dry off the second bottle with the towel and place it into the brown paper bag to shield it from light and continue the procedure with the first sample bottle. Use the towel to catch any spills from subsequent steps. Once a satisfactory sample has been collected, proceed immediately with steps 5 & 6 to "fix" the sample. Note: Be careful not to introduce air into the sample while adding the reagents in steps 5 & 6. Simply drop the reagents into sample. Cap carefully, and mix gently. 5. Add 8 drops of manganous sulfate solution (4167) and 8 drops of alkaline potassium iodide azide (7166). Always hold the dropper perpendicular to and approximately one inch above the sample bottle so that drop size will be consistent. Cap and mix by inverting several times. A precipitate will form. Allow the precipitate to settle below the shoulder of the bottle before proceeding (1-5 minutes). 6. Add 8 drops of sulferic acid, 1:1. Be very careful with this chemical. Cap and gently shake until the reagent and the precipitate have dissolved. A clear-yellow to brown-

orange color will develop, depending on the oxygen content of the sample. Note: Following the completion of step 6, contact between the water sample and the atmosphere will not affect the test result. Once the sample has been "fixed" in this manner, it is not necessary to perform the actual test procedure immediately.
Titration

1. Fill graduated cylinder to 20 ml line with "fixed" sample. Transfer to titration tube (0299). Cap. 2. Insert the direct reading titrator (0377-ST) into the hole at the mouth of the bottle containing sodium thiosulfate, 0.025N (4169), turn the bottle upside-down and pull the titrator plunger gently, filling the graduated tube until the tip of the plunger lines up with the zero mark. Please note: The titrator plunger has a tendancy to stick at the bottom or wherever it has been stored. To help avoid this, always store the titrator with plunger not fully depressed. Before use, push on the plunger to loosen it before pulling up. 3. Insert the titrator into the center hole of the titration tube cap. While gently shaking the tube, slowly press the plunger to titrate until the yellow-brown color is reduced to a very faint yellow. 4. Remove the titrator and cap. Be careful not to disturb the titrator plunger, as the titration begun in step 3 will be continued in step 5. Add 8 drops of starch indicator solution (4170PS) to the titration tube. Sample should turn blue. 5. Replace the cap and titrator. Continue titrating until the blue color just disappears. When the blue becomes pale, press the titrator plunger very slowly, allowing only 1/2 drop at a time. Always swirl thoroughly after each drop. Read the test result where the plunger tip meets the scale. Record as ppm dissolved oxygen. Note:Each minor division on the titrator scale equals 0.2 ppm. 6. If the plunger tip reaches the bottom line on the titrator scale (10 ppm) before the endpoint color change occurs, refill the titrator a small amount and continue the titration. When recording the test result, be sure to include the amount of reagent dispensed (10 ppm) in the first filling if there were two.
Clean-up

1. Pour the now clear mixture from the titration tube into the waste container. 2. Add what remains in the sample bottle to the waste container. 3. Empty the titrator into the same container and cap container. Pull up on the plunger so that the tip does not rest on the bottom of the titrator, where it is likely to stick. Leave at least 2 cm clearance. 4. Return all glassware and chemicals to their boxes. 5. When safe to do so, remove gloves and goggles.
Water Quality Index

Note: If dissolved oxygen is greater than 140%, the quality index equals 50.
Calculations

1. Collect dissolved oxygen (ppm), water temperature (C), and altitude (m) data. 2. Use spreadsheet or calculator to convert data to dissolved oxygen (%sat).
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dissolved oxygen:

Dissolved oxygen: Altitude: Pressure: Water temperature:

(ppm)

(m) (mmHg) (C)

(%sat)

8. Convert dissolved oxygen (%sat) to water quality index.


9. 10. Water quality index:

Dissolved oxygen:

(%sat)

FONTE: http://www.fivecreeks.org/monitor/do.html

Nacional de Saneamento Foundation ndice de Qualidade da gua


Um comumente usado ndice de qualidade da gua (IQA) foi desenvolvido pela National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) em 1970 (Brown e outros, 1970). O IQA NSF foi desenvolvido para fornecer um mtodo padronizado para comparar a qualidade da gua dos corpos d'gua. Como foi o ndice NSF desenvolveu? 142 cientistas qualidade da gua foram pesquisados cerca de 35 testes de qualidade da gua e pediu para considerar que os testes devem ser includas em um ndice (Brown e outros, 1970; Mitchell e Stapp, 2000). Nove parmetros de qualidade da gua foram selecionados para incluir no ndice. Estes parmetros so:

oxignio dissolvido (OD) coliformes fecais pH demanda bioqumica de oxignio (DBO) (5 dias) mudana de temperatura (de uma milha a montante) fosfato total nitrato turvao slidos totais

Os cientistas foram, ento, pediu para o grfico do nvel de qualidade da gua que variam de 0 (pior) a 100 (melhor) a partir dos dados brutos (por exemplo, os valores de pH 2-12). As curvas foram ento desenhados para obter uma mdia de uma curva de ponderao para cada parmetro. Resultados dos nove parmetros so comparados com as curvas e um valor numrico, ou "Q-valor", obtido. Por exemplo, veja a curva para coliformes fecais mostrado direita (de http://kancrn.org/stream/img/FCchart1.jpg ).

Depois que o Q-valor obtido, multiplicado por um "fator de ponderao", com base na importncia que o teste na qualidade da gua. Os nove valores resultantes so ento adicionados para se chegar a um ndice global da qualidade da gua (IQA). Um exemplo do clculo dada abaixo: teste resultado unidade Q-valor fator de subtotal peso DO 82 Sb% 90 0,17 15,3 Coliformes 12 # / 100 mL 72 0,16 11,52 fecais pH 7,67 unidades 92 0,11 10,12 std BOD 2 mg / l 80 0,11 8,8 mudana T 5 graus C 72 0,10 7,2 Fosfato total 0,5 mg / L 60 0,10 6 PO4-P nitratos 5 mg / L 67 0,10 6,7 NO3 turvao 5 NTU 85 0,08 6,8 TS 150 mg / L 78 0,07 5,46 IQA 77,9 Se menos de 9 testes so realizados, o IQA global pode ser estimado pela soma dos resultados e, em seguida, ajuste para o nmero de testes. Por exemplo, se BOD e mudana de temperatura no esto disponveis, os sete restantes so adicionados subtotais (a partir do exemplo acima, 61,9), e os sete fatores de ponderao so adicionados (0,79). O primeiro ento dividido por esta ltima, para obter um IQA de 78,4. As faixas de IQA foram definidas como (Brown e outros, 1970):

90-100: Excelente 70-90: Bom 50-70: Mdio 25-50: Bad 0-25: Muito Ruim

No h mais informaes sobre o IQA da NSF e ver os mapas para a converso para valores de Q menos no Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN) website ( http://kancrn.org/stream/cp4wqi.cfm) .

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