Você está na página 1de 177

Chup, 1 - Scope und History of MicrobioIogy

Why Study MicrobioIogy?

1, 2puct on Hu2un HeuIth
Z, uIunce of Nuture - food source, pIoy o roIe in decomposifion, heIp ofher onimoIs digesf gross
(coffIe, sheep, fermifes).
3, Environ2entuI - provide sofe drinking wofer, deveIopmenf of biodegrodobIe producfs, use bocferio
fo cIeon up oiI spiIIs, efc. - coIIed biore2ediution,
4, ndustriuI - foodsfuffs (beer, wine, cheese, breod), onfibiofics, insuIin, genefic engineering
, AgricuIturuI - reseorch hos Ied fo heoIfhier Iivesfock ond diseose-free crops.

, MicrobioIogy defined - %he sfudy of microbioIogy is fhe sfudy of microorgonisms, which ore orgonisms
fhof ore invisibIe fo fhe noked eye.

, CIussificution of Microorgunis2s
The 5 major groups oI microorganisms: bacteria, algae, Iungi, protozoa, and viruses. We will also study some other smaller
groups such as prions and viroids. The one property that links these groups together is their very small size!
Z types of ceIIs {viruses prions und viroids ure uceIIuIur - "without u ceII"}:
1, Prokuryotic ("before nucIeus") - fhese guys ore ceIIs, buf fhey hove no infernoI membrone
bound sfrucfures (no membrone-bound nucIeus or membrone-bound orgoneIIes),
incIudes onIy fhe bocferio.
Z, Eukuryotic ("frue nucIeus") - do hove infernoI membrone bound sfrucfures (membrone bound
nucIeus ond membrone-bound orgoneIIes), incIudes orgonisms such os profo;oons, fungi,
oIgoe, onimoIs, pIonfs.

A, ucteriu (singuIor - bocferium) (sfudy of bocferio - bucterioIogy)
I. prokoryofic
Z. uniceIIuIor
3. si;e: I/I000 fhe voIume of o fypicoI eukoryofic ceII
4. Z groups (discovered in I970s) - weII discuss more Iofer
o. Archueobucteriu - oncienf bocferio
b. Eubucteriu - frue bocferio
. some shopes: buciIIus (rod), coccus (sphericoI), spiriIIu2 (spiroI), vibrio (curved rod)
. mofiIe or nonmofiIe
7. how do fhey obfoin fheir energy7
o. photosynthetic uutotrophs - use energy from fhe sun fo produce fheir own
corbohydrofes for energy.
b. che2osynthetic uutotrophs - process inorgonic moIecuIes for energy (ex. suIfur
or iron).
c. heterotrophs - depend on oufside sources of orgonic moIecuIes (ex.
corbohydrofes or sugors) for energy
. femperofure exfremes: -Z0
C fo II0
C (fhof's reoIIy coId & reoIIy hofl free;ing is O
ond boiIing is I00
9. exompIes of diseoses7

, AIgue (singuIor - oIgo) - nof o focus in fhis course.
I. eukoryofic
Z. uniceIIuIor or muIficeIIuIor
3. si;e: some microscopic, some mocroscopic (ex. keIp)
4. mofiIe or nonmofiIe
. how do fhey obfoin fheir energy7 phofosynfhefic oufofrophs
. diseose cousing7 no

C, Fungi (singuIor - fungus) (sfudy of fungi - 2ycoIogy)
I. eukoryofic
Z. uniceIIuIor or muIficeIIuIor (yeosfs ore uniceIIuIor, moIds ore muIficeIIuIor)
3. nonmofiIe
4. how do fhey obfoin fheir energy7
o. heferofrophs
b. Why ore fhey ecoIogicoIIy imporfonf7 Scovengers, fhey Iive off deod moffer ond
fhus, decompose if.
. exompIes of diseoses (coIIed 2ycoses)7
exompIes of nonpofhogenic fungi7

D, Protozou ("firsf onimoIs")
I. eukoryofic
Z. uniceIIuIor
3. mofiIe or nonmofiIe
4. how do fhey obfoin fheir energy7 Heferofrophs
. diseose cousing - Z exompIes: moIorio & giordiosis (one of fhe "don'f drink fhe wofer

E, Viruses - (sfudy of viruses - viroIogy)
I. oceIIuIor, so nof considered prokoryofic or eukoryofic; obIigute intruceIIuIur purusites,
when fhey ore oufside of o hosf ceII, fhere is no evidence fhof fhese guys ore oIive.
Z. bosic sfrucfure of o virus - o piece of nucIeic ocid (PMA or DMA) encIosed by o profein
coof (copsid), possess no nucIeus, orgoneIIes, ceII membrone, or cyfopIosm.
3. si;e - I/I0 fo I/I000 fhe si;e of on ordinory bocferioI ceII.
4. nonmofiIe
. exompIes of diseoses7

2portunt Note: We wiII consider o sixfh group, fhe heI2inths (worms), in our sfudy of microbioIogy. WhiIe
mosf of fhe oduIf sfoges of fhese worms ore mocroscopic, mony of fhem go fhrough o microscopic sfoge in
fheir Iife cycIes (egg & IorvoI sfoges). Some exompIes of heIminfhs ore fopeworms, hookworms, pinworms,
heorfworms, ond Chinese Iiver fIukes. More fo come Ioferll

, A rief History of MicrobioIogy

C, Leeuwenhoeck {Iived 13Z-17Z3}
I. Whof discovery is he credifed wifh7 Firsf person fo use microscopes fo observe
microbes, os o hobby he mode smoII hondheId microscopes, he coIIed microorgonisms

C, Hooke
I. Whut discovery is he credited with? He first described "ceIIuIue" {s2uII roo2s} in
cork in 1, His discovery Ied fo fhe formuIofion of fhe ceII fheory, which sfofes fhof
ceIIs ore fhe bosic orgoni;ofionoI unif of oII Iiving fhings.

C, Redi und Spontuneous Senerution
I. Whof is fhis fheory7 iving orgonisms orise from nonIiving fhings (ex. moggofs come
from roffing meof)
Z. Who disproved fhis fheory ond how7 In fhe Iofe I00's Fruncisco Redi showed fhof
moggofs deveIoped onIy in meof fhof fIies couId reoch fo Ioy eggs on.
3. Mony insisfed fhof he onIy disproved sponfoneous generofion for mocroorgonisms, moybe
microbes were on excepfion.

D, Needhu2 vs, SpuIIunzuni - still trying to prove or disprove the theory oI spontaneous generation.
I. Whof wos Meedhoms hypofhesis, experimenf, & concIusions7 Everyone knew boiIing
kiIIed microbes, so, he wouId boiI chicken brofh, puf if in o fIosk, & seoI if, if microbes
grew, fhen if couId onIy be becouse of sponfoneous generofion, fhey did grow. [We now
know fhof microbes grew becouse fhe fIosk wos nof sferiIi;ed before he poured in fhe
Z. Whof wos SpoIIon;onis hypofhesis, experimenf, & concIusions7 He wos nof convinced by
Meedhoms experimenf. He puf brofh in o fIosk, seoIed if (creofing o vocuum), & fhen
boiIed if. %here were no microbes in fhe cooIed brofhl Crifics soid he didnf disprove
sponfoneous generofion - fhey soid he jusf proved fhof sponfoneous generofion required

E, Pusteur's Epic Eperi2ents {19}
I. Whof wos his experimenfoI mefhod7 %o offsef fhe orgumenf fhof oir wos necessory for
sponfoneous generofion, Posfeur oIIowed fhe free possoge of oir, buf prevenfed fhe enfry
of microbes. He boiIed meof brofh in o fIosk & fhen drew ouf & curved fhe neck of fhe
fIosk in o fIome. Mo microbes deveIoped in fhe fIosk. When he fiIfed fhe fIosk so some
brofh fIowed info fhe curved neck & fhen fiIfed if bock so fhe brofh wos refurned fo fhe
bose of fhe fIosk, microbes grew. 0rovify hod coused fhe microbes fhof hod enfered fhe
fIosk in oir & dusf fo seffIe of fhe Iow poinf of fhe neck, never reoching fhe brofh in fhe
bose unfiI fhe brofh woshed fhem in.

Z. Posfeurs success wos porfIy due fo good Iuck. He used meof, which confoins few
bocferioI endospores (endospores ore resisfonf fo heof, mony experimenfs done prior fo
Posfeurs used vegefobIe brofhs - pIonfs confoins mony endospore-forming bocferio.)

3. Whof 3 fhings did Posfeurs experimenfs prove7
o. Mo Iiving fhings orise by sponfoneous generofion.
b. Microbes ore everywhere - even in fhe oir ond dusf
c. %he growfh of microbes couses deod pIonf & onimoI fissue fo decompose & food
fo spoiI (fhis Ied him fo deveIop fhe fechnique of pusteurizution - he deveIoped
if fo keep wine from spoiIing).

4. Posfeur oIso confribufed fo fhe deveIopmenf of voccines.

F, The Ser2 Theory of Diseuse
I. Whof is fhe ger2 theory of diseuse7 Microbes (germs) couse diseose ond specific
microbes couse specific diseoses.
Z. Who proved fhis fheory7 Poberf Ioch in fhe Iofe I70s.
3. Whof diseose wos he sfudying7 onfhrox - diseose of coffIe/sheep, oIso in humons
4. Whof wos his experimenfoI mefhod7 He observed fhof fhe some microbes were presenf
in oII bIood sompIes of infecfed onimoIs. He isoIofed ond cuIfivofed fhese microbes (now
known fo be 8ociIIus onfhrocis ). He fhen injecfed o heoIfhy onimoI wifh fhe cuIfured
bocferio & fhof onimoI become infecfed wifh onfhrox & ifs bIood sompIe showed fhe some
microbes os fhe originoIIy infecfed onimoIs.
. Whof did his experimenfs prove7 PorficuIor microbes couse porficuIor diseoses.
. Whof ore och's 4 PostuIutes7
I.) %he cousofive ogenf musf be presenf in every individuoI wifh fhe diseose.
Z.) %he cousofive ogenf musf be isoIofed & grown in pure cuIfure (how did he invenf
pure cuIfures7, wifh Frou Hesses heIp, he deveIoped fhe ugur pIute
2ethod (see p. I3).
3.) %he pure cuIfure musf couse fhe diseose when inocuIofed info on experimenfoI
4.) %he cousofive ogenf musf be reisoIofed from fhe experimenfoI onimoI &
reidenfified in pure cuIfure.

S, Whut ure So2e Wuys thut We Cun ControI nfectious Diseuses?

I. 22unity - sfimuIofing fhe bodys own obiIify fo combof infecfion, from oncienf fimes if
wos o recogni;ed focf fhof peopIe who suffered from cerfoin diseoses never gof fhem
ogoin, infecfion couId produce immunify.
o. 22unizution defined: produce immunify by providing exposure fo oIfered
orgonisms fhof do nof couse diseose.
b. enner & S2uIIpo - observed fhof doirymoids fhof confrocfed o miId infecfion
of cowpox seemed fo be immune fo smoIIpox. He inocuIofed o boy wifh fIuid from
o cow pox bIisfer ond he confrocfed cowpox, he fhen inocuIofed him wifh fIuid
from o smoIIpox bIisfer, fhe boy did nof confrocf smoIIpox, fhe ferm voccinofion
come from vocco for cow.
c. %he firsf voccines:
I.) Posfeurs discovery7 uttenuuted bocferio con produce immunify
Z.) Attenuuted defined - weokened virus or bocferio fhof is unobIe fo couse
fhe diseose (if wos Iofer discovered fhof kiIIed microbes con oIso
produce immunify)
3.) Whof voccines did Posfeur deveIop7 onfhrox, robies

Z, PubIic Hygiene
o. Improving sewoge disposoI.
b. Assuring o cIeon pubIic wofer suppIy.
c. Food preservofion & inspecfion.
ex. Posfeuri;ofion - kiIIs mosf microbes by exposing fo heof.
d. Improving personoI hygiene.
Se22eIweiss & chiIdbed fever
e. DeveIoping onfisepfic fechniques.
Lister & corboIic ocid - he deveIoped fhe firsf osepfic fechniques.

3, Che2otherupy

o. Who is fhe fofher of chemofheropy7 PuuI EhrIich - he discovered o drug
freofmenf for syphiIis; he deveIoped fhe guiding principIe of chemofheropy,
which is seIecfive foxicify (fhe drug musf be foxic fo fhe infecfing microbe, buf
reIofiveIy hormIess fo fhe hosf's ceIIs).
b. Whof wos fhe firsf mojor cIoss of drugs fo come info widespreod cIinicoI
use7 suIfo drugs
c. Who discovered fhe firsf onfibiofic7 FIe22ing discovered (peniciIIin),
onfibiofics ore onfibocferioI compounds produced by fungi ond bocferio.


Why is if necessory fo sfudy chemisfry7 iving fhings ore mode of 2utter (onyfhing fhof occupies spoce & hos
moss) & moffer foIIows fhe Iows of chemisfry. Even fhe chorocferisfics we consider fo be unique fo Iiving
fhings ore fhe resuIf of chemicoI reocfions (ex. movemenf os o resuIf of muscIe confrocfions).

A, Ato2 - smoIIesf unif of moffer unique fo o porficuIor eIemenf.
, EIe2ent - A subsfonce mode up of onIy one kind of ofom - ex. corbon confoins onIy corbon
ofoms. EIemenfs conf be broken down info ofher subsfonces by ordinory chemicoI meons. Eoch
eIemenf dispIoys unique properfies (ex. some ore goses, some ore soIids, some ore mefoIs, efc.).
Abouf 9Z eIemenfs occur nofuroIIy (fhere ore oIso some mon-mode eIemenfs). Some of fhe
eIemenfs imporfonf fo our sfudy of Iiving sysfems ore corbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nifrogen, sodium,
chIorine, phosphorus, ond pofossium. You moy oIso be fomiIior wifh fhe eIemenfs Ieod, iron, iodine,
goId, siIver, ond copper, nickeI, ond pIofinum.
C, So2e 2portunt Things to now ubout Ato2s & EIe2ents:
1, An uto2 consists of Z busic purts:
u, nucIeus - fhe nucIeus confoins profons & neufrons:
1,} protons poslLlvely charged all aLoms have proLons proLons glve Lhe nucleus a
poslLlve charge
Z,} neutrons neuLral ln charge fxn sLablllzers all aLoms excepL hydrogen have one
or more neuLrons
b, eIectrons - negofiveIy chorged, occupy orbif energy IeveIs or sheIIs oround fhe
nucIeus; offrocfed fo fhe posifive chorge of fhe nucIeus, in on ofom, fhe number
of eIecfrons oIwoys equoIs fhe number of profons, so fhe ofom, os o whoIe, hos no
chorge, eIecfrons defermine fhe chemicoI properfies of eIemenfs (ex. whefher
fhey ore o Iiquid, soIid, or gos, efc.).
Z, uto2ic nu2ber ~ number of profons (or number of eIecfrons), in on ofom, fhe number of
profons oIwoys equoIs fhe number of eIecfrons, fhis number differs for eoch eIemenf.
3, uto2ic 2uss nu2ber ~ number of profons + number of neufrons, fhe number of eIecfrons
is nof incIuded in fhe moss number due fo fheir insignificonf moss.
4, %he eIemenfs imporfonf for buiIding orgonic moIecuIes Iike corbohydrofes, Iipids,
profeins, ond nucIeofides ore: corbon, hydrogen, oxygen, suIfur, nifrogen, & phosphorus.
Note: 8e obIe fo defermine fhe number of eIecfrons, profons, & neufrons in on ofom, given fhe ofomic number
& ofomic moss. Ex. Sodium (Mo) hos on ofomic number of II & on ofomic moss of Z3. A Sodium ofom hos II
profons, II eIecfrons, & IZ neufrons.


A, More ubout EIectrons
1, EIecfrons orbif oround fhe nucIeus of differenf energy IeveIs or sheIIs fhe Isf sheII (k sheII) con
hoId no more fhon Z eIecfrons, fhe nexf sheII (I sheII) con hoId eIecfrons, Z eIecfrons in eoch of
4 orbifoIs, fhe nexf sheII (m sheII) oIso hoIds eIecfrons. %hese wiII be fhe onIy sheIIs fhof we wiII
deoI wifh in fhis cIoss.
Z, An ofom is fhe mosf sfobIe when oII of ifs sheIIs ore compIefeIy fiIIed (fhe k sheII fiIIs firsf, fhen
fhe I sheII, fhen fhe m sheII, & so on).
3, %he ofoms of mony eIemenfs hove porfioIIy fiIIed oufer sheIIs, fherefore fhey ore nof very sfobIe,
fhese ofoms fend fo reocf wifh ofher ofoms fo compIefeIy fiII fheir oufer sheIIs &, in doing so,
fhey form chemicoI bonds, if is imporfonf fo remember fhof ifs fhe eIecfrons of on ofom fhof
porficipofe in fhe chemicoI bonds fhof form befween ofoms. MoIecuIes ore formed when Z or
more ofoms ore joined fogefher by inferocfions befween fhe eIecfrons of fheir oufer eIecfron

, Che2icuI onds
1, onic bonds
u, definition - in ionic bonds eIecfrons ore trunsferred fo ofher ofoms fo compIefeIy fiII
oufer sheIIs, ofoms ore eIecfricoIIy neufroI, buf when fhey goin or Iose eIecfrons in
combining wifh ofher ofoms, fhey ore coIIed ions (chorged ofoms) & fhey foke on o
posifive or negofive chorge, in ofher words, fhe fronsfer of eIecfrons upsefs fhe boIonce
of profons & eIecfrons in on ofom, ofoms fhof Iose eIecfrons ore posifiveIy chorged, ofoms
fhof goin eIecfrons ore negofiveIy chorged, ionic bonds invoIve fhe offrocfions befween
fhese opposifeIy chorged ions. So, before you con hove on ionic bond, you hove gof fo
hove opposifeIy chorged ions, & fo creofe ions you hove gof fo fronsfer eIecfrons.
b, eu2pIe: MoCI (sodium chIoride- fobIe soIf), Mo (of. # II) hos one eIecfron in ifs oufer m
sheII - if needs 7 eIecfrons fo fiII fhis sheII - if is eosier for Mo jusf fo give fhis eIecfron
owoy, & eIiminofe fhe m sheII enfireIy. CI (of. # I7) hos 7 eIecfrons in ifs oufer m sheII -
if onIy needs I eIecfron fo fiII ifs oufer sheII. %herefore, when Mo & CI ofoms reocf, Mo
gives up ifs oufer eIecfron fo CI. 8ecouse Mo gives up on eIecfron, if now hos II profons &
I0 eIecfrons, resuIfing in o posifiveIy chorged ofom. CI now hos I7 profons & I eIecfrons,
resuIfing in o negofiveIy chorged ofom. Mo
& CI
ions ore offrocfed fo eoch ofher
becouse of fheir opposife chorges & on ionic bond is formed. %he offrocfion is fhe ionic
bondl OnIy fhe eIecfron # chonges when ions ore formedl

Z, CovuIent bonds - more common in fhe humon body & ore more sfobIe.
u, definition - EIecfrons ore nof fronsferred, buf ore shured. %he shored eIecfrons spend
porf of fheir fime oround fhe nucIeus of one ofom & porf of fheir fime oround fhe
ofher. Eoch poir of eIecfrons shored equoIs one covoIenf bond (if Z poir of eIecfrons ore
shored befween Z ofoms, o doubIe covoIenf bond is formed, o fripIe covoIenf bond occurs
when 3 pr. of eIecfrons ore shored). We onIy discuss singIe covoIenf bonds.
b, eu2pIe: mefhone (CH
o corbon ofom con form four covoIenf bonds - if hos 4 eIecfrons
in ifs oufer sheII, fherefore if needs 4 more eIecfrons fo fiII ifs oufer sheII, hydrogen hos
one eIecfron in ifs oufer sheII, fherefore if needs one eIecfron fo fiII ifs oufer
sheII. Pofher fhon give 4 eIecfrons owoy or occepf 4 eIecfrons, corbon shores ifs 4
eIecfrons in ifs oufer sheII wifh 4 Hydrogen ofoms.
c, poIur vs, nonpoIur - covoIenf bonds con be poIor or nonpoIor, if bofh ofoms exerf fhe
some puII on fhe shored eIecfrons (equoI shoring), fhe bond is nonpoIor (exompIe:
mefhone), if fhere is unequoI shoring of eIecfrons, fhe bond is poIor, in moIecuIes wifh
poIor covoIenf bonds, fhere is on ofom fhof hos o much Iorger nucIeus (more profons) fhon
fhe ofher ofoms in fhe moIecuIe, fhe ofom wifh fhe mosf profons is more offrocfive fo
fhe shored eIecfrons, so fhe eIecfrons spend mosf of fheir fime oround fhis ofoms
nucIeus, oII of fhese eIecfrons spending mosf of fheir fime oround o porficuIor nucIeus
gives fhis porf of fhe moIecuIe o porfioI negofive chorge, fhe ofher ofom(s) in fhe
moIecuIe ocquire o porfioI posifive chorge, becouse fhe shored eIecfrons ore nof spending
much fime oround fhem. Shored eIecfrons in poIor covoIenf bonds ore nof spending oII of
fheir fime oround o porficuIor nucIeus - if fhis were fhe cose fhen we wouId be foIking
obouf eIecfrons being fronsferred (os in ionic bonds).
4, Hydrogen bonds - %hese bonds resuIf from poIor covoIenf bonds, fhey form between moIecuIes &
occur befween fhe sIighfIy negofive ofom of one moIecuIe & fhe sIighfIy posifive ofom of onofher
moIecuIe. %hese bonds con occur befween hydrogen & oxygen & befween hydrogen &
nifrogen. Hydrogen bonds ore weoker fhon ionic & covoIenf bonds, becouse fhe chorges on fhe
moIecuIes ore "porfioI" or weok chorges.

C, Che2icuI Reuctions - A chemicoI reocfion when ofoms or moIecuIes (coIIed reocfonfs) coIIide ond
ore fronsformed info differenf combinofions of fhe some ofoms or moIecuIes (coIIed
producfs). In fhis process, chemicoI bonds breok ond new ones form. In Iiving sysfems specioI
profeins coIIed en;ymes cofoIy;e fhese chemicoI reocfions (fhey moke fhem "go"). WeII foIk
more obouf en;ymes Iofer.
A, Structure:

1, A singIe wofer moIecuIe is mode up of one oxygen ofom & fwo hydrogen ofoms (H

Z, Oxygen hos profons, whiIe eoch hydrogen hos onIy one profon. Oxygen forms o covoIenf bond
wifh eoch hydrogen so fhof fhe oufer sheIIs of eoch ofom ore compIefe.

3, 8ecouse fhe oxygen ofom hos more profons (posifives) fhon fhe hydrogen nucIei, fhe shored
eIecfrons hove o greofer offrocfion fo fhe oxygen nucIeus & spend more fime oround if fhon fhey
do oround fhe hydrogen nucIei (unequoI shoring of eIecfrons). %he oxygen ofom fherefore hos I0
eIecfrons ( of ifs own & I from eoch hydrogen) spending mosf of fheir fime oround ifs nucIeus of
profons - fhis gives fhe oxygen end of fhe wofer moIecuIe o porfioIIy negofive chorge. Since fhe
hydrogen eIecfrons ore spending mosf of fheir fime oround fhe oxygen ofom, fhe hydrogen ofoms,
which hove one profon eoch, foke on o porfioIIy posifive chorge. %his resuIfs in o poIur 2oIecuIe (o
moIecuIe fhof hos porfioIIy posifive & negofive regions). %heir poIorify oIIows wofer moIecuIes fo
inferocf wifh one onofher, forming hydrogen bonds. %he some fype of inferocfion is possibIe
befween wofer & mony ofher poIor subsfonces. PoIor subsfonces ore hydrophiIic(wofer-Ioving) &
nonpoIor subsfonces ore hydrophobic (wofer-feoring).

, PROPERTES OF WATER - ydrophlllc hydrophoblc lnLeracLlons underlle several properLles of waLer LhaL are
blologlcally lmporLanL

1, Te2peruture-StubiIizing Effects:

Note: %he te2peruture of o subsfonce is o meosure of how fosf ifs moIecuIes ore moving,
fhe higher fhe femperofure of o subsfonce, fhe fosfer ifs moIecuIes ore moving.

u,} heuting wuter - L Lakes conslderable heaL Lo ralse Lhe LemperaLure of waLer because Lhe hydrogen
bonds beLween Lhe waLer molecules resLrlcL Lhe movemenL of Lhe molecules ln order for Lhe
LemperaLure of waLer Lo rlse a number of bonds musL be broken Lhls Lakes a loL of energy 1hls
reslsLance Lo LemperaLure change helps llvlng cells Lo malnLaln a relaLlvely consLanL LemperaLure Lhls
ls lmporLanL because blochemlcal reacLlons Lake place wlLhln a narrow LemperaLure range (Lhls has Lo
do wlLh Lhe acLlon of enzymes) 1hls reslsLance Lo LemperaLure change also helps organlsms LhaL llve
ln aquaLlc or marlne envlronmenLs

Z, Wuter As u SoIvent - fhe poIorify of wofer is oIso responsibIe for wofers copocify os
o soIvent (somefhing fhof dissoIves somefhing eIse), wofer is on exceIIenf soIvenf for ions & ofher
poIor moIecuIes (soIutes) in ceIIs.

When moIecuIes of inorgonic ocids, boses, or soIfs dissoIve in wofer of body ceIIs, fhey
undergo ionizution or dissociution (fhey breok oporf info fheir individuoI ions).

1, Acids & uses SeneruIIy Defined

Acid - Defined os o soIufe fhof reIeoses H
ions in o soIufion
[ex. HCI - hydrochIoric ocid dissociofes info H
ions & CI

use - Defined os o soIufe fhof removes H
ions from o soIufion, mony reIeose OH
ions in fhis
[ex. Mg(OH)
- mognesium hydroxide dissociofes info OH
ions & Mg

Z, pH ScuIe - FIuids ore ossigned o pH voIue (0 -I4), which refers fo fhe hydrogen ion concenfrofion
presenf in fhe fIuid. %he hydrogen ion concenfrofion is obbreviofed os [H

u, ucid - pH beIow 7.0, buse - pH obove 7.0, neutruI - pH ~ 7.0
b, pH ~ - Iog [ H
] (formuIo for coIcuIofing pH)
c, If is o common misconcepfion fo fhink fhof os fhe [H
] increoses, fhe pH oIso
increosesl %he ruIe is: As [H
j increuses pH decreuses| %his con be seen from fhe
foIIowing exompIe:
soIufion A: [H
] ~ I x I0
or 0.0I pH ~ -Iog[I x I0
] ~ Z
soIufion 8: [H
] ~ I x I0
or 0.0000000I pH ~ -Iog[I x I0
] ~

(A quick woy fo find fhe pH of fhese soIufions is fo Iook of fhe exponenf or counf fhe
number of decimoI pIoces in fhe [H

SoIufion A is more ocidic fhon SoIufion 8 - SoIufion hos o higher [H
] fhon SoIufion 8 (0.00I
0.000I), fherefore, SoIufion A hos o Iower pH fhon 8.

When you fhink obouf o pH voIue, fhink fhof fhis number is reoIIy fhe number of decimoI
pIoces in fhe hydrogen ion concenfrofion. %he Iorger fhe number, fhe more decimoI pIoces
fhere ore, indicofing o smoIIer hydrogen ion concenfrofion.

3, uffers - heIp moinfoin o consfonf pH by removing or odding H
ions, fhe pH inside Iiving sysfems
is generoIIy befween 7.3-7.4 (excepfion: fhe hydrochIoric ocid in fhe digesfive sysfem mokes
fhe pH here Z-3), fhis pH ronge is imporfonf, os mony biochemicoI reocfions foke pIoce onIy wifhin
fhis ronge, buffers con combine wifh hydrogen ions &/or reIeose fhem, & so heIp sfobiIi;e fhe pH.


4 Sroups of Orgunic Co2pounds 2portunt in Living Orgunis2s:
Curbohydrutes Lipids Proteins NucIeotides

Orgunic co2pound defined - A compound confoining corbon (wifh excepfion of corbon dioxide), found in oII
Iiving fhings.


A, The Curbon uckbone - 1he processes of llfe are prlmarlly Lhe resulL of Lhe chemlsLry compounds of carbon 8ecause
of carbons Lendency Lo form four covalenL bonds ln four dlfferenL dlrecLlons carbon can form an unbellevably large
number of dlfferenL compounds of hlgh complexlLy organlc compounds derlve Lhelr baslc shapes from Lhe carbon aLoms
Lhls shape helps deLermlne Lhe compounds funcLlon ln llvlng sysLems

, FunctionuI groups - %he sfrucfure & behovior of orgonic compounds oIso depends on fhe properfies of
fheir funcfionoI groups, funcfionoI groups ore groups of ofoms (ex. hydrogen, oxygen, nifrogen, phosphorus,
suIfur) offoched fo fhe corbon bockbone.


A, Structure: generoIIy mode up of onIy fhree eIemenfs: corbon, hydrogen, & oxygen

, Three PrincipIe CIusses of Curbohydrutes:
1, Monosucchuride
u, Structure - composed of singIe sugor moIecuIe, fhe ofoms in o sugor moIecuIe con form o
sfroighf choin or o ring (rings ore more common in fhe body).
b, Eu2pIes - SIucose Ribose Fructose SuIuctose
d, Functions - monosocchorides ore imporfonf energy moIecuIes in Iiving fhings, gIucose is
fhe primory energy source for humons & mony ofher onimoIs, oIso imporfonf os buiIding
bIocks of Iorger sugors.

Z, OIigosucchurides - composed of shorf choins of monosocchorides, ExompIes:
u, Sucrose (fobIe sugor) is o disocchoride composed of gIucose & frucfose, sucrose is fhe
form in which sugors ore fronsporfed in pIonfs.
b, Luctose (miIk sugor) is o disocchoride composed of gIucose & goIocfose.

Sucrose ~ 0Iucose + Frucfose

Z. PoIysucchurides - sfroighf or bronched choins of mony monosocchoride unifs

u, Storuge PoIysucchurides
1,} Sturch sugar sLorage ln planLs
Z,} SIycogen anlmal sLarch" prlnclple sLorage form for glucose ln hlgher
anlmals Lhls energy sLorage ls shorL Lerm llplds are used for long Lerm
energy sLorage

b, StructuruI PoIysucchurides
1,} CeIIuIose - 9rlnclpal componenL of Lhe planL cell wall also found ln Lhe
cell walls of algae and fungl Monosaccharldes are bonded LogeLher ln
such a way LhaL Lhe molecule reslsLs breakdown by mulLlcellular
organlsms We don'L have Lhe dlgesLlve enzymes Lo break Lhe bonds
however some mlcroorganlsms do have Lhese enzymes Lhls ls why
mlcrobes are so lmporLanL ln Lhe guL of a LermlLe cow eLc)
Z,} Chitin - conLalns nlLrogen forms Lhe cell wall of some fungl (lL's Lhe
same sLuff lnsecL exoskeleLon's are made of!)

A, Protein Structure:

1, Profeins ore composed of subunifs coIIed u2ino ucids (fhere ore Z0 differenf
omino ocids fhof moke up profeins). Amino ocids confoin corbon, hydrogen,

oxygen, ond nifrogen. Some oIso confoin suIfur. Amino ocids hove o sfrucfure
simiIor fo fhe one beIow. %he P sfonds for some ofher ofom or group of ofoms
bonded fo fhe cenfroI corbon ofom in fhe moIecuIe. The sequence of u2ino
ucids in u chuin heIps deter2ine the structure & shupe of the protein &
therefore the function of the protein, fhere ore mony possibIe combinofions of
omino ocids fhof produce fhe mony differenf kinds of




Z, Peptide bonds - Iinkoge formed befween one omino ocid & onofher omino ocid, fhe
nome of fhese bonds is why choins of omino ocids ore coIIedpoIypeptides,

3, Producing the three di2ensionuI structure of u protein: We hove been
discussing profeins os "choins of omino ocids." However, fhe finoI sfrucfure of
profeins is nof o sfroighf choin of omino ocids. Profeins ore very compIex, fhree-
dimensionoI moIecuIes, wifh numerous fwisfs & foIds. %he omino ocid choin of
every kind of profein is foIded in o very specific woy [fhe choin wiII fwisf & foId
ifseIf bosed on fhe Iinkoge of omino ocids in o specific sequence & fhe
environmenfoI condifions (i.e., femperofure & pH)]. %here ore severoI bonds &
forces which give o profein ifs specific 3-D sfrucfure (i.e., hydrogen bonds, ionic
bonds, efc.), fhese bonds Iink disfonf porfs of fhe moIecuIe, forming Ioops,
fwisfs, efc. Desfrucfion of o profeins 3-D sfrucfure by exfreme heof or pH is
coIIed denofurofion (see "en;ymes" on fhe nexf poge for how fhis
occurs). AnoIogy for profein sfrucfure: %hink of o phone cord. PuII if sfroighf
(Iike o sfroighf choin of o.o.), fhen Ief if fwisf, fhen roII fhe fwisfed cord info o
boII. (Every fype of profein foIds ond fwisfs in o very specific woy.)
, So2e Specific Functions of Proteins:
1, StructuruI Proteins: coIIogen in connecfive fissue, kerofin in fhe skin,
cyfoskeIefon in ceIIs
Z, FunctionuI Proteins:
u, membrone fronsporf profeins - fronsporf subsfonces ocross fhe ceII
b, ceII movemenf - ex. fIogeIIum
c, en;ymes os cofoIysfs (en;ymes speed up fhe rofe of chemicoI reocfions),
oII Iife processes ore primoriIy fhe resuIf of chemicoI reocfions,
moIecuIes in Iiving fhings require en;ymes in order fo reocf, wifhouf
en;ymes, chemicoI reocfions in Iiving fhings con'f occur, see beIow for
more informofion on en;ymes.
d, onfibodies in fhe immune response

C, Enzy2es - o Iorge, gIobuIor profein moIecuIe fhof occeIerofes o specific chemicoI
reocfion. VirfuoIIy oII chemicoI reocfions fhof foke pIoce in ceIIs invoIve en;ymeslll Mosf
of o ceII's profeins ore en;ymes.

I. Why ure enzy2es needed? In order for porficuIor moIecuIes fo reocf wifh one
onofher, fhey musf be in cIose proximify & musf coIIide wifh sufficienf force fo
overcome fhe mufuoI repuIsion of fheir negofiveIy chorged eIecfron cIouds & fo breok
exisfing chemicoI bonds wifhin fhe moIecuIes. %he force wifh which fhey coIIide
depends on fheir kinefic energy (energy of mofion). Mosf chemicoI reocfions require
on inifioI inpuf of energy fo gef sforfed, which increoses fhe kinefic energy of fhe
moIecuIes, enobIing o greofer number of fhem fo coIIide wifh sufficienf force. In fhe
chemisfry Iob, we con suppIy fhis energy wifh heof. In o ceII, mony differenf reocfions
ore going on of fhe some fime, fherefore heof connof be used os if wouId be
nondiscriminofory (if wouId offecf mony reocfions of fhe some fime). CeIIs gef oround
fhis probIem by using en;ymes, which serve os cutuIysts (fhey gef fhe chemicoI
reocfions going). %he en;ymes form o femporory ossociofion wifh fhe moIecuIes fhof
ore fo reocf, bringing fhem cIose fo one onofher & weokening fhe exisfing chemicoI
bonds, moking if eosier for new ones fo form.

Z, Enzy2e Structure & Function - En;ymes ore Iorge, compIex, gIobuIor profeins
consisfing of one or more poIypepfide choins. %he moIecuIes fhof en;ymes ocfs on
ore known os fhe substrutes. En;ymes ore foIded fo form o groove or pockef (coIIed
on uctive sife) on fheir surfoce info which fhe subsfrofe fifs & where fhe chemicoI
reocfions foke pIoce. See diogrom beIow:

3, Effects of Te2peruture & pH on Enzy2e Function
1, Te2peruture: As fhe femperofure increoses, so does fhe rofe of
en;yme cofoIy;ed reocfions, buf onIy up fo o cerfoin poinf. Af high
femperofures, fhe en;ymes ore denutured (due fo fhe vibrofion of
moIecuIes of high femperofures, fhe bonds fhof moinfoin fhe en;ymes
sfrucfure ore broken & fhe profein unfoIds). If denofurofion is severe,
fhe domoge fo fhe en;yme is irreversibIe.
Z, pH: %he shope of fhe en;yme depends porfIy on offrocfion befween
posifiveIy & negofiveIy chorged omino ocids. As fhe pH chonges (ocidic -
more H
, bosic - fewer H
), fhese chorges chonge, chonging fhe shope of
fhe en;yme & ifs funcfion. Pemember: fhe opfimum pH for mosf
en;ymes is -. (excepfion: fhe sfomoch which hos o pH of Z)

Mofe: AII profeins con be denofured by heof ond exfreme pH.

%his moIecuIe hos bofh profein ond poIysocchoride componenfs ond if forms fhe ceII woII of
eubocferio. If moy be one or severoI Ioyers fhick. If is on exfremeIy sfrong profecfive
covering. 0Iycon sfronds in oII eubocferio ore mode of oIfernofing unifs of Z modified sugors,
M-ocefyIgIucosomine (MA0A) ond M-ocefyImuromic ocid (MAMA). (If's sfrucfure is simiIor fo o
choin Iink fencel) More Ioferl

A. SeneruI Structure - oII Iipids ore mosfIy nonpoIor (hydrophobic) & ore insoIubIe in poIor
soIvenfs such os wofer, Iipid sfrucfure vories greofIy & is discussed beIow for eoch fype.
8. So2e SeneruI Functions:
1, Iong ferm energy sforoge (exompIe: gIycerides), energy is sfored in fhe chemicoI
bonds, excess corbohydrofes, profeins or fofs ore converfed fo frigIycerides &
ore sfored in odipose (fof) fissue.
Z, sfrucfuroI (exompIe: phosphoIipids moke up fhe ceII membrone of ceIIs)
C, Types of Lipids:

1, Lipids with Futty Acids - SIycerides & PhosphoIipids:
u, SIycerides
1,} Structure: cIossified os 2ono- di-, & trigIycerides,
depending on fhe number of foffy ocids offoched o singIe
gIyceroI moIecuIe, gIyceroI hos 3 corbon ofoms & 3 hydroxyI
(OH) groups, futty ucids ore Iong, nonpoIor choins
composed of hydrogen & 4 fo Z4 corbon ofoms, wifh o
corboxyI (COOH) group of one end.

u,} Suturuted futty ucids all carbons ln Lhe faLLy acld Lalls are
[olned LogeLher by s|ng|e carbon Lo carbon bonds as many
hydrogen aLoms as posslble are llnked Lo Lhe carbons (Lhe carbons
are sald Lo be saLuraLed wlLh hydrogens) Lrlglycerldes wlLh many
saLuraLed faLLy aclds are solld aL room LemperaLure occur mosLly ln
anlmal Llssues buL also ln a few planL producLs examples buLLer
lard cocoa buLLer palm oll coconuL oll Lhe llver produces
cholesLerol from some breakdown producLs of saLuraLed faLs
b,} Unsuturuted futty ucids one or more |e bonds occur
beLween carbon aLoms ln Lhe faLLy acld Lalls Lhls cuLs down on Lhe
number of hydrogen aLoms LhaL can bond Lo Lhe carbons llqulds aL
room LemperaLure Lhe double bonds creaLe a klnk ln Lhe shape of
Lhe molecule prevenL Lhe faLLy aclds from packlng close LogeLher
becomlng solldlfled unsaLuraLed faLLy aclds are more common ln
planLs mnnsatate fatty ac|s are beLLer for you LhaL
Lhep|ynsatate nes Lhe poly's can produce compounds
called tans fatty ac|s whlch lncrease Lhe rlsk of hearL dlsease
A trigIyceride 2oIecuIe:
H--C---O---C--CC--C--C--CCCCC--CH sofurofed f.o.

H--C---O---C--CC--C--C--C--CCCCC--H sofurofed f.o.

HC---O---CCCC~~CCCCCCC---H unsofurofed f.o.

Z,} Functions of SIycerides
u,} Energy lor mosL organlsms and cellular mlcroorganlsms
sugars ln excess of whaL can be sLored as glycogen are
converLed lnLo faLs for more permanenL sLorage Lhls ls noL Lhe
case ln bacLerla!

b, PhosphoIipids
1,} Structure 2 faLLy aclds 1 phosphaLe group are llnked Lo a glycerol
molecule a small polar group ls llnked Lo Lhe phosphaLe group Lhls
resulLs ln a molecule wlLh a dual naLure Lhe molecule has a nonpolar
hydrophoblc end a polar hydrophlllc end

Z,} Function: StructuruI, 1he phosphaLe end of Lhe molecule lLs
polar group are called Lhe head of Lhe molecule Lhe Lwo faLLy aclds are
called Lhe Lalls of Lhe molecule Lhe head ls hydrophlllc (waLerlovlng)
whlle Lhe 2 faLLy acld Lalls are hydrophoblc (waLerfearlng) 1hls
arrangemenL forms Lhe sLrucLural basls ofcellular membranes ls called
Lhe phsph||p| ||aye

2 laLLy Acld1alls (nonpolar)
Z, Lipids without Futty Acids: Steroids
u, Structure - differenf from ofher Iipids, fhey consisf of 4 inferIocking
corbon rings wifh numerous hydrogens offoched, whiIe fhey hove no
foffy ocids, fhey ore sfiII nonpoIor & hydrophobic, so fhey ore cIossified
os Iipids.

9hosphaLe ead

b, So2e Eu2pIes:
1,} choIesteroI - lmporLanL componenL ln eukaryoLlc cell membranes
serves as Lhe sLarLlng maLerlal for Lhe synLhesls of oLher sLerolds noL
found ln Lhe cell membranes of bacLerla wlLh Lhe excepLlon of Lhe

A, Structure: nucIeofide ~ phosphofe(s) + monosocchoride + o nifrogen-confoining compound
(coIIed o bose), if's fhe boses fhof speII ouf fhe genefic messoge in DMA & PMA).

, Functions:

1, MucIeofides ore fhe bosic subunifs of nucIeic ucids such os

u, DNA {deoyribonucIeic nucIeic ucid} - corrier of fhe genefic messoge -
mokes up chromosomes in fhe nucIeus of fhe ceII.

b, RNA {ribonucIeic ucid} - fronscribes genefic messoge presenf in DMA &
produces profeins from if.

Z, MucIeofides oIso moke up fhe udenosine phosphutes (ex. ATP - odenosine
friphosphofe - used for energy moIecuIe in fhe ceII).

3, MucIeofides moke up some coenzy2es (ex. NAD & FAD), fhese moIecuIes
funcfion os eIecfron corriers in some biochemicoI reocfions, fhey ore coIIed fhe
ceII's "reducing power." We'II foIk obouf fhis more in fhe mefoboIism chopfer.
Chp. 3 Microscopy and Staining

I. !rinciples

M|cscpy |s the techn|gy f mak|ng vey sma|| th|ngs v|s||e t the hman eye Mst m|ces ae s sma||
that they ae mease |n m|cmetes nanmetes A typ|ca| acte|a| ce|| |s at 1 om wh||e a v|s |s me
|n the ange f 10100 nm
kemembet leeoweoboek wos ptobobly tbe 1
to see mlctootqoolsms lo tbe 1600s wltb bls loveotloo of bls slmple

kes|t|n |s the a|||ty t see tw ects as sepaate |sceet ent|t|esk|n f ||ke the a|||ty t see a||a
tacks as e|ng sepaate tacksGCCD es|t|n |s e|ng a|e t |st|ng|sh the tw tacks as sepaatence
the tw tacks mege |nt ne the es|t|n |s p"""

kefact|n |s the en|ng f ||ght as |t passes fm ne me|m t anthe f |ffeent ens|ty Immes|n ||
wh|ch has the same |nex f efact|n as g|ass |s se t ep|ace a| an t pevent efact|n at a g|assa|
|nteface An examp|e w| e when ne |ks at ects st e|w the sface f wate |n a pn the y
f watethe ects ecme efacte "|stte# fm the te |mage

1he tta| magn|f|cat|n f a ||ght m|cscpe |s ca|c|ate y m|t|p|y|ng the magn|fy|ng pwe f the ect|ve
|ens y the magn|fy|ng pwe f the c|a |ens Incease magn|f|cat|n |s f n va|e n|ess g es|t|n can
a|s e ma|nta|ne

Scann|ng (3k) x (10k) 30k tta|
Lw pwe (10k) x (10k) 100k tta|
n|gh "y# (40k) x (10k) 400k tta|
C|| |mmes|n (100k) x (10k) 1000k tta|

Mst m|cscpes ae es|gne s that when the m|cscp|st |nceases eceases the magn|f|cat|n y
chang|ng fm ne ect|ve |ens t anthe the spec|men w||| ema|n vey nea|y |n fcs Sch m|cscpes ae
sa| t e fnf (pa means eqa|)

1ypes f m|cscpes

Cmpn L|ght*** (th|s |s what we w||| seknw the pats an fnct|nswe w||| spen me t|me n
th|s |n the |a




Scann|ng L|ectn

II 1echn|qes f L|ght M|cscpy

A epaat|n f spec|mens

Wet mnts ae se t v|ew ||v|ng gan|sms 1he hang|ng p techn|qe |s a spec|a| type f
wet mnt ften se t etem|ne whethe gan|sms ae mt||e

Smeas f appp|ate th|ckness ae a||we t a|y cmp|ete|y an ae then passe thgh
an pen f|ame 1h|s pcess ca||e heat f|xat|n k|||s the gan|sms cas|ng them t ahee t
the s||e an me ea||y accept sta|ns

8 |nc|p|es f Sta|n|ng

A sta|n ye |s a m|ec|e that can |n t a stcte an g|ve |t c|

Mst m|c|a| sta|ns ae cat|n|c (ps|t|ve|y chage) as|c yes sch as methy|ene |e
cysta| v||et safann|n Sme ae an|n|c yes (negat|ve|y chage) ac||c yes sch as
n|gs|n In|a |nk

MOST bacterial surfaces are negatively charged so they will attract the basic dyes.

S|mp|e sta|ns se ne ye an evea| as|c ce|| shapes an aangements D|ffeent|a| sta|ns se
tw me yes an |st|ng|sh va|s ppet|es gan|sms 1he Gam sta|n spe sta|n
an ac|fast sta|n ae examp|es

-egat|ve sta|ns c| the ackgn an ce||s an the| pats wh|ch es|st tak|ng p the
sta|n (ac||c yes w||| "st|ck# t the g|ass s||e s|nce g|ass has a + chage)

2agine a 2agnet when thinking of basic and acidic dyes...basic dyes () will attract to bacteria
due to their (-) parts but will be repelled by the glass because of its () charge'' Acidic dyes, on
the other hand, will attract to the () glass but be repelled by the (-) bacterial parts''

We w||| a|s e cve|ng these |n geat eta|| |n the |aaty
Chupter 4 - Churucteristics of Prokuryotic & Eukuryotic CeIIs
AII ceIIs huve:
I. CeII or pIosmo membrone (seporofes fhe ceII from fhe oufer environmenf)
Z. 0enefic moferioI (DMA)
3. CyfopIosm.

A. Prokoryofic ("before nucIeus") - o ceII Iocking o membrone-bound nucIeus & membrone-bound
orgoneIIes (ex. bocferio), fhese ceIIs do hove some orgoneIIes, buf fhey ore nof membrone-bound,
oII prokoryofic ceIIs hove o ceII woII, ifs primory componenf being pepfidogIycon, prokoryofic ceIIs
ore much smoIIer fhon eukoryofic ceIIs (obouf I0 fimes smoIIer), fheir smoII si;e oIIows fhem fo
grow fosfer & muIfipIy more ropidIy fhon eukoryofic ceIIs (fhey hove o higher surfoce oreo fo
voIume rofio fhon Iorger ceIIs, fhus, becouse fhey ore smoII, fhey con eosiIy meef fheir modesf
nufrifionoI needs ond grow ropidIy). %his group incIudes oII bocferio.

8. Eukoryofic ("frue nucIeus") - o ceII hoving o membrone-bound nucIeus & membrone-bound
orgoneIIes ("IiffIe orgons" - specioIi;ed sfrucfures fhof perform specific funcfions wifhin fhe ceII),
evoIved obouf Z miIIion yeors offer fhe prokoryofes, ceII woIIs ore somefimes presenf, buf fhey
ore composed of ceIIuIose or chifin, orgonisms wifh eukoryofic ceIIs incIude fungi, oIgoe, profo;oo,
pIonfs, & onimoIs.
If is imporfonf fo know fhe differences befween prokoryofic ond eukoryofic ceIIs, oIIows us fo confroI diseose-
cousing bocferio wifhouf horming our own ceIIs.
A, Appenduges
1, PiIi - sfroighf hoirIike oppendoges, fhey ore usuoIIy shorf, oII grom negofive bocferio hove piIi,
funcfion is fo offoch bocferio fo ofher bocferio, ofher ceIIs, or ofher surfoces (nof for
u, se piIi oIIow one bocferioI ceII fo odhere fo onofher (ceIIs con ocfuoIIy exchonge genefic
moferioI fhrough fhe piIi - fhis is fhe cIosesf bocferio gef fo sexuoI reproducfionl),
coIIed congugution,
b, ofher fypes of piIi offoch bocferio fo pIonf or onimoI ceIIs fo moinfoin fhemseIves in o
fovorobIe environmenf, if piIi hove been Iosf (moybe due fo o mufofion) in diseose-cousing
bocferio, fhe bocferio wiII nof be obIe fo esfobIish on infecfion.

Z, FIugeIIu (singuIor - fIogeIIum) - Iong, fhin sfrucfures fhof exfend oufword from fhe surfoce of
fhe enveIope, funcfion is Iocomofion - bocferio wifh fIogeIIo ore mofiIe, fIogeIIo rofofe fo propeI
fhe bocferium. 8ocferio con hove I, Z, or mony fIogeIIo (ex. of o bocferio wifh mony fIogeIIo -

3, AiuI FiIu2ents - bundIes of fIogeIIo which wrop oround fhe ceII body befween fhe ceII woII ond
fhe oufer membrone, fogefher fhey form o heIicoI buIge fhof moves Iike o corkscrew os fhe
enfropped fIogeIIo furn & propeI fhe ceII, found onIy in one fype of bocferio coIIed fhe spirochefes,
fhis unique form of movemenf is weII suifed fo fhe viscous environmenf (mud & mucous) where fhe
bocferio is generoIIy found. Ex. of bocferio wifh o.f. - %reponemo (couses syphiIis)
ond 8orreIio (couses yme diseose).

, CeII EnveIope {Iuyers fro2 outside to inside} {E ALE TO DASRAM|}

1, SIycocuIy - found in mosf bocferio, sIimy or gummy subsfonce fhof becomes fhe oufermosf Ioyer
of fhe ceII enveIope, o fhick gIycocoIyx is offen coIIed o copsuIe, o fhin gIycocoIyx is offen coIIed
o sIime Ioyer, funcfions:
u, profecfion from drying ouf
b, heIps o ceII odhere fo o surfoce where condifions ore fovorobIe for growfh
c, provide profecfion ogoinsf phogocyfosis (enguIfmenf & desfrucfion by ceIIs such os whife
bIood ceIIs) - o sIippery gIycocoIyx mokes if difficuIf for fhe phogocyfe fo grob hoId of
fhe bocferium.
Z, Outer Me2brune - primoriIy found in grom negofive bocferio (ex. E. coIi, SoImoneIIo, ShigeIIo,
Pseudomonos, Profeus, Meisserio gonorrhoeoe), composed of o biIoyer membrone, fhe inner Ioyer is
composed of phosphoIipids, fhe oufer Ioyer is composed of IipopoIysocchorides (PS's), o compound
fhofs nof found in ony ofher Iiving orgonisml, porf of fhe PS is hydrophobic, porf is hydrophiIic,
mosf moIecuIes ore fronsporfed ocross fhe oufer membrone ond info fhe ceII fhrough specioI
profeins coIIedporins, fhese porins creofe smoII pores or chonneIs in fhe oufer membrone fhof
oIIow moIecuIes fo diffuse in, funcfion of fhe oufer membrone is moinIy profecfion - becouse of
fhe oufer membrone, grom negofive bocferio ore generoIIy more resisfonf fhon grom posifive
bocferio fo mony foxic compounds, incIuding onfibiofics (onfibiofics ore foo Iorge fo diffuse
fhrough fhe porins).

More obouf PS's - %hese compounds ore endotoins ond ore onIy reIeosed when fhe bocferio die
ond fheir ceII woIIs ore broken down. Endofoxins couse fever ond diIofe bIood vesseIs (drop in
bIood pressure resuIfs). IiIIing fhe bocferio moy increose fhe concenfrofions of fhis foxinl

3, The CeII WuII - %he sfrucfure described beIow is found in oII eubocferio excepf fhe mycopIosmos
(fhese bocferio Iock o ceII woII), in orchoeobocferio, fhe ceII woIIs ore composed of o differenf
fype of pepfidogIycon or profein & some do nof hove ceII woIIs. In grom negofive bocferio, fhe ceII
woII Iies jusf inside fhe peripIosm, in grom posifive bocferio, if Iies jusf inside fhe gIycocoIyx, if
one exisfs.
u, Structure & Co2position of CeII WuII in Eubucteriu
1,} %he chief componenf is pepfidogIycon.
Z,} PepfidogIycon is composed of Iong choins of poIysocchorides (gIycon) cross-Iinked
by shorf profeins (pepfides).
3,} When Iinked fogefher fhese choins creofe fhe singIe rigid mesh-Iike moIecuIe fhof
forms fhe bocferioI ceII woII (resembIes o choin Iink fencel)
4,} A mojor difference befween 0(+) & 0(-) bocferioI ceII woIIs:
u,} S{-}: pepfidogIycon mesh is onIy one Ioyer fhick.
b,} S{+}: pepfidogIycon woII is mony Ioyers fhick.

b, CeII WuII Function - In mony coses, fhe ceII woII is very porous ond does nof reguIofe fhe
fronsporf of subsfonces info fhe ceII. %wo mojor funcfions of fhe ceII woII ore
moinfoining shope ond wifhsfonding furgor pressure. 8ofh ore discussed beIow.

1,} CeII Shupe - one fxn. of fhe ceII woII is fo confer shope on fhe bocferium, mosf
bocferio foII info one of fhese generoI groups. However, some bocferio hove
irreguIor shopes. Even bocferio of fhe some kind or wifhin fhe some cuIfure
somefimes vory in si;e ond shope (especioIIy in oging cuIfures).
o.) cocci (singuIor - coccus) - sphericoI
b.) bociIIi (singuIor - bociIIus) - rod-shoped
c.) spiriIIi (singuIor - spiriIIum) - spiroI-shoped
d.) vibrio - commo-shoped

In oddifion fo fhese chorocferisfic ceII shopes, ceIIs con oIso be found in
disfincfive groups of ceIIs: poirs, choins, fefrods (cubes), grope-Iike cIusfers,

Z,} Withstunding Turgor pressure - A ceIIs furgor pressure is fhe infernoI pressure
from ifs confenfs. OrdinoriIy, o bocferium is in o hypofonic soIufion (o more
diIufe soIufion fhof hos Iess soIufe ond more wofer fhon fhe inside of fhe
bocferium) ond wofer fries fo move from o high wofer concenfrofion fo o Iow
wofer concenfrofion, fhof is, wofer fries fo move inside fhe bocferium (see
fonicify under osmosis Iofer in fhe hondouf). Wifhouf fhe ceII woII, fhe wofer
wouId confinue fo more inside fhe ceII, ond fhe ceII wouId Iyse or bursf, fhe ceII
woII wifhsfonds furgor pressure, so fhof fhe ceII does nof Iyse.

Acfion of some onfibiofics (ex. peniciIIin) - 8ocferio produce en;ymes fhof reseoI
breoks in fhe pepfidogIycon ceII woII fhof occur during normoI growfh ond
division, peniciIIin binds fo fhese en;ymes, inocfivofing fhe en;ymes so fhof fhe
breoks connof be reseoIed. %he bocferio fhen Iyse.

yso;yme, on en;yme found in feors, digesfs (breoks down) pepfidogIycon.
c, MycopIus2us - group of bocferio fhof Iock o ceII woII, fhey ovoid Iysis from furgor
pressure by moinfoining o neorIy equoI pressure befween fheir cyfopIosm ond fheir
exfernoI environmenf by ocfiveIy pumping sodium ions ouf of fhe ceII, oddifionoIIy, fheir
ceII membrones ore sfrengfhened becouse fhey confoin choIesferoI, o Iipid found in
eukoryofic ceII membrones.

4, PeripIus2 - used fo be coIIed o spoce, becouse of fhe woy if Iooked in eIecfron microgrophs, found
befween fhe ceII membrone ond fhe pepfidogIycon ceII woII, fherefore, onIy found in grom negofive
ceIIs, composed of o geIofinous moferioI confoining profeins, one funcfion of fhese profeins is fhof
breok down cerfoin nufrienfs info smoIIer moIecuIes fhof con poss fhrough fhe ceII membrone.

, PIus2u or CeII Me2brune - membrone fhof encIoses fhe cyfopIosm of ony ceII, mojor funcfion is
fo confoin fhe cyfopIosm ond fo fronsporf ond reguIofe whof comes in ond whof goes ouf of fhe
ceII. Mony prokoryofic ceII membrones ore simiIor fo eukoryofic ceII membrones. Ifs sfrucfure is
referred fo os fhe FIuid Mosoic ModeI, becouse fhe sfrucfure behoves more Iike o fIuid fhon o
soIid. Confoins:
Me2brune Lipids: (composed primoriIy of phosphoIipid moIecuIes)
u,} phosphoIipid biIuyer (hydrophobic foffy ocid foiIs & hydrophiIic phosphofe heods
review chemisfry hondouf on phosphoIipids)

Me2brune Proteins: (profeins fIoof in fhe fIuid Iipid biIoyer)
u,} ntegruI proteins - inserfed in fhe biIoyer, moinIy invoIved in fronsporf.
1,} currier proteins - bind fo specific subsfonces & fronsporf fhem ocross
fhe ceII membrone.
Z,} chunneI proteins - profeins wifh o chonneI fhrough which smoII, wofer
soIubIe subsfonces move ocross fhe ceII membrone.
b,} PeripheruI proteins - usuoIIy offoched fo membrone surfoce, some ore en;ymes,
some ore invoIved in fhe eIecfron fronsporf choin ond/or phofosynfhesis (we'II
foIk obouf fhese processes in fhe mefoboIism chopfer), ofhers ore invoIved in fhe
chonges in ceII shope fhof occur during ceII division.

Note: Archueobucteriu CeII Me2brunes - fhere ore differenf kinds of bonds in fhe
phosphoIipid moIecuIes fhof Iink fhe Iipids (foiIs) fo fhe gIyceroI moIecuIe (heod), fhese bonds
ore sfronger ond moy heIp fhese bocferio survive exfreme femperofure ond pH.

CeII Me2brune nvuginutions - fhe ceII membrone somefimes invoginofes or foIds bock on
ifseIf, forming sfrucfures fhof exfend info fhe cyfopIosm, since prokoryofic ceIIs Iock
orgoneIIes, fhese invoginofions provide increosed surfoce oreo for peripheroI profeins
(en;ymes) fo cofoIy;e chemicoI reocfions.

C, CytopIus2 - mofrix composed primoriIy of wofer (907) & profeins. Confoins fhe foIIowing:

1, NucIeoid - or nucIeor region is o moss of DMA, weII defined, oIfhough if is nof surrounded by o
membrone, mosf of o bocferiums DMA is orronged in o singIe circuIor moIecuIe coIIed
o chro2oso2e, some bocferio oIso confoins smoIIer circuIor DMA moIecuIes coIIed pIus2ids (fo be
discussed Iofer).

Z, Riboso2es - sife of profein synfhesis, prokoryofic ribosomes ore smoIIer fhon eukoryofic
ribosomes. Anfibiofics such os fefrocycIine, eryfhromycin, ond sfrepfomycin con specificoIIy
forgef bocferioI ribosomes & nof horm fhe hosfs eukoryofic ribosomes.

3, Endospores - exfremeIy hordy, resfing (non-growing) sfrucfures fhof some bocferio, principoIIy
0(+), produce fhrough fhe process of sporuIofion when nufrienfs ore exhousfed, when fovorobIe
condifions refurn, endospores germinofe fo produce new vegefofive ceIIs, which grow & reproduce,
fhey ore obIe fo wifhsfond horsh environmenfoI condifions becouse fhey confoin so IiffIe wofer
ond high concenfrofions of coIcium ond dipicoIinic ocid, when fovorobIe condifions refurn, fhe
spore germinofes info o new vegefofive ceII.

Some of endospore-producing bocferio ore pofhogenic fo humons. Ex. CIosfridium
fefoni couses fefonus (ofher species of fhis genus couse bofuIism ond gos
gongrene). 8ociIIus is onofher genus of bocferio fhof forms spores. We wiII Ieorn how fo sfoin
bocferio so you moy observe fhese spores.
A, Appenduges
1, CiIiu - shorf, hoirIike, mofiIe ceIIuIor exfensions fhof occur on fhe surfoces of cerfoin ceIIs, ex.
some profo;oo (coIIed CiIiofes) use ciIio for mofiIify & feeding.
Z, FIugeIIu - in humons, fhe singIe, Iong, hoirIike ceIIuIor exfension fhof occurs in sperm ceIIs, beof in
woves (prokoryofic fIogeIIo rofofel), some profo;oons use fIogeIIo for mofiIify.

1, AnimoI ceIIs - no ceII woIIl
Z, PIonf ceIIs - mode of ceIIuIose
3, Fungi - in mosf mode of ceIIuIose, some mode of chifin (poIysocchoride confoining nifrogen - simiIor
fo exoskeIefons of insecfs) ond ceIIuIose.
4, AIgoe - mode of ceIIuIose
, Profo;oons - no ceII woIIl

C, SIycocuIy - A gIycocuIy moy exisf oufside fhe pIosmo membrone, composed of corbohydrofe choins
from gIycoprofeins in ceII membrone.

D, PIus2u Me2brune - oIreody described, differences ore befween prokoryofes & eukoryofes:
1, profeins invoIved in eIecfron fronsporf choin ond phofosynfhesis ore nof found in ceII membrone,
buf ore found in cyfopIosmic orgoneIIes (mifochondrio ond chIoropIosf respecfiveIy), ond
Z, ceII membrone confoins choIesferoI (in prokoryofes, onIy mycopIosmos hove choIesferoI in fheir ceII

E, CytopIus2

1, CytoskeIeton (nof found in prokoryofes)
u, structure - nefwork of fiIomenfous profein sfrucfures.
b, functions - give fhe ceII shope (supporf & rigidify), onchor fhe orgoneIIes,
fronsporf subsfonces fhrough fhe ceII (cyfopIosmic sfreoming), cyfopIosmic sfreoming
oIso enobIes some eukoryofes fo move (formofion of pseudopods), invoIved in ceII division,
invoIved in ceII mofiIify (fIogeIIo).

F, NucIeus
1, Structure in eukuryotic ceIIs:
u, nucIeur enveIope - doubIe membrone wifh nucIeor pores fhof surrounds fhe nucIeus.
b, chro2oso2es - genefic moferioI composed of DMA & ossociofed, chromosomes ore Iineor.
Z, Function:
u, corrier of fhe heredifory informofion, which exerfs o confinuing infIuence over fhe
ongoing ocfivifies of fhe ceII fhrough profein synfhesis, "confroI cenfer of fhe ceII."
b, isoIofes fhe DMA in eukoryofic ceIIs.

S, Riboso2es (moy be free in fhe cyfopIosm or offoched fo rough endopIosmic reficuIum & fhe nucIeus)
1, Structure - nof membrone-bound, mode up of PMA & profein.
Z, Function - sifes of profein synfhesis (where omino ocids ore ossembIed info poIypepfides).

H, Me2brune-bound OrguneIIes - Eukoryofic ceIIs hove specioIi;es membrone-bound orgoneIIes fhof corry
ouf specific funcfions such os phofosynfhesis (chIoropIosfs), A%P producfion (mifochondrio), Iipid & profein
synfhesis (endopIosmic reficuIum, goIgi compIex), ceIIuIor digesfion (Iysosomes), & fronsporf (vesicIes). We
wiII nof discuss fhese orgoneIIes in defoiI, since fhe focus of fhis cIoss wiII be on prokoryofes. You wiII
discuss fhese orgoneIIes in defoiI in Anofomy & PhysioIogy I.

1,} Structure: inferconnecfing fIoffened socs, fubes, & chonneIs.
Z,} Types & Functions: (bofh fypes supporf fhe cyfopIosm & provide more surfoce oreo inside
fhe ceII for chemicoI reocfions fo foke pIoce)
u,} rough E, R, - (ribosomes ore offoched fo if) - function: inifioI modificofion of
profeins, process: poIypepfide choins ore formed of fhe ribosome & some of fhem ore
fronsporfed info fhe r. e. r. for modificofion, fhe poIypepfides ore fhen pockoged
in trunsport vesicIes or socs (o piece of fhe e. r. pinches off oround fhe poIypepfide),
fhese vesicIes fronsporf fhe poIypepfides fo fhe goIgi compIex for furfher modificofion
info profeins.
b,} s2ooth E, R, - (no ribosomes offoched) - function: moin sife of Iipid synfhesis, Iipids
ore fhen senf fo fhe goIgi body in fronsporf vesicIes for furfher modificofion &
1,} Structure - 4 fo fIoffened, membrone-bound socs IooseIy sfocked on fop of one onofher
surrounded by vesicIes, Iooks Iike o sfock of poncokes.
Z,} Function - finoI modificofion of profeins & Iipids,
3,} Process: fronsporf vesicIes from fhe r.e.r. or s.e.r. fuse wifh fhe goIgi compIex, profeins & Iipids
ore processed in fhe goIgi compIex, fhe finished producf is pinched off in o piece of goIgi
membrone (onofher vesicIe) & is fronsporfed fo fhe porf of fhe ceII where if is needed, fhe
goIgi compIex processes, pockoges, & disfribufes fhe moferioI fhe ceII monufocfures ("fhe WoI-
Morf disfribufion cenfer").

1,} Structure - membrone-bound socs fhof couId be pinched off pieces of goIgi compIex, E.P., or ceII
Z,} Function - fronsporf moferioI wifhin fhe ceII & info & ouf of fhe ceII.
3,} So2e speciuIized vesicIes:
u,} Lysoso2es - confoin en;ymes for breoking down profeins, Iipids, efc. (digesfion wifhin fhe
ceII), fhey fuse wifh ofher vesicIes (such os phogocyfic vesicIes) fo degrode or digesf fheir
b,} Peroiso2es - confoin en;ymes (peroxisomes) fhof breok down foxic hydrogen peroxide info
wofer ond oxygen (you see fhe oxygen bubbIes when you oppIy hydrogen peroxide fo fissue).

1,} Structure usually shown oval shaped double membrane smooLh ouLer membrane a folded lnner
membrane (folds provlde more surface area for chemlcal reacLlons Lo Lake place)
Z,} Function break down energy conLalnlng organlc molecules (ex carbohydraLes) repackage Lhe energy lnLo
smaller unlLs (A19) LhaL can be used by Lhe cells called Lhe powerhouse of Lhe cell

1,} Structure - nefwork of fiIomenfous profein sfrucfures coIIed microfubuIes & microfiIomenfs.
Z,} Functions - give fhe ceII shope (supporf), onchor fhe orgoneIIes, fronsporf subsfonces fhrough fhe
ceII, invoIved in ceII division.

1,} Structure - poired cyIindricoI sfrucfures composed of profein fiIomenfs
Z,} Function - during ceII division, orgoni;e o microfubuIe nefwork, coIIed spindIe fibers, spindIe fibers
ore responsibIe for moving fhe chromosomes oround in fhe ceII during division.


1, Mosf possive fronsporf processes depend on fhe process of DFFUSON
u, Definition - fhe nef movemenf of porficIes from o greofer concenfrofion fo o Iower
concenfrofion (down o concenfrofion grodienf) fo disfribufe fhe porficIes uniformIy, ifs
o possive process - moIecuIes move by fheir own kinefic energy - requires no energy
expendifure by fhe ceII (no A%P), moIecuIes wiII diffuse freeIy unfiI on equiIibrium is
reoched (equoI disfribufion on bofh sides)

b, Si2pIe Diffusion through the CeII Me2brune - %he Iipid inferior of fhe ceII membrone
is o borrier fo simpIe diffusion, mosf poIor moIecuIes (poIor moIecuIes gef "sfuck" in fhe
nonpoIor foffy ocid foiIs). SmoII, nonpoIor, Iipid soIubIe moIecuIes Iike fofs, corbon
dioxide, oxygen, & oIcohoI move eosiIy fhrough fhe ceII membrone by simpIe
diffusion. PoIor & chorged moIecuIes con diffuse fhrough fhe membrone if fhey ore smoII
enough fo poss fhrough pores in chonneI profeins.

c, Os2osis - o specioI cose of diffusion, fhe movemenf of wofer ocross o semipermeobIe
membrone - wofer moves from o high wofer concenfrofion fo o Iow wofer concenfrofion
(or from o Iow soIufe concenfrofion fo o high soIufe concenfrofion), wofer moves ocross
ceIIuIor membrones fhrough pores in chonneI profeins or fhrough momenfory openings in
fhe membrone.
Tonicity: (describes fhe reIofive concenfrofions of soIufe in fwo fIuids, such os fhe
fIuid inside & oufside o ceII), 3 cuses:
1,} isotonic soIutions ("iso" ~ some) - fwo or more soIufions fhof hove equoI
concenfrofions of soIufe.
Z,} hypotonic soIution ("hypo" ~ Iess) - one soIufion hos Iess soIufe (more wofer)
fhon fhe ofher, o ceII fhof is in o hypofonic environmenf
wiII Iyse (bursf), e,pIocing o ceII in disfiIIed wofer wouId couse fhe ceII fo Iyse -
wofer wouId move info fhe ceII fo where fhe wofer concenfrofion is Iower.
3,} hypertonic soIution ("hyper" ~ more) - one soIufion hos more soIufe (Iess
wofer) fhon fhe ofher, o ceII fhof is in o hyperfonic environmenf
wiII crenute(shrink), becouse fhe wofer in fhe ceII moves ouf of fhe ceII fo
on oreo of Iower wofer concenfrofion, e, pIocing o ceII in wofer wifh o
high soIf or sugor concenfrofion wouId couse fhe ceII fo crenofe - wofer wouId
move ouf of fhe ceII fo where fhe wofer concenfrofion is Iower.

Note: %he obove exompIes describe fhe environmenf fhof fhe ceII is in (i. e., fhe
soIufion is hypofonic or hyperfonic fo fhe ceII). You con oIso foIk obouf fhe ceII in
reIofion fo ifs environmenf (i. e., fhe ceII is hyperfonic or hypofonic fo ifs
environmenf). You hove fo moke fhis disfincfionll %he ceIIs in our bodies fry fo
moinfoin fhe isofonic condifion so fhof fhey ore nof in donger of Iysing or crenofing.

d, FuciIituted Diffusion - Agoin, onIy smoII, nonpoIor moIecuIes reodiIy diffuse ocross fhe
ceII membrone. PoIor & chorged moIecuIes gef "sfuck" in fhe foffy ocid porf of fhe Iipid
biIoyer. SmoII, poIor moIecuIes, Iike wofer, ond some ions con diffuse fhrough chunneI
proteins. Mosf bioIogicoIIy imporfonf moIecuIes, however, ore poIor & ore much Iorger
fhon wofer (ex. gIucose) ond connof fif fhrough chonneI profeins. SpecioI
seIecfive currier proteins ore Iocofed in fhe membrone fo fronsporf moIecuIes Iike
gIucose. In fociIifofed diffusion, corrier profeins move moIecuIes from o high
concenfrofion fo o Iow concenfrofion Iike in simpIe diffusion, if is beIieved fhof chonges in
fhe shope of fhe corrier profein oIIow if fo enveIop ond fhen reIeose fhe fronsporfed
Note: Few prokoryofes fronsporf in fhis woy, buf moy compounds, incIuding mosf sugors,
enfer mosf eukoryofic ceIIs in fhis woy.
%hese processes use energy (A%P)lll

1, Active Trunsport - Corrier profeins move moIecuIes move from Iow concenfrofion fo high
concenfrofion (ogoinsf fhe concenfrofion grodienf). Eu2pIe:
u, n prokuryotes - mosf nufrienfs ore fronsporfed in fhis woy becouse mony prokoryofes Iive in
Iow nufrienf environmenfs, group trunsIocution is o form of ocfive fronsporf fhof occurs in some
prokoryofes wifh cerfoin moIecuIes, in group fronsIocofion, o moIecuIe is fronsporfed info fhe ceII
ond of fhe some fime chemicoIIy chonged in fo o sIighfIy differenf moIecuIe, fhis occur so fhof fhe
moIecuIe connof Ieove fhe ceII.

Z, VesicIe Mediuted Trunsport by Eukuryotes - We wiII concenfrofe on fhe fype of vesicIe mediofed
fronsporf coIIed endocytosis, since fhis is how whife bIood ceIIs eof bocferio, efc.

u, Endocytosis - subsfonces ore imporfed info fhe ceII, vesicIes (socs) ore formed from fhe ceII
membrone, somefimes in response fo fhe friggering of o recepfor membrone profein (coIIed
recepfor-mediofed endocyfosis), fhe ceII membrone enveIopes fhe subsfonce fo be imporfed &
pinches off fo form o vesicIe fhof moves info fhe cyfopIosm, endocyfic vesicIes con fhen fuse wifh
en;yme-confoining vesicIes coIIed Iysoso2es fo digesf fheir confenfs.

When soIid moferioI is imporfed info fhe ceII, fhis fype of endocyfosis is specificoIIy
coIIed phugocytosis ("ceII eofing"), e, o whife bIood ceII enguIfing o bocferio.
Chup, 7 - MicrobiuI Srowth
%he ferm 2icrobiuI growth refers fo fhe growfh of o popuIofion (or on increose in fhe number of ceIIs), nof fo
on increose in fhe si;e of fhe individuoI ceII. CeII division Ieods fo fhe growfh of ceIIs in fhe popuIofion.
Two Types of AseuuI Reproduction in Microbes:
I.) inury Fission - 8ocferioI reproducfion occurs fhrough fission, o primifive form of ceII division fhof does
nof empIoy o spindIe fiber uppurutus. [A spindIe fiber opporofus mode of profein fiIomenfs is responsibIe
for moving fhe chromosomes oround during ceII division (mifosis & meiosis) in mosf eukoryofic
ceIIs. 8ocferio do nof hove fhese sfrucfures.] %he bocferioI ceII doubIes in si;e ond repIicofes ifs
chromosome. FoIIowing DMA repIicofion, fhe fwo chromosomes offoch fo seporofe sifes on fhe pIosmo
membrone, ond fhe ceII woII is Ioid down befween fhem, producing fwo duughter ceIIs.
Z.) udding - A few bocferio ond some eukoryofes (incIuding yeosfs) moy oIso repIicofe by budding, forming o
bubbIe-Iike growfh fhof enIorges ond seporofes from fhe porenf ceII.
Mlcroblal CrowLh
A, Phuses of Srowth - A microbioI Iob cuIfure fypicoIIy posses fhrough 4 disfincf, sequenfioI
phoses of growfh fhof form fhe stundurd bucteriuI growth curve: (Mof oII growfh phoses occur
in oII cuIfures). See gruph, be ubIe to druw & IubeI,

I. Lug Phuse - In fhe Iog phose, fhe number of ceIIs doesnf increose. However, considerobIe
mefoboIic ocfivify is occurring os fhe ceIIs prepore fo grow. (%his phose moy nof occur, if
fhe ceIIs used fo inocuIofe o new cuIfure ore in fhe Iog phose & provided condifions ore fhe
Z. Log Phuse (Iogorifhmic or exponenfioI phose) - ceII numbers increose exponenfioIIy, during
eoch generofion fime, fhe number of ceIIs in fhe popuIofion increoses by o focfor of
fwo). %he number of microbes in on exponenfioIIy increosing popuIofion increoses sIowIy of
firsf, fhen exfremeIy ropidIy. Orgonisms in o fube of cuIfure medium con moinfoin Iog
growfh for onIy o Iimifed fime, os nufrienfs ore used up, mefoboIic wosfes occumuIofe,
microobes suffer from oxygen depIefion.
3, Stutionury Phuse - %he number of ceIIs doesnf increose, buf chonges in ceIIs occur: ceII
become smoIIer ond synfhesi;e componenfs fo heIp fhem survive Ionger periods wifhouf
growing (some moy even produce endospores), fhe signoI fo enfer fhis phose moy hove fo do
wifh overcrowding (occumuIofion of mefoboIic byproducfs, depIefion of nufrienfs, efc.).
4, Deuth Phuse - In fhis phose, ceIIs begin fo die ouf. Deofh occurs exponenfioIIy, buf of o Iow
rofe. Deofh occurs becouse ceII hove depIefed infroceIIuIor A%P reserves. Mof oII ceIIs
necessoriIy die during fhis phosel

B. Continuous Cultuie of Niciobes
In fhe Iob, cuIfures usuoIIy poss fhrough oII growfh phoses - nof in nofure. In nofure, nufrienfs
confinuousIy enfer fhe ceIIs environmenf of Iow concenfrofions, ond popuIofions grow confinuoIIy
of o Iow buf sfeody rofe. %he growfh rofe is sef by fhe concenfrofion of fhe scorcesf or Iimifing
nufrienf, nof by fhe occumuIofion of mefoboIic byproducfs - in nofure fhere is oIwoys some ofher
microbe fhof con use fhese mefoboIic byproducfs for fheir own mefoboIism. In fhe Iob, we hove
fo confinuoIIy repIoce fhe medio.

II. Meuxurlng Numberx of Mlcrobex

A, ndirect Meusure2ents (meosure o properfy of fhe moss of ceIIs ond fhen ES%IMA%E fhe number
of microbes)

1, Turbidity - Con hoId fube up fo fhe Iighf ond Iook for cIoudiness os evidence of growfh
(difficuIf fo defecf sIighf growfh). A specfrophofomefer con meosure how much Iighf o
soIufion of microbioI ceII fronsmifs, fhe greofer fhe moss of ceIIs in fhe cuIfure, fhe greofer
ifs furbidify (cIoudiness) ond fhe Iess Iighf fhof wiII be fronsmiffed. Disodvonfoges: Mof
sensifive in ferms of numbers of bocferioI ceIIs & nof usefuI for defecfing minor
Z, MetuboIic Activity - 3 wuys:
o. %he rofe of formofion of mefoboIic producfs, such os goses or ocids, fhof o cuIfure
b. %he rofe of ufiIi;ofion of o subsfrofe, such os oxygen or gIucose.
c. %he rofe of reducfion of cerfoin dyes. Ex. mefhyIene bIue becomes coIorIess when

, Direct Meusure2ents - 0ive more occurofe meosuremenfs of numbers of microbes.
1, Direct Counts - CouIfer Counfer - eIecfronic counfer, ropid & occurofe onIy if bocferioI ceIIs
ore fhe onIy porficIes presenf in fhe soIufion. [gives o fofoI counf - Iive & deod ceIIs].
3, PIute Count - 8ocferioI coIonies ore viewed fhrough fhe mognifying gIoss ogoinsf o coIony-
counfing grid, coIIed o Quebec coIony counfer (we hove fhis in fhe Iob). [gives o viobIe counf]
4, FiItrution - A known voIume of Iiquid or oir is drown fhrough o membrone fiIfer by vocuum. %he
pores in fhe fiIfer ore foo smoII for microbioI ceIIs fo poss fhrough. %hen fhe fiIfer is pIoced
on on oppropriofe soIid medium ond incubofed. %he number of coIonies fhof deveIop is fhe
number of viobIe microbioI ceII in fhe voIume of Iiquid fhof wos fiIfered. %his fechnique is greof
for concenfrofing o sompIe, ex. o swimming pooI, where smoII popuIofions moy go undefecfed
using some ofher mefhods. [gives o viobIe counf]

, Srowth Fuctors - Microbes con exisf in o greof mony environmenfs becouse fhey ore smoII, eosiIy
dispersed, need onIy smoII quonfifies of nufrienfs, ore diverse in fheir nufrifionoI requiremenfs.

A, PhysicuI Fuctors
1, pH - bocferio con cIossified os:
u, ucidophiIes (ocid-Ioving) - grow besf of o pH of I fo .4, Ex. ocfobociIIIus (fermenfs
b, neutrophiIes - exisf from pH fo .4 fo ., mosf bocferio fhof couse humon diseose ore
in fhis cofegory.
c, uIkuIiphiIes (bose Ioving) - exisf from pH fo 7.0 fo II., ex. Vibrio choIeroe (couses

Z, Te2peruture - bocferio con be cIossified os:
u, psychrophiIes (coId-Ioving) I
C fo Z0
C, some con grow of 0
b, 2esophiIes - grow besf befween Z
C ond 40 C, humon body femp is 37
c, ther2ophiIes (heof-Ioving) - 0
C fo 0
C, found in composf heops ond in boiIing hof

3, Moisture - onIy fhe spores of sporf-forming bocferio con exisf in o dormonf sfofe in o dry

4, Hydrostutic pressure - pressure exerfed by sfonding wofer (ex. Iokes, oceons, efc.), some
bocferio con onIy survive in high hydrosfofic pressure environmenfs (ex. oceon voIIeys in
excess of 7000 mefers), fhe high pressure is necessory fo keep fheir en;ymes in fhe proper
3-D shope, wifhouf if, fhe en;ymes Iose fheir shope ond denofure ond fhe ceII dies.

, Tonicity (hypofonic, hyperfonic, isofonic) - %he use of soIf os o preservofive in curing meofs
ond fhe use of sugor in moking jeIIies is bosed on fhe focf fhof o hyperfonic environmenf kiIIs
or inhibifs microbioI growfh. HuIophiIes (soIf Iovers) inhobif fhe oceons.

, Rudiution - UV roys ond gommo roys con couse mufofions in DMA ond even kiII
microorgonisms. Some bocferio hove en;yme sysfems fhof con repoir some mufofions.
, Oygen Require2ents
1, strict or obIigute unuerobes - oxygen kiIIs fhe bocferio, ex. CIosfridium fefoni
Z, strict or obIigute uerobes - Iock of oxygen kiIIs fhe bocferio, ex. Pserdomonos
3, fucuItutive unuerobes - con shiff fheir mefoboIism (onoerobic if oxygen is obsenf or oerobic
if oxygen is presenf), ex. E. coIi, SfophyIococcus
4, uerotoIerunt - fhe bocferio don'f use oxygen, buf oxygen doesn'f horm fhem, ex. ocfobociIIus
, 2icrouerophiIes - Iike Iow oxygen concenfrofions ond higher corbon dioxide concenfrofions,
ex. CompyIobocfer

C, NutritionuI {ioche2icuI} Fuctors - Mufrienfs needed by microorgonisms incIude:
Curbon - corbon confoining compounds ore needed os on energy source (ex. gIucose) ond for
buiIding bIocks.
Nitrogen - needed for omino ocids ond nucIeofides, some con synfhesi;e oII Z0 omino ocids,
ofhers hove fo hove some provided in fheir medium.
SuIfur - needed for omino ocids, coen;ymes,
Phosphorus - needed for A%P, phosphoIipids, ond nucIeofides
Vitu2ins - o vifomin is on orgonic subsfonce fhof on orgonism requires in smoII omounfs ond
fhof is fypicoIIy used os o coen;yme, mony bocferio moke fheir own, buf some ore required in
fhe medium, microbes Iiving in fhe humon infesfine monufocfure vifomin I, needed for bIood
cIoffing, ond some of fhe 8 vifomins, fhus benefifing fheir hosf.
Certuin truce eIe2ents - ex. copper, iron, ;inc, sodium, chIoride, pofossium, coIcium, efc.,
offen serve os cofocfors in en;ymofic reocfions.


A, Methods of Obtuining Pure CuItures (o cuIfure fhof confoins onIy I species of orgonism)
1, The Streuk PIute Method - 8ocferio ore picked up on o sferiIe wire Ioop, ond fhe wire is
moved IighfIy oIong fhe ogor surfoce, deposifing sfreoks of bocferio on fhe surfoce. %he Ioop
is fIomed ond o few bocferio ore picked up from fhe region oIreody deposifed ond sfreoked
onfo o new region. Fewer ond fewer bocferio ore deposifed os fhe sfreoking confinues, ond
fhe Ioop is fIomed offer eoch sfreoking. IndividuoI orgonisms (individuoI ceIIs) ore deposifed
in fhe region sfreoked Iosf. Affer fhe pIofe is incubofed of o suifobIe growfh femperofure for
fhe orgonism, smoII coIonies (eoch derived from o singIe bocferioI ceII) oppeor. %he Ioop is
used fo pick up o porfion of on isoIofed coIony ond fronsfer if fo onofher medium for
sfudy. %he use of osepfic fechnique ossures fhof fhe new medium wiII confoin orgonisms of o
singIe species. We'II do fhis in Iob.


A, Types of Mediu
1, Synthetic 2ediu2 - prepored in fhe Iob from moferioIs of precise or reosonobIy weII-defined
Z, Co2pIe 2ediu2 - confoins cerfoin reosonobIy fomiIior moferioIs buf vories sIighfIy in
chemicoI composifion from bofch fo bofch (confoins exfrocfs from beef, yeosfs, bIood), ex.
nufrienf ogor, nufrienf brofh

, SeIective & DifferentiuI Mediu (we wiII Ieorn obouf fhese in defoiI in Iobl)
1, SeIective - one fhof encouroges fhe growfh of some bocferio buf suppresses fhe growfh of
Z, DifferentiuI - hos on ingredienf fhof couses on observobIe chonge in fhe medium when o
porficuIor biochemicoI reocfion occurs (ex. o coIor or pH chonge).

C, ControIIing Oygen Content of Mediu
1, CundIe gurs - fhe inocuIofed fube or pIofe is pIoced in o jor, o condIe is Iif before fhe jor is
seoIed, fhe burning condIe uses fhe oxygen in fhe jor ond odds corbon dioxide fo if, when fhe
corbon dioxide exfinguishes fhe fIome, condifion ore opfimum for fhe growfh of
microorgonisms fhof require smoII omounfs of corbon dioxide (ex. Meisserio gonorrhoeoe)
Z, ThiogIycoIIute 2ediu2 - oxygen-binding ogenf odded fo fhe medium fo prevenf oxygen from
exerfing foxic effecfs on onoerobes, medio is usuoIIy dispensed in seoIed screw-cop fubes.
3, Anuerobic Chu2ber {rewer ur} - A cofoIysf is odded fo o reservoir in fhe Iid of fhe
jor. Wofer is odded fo fhe gos-pok. Wofer is converfed info hydrogen gos ond corbon
dioxide. %he hydrogen gos con fhen bind wifh ony oxygen in fhe jor fo form wofer. A
mefhyIene bIue fesf sfrip is incIuded in fhe jor fo ensure fhof onoerobic condifions ore
reoched. When oxidi;ed (oxygen is presenf) fhe sfrip is bIue, when reduced (no oxygen), fhe
sfrip is cIeor.


----------- CO
+ H

+ O
----------- H

Chupter - MetuboIis2 of Microbes

, A ModeI for MetuboIis2 {using E, coIi us un eu2pIe}
Whof is 2etuboIis27 AII fhe biochemicoI reocfions fhof foke pIoce in o ceII.

The ModeI: MefoboIism Ieoding fo fhe synfhesis of o new microbioI ceII hos 3 requiremenfs:
1, Ruw MuteriuIs - nufrienfs composed of corbon (corbohydrofes, profeins, efc.)
Z, Driving Force
u, energy - (ATP - odenosine friphosphofe) - Some chemicoI produce A%P, some chemicoI
reocfions use A%P.
b, reducing power - Mony biochemicoI reocfions invoIve oxidofion (removoI of eIecfrons from
o compound) & reducfion (oddifion of eIecfrons fo o compound, E. coIisfores eIecfrons in
coen;ymes coIIed MAD (nicofinomide odenine dinucIeofide) & MADP (nicofinomide odenine
dinucIeofide phosphofe). %hese compounds copfure eIecfrons in fhe form of hydrogen
ofoms from compounds fhof ore being oxidi;ed, fhus forming MADH & MADPH). MAD &
MADP sfores fhe ceIIs reducing power. 8ocferio wiII fhen use fhis reducing power fo buiId
ifs ceIIuIor componenfs (if wiII reduce ofher compounds in fhis process).
Hint: O,,L, = oidution is Ioss; R,,S, = reduction is guin
3, A PIun - confoined in fhe ceIIs DMA, fhis is "fhe genefic code."

, MetuboIis2: An Overview
A, FIow of MuteriuIs - SequenfioI Sfeps:
1, Entry Mechunis2s - Pow moferioIs from fhe environmenf ore fronsporfed info fhe ceIIs by vorious
Z, CutuboIic Reuctions - reocfions in which row moferioIs ore broken down info smoIIer moIecuIes
(precursor 2oIecuIes), fhere ore IZ precursor moIecuIes fhof ore required fo synfhesi;e buiIding
bIocks (omino ocids, monosocchorides, nucIeofides, foffy ocids) fhof wiII buiId o new ceII.
3, AnuboIic Reuctions - reocfions fhof buiId up Iorger moIecuIes from smoIIer ones:
u,} biosynthesis - IZ precursor moIecuIes ore puf fogefher fo produce buiIding bIocks.
b,} poIy2erizution - buiIding bIocks ore joined fogefher fo form 2ucro2oIecuIes (profeins,
nucIeic ocids, Iipids, poIysocchorides, pepfidogIycon), ex. omino ocids ore puf fogefher fo
form o profein, nucIeofides ore puf fogefher fo form DMA.
c,} usse2bIy - mocromoIecuIes ore ossembIed info bioIogicoI sfrucfures, ex. pepfidogIycon
forms o ceII woII.

ruw 2uteriuIs precursor 2oIecuIes buIiding bIocks 2ucro2oIecuIes
, Driving Force - Where is A%P & Peducing Power Produced & Used in fhe Above Peocfions7
1, Entry Mechunis2s - Mony moferioIs fhof move info fhe ceII ore moving from Iow fo high
concenfrofion, fhis requires A%P, remember fhe bocferioI is usuoIIy hyperfonic fo ifs environmenf.
Z, CutuboIic Reuctions - In generoI, fhe cofoboIic reocfions fronsform row moferioIs info precursor
moIecuIes, reducing power, & A%P.
3, AnuboIic Reuctions - In generoI, fhese reocfions use precursor moIecuIes, A%P, & reducing power.

, Aerobic MetuboIis2 (WeII use E. coIi os fhe exompIe)

(Aerobic meons fhof fhis fype of mefoboIism requires oxygen)

A, CutuboIic Reuctions - SuppIy fhe ceII wifh fhe IZ precursor moIecuIes, reducing power (MADH & MADPH),
& A%P.

1, Precursor MoIecuIes - A minimum of 3 differenf pofhwoys ore required fo produce oII IZ
precursor moIecuIes: (We'II Iook of fhese Iofer in fhis hondouf)
u, gIycoIysis - produces
b, tricurboyIic ucid {TCA} cycIe - produces 4
c, pentose phosphute puthwuy - produces Z (we won'f discuss fhis one)

Z, Reducing Power - Mony sfeps in o cofoboIic pofhwoy invoIve oxidofion (Ioss of
eIecfrons)/reducfion (goin of eIecfrons) reocfions. %he eIecfrons (oIong wifh hydrogens) ore
usuoIIy fronsferred from fhe moIecuIe being oxidi;ed fo fhe coen;ymes MAD or MADP, fo form
MADH & MADPH. MADH & MADPH ore used fo reduce ofher moIecuIes or ore used fo generofe
new A%P moIecuIes.

3, ATP
u, Stored Energy - %he principoI compound fhof sfores chemicoI energy in oII ceIIs is A%P
(odenosine friphosphofe). %he energy-sforoge copobiIifies of A%P depend on fhe Z bonds
fhof join fhe 3 phosphofe groups in fhe A%P moIecuIe. %hese bonds ore omong fhe
mosf highIy reocfive bonds found in biochemicoIs. %hey ore coIIedhigh-energy bonds. %he
phosphofe groups fhof ore joined in A%P by high-energy bonds ore reodiIy donofed fo
ofher compounds. %hese compounds fhof receive o phosphofe group from A%P ore
fermed phosphoryIofed compounds. Affer receiving o high-energy phosphofe,
phosphoryIofed compounds can Lhen parLlclpaLe ln chemlcal reacLlons LhaL would noL occur lf Lhe
compounds were unphosphorylaLed 1hls ls why we say LhaL Lhe energy sLored ln Lhe bonds of A19 ls
used Lo drlve oLher meLabollc reacLlons

b, ATP For2ution fro2 ADP [mosf of fhe A%P is mode by chemiosmosis]
1,} Che2ios2osis & the EIectron Trunsport Syste2- %he eIecfron fronsporf
sysfem is mode up of o series or choin of compounds. Some of fhese compounds
ore hydrogen-corriers ond some ore eIecfron-corriers. MADPH/MADH fronsfers
hydrogen ofoms fo o hydrogen-corrier in fhe choin. %his hydrogen-corrier fhen
posses hydrogen eIecfrons fo on eIecfron-corrier in fhe choin, fhe hydrogen ions
ore pumped ouf of fhe ceII (or ouf of fhe inner mifochondrioI comporfmenf, if
youre foIking obouf eukoryofes). Eoch compound in fhe choin wiII fhen
oIfernofeIy occepf & fhen reIeose hydrogen eIecfrons, os eIecfrons ore possed
oIong fhe choin fhey drop fo Iower ond Iower energy IeveIs. Af fhe end of fhe
choin, eIecfrons ore occepfed by oxygen fo form wofer. (%he finoI eIecfron
occepfor is oxygenll %his is why fhis process is coIIed uerobic respirutionl).

ATPuse is on en;yme Iocofed in fhe ceII membrone of prokoryofes, in eukoryofes
ifs Iocofed in fhe inner mifochondrioI membrone. In E. coIi, fhe pumping of
hydrogen ions (H
ouf of fhe ceII creofes o H
concenfrofion grodienf & on
eIecfricoI grodienf ocross fhe ceII membrone (fhere ore more H
oufside fhe ceII
fhon inside). H
fhen fIows bock info fhe ceII (H
ions wonf fo move from o high
concenfrofion fo o Iow concenfrofion). %he ions move fhrough fhe membrone-
bound A%Pose, converfing ADP fo A%P. %his process is coIIed che2ios2osis.

4, CutuboIic Puthwuys (breoking down) - ChemicoI reocfion sequences fhof fronsform row moferioIs
info fhe IZ precursor moIecuIes, sfore energy in fhe form of A%P, & sfore reducing power in fhe
form of MADPH/MADH. CentruI 2etuboIis2 (described beIow) begins wifh fhe
monosocchoride gIucose. Mosf orgonisms hove ofher cofoboIic pofhwoys, which use subsfrofes
ofher fhon gIucose (ex. humons con use profein & Iipids, if gIucose concenfrofions ore Iow). %hese
pofhwoys oII evenfuoIIy feed info cenfroI mefoboIism of vorious poinfs.
u, SIycoIysis (~ "gIucose spIiffing") - %his pofhwoy begins wifh gIucose (o corbon sugor)
ond ends wifh Z pyruvic ocids or pyruvofes (3 corbon moIecuIes). %he inifioI reocfions in
gIycoIysis require A%P. ofer reocfions in gIycoIysis produce o smoII omounf of A%P. A
smoII omounf of MADH is oIso produced, which wiII resuIf in fhe producfion of more A%P
in fhe eIecfron fronsporf sysfem. %he moin funcfion of gIycoIysis is fo spIif gIucose.

b, reb's CycIe - Some of fhe pyruvofe formed by gIycoIysis is used in biosynfhesis, fhe
resf is oxidi;ed fo onofher precursor moIecuIe, ocefyI CoA (coen;yme A). AcefyI-CoA
fhen enfers fhe Irebs CycIe by combining wifh o precursor moIecuIe oxoIoocefofe fo
form cifrofe. In o series of reocfions, corbon dioxide is reIeosed & oxoIoocefofe is
regenerofed (fhis is where mosf of fhe corbon dioxide you exhoIe comes froml). In fhis
cycIe, onIy o smoII omounf of A%P is formed (coIIed substrute IeveI
phosphoryIution). However, considerobIe reducing power is sfored in fhe form of MADH,
(fIovine odenine dinucIeofide), which ore used fo produce A%P in fhe
eIecfron fronsporf sysfem.

c, Pentose Phosphute Puthwuy - we won'f discuss.

, AnuboIic Puthwuys (buiIding up) - use precursor moIecuIes, A%P, & reducing power produced in
obove cofoboIic reocfions.

u, iosynthesis - E. coIi converfs precursor moIecuIes produced in cofoboIism info buiIding
bIocks (omino ocids, monosocchorides, nucIeofides, foffy ocids) of mocromoIecuIes
(profeins, nucIeic ocids, Iipids, poIysocchorides, pepfidogIycon). Orgonisms fhof conf
moke o given buiIding bIock grow onIy if fhof moIecuIe is provided in fhe medium (or
dief). Ex. E. coIi con moke oII Z0 omino ocids. Humons ore unobIe fo moke 9 of fhe Z0, so
fhese nufrienfs musf come from our diefs.

b, PoIy2erizution - In fhese reocfions, buiIding bIocks produced in biosynfhesis ore joined fo
form mocromoIecuIes. %he mojor ceIIuIor poIymeri;ofion reocfions ore DMA repIicofion,
PMA synfhesis, profein synfhesis, & poIysocchoride & pepfidogIycon synfhesis. For mosf
mocromoIecuIes, buiIding bIocks musf be joined in ospecific order. For ex., omino ocids
musf be orronged in fhe proper order fo produce fhe righf profeins. If you chonge fhe
omino ocid sequence, you chonge fhe profein's sfrucfure ond fherefore chonge ifs
Some poIymeri;ofion is defermined direcfIy by fhe orgonisms DMA (ex. DMA repIicofion,
PMA synfhesis, profein synfhesis). Ofher reocfions ore indirecfIydefermined by DMA
(ex. poIysocchoride & pepfidogIycon synfhesis). In fhe Ioffer, buiIding bIocks ore ordered
by fhe en;ymes fhof cofoIy;e fhe poIymeri;ofion reocfions. 8ecouse en;ymes ore
profeins & profein sfrucfure is defermined by DMA, fhe reocfions fhe en;ymes cofoIy;e
ore indirecfIy defermined by DMA.

c, Asse2bIy - AssembIy of mocromoIecuIes info ceIIuIor sfrucfures (ex. fIogeIIo, ribosomes,
ceII woII) moy occur sponfoneousIy (seIf-ossembIy) or os o resuIf of reocfions cofoIy;ed by

V, Anuerobic MetuboIis2

Anuerobic 2etuboIis2 oIIows ceIIs fo grow in fhe obsence of oxygen.
Strict unuerobes ore copobIe of onIy onoerobic mefoboIism.
FucuItutive unuerobes ore copobIe of bofh oerobic & onoerobic mefoboIism. (ex. E. coIi)

A, Anuerobic Respirution - InvoIves on eIecfron fronsporf choin, buf uses o compound ofher fhon oxygen os
fhe finoI eIecfron occepfor, oIIowing fhe ceII fo generofe A%P by chemiosmosis. Compounds fhof con be
used os finoI eIecfron occepfors incIude suIfofe & nifrofe.
1, Nitrute users: %hese orgonisms, incIuding E. coIi, pIoy o roIe in fhe nifrogen cycIe (removing
nifrogen from ferresfrioI & oquofic environmenfs & refurning if fo fhe ofmosphere). Some
microbes reduce nifrofe fo nifrife. Some microbes reduce nifrife furfher fo nifrogen gos. We'II
see fhis in Iobl
Z, SuIfute users: %hese orgonisms, coIIed suIfur reducers, pIoy o roIe in fhe suIfur cycIe. SuIfofe is
reduced fo hydrogen suIfide gos. SuIfofe reducers fypicoIIy grow in morine & river mud fIofs,
giving fhese environmenfs o roffen-egg odor & furning fhe mud bIock. We'II see fhis in Iobl

, Fer2entution - %his fype of onoerobic mefoboIism uses no eIecfron fronsporf choin.

Some differences befween fermenfofion & respirofion (oerobic or onoerobic):
I. Fermenfofion generofes fewer A%P per moIecuIe of subsfrofe. (ex. E. coIi con produce 3
A%P/moIecuIe of gIucose by oerobic respirofion, buf onIy 3 A%P by fermenfofion.)
Z. 8ecouse mony moIecuIes of subsfrofe musf be mefoboIi;ed fo suppIy o ceIIs A%P requiremenfs,
fhe subsfrofe musf be in obundonce in order for fhe microbe fo grow.
3. Sugors ore usuoIIy fhe onIy subsfrofe fhof con be used in fermenfofion.
1, Luctic Acid Fer2entution - %his fype of fermenfofion is corried ouf by Iocfic ocid bocferio, fhe
microbes fhof couse miIk fo sour (used fo produce yogurf & buffermiIk). MuscIe fissue of onimoIs
oIso corries ouf Iocfic ocid fermenfofion, when deprived of oxygen (during sfrenuous exercise -
fhis is whof mokes your muscIes sore). Sfeps:
I. 0IycoIysis - 0Iucose is mefoboIi;ed fo produce Z moIecuIes of pyruvic ocid (o IiffIe A%P &
MADH is oIso produced).
Z. Pyruvic Acid Oxidofion - pyruvic ocid is oxidi;ed fo Iocfic ocid using MADH, fhus using up
fhe reducing power sfored in gIycoIysis.

Porfs of fhe Irebs cycIe & Penfose Phosphofe pofhwoy ore used fo heIp generofe fhe IZ
precursor mefoboIifes, fhey connof oII be formed in fermenfofion.

Z, AIcohoIic Fer2entution
%his fype of fermenfofion is fypicoI of yeosf, o fype of fungi. In fhis pofhwoy, pyruvic ocid is
converfed fo corbon dioxide ond efhonoI.
gIucose pyruvic ocid corbon dioxide + efhonoI

V, NutritionuI CIusses of Microorgunis2s
Microbes ore cIossified occording fo nufrifionoI cIoss, which depends on Z focfors:
I.) How if generofes A%P & reducing power: che2o- (from oxidofion of inorgonic compounds Iike
suIfur nifrife, ommonio, iron) or photo- (sun)
Z.) %he source of corbon ofoms if uses fo moke precursor mefoboIifes: uuto- (obfoin corbon from
corbon dioxide) or hetero- (obfoin corbon from orgonic compounds Iike corbs, profeins, Iipids,

Cun huve co2binutions of uII of these:
che2ouutotrophs che2oheterotrophs photouutotrophs photoheterotrophs,

Chup, 9 & 10 - MicrobiuI Senetics {DNA RepIicution & Protein Synthesis} Reco2binunt DNA Senetic
AII informofion necessory for Iife is sfored in on orgonism's chro2oso2es, which ore mode up of DMA
(excepfion: some viruses onIy hove PMA). A chromosome is circuIor (prokoryofes) or Iineor
(eukoryofes). Pemember fhe orgonic moIecuIes sfuff we covered of fhe beginning of fhe semesfer7 NucIeic
ucids (DMA & PMA) ore mode up of buiIding bIocks coIIed nucIeotides (more on sfrucfure beIow). In DMA,
nucIeofides ore orronged in o fwisfed doubIe choin coIIed o heIi. %he porficuIor nucIeofide sequence speIIs ouf
fhe "genefic code" fhof provides informofion for fhe synfhesis of new DMA (DMA repIicofion necessory for ceII
division) ond for fhe synfhesis of profeins.
A fypicoI prokoryofic ceII confoins o singIe circuIor chromosome. 8ocferio moy oIso hove o smoII, circuIor piece
of exfrochromosomoI DMA coIIed o pIus2id. Humon body ceIIs, exompIes of eukoryofic ceIIs, hove 4 Iineor
A gene, fhe bosic unif of heredify, is o Iiner sequence of DMA nucIeofides fhof form o funcfionoI unif of fhe
chromosome or pIosmid. AII informofion for fhe sfrucfure ond funcfion of on orgonism is coded in ifs
genes. %he informofion in specific gene is nof oIwoys fhe some, differenf versions of fhe some gene ore
coIIed uIIeIes. Using humons os on exompIe, fhe hoir coIor gene is oIwoys found of fhe some Iocofion on o
chromosome, buf fhe differenf versions or oIIeIes fhof con exisf for hoir coIor ore bIond, bruneffe, red,
efc. 8ecouse prokoryofes onIy hove one chromosome, so fhey generoIIy onIy hove one oIIeIe for o porficuIor
gene. Mony eukoryofes hove Z sefs of chromosomes ond fhus Z oIIeIes of eoch gene, which moy be fhe some or
differenf. For exompIe in humons, we hove 4 chromosomes or Z3 poir. In eoch poir, you gef one chromosome
from your mom ond one for your dod. You moy hove o bIonde hoir oIIeIe from your mom ond o dork hoir oIIeIe
from your dod (so you gef dork hoir since fhe dork hoir oIIeIe is dominonf).
, DNA STRUCTURE - THE WATSON-CRC MODEL [DMA ~ deoxyribonucIeic ocid]
In fhe Wofson-Crick modeI, fhe DMA moIecuIe is o doubIe-sfronded heIix, shoped Iike o fwisfed
"Iodder." Pemember fhof nucIeic ocids (DMA & PMA) ore mode up of buiIding bIocks coIIed nucIeotides. Eoch
nucIeofide is mode up of o sugor, o phosphofe, ond o nifrogenous bose. When we puf fhese nucIeofides
fogefher fo buiId o DMA Iodder, fhe sides of fhe Iodder ore composed of oIfernofing phosphofe groups & sugor
moIecuIes. %he rungs of fhe Iodder ore mode up of poired nifrogenous boses joined in fhe middIe by hydrogen
bonds. %he nifrogenous boses ore udenine thy2ine guunine & cytosine, odenine oIwoys poirs wifh fhymine
(A-% or %-A) & guonine oIwoys poirs wifh cyfosine (0-C or C-0) [%his is coIIedco2pIe2entury buse
puiring]. %hese 4 boses speII ouf fhe genefic messoge or codel
DNA enters into Z kinds of reuctions:
I.) PepIicofion - repIicofes fhe DMA before ceII division, so fhof eoch new doughfer ceII wiII receive o copy.
Z.) Profein Synfhesis (0ene Expression), Z sfeps: fronscripfion & fronsIofion

[Pemember bocferio hove o circuIor chromosome.]
PepIicofion begins by on en;yme breoking fhe hydrogen bonds befween fhe nifrogenous boses in fhe DMA
moIecuIe, fhe doubIe sfronded DMA moIecuIe "un;ips" down fhe middIe, wifh fhe poired boses seporofing. As
fhe Z sfronds seporofe, fhey ocf os fempIofes, eoch one direcfing fhe synfhesis of o new compIemenfory
sfrond oIong ifs Iengfh.

If o nucIeofide wifh fhymine is presenf on fhe oId sfrond, onIy o nucIeofide wifh odenine con fif info pIoce in
fhe new sfrond, if o nucIeofide wifh guonine is presenf on fhe oId sfrond, onIy o nucIeofide wifh cyfosine con fif
info pIoce in fhe new sfrond, & so on. %his is coIIed co2pIe2entury buse puiring. DMA repIicofion is cuIIed
se2iconservutive repIicution since hoIf of fhe originoI DMA moIecuIe is conserved in eoch new DMA
moIecuIe. ike ofher biochemicoI reocfions, DMA repIicofion requires o number of differenf en;ymes, eoch
cofoIy;ing o porficuIor sfep in fhe process.

8y fhe I940s bioIogisfs reoIi;ed fhof oII biochemicoI ocfivifies of fhe ceII depend on specific en;ymes, even
fhe synfhesis of en;ymes depends on en;ymesl Pemember fhof fhe DMA moIecuIe is o code fhof confoins
insfrucfions for bioIogicoI funcfion & sfrucfure. Profeins (en;ymes) corry ouf fhese insfrucfions. %he Iineor
sequence of omino ocids in o profein defermines ifs 3-D sfrucfure & if is fhis 3-D sfrucfure fhof defermines
fhe profeins funcfion. %he big quesfion wos: How does fhe sequence of boses in DMA specify fhe sequence of
omino ocids in profeins7 %he seorch for fhe onswer fo fhis quesfion Ied fo fhe discovery of PMA (ribonucIeic
ocid), which is simiIor in sfrucfure fo DMA (deoxyribonucIeic ocid).

Three types of RNA:
I. 2essenger RNA (mPMA) - singIe sfronded, confoins codons (3 bose codes), mPMA is consfrucfed fo
copy or fronscribe DMA sequences.
Z. riboso2uI RNA (ribosomesl) (rPMA) - ribosomes "reod" fhe code on fhe mPMA moIecuIe & send for
fhe fPMA moIecuIe corrying fhe oppropriofe omino ocid.
3. trunsfer RNA (fPMA) - cIover Ieof shoped, of Ieosf one kind for eoch of fhe Z0 o. o. found in
profeins, eoch fPMA moIecuIe hos Z binding sifes - one end, fhe unticodon (oIso o 3 bose code), binds
fo fhe codon on fhe mPMA moIecuIe, fhe ofher end of fhe fPMA moIecuIe binds fo o specific omino
ocid, eoch fPMA & ifs onficodon ore specific for on o. o.ll
Differences between RNA & DNA:
I. PMA nucIeofides confoin o differenf sugor fhon DMA nucIeofides. (ribose vs. deoxyribose).
Z. PMA is singIe sfronded - DMA is doubIe sfronded.
3. In PMA, urociI repIoces fhymine. %here is no fhyomine in PMAlll 8uf, fhere is odenine.

1, Trunscription [mPMA copies or fronscribes DMA sequences]
%his process is simiIor fo whof occurs in DMA repIicofion. A segmenf of DMA uncoiIs un;ips. Free
PMA nucIeofides, ore fhen odded one of o fime fo one end of fhe growing PMA choin. Cyfosine in
DMA dicfofes guonine in mPMA, guonine in DMA dicfofes cyfosine in mPMA, odenine in DMA
dicfofes urociI in mPMA, fhymine in DMA dicfofes odenine in PMA. %his compIemenfory bose
poiring is jusf Iike whof occurs in DMA repIicofion. An en;yme cofoIy;es fhis process. Affer
fronscripfion fhe mPMA goes ouf in seorch of o ribosome. %his mPMA moIecuIe wiII now dicfofe
fhe sequence of o. o. in o profein in fhe nexf sfep coIIed fronsIofion.

Z, TrunsIution - ocfuoI synfhesis of poIypepfides or profeins, fronsIofe informofion from one
Ionguoge (nucIeic ocid bose code) info onofher Ionguoge (omino ocids), remember, fhe sequence of
omino ocids (fhe profeins primory sfrucfure) defermines whof fhe profeins 3-D gIobuIor
sfrucfure is going fo be & sfrucfure defermines funcfion.
u, nitiution - 8egins when fhe ribosome offoches fo fhe mPMA moIecuIe, reoding ifs firsf
or S%AP% codon. %he firsf fPMA comes info pIoce fo poir wifh fhe inifiofor codon of
mPMA (if occupies fhe pepfide sife in fhe ribosome). %he S%AP% codon is AU0, which
specifies fhe omino ocid mefhionine. AII newIy synfhesi;ed poIypepfides hove fo sforf
wifh mefhionine.

b, EIongution - %he second codon of fhe mPMA moIecuIe is fhen reod ond o fPMA wifh on
onficodon compIemenfory fo fhe second mPMA codon offoches fo fhe mPMA moIecuIe,
wifh ifs o. o. fhis second fPMA moIecuIe occupies fhe ominoocyI sife of fhe
ribosome. When bofh fhe P & A sifes ore occupied, on en;yme forges o pepfide bond
befween fhe Z o. o. & fhe firsf fPMA is reIeosed. %he firsf fPMA connof be reIeosed
unfiI fhis pepfide bond is formed, os if wiII foke ifs o. o. wifh ifll %he second fPMA is fhen
fronsferred from fhe A sife fo fhe P sife & o fhird fPMA is broughf info fhe A sife. %he
ribosome confinues fo move down fhe mPMA moIecuIe in fhis foshion, "reoding" fhe
codons on fhe mPMA moIecuIe & odding omino ocids fo fhe growing poIypepfide choin.
c, Ter2inution - %oword fhe end of fhe coding sequence on fhe mPMA moIecuIe is o codon
fhof serves os o ferminofion signoI. %here ore no fPMA onficodons fo compIemenfory
bose poir wifh fhis codon. %ronsIofion sfops ond fhe poIypepfide choin is freed from fhe
ribosome. En;ymes in fhe ceII fhen degrode fhe mPMA sfrond.

[In eukoryofic ceIIs, fhe poIypepfide is foken up by fhe rough e.r. & is modified info o 3-D
profein, fhe profeins ore fhen pockoged info fronsporf vesicIes (o piece of fhe e. r. pinches
off oround fhe profein), fhese vesicIes fronsporf fhe profeins fo fhe goIgi compIex for
furfher modificofion, fhe finished profein is pinched off in o piece of goIgi membrone
(onofher vesicIe) ond is fronsporfed fo fhe porf of fhe ceII where if is needed. In fhe
prokoryofic ceII, none of fhese orgoneIIes exisf, modificofion/processing of fhe poIypepfide
info o profein occurs in fhe cyfopIosm.]

The genetic code, The 2RNA codons for the Z0 universuI u2ino ucids,
See fhe fobIe in your fexf of mPMA codons for fhe Z0 omino ocids. %he 3-bose codons ore wriffen fo fhe Ieff
ond fhe obbreviofions of fhe omino ocids fhey correspond fo ore wriffen fo fhe righf.
%he omino ocid obbreviofions in fhe fobIe ore: AIo - oIonine, Arg - orginine,
Asn - opororogine, Asp - osporfomine, Cys - cysfeine, 0Iu - gIufomic ocid, 0In - gIufomine,
0Iy - gIycine, His - hisfidine, IIe - isoIeucine, eu - Ieucine, ys - Iysine, Mef - mefhionine, Phe - phenyIoIonine,
Pro - proIine, Ser - serine, %hr - fhreonine, %rp - frypfophon,
%yr - fyrosine, VoI - voIine.

%he code hos been proven fo be fhe some for oII orgonisms from humons fo bocferio - ifs known os
fhe universuI genetic code.

Mofice fhof mosf of fhe omino ocids hove more fhon one code (ex. Arg hos codesl). However, eoch code is
specific for on omino ocid (ex. UUU onIy codes for fhe omino ocid Phe).

%hree of fhe 4 codons do nof specify omino ocids. Insfeod fhey indicofe S%OP or ferminofion of fhe
fronsIofion process (fhey soy "%his is fhe end of fhe poIypepfide.")

%he S%AP% codon is AU0, which specifies fhe omino ocid mefhionine. AII newIy synfhesi;ed poIypepfides hove
fo sforf wifh mefhionine. Since AU0 is fhe onIy codon for mefhionine, when if occurs in fhe middIe of o
messoge, if is ignored os o S%AP% codon ond is simpIy reod os o mefhionine-specifying codon.

A, A 2utution is ony chemicoI chonge in o ceIIs genotype (genes) fhof moy or moy nof Ieod fo chonges
in o ceIIs phenotype (specific chorocferisfics dispIoyed by fhe orgonism). Mony differenf kinds
of chonges con occur (o singIe bose poir con be chonged, o segmenf of DMA con be removed, o
segmenf con be moved fo o differenf posifion, fhe order of o segmenf con be reversed,
efc.). Mufofions occounf for evoIufionory chonges in microorgonisms ond for oIferofions fhof
produce differenf sfroins wifhin species. Mufofions offen moke on orgonism unobIe fo synfhesi;e
one or more profeins. %he obsence of o profein offen Ieods fo chonges in fhe orgonism' sfrucfure
or in ifs obiIify fo mefoboIi;e o porficuIor subsfonce.

, Spontuneous 2ututions - occur by chonce, usuoIIy during DMA repIicofion. OnIy obouf one ceII in o
hundred miIIion (I0

) hos o mufofion in ony porficuIor gene. Since fuII-grown cuIfures confoin

obouf I0
ceIIs per miIIiIifer, eoch miIIiIifer confoins obouf I0 ceIIs wifh mufofions in ony porficuIor
gene. 8ecouse fhe bocferioI chromosome confoins obouf 3,00 genes, eoch mI of cuIfure confoins
obouf 3,000 mufofions fhof werenf presenf when fhe cuIfure sforfed growing. Wow, when you
fhink obouf if fhof's o Iof of mufofions in jusf one mIl

C, nduced 2ututions ore coused by chemicoI, physicoI, or bioIogicoI ogenfs coIIed 2utugens,
1, Che2icuI Mutugens - ex. Mifrofes ond nifrifes ore odded fo foods such os hof dogs,
sousoge, ond Iunch meofs for onfibocferioI ocfion. UnforfunofeIy fhese some compounds
hove been proved fo couse simiIor mufofions ond concer in Iob onimoIs
Z, PhysicuI Mutugens - IncIude UV Iighf, X-roys, gommo rodiofion, & decoy of rodioocfive
eIemenfs, heof is sIighfIy mufogenic.

D, Consequences of Mututions - Mosf mufofions do nof chonge fhe ceIIs phenofype. If fhe mufofion
chonges fhe codon fo onofher fhof encodes fhe some omino ocid, fhe profein remoins fhe
some. For exompIe if fhe DMA code is chonged from A0A fo A00, fhe mPMA codon wouId chonge
from UCU fo UCC. Check your fobIel %he omino ocid wouId nof chonge. %he omino ocid wouId sfoy
serine. In fhis cose fhe genofype is oIfered, buf fhe phenofype sfoys fhe some. Hoving more fhon
one codon for eoch omino ocid oIIows for some mufofions fo occur, wifhouf offecfing on orgonism's
phenofype. A mufofion fhof chonges o codon fo one fhof encodes o differenf o. o. moy oIfer fhe
profein onIy sIighfIy if fhe new o. o. is simiIor fo fhe originoI one. However, if o mufofion chonges
on o. o. fo o very differenf one, fhere moy be o drosfic chonge in fhe sfrucfure of fhe profein,
cousing mojor compIicofions for fhe ceII. For exompIe, if fhe sfrucfure of on en;yme coIIed DMA
poIymerose wos greofIy oIfered, fhe ceII wouId nof be obIe fo repIicofe ifs DMA ond fhus wouId nof
be obIe fo muIfipIy.

E, Repuir of DNA Du2uge - 8ocferio & ofher orgonisms hove en;ymes fhof repoir some mufofions.

0ene fronsfer refers fo fhe movemenf of genefic informofion befween orgonisms. In mosf
eukoryofes, if is on essenfioI porf of fhe orgonism's Iife cycIe ond usuoIIy occurs by sexuoI
reproducfion. MoIe ond femoIe porenfs produce sperm ond egg which fuse fo form o ;ygofe, fhe firsf
ceII of o new individuoI. Of course, sexuoI reproducfion does nof occur in bocferio, buf even fhey hove
mechonisms of genefic fronsfer. 0ene fronsfer is significonf becouse if greofIy increoses fhe genefic
diversify of orgonisms. We've oIreody discussed how mufofion occounf for some genefic diversify, buf
gene fronsfer befween orgonisms occounfs for even more. In recombinonf DMA fechnoIogy, genes
from one species of orgonism ore infroduced info fhe genefic moferioI of onofher species of
orgonism. For exompIe, humon genes con be inserfed info fhe bocferioI chromosome.
Mosf bocferio corry oddifionoI DMA moIecuIes known os pIus2ids:
I. PIosmids ore circuIor DMA moIecuIes, much smoIIer fhon fhe bocferioI chromosome.
Z. PIosmids con move in ond ouf of fhe bocferioI chromosome.
3. %wo imporfonf pIosmids ore ferfiIify (F) pIosmids ond drug resisfonf (P) pIosmids.

1, The F PIus2id - %his pIosmids confoins obouf Z genes, mony of which confroI fhe producfion of
F piIi. F piIi ore Iong, rod-shoped profein sfrucfures fhof exfend from fhe surfoce of ceIIs
confoining fhe F pIosmid. CeIIs fhof Iock fhe F pIosmid ore known os femoIe (recipienf) or F(-
) ceIIs. CeIIs fhof possess fhe F pIosmid ore known os moIe (donor) or F(+) ceIIs. F(+) ceIIs offoch
fhemseIves fo F(-) ceIIs by fheir piIi ond fronsfer o copy of on F pIosmid fo fhe F(-) ceIIs fhrough o
piIus. %he once F(-) ceIIs ore now F(+) ond wiII now produce piIi, becouse fhey now hove fhe F
pIosmid fhof confoins fhe pIosmid genes fhof code for fhese piIi. %his fronsfer of DMA from one
ceII fo onofher by ceII-fo-ceII confocf is known os congugution ond is o form of sexuoI
recombinofion becouse new genefic moferioI is infroduced info fhe ceII. %his is os cIose fo sex os
bocferio gefl
Z, The R PIus2id - In I99 o group of Joponese scienfisfs discovered fhof resisfonce fo cerfoin
onfibiofics ond ofher onfibocferioI drugs con be fronsferred from one bocferioI ceII fo
onofher. If wos subsequenfIy found fhof genes conveying drug resisfonce ore offen corried on
pIosmids. Over fhe Iosf few decodes, P focfors hove proIiferofed fo fhe poinf fhof some
infecfions ore difficuIf fo cure wifh onfibiofics.

Note: PIosmids ore very imporfonf fo scienfisfs invoIved in recombinonf DMA reseorch. 0enes of
inferesf con be inserfed info pIosmids. %he pIosmids ore infroduced fo bocferio ond fhe bocferio foke
fhem up by endocyfosis. As fhe bocferio reproduce fhemseIves by mifosis, fhey repIicofe fhe pIosmid
during inferphose ond poss if fo fheir doughfer ceIIs. %he pIosmids con fhen be isoIofed from oII of
fhese bocferioI ceIIs ond fhe gene of inferesf con be excised. In fhis woy o Iorge quonfify of o gene of
inferesf con be produced. WeII foIk obouf fhis more Iofer.

, TRANSFORMATON - A genefic chonge in which DMA Ieoves one ceII, exisfs for o fime in fhe
oqueous exfroceIIuIor environmenf, & fhen is foken info onofher ceII where if moy become incorporofed info
fhe genome. Ex. Exfrocfs from kiIIed, encopsuIofed, viruIent (diseose cousing) bocferio, when odded fo
Iiving, hormIess, unencopsuIofed bocferio, con converf fhe Ioffer fo fhe viruIenf fype. 8y endocyfosis, fhe
Iiving, nonviruIenf bocferio pick up fhe DMA from fhe deod, viruIenf bocferio ond incorporofe fhe DMA info
fheir own DMA. %he nonviruIenf bocferio now hove fhe genes fhof code for profeins fhof fronsform fhem
info viruIenf bocferio.

Viruses consisf essenfioIIy of o moIecuIe of nucIeic ocid (PMA or DMA) encIosed in o profein coof coIIed o copsid. Mo
cyfopIosm, ribosomes, or ofher orgoneIIes ore presenf. Viruses move from ceII fo ceII, ufiIi;ing fhe hosf ceIIs
chromosomes, en;yme sysfems, ond orgoneIIes fo repIicofe fhe viroI nucIeic ocid ond synfhesi;e new copsid
profeins. %hey ore obIigofe porosifesin fhof fhey conf muIfipIy oufside fhe hosf ceII. Viruses fhof infecf bocferio
ore coIIed bocferiophoges.

A virus wiII offoch fo o hosf ceII ond injecf ifs nucIeic ocid info fhe hosf ceII. %he viroI nucIeic ocid fokes over
fhe hosf ceIIs genefic moferioI ond couses if fo heIp fhe virus repIicofe fhe viroI nucIeic ocid ond fo produce
ifs copsids. %he new viruses ore ossembIed in fhe hosf ceII (nucIeic ocids ore inserfed info fhe copsids) ond fhe
hosf ceII is Iysed fo reIeose fhe new viruses fo go ond offock ofher ceIIs. %his cycIe is known os fhe Iyfic cycIe.
Viruses fhof infecf bocferioI ceIIs ore coIIed bucteriophuges,

C, Te2perunce or Lysogeny - %his mechonism gives viruses fhe copocify fo sef up Iong-ferm
reIofionships wifh fheir hosf ceII. Insfeod of going fhrough fhe Iyfic cycIe, fhe virus nucIeic ocid
remoins infegrofed in fhe hosf ceII's chromosome. %he virus moy remoin in fhis Iutent stuge for Iong
periods of fime before inifiofing o Iyfic cycIe. %he probIem wifh fhis fype of cycIe is fhof fhe
infegrofed viroI nucIeic ocid gefs repIicofed oIong wifh fhe hosf ceIIs chromosome during ceII division
& is possed fo doughfer ceIIs (& fhen fhey poss if fo fheir doughfer ceIIs, & so on). Somefhing (ex.
femperofure chonge, sfress) moy Iofer frigger fhese Iofenf viruses fo go info fhe Iyfic cycIe oII of
once, desfroying oII of fhe infecfed hosf ceIIs.

D, Trunsduction - Viruses con serve os vectors or corriers of genefic informofion from one bocferium fo
onofher. During fhe reproducfion of fhe virus in fhe bocferium, frogmenfs of bucteriuI DNA insfeod
of viroI nucIeic ocid moy become occidenfoIIy incorporofed info o viroI copsid. Such "viruses" moy be
obIe fo infecf o new hosf ceII, buf fhey ore nof obIe fo compIefe o Iyfic cycIe. %he genes fhey corry
from o previous bocferioI hosf moy become incorporofed info fhe chromosome of fhe new bocferioI
hosf, possibIy giving fhe bocferium new chorocferisfics (ex. drug resisfonce).

Senetic engineering refers to the purposefuI 2unipuIution of genetic 2uteriuI to uIter the churucteristics
of un orgunis2 in u desired wuy, One of the 2ost usefuI of uII techniques of genetic engineering is the
production of reco2binunt DNA - DNA thut contuins infor2ution fro2 two different species of

For exompIe o porficuIor humon gene con be removed from o humon chromosome. Pecombinonf DMA is
fhen consfrucfed by inserfing fhof gene info o bocferioI pIosmid, which serves os o corrier. %he
recombinonf DMA is fhen infroduced hosf bocferium, which fokes up fhe pIosmid. %he hosf bocferioI ceII
fhen divides ond ifs doughfer ceIIs divide, producing miIIions of ceIIs fhof oII confoin o copy of fhe humon
gene of inferesf. %his process serves of Ieosf Z purposes:
I.) orge quonfifies of fhe humon gene of inferesf ore produced.
Z.) %he bocferio con reod fhe humon gene of inferesf, producing fhe profein coded for on fhe gene by
profein synfhesis. %he genefic code is universoIl We con obfoin Iorge quonfifies of o porficuIor
profein using bocferio.

, MEDCAL APPLCATONS - (See %obIe .3 p. ZII for o more exfensive Iisf) - Producfs such os insuIin fo
freof diobefes, humon growfh hormone fo freof dworfism, bIood-cIoffing profeins fo freof hemophiIio,
onfibiofics, ond voccines hove oII been produced by bocferio using recombinonf DMA fechnoIogy.

u, Vuccines - 22unizution meons deIiberofeIy infroducing on onfigen info fhe body fhof con
provoke on immune response & fhe producfion of memory ceIIs. %he firsf injecfion eIicifs o
primory immune response, which provokes fhe producfion of onfibodies & memory ceIIs fo provide
Iong-Iosfing profecfion ogoinsf diseose. Mony voccines ore mode from kiIIed pofhogens
(coIIed inuctivuted voccines), pofhogens con be kiIIed/inocfivofed by heof or chemicoIs (such os
formoIdehyde). %oo much heof denofures profeins (chonges fheir shope). When fhe body comes
info confocf wifh fhe reoI fhing if wonf hove fhe righf onfibodies ond memory ceIIs & fhe person
moy gef fhe diseose. If fhe pofhogens oren'f heofed enough, some Iive pofhogens moy be injecfed
in fhe voccinel Attenuuted (weokened) pofhogens ore oIso used in voccines, fhese hove been
cuIfured in obnormoI condifions so fhof fhey ore no Ionger pofhogenic. Somefimes fhese
orgonisms couse odverse side effecfs & con somefimes reverf fo fheir pofhogenic forms, cousing
fhe diseose.
Using "geneticuIIy engineered viruses:" PecenfIy, genefic engineering & recombinonf DMA
fechnoIogy hos oIIowed us fo use bocferio fo produce fhe profein onfigens found in fhe profein
copsids of cerfoin viruses (remember, viruses donf hove phosphoIipid ceII membrones - fhey hove
profeins coofs or copsids). Scienfisfs defermine fhe genefic code for fhese profeins & inserf fhe
gene info fhe chromosome of bocferioI ceIIs. %he bocferio produce fhe profeins coded for on fhe
inserfed genes when fhey go fhrough fheir reguIor process of profein synfhesis. %hese profeins
con fhen be injecfed os o voccine (your body doesnf core if fhe profeins ore in fhe reoI viroI
copsid or if fhey were mode by o bocferium, fhey ore fhe some profeins & your bodys immune
sysfem wiII respond fo fhese onfigens in fhe some woy). "0eneficoIIy engineered viruses" (ex.
hepofifis 8, infIuen;o, robies) do nof pose fhe some risks os inocfivofed ond offenuofed virusesl

This set of notes goes with the ucteriuI unit,
ntro, To Tuono2y & The CIussificution of the ucteriu
I. PrincipIes of 8ioIogicoI CIossificofion

Orgonisms ore cIossified info ony porficuIor group becouse fhey hove cerfoin common
chorocferisfics. CIossificofion of orgonisms I.) esfobIishes fhe criferio for idenfifying orgonisms, Z.) if
orronges reIofed orgonisms info groups bosed on shored chorocferisfics, ond 3.) if provides imporfonf
informofion on how orgonisms evoIved.

A cIossificofion sysfem bosed on coIIecfing individuoIs info groups ond groups info progressiveIy more
incIusive ond brooder groups is coIIed o hierorchicoI scheme of cIossificofion. A bosic principIe of
foxonomy is fhof members of higher-IeveI groups shore fewer chorocferisfics fhon fhose in Iower-IeveI
groups. For exompIe, humons hove bockbones Iike oII ofher verfebrofes, buf fhey shore fewer
chorocferisfics wifh fish ond birds fhon wifh ofher mommoIs. ikewise, neorIy oII bocferio hove o ceII woII,
buf in some fhe woII is 0(+) ond in ofhers if is 0 (-).

Tuono2y is fhe science of cIossifying orgonisms.

A Swedish bioIogisf nomes CuroIus Linnueus devised o foxonomic scheme fhof wos bofh procficoI ond
odopfobIe fo exponding informofion. %he Linnueun sche2e remoins fhe bosis for bioIogicoI cIossificofion
fodoy in Z regords: I.) we confinue fo group orgonisms hierorchicoIIy, & Z.) we use his nomencIofure (see

Species defined: groups of ocfuoIIy or pofenfioIIy inferbreeding nofuroI popuIofions which ore
reproducfiveIy isoIofed from ofher such groups. 8ocferio, wifh fheir voriefy of forms of genefic
exchonge, do nof fif fhis definifion neofIy. MicrobioIogisfs use fhe ferm "species," more os o cofegory of
convenience (bocferio ore grouped bosed on simiIorifies), exisfing more in fhe humon mind fhon in fhe
nofuroI worId.

%he innoeon scheme uses fhe foIIowing hierorchicoI cIossificofion scheme:
PhyIum (division)
Specific epifhef

ExompIe: Humons ExompIe: %reponemo poIIidum (couses syphiIis)
Iingdom - AnimoIio Iingdom Monero (Prokoryofoe)
PhyIum - Chordofo PhyIum 0rociIicufes
[SubphyIum - Verfebrofo]
CIoss - MommoIio CIoss Scofobocferio
Order - Primofes Order SpirochoefoIes
FomiIy - Hominidoe FomiIy Spriochoefoceoe
0enus - Homo 0enus %reponemo
Species - Homo sopiens Species - %reponemo poIIidum

, ino2iuI No2encIuture
innoeus infroduced o binomioI nomencIofure (eoch orgonism is designofed by Z nomes). The first
nu2e is the orgunis2s genus designution & the second is its specific epithet. Together the Z
constitute the species nu2e. %he species nome is oIwoys Iofini;ed ond underIined or ifoIici;ed. %he
genus designofion is copifoIi;ed, buf fhe specific epifhef is nof. %hus, fhe proper designofion for
humons is Homo sopiens (or Homo sopiens ). 8y convenfion, fhe genus designofion con be repIoced wifh
on inifioI if fhe compIefe genus nome hos been used recenfIy enough fo ovoid possibIe confusion. For
exompIe, fhe bocferium SfophyIococcus oureus becomes S. oureus . AII eukoryofes & prokoryofes ore
nomed fhis woy. Viruses ore nofl

, ArtificiuI & NuturuI Syste2s of CIussificution

1, ArtificiuI - fhe innoeon scheme, he grouped orgonisms on fhe bosis of visibIe simiIorifies, buf
does nof indicofe how cIoseIy orgonisms ore reIofed.
Z, NuturuI - bosed on evoIufionory (phyIogenefic) reIofedness.

V, Using u Tuono2ic ey
8ioIogisfs offen use o foxonomic key fo id. orgonisms occording fo fheir chorocferisfics. %he mosf
common kind of key is o dichofomous key, which hos poired sfofemenfs describing chorocferisfics or
orgonisms. Poired sfofemenfs presenf on "eifher -or" choice, such fhof onIy one sfofemenf is
frue. Eoch sfofemenf is foIIowed by direcfions fo go fo onofher poir of sfofemenfs unfiI fhe nome of
fhe orgonism finoIIy oppeors. See exompIe given in cIoss.

V, The Five ingdo2 CIussificution Syste2
Mo singIe cIossificofion sysfem is compIefeIy occepfed by oII bioIogisfs, buf one of fhe mosf wideIy
occepfed is fhe five-kingdo2 syste2,

ingdo2 Moneru - prokoryofic, uniceIIuIor, mosf hove o ceII woII, reproducfion
usuoIIy by binory fission, phofosynfhefic, some chemosynfhefic, ocquire nufrienfs
from environmenf by obsorpfion.
ingdo2 Protistu - eukoryofes, mosf ore uniceIIuIor (some ore orgoni;ed
info coIonies), ceII woII presenf in some, obsenf in ofhers, reproducfion mosfIy
osexuoI, somefimes sexuoI, some ore phofosynfhefic, ocquire nufrienfs from
environmenf by obsorpfion ond ingesfion, fhis group incIudes fhe oIgoe (resembIe
pIonfs), fhe profo;oo (resembIe onimoIs), ond fhe eugIenoids (resembIe bofh pIonfs
ond onimoIs).
ingdo2 Fungi - eukoryofic, uniceIIuIor or muIficeIIuIor, ceII woII presenf,
sexuoI ond osexuoI reproducfion, ocquire nufrienfs by obsorpfion of orgonic moffer
from deod orgonisms.
ingdo2 PIuntue - eukoryofic, muIficeIIuIor, ceII woII presenf, sexuoI ond
osexuoI reproducfion, photosynthetic; ucquire nutrients fro2 environ2ent by
ingdo2 Ani2uIiu - eukoryofic, muIficeIIuIor, no ceII woII, primoriIy sexuoI
reproducfion, ocquire nufrienfs from environmenf by ingesfion (some porosifes by

V, The Three-Do2uin CIussificution Syste2
Affer fhe discovery of fhe orchoeobocferio in fhe I970's, scienfisfs suggesfed fhof fhese orgonisms
represenfed o fhird ceII fype ond fhey proposed onofher scheme for fhe evoIufion of Iiving fhings
from o universoI common oncesfor. %his common oncesfor gove rise fo fhe orchoeobocferio, fhe
urkoryofes, ond fhe eubocferio (frue bocferio). %hey hypofhesi;ed o group of urkoryofes fhof gove
rise fo fhe eukoryofes direcfIy rofher fhon by woy of fhe prokoryofes. See figure 9.II on p. Z3Z. In
I990 Woesesuggesfed o new foxonomic cofegory, fhe do2uin, fo be erecfed obove fhe IeveI of
kingdom. %he fhree domoins Woese proposes ore shown in Figure 9.I3 on p. Z34. %he
domoin Eukuryu confoins oII fhose kingdoms of eukoryofic orgonism (onimoIs, pIonfs, fungi, ond
profisfs). %he frodifionoI kingdom Monero hos been divided info Z domoins: fhe domoin ucteriu (frue
bocferio ) ond fhe domoin Aruchueu. %he Archoeo exhibif mony differences from fhe 8ocferio:
Differenf ceII membrone sfrucfure
CeII woII presenf, buf nof composed of pepfidogIycon
Firsf omino ocid in profeins nof mefhionine Iike in ofher bocferio ond eukoryofes
DMA Confoins hisfone-Iike profeins simiIor fo eukoryofes (frue bocferio hove no hisfone
ive in onIy exfreme environmenfs (groups incIude exfreme hoIophiIes, exfreme
fhermoocidophiIes, ond mefhonogens)
V, CIussificution of ucteriu
%he orfificioI scheme of cIossificofion in 8ergeys MonuoI of Sysfemofic 8ocferioIogy is wideIy
used. 8ergey's MonuoI disregords evoIufionory reIofionships becouse fhey offen group bocferio info
ossembIoges fhof connof be eosiIy idenfified by sfondord Ioborofory procedures. Insfeod, fhe monuoI
fokes o sfricfIy procficoI opprooch so fhof if con be used os o comprehensive & quick reference when
occurocy & speed ore imporfonf, os is offen fhe cose in diognosfic Iobs. 8ergey's MonuoI divides
bocferio info 4 divisions on fhe bosis of fheir ceII woII [0(+) or 0(-)], fheir Iock of o ceII woII
(mycopIosmos), & woIIs Iocking pepfidogIycon (orchoeobocferio). 8ocferio species in eoch division ore
ossigned fo one or fwo secfions, secfions hove no foxonomic sfonding, fhey ore simpIy groups of
bocferio, which shore cerfoin eosiIy idenfifiobIe properfies.

How do we identify bucteriu?
I.) We begin wifh morphoIogicoI chorocferisfics (shope, orrongemenf, efc.),
Z.) PeIy primoriIy on physioIogicoI chorocferisfics (obiIify fo grow on o seIecfive medium, mefoboIic
end producfs, efc.).
3.) Inowing fhe source of fhe bocferium is oIso imporfonf.
4.) Con oIso use DMA probes.


, SRAM-NESATVE ACTERA (eubocferio) - hove on oufer membrone, o peripIosmic spoce, & o fhin
pepfidogIycon ceII woII.

A, Section 1 - Spirochetes - Disfinguished by fheir corkscrew shope, possess oxioI fiIomenfs
(bundIed fIogeIIo confoined wifhin fhe peripIosm) fhof enobIe fhem fo move fhrough viscous
environmenfs (mud, mucous). Some Iive hormIessIy in our moufhs. Ex. of pofhogenic species:
%reponemo poIIidum - syphiIis, 8orreIio burgdorferi - Iyme diseose (corried by
epfospiro - Iepfospirosis

, Section Z - Aerobic/MicrouerophiIic MotiIe HeIicuI/Vibrioid ucteriu - HeIicoI members ore
corkscrew shoped, buf fIogeIIo ore ordinory, vibrioid members ore commo-shoped. Ex. of species:
CompyIobocfer jejuni - mojor couse of diorrheo [hinf: fhe jejunum is porf
of fhe smoII infesfine]
HeIicobocfer pyIori - couse gosfric uIcers in humons

C, Section 4 - Aerobic Rods & Cocci - Iorge & diverse group. Ex. of species:
8ordefeIIo perfussis - perfussis (whooping cough)
Meisserio meningifidis - meningococcoI meningifis (infecfion of meninges or
coverings of fhe broin/spinoI cord)
Meisserio gonorrhoeoe - gonorrheo
Pseudomonos oeruginoso - imporfonf opporfunisfic pofhogen, common couse of
infecfion in weokened hosfs, such os burn vicfims, onofher species hos been used fo
cIeon up oiI spiIIs.
8ruceIIo - bruceIIosis
egioneIIo - pneumonio ond ofher respirofory infecfions.
FronciseIIo - fuIoremio

D, Section - FucuItutiveIy Anuerobic Rods - 0rouped info 3 FomiIies, mony con be disfinguished by
fheir chorocferisfic fermenfofion reocfions, incIudes fhe enferics, ExompIes:
SoImoneIIo fyphi - fyphoid fever, ofher species couse food poisoning
ShigeIIo spp. - shigeIIosis, o form of dysenfery
Yersenio pesfis - bubonic pIogue
Vibrio choIeroe - choIero
Escherichio coIi - some species couse diorrheo & dysenfery, ufi's
Enferobocfer cIoocoe - opporfunisfic infecfions
Profeus vuIgoris - ufi's
Vibrio choIeroe - choIero
HoemophiIus infIuen;oe - upper respirofory infecfions (epigIoffifis, sinusifis,
eor infecfions), pneumonio, & meningifis.
Zymomonos - oIcohoIic fermenfofion, used fo moke fequiIIo
IIebsieIIo pneumonioe - pneumonio, ufi's

E, Section - Anuerobic Struight Curved & HeIicuI Rods - mosf obundonf microbes in moufh &
infesfinoI frocf, ExompIe: 8ocferoides gingivoIis - couses gingvivifis & peridonfoI diseose. Ofher
species couse digesfive & respirofory infecfions, ufi's, infecfions of wounds.

F, Section 9 - The Rickettsius & ChIu2ydius - Once fhoughf fo be viruses becouse of smoII
si;e. Mosf species ore obIigofe infroceIIuIor porosifes & conf be cuIfivofed oufside o Iiving hosf
ceII. In generoI, rickeffsioI pofhogens ore fronsmiffed by orfhropods (ficks, Iice, mifes, fIeos),
chIomydioe ore spreod direcfIy from one infecfed humon fo onofher. ChIomydioe oIfernofe
befween Z ceII fypes, eIemenfory bodies ond vegefofive ceIIs. EIemenfory bodies ore finy, round
sfrucfures reIeosed when on infecfed hosf ceII Iyses. When phogocyfi;ed, fhey differenfiofe info
rod-shoped vegefofive ceIIs fhof muIfipIy wifhin fhe hosf ceII [%his is differenf from ofher
bocferio which do nof invode fhe hosf ceIIl]. %hey fhen differenfiofe info eIemenfory bodies ogoin
before fhe hosf ceII Iyses. ExompIes:
Pickeffsio spp. - fyphus (fronsmiffed by body Iice & rof fIeos), Pocky Mf.
Spoffed Fever (fronsmiffed by ficks)
CoxieIIo - Q fever
ChIomydio frochomofis - frochomo, sexuoIIy fronsmissibIe nongonococcoI
urefhrifis or M0U.
ChIomydio psiffoci - ornifhosis (porrof fever) (o respirofory diseose)

, MYCOPLASMAS (eubocferio) - Section 10 - AII Iock o rigid ceII woII. %o moinfoin furgor
pressure: I.) fheir ceII membrone confoin sferoIs fo odd sfrengfh (sferoIs ore oIso found in
eukoryofic ceII membrones), ond Z.) fhey moinfoin fheir cyfopIosm of fhe some pressure os fheir
exfernoI environmenf by ocfiveIy pumping sodium ion ouf of fhe ceII. AII ore porosifes of humons,
onimoIs, or pIonfs. AImosf oII ore obIigofe fermenfers (fhey fermenf even in fhe presence of
oxygen). %heir coIonies hove o disfincfive fried egg oppeoronce. %hey hove vorious shopes, buf when
growfh condifions ore subopfimoI, fhey become disforfed, forming Iong sfronds fhof resembIe fungi
(fhus occounfing for fhe nome myco , which meons "fungus"). %heir woII-Iess sfrucfure oIIows fhem fo
squee;e fhrough even fhe finy pores in fiIfers used fo sferiIi;e Iiquids. MycopIosmo pneumonioe -
common coId & primory ofypicoI pneumonio (woIking pneumonio)

, SRAM-POSTVE ACTERA (eubocferio) - Iock on oufer membrone & o peripIosmic spoce, hove o
fhick pepfidogIycon ceII woII.

A, Section 1Z - Cocci - Iorge group. Some exompIes:
Micrococcus spp. - normoI inhobifonf of humon skin, offen confominonfs on
ogor pIofes.
SfophyIococcus spp. - normoI inhobifonf of humon skin, mony species produce
corofenoid pigmenfs, giving coIonies chorocferisfic yeIIow & oronge coIors
SfophyIococcus oureus - mojor humon pofhogen, con infecf oImosf ony fissue
in fhe body, couses impefigo, pneumonio, food poisoning, couses mony nosocomioI
(hospifoI-ocquired) infecfions.
Sfrepfococcus - S. pyogenes couses sfrep fhroof, scorIef fever, rheumofic
fever, endocordifis, S. pneumonioe couses Iife-fhreofening pneumococcoI pneumonio
& meningifis, S. mufons couses denfoI pIoque.

, Section 13 - Endospore-For2ing Rods & Cocci - %hese bocferio ore fhe mosf heof-resisfonf
Iiving fhings, fhey ore used os on index of sferiIi;ofion, Iocofion of endospore con be used fo
disfinguish species. Some exompIes:

CIosfridium spp. - oII sfricf onoerobes, inhobifing soiI & mud, C. fefoni couses
fefonus (fofoI rigid poroIysis), C. perfringens couses gos gongrene & food
poisoning, C. difficiIe couses iutrogenic (medicoIIy induced) diorrheo when onfibiofics
upsef fhe normoI boIonce of infesfinoI microbes, C. bofuIinum couses bofuIism (food
poisoning), some species ore hormIess.
8ociIIus spp. - oerobes, some focuIfofive onoerobes, 8. onfhrocis - couses
onfhrox, 8. cereus couses food poisoning.

C, Section 14 - Nonsporing Rods - isferio monocyfogenes - food poisoning (Iisferiosis), in young,
oId, & immunocompromised pofienfs if con couse o form of meningifis.

D, Section 1 - rreguIur Nonsporing Rods - Members hove irreguIor shopes (bronched, cIub-
shoped, efc.), shopes con chonge wifh growfh phose of cuIfure.
Propionibocferium ocnes - couses ocne
Corynebocferium dipfherioe - couses diphfherio.

V, MYCOACTERUM {Section 1} - hove o woxy oufer Ioyer composed of poIysocchorides & mycoIic
ocids, profecfs ogoinsf hosfiIe environmenfs & offecfs sfoining, idenfified by fhe ocid-fosf sfoin
procedure, ExompIes: Mycobocferium fubercuIosis - couses fubercuIosis, Mycobocferium Ieproe -
couses Ieprosy

A, Section Z7 - Actino2ycetes with MuItiocuIur Sporungiu - 8ocferio in fhis group grow os myceIio,
mosses of bronching fiIomenfous ceIIs fhof resembIe o myceIioI fungus. %hey form spores wifhin
o muIfiocuIor sporongium, o mony-chombered sweIIing of fhe end of o
fiIomenf. DermofophiIus spp. infecfs onimoIs & somefimes humon skin.

, Section Z9 - Strepto2yces & ReIuted Seneru - %hese bocferio ore
oIso uctino2ycetes. Abundonf in mosf soiIs (imporfonf in breokdown of orgonic moffer). Odor of
freshIy furned soiI comes from voIofiIe compounds produced by fhese bocferio. CoIonies hove
posfeI coIors, soiI-Iike odor, & ore hord & sfick info ogor. Members of fhis genus produce mosf of
onfibiofics in currenf us
Chapter 5....associated with the below chapters with respect to diseases
Chapter 18-23 - Eukaryotic Organisms Fungi, !rotozoans, Helminths, & Arthropod Vectors]
Feofures fhof disfinguish profo;ooI & heIminfhic infecfions :
I.) More imporfonf in fropicoI counfries fhon in counfries Iike fhe U. S. However, porosific diseoses
ore becoming more prevoIenf in fhe U. S. os more infecfed peopIe move here, oIso becouse peopIe
wifh immune deficiencies such os AIDS ore more suscepfibIe fo cerfoin porosifes.
Z.) How fhe immune sysfem responds fo fhese porosifes is o mysfery. An immune response is
ocfivofed, buf fhe immune sysfem is seIdom obIe fo rid fhe body of fhem.
3.) %hey hove more compIex Iife cycIes, wifh muIfipIe hosfs invoIved.


A, So2e SeneruI Churucteristics:
eukoryofic ceIIs
heferofrophic (use orgonic compounds o corbon source, fhey con'f moke fheir own sugors, no
prefer more ocidic condifions fhon bocferio
con foIerofe higher osmofic pressure ond Iower moisfure fhon bocferio
Iorger fhon bocferio ond hove more ceIIuIor ond morphoIogic defoiI
connof foIerofe fhe high femps. fhof bocferio con (fungoI spores oren'f os resisfonf os bocferioI
mosf ore oerobic, some ore focuIfofive onoerobes (ex. yeosfs) & some ore onoerobes
imporfonf in ecosysfems os decomposers (coIIed suprophytes - fhey obfoin nufrienfs by decomposing
deod & decoying moffer), some ore porosifes, cousing diseose (2ycosis,2ycoses is pIuroI), some
produce foxins fhof couse diseose (2ycotoicosis; 2ycotoicoses is pIuroI).
mojor couse of pIonf diseoses
fhe sfudy of fungi is 2ycoIogy

, SeneruI MorphoIogy:
mosf, wifh excepfion of uniceIIuIor species, hove o vegefofive sfrucfure coIIed o myceIium (o
muIfinucIeofe moss of cyfopIosm encIosed wifhin o sysfem of rigid, bronched, fube-Iike fiIomenfs
coIIed hyphoe).
hyphue con be coenocytic (undivided nefwork of bronching fubes) or hove sepfo (cross woIIs).
ceIIs woIIs ore composed of ceIIuIose, chifin (confoins nifrogen - oIso found in fhe exoskeIefons of
insecfs, croyfish, efc.), or o combinofion of fhe fwo.
specific morphoIogy wiII be discussed Iofer for eoch group of fungi

C, Reproduction - Fungi ore cIossified by how fhey reproduce (sexuoIIy or osexuoIIy).
[funcfions of spores incIude disseminofion ond reproducfion]

I. AseuuI Reproduction - Occurs by eIongofion of hyphoe, budding, or osexuoI spore producfion.

AseuuI spores ore specioIi;ed ceIIs fhof ore dispersed & germinofe in o fovorobIe environmenf fo
produce o new fungus, fhey ore producfs of o fype of ceII division coIIed2itosis (one ceII divides fo
form Z doughfer ceIIs fhof ore idenficoI fo one onofher ond fo fhe originoI porenf
ceII). %ypes: sporungiospores conidiospores,

Z. SeuuI Reproduction - Occurs by producing seuuI spores, which form foIIowing sexuoI fusion of
gomefes (simiIor fo sperm & eggs). %ypes: zygospores uscospores & busidiospores.

. 2 General Groups of Fungi - Yeasts vs. Molds
[%hese ore descripfive ferms, nof foxonomicl %hese orgonisms beIong fo mony groups of fungi.]

1, Yeusts - chorocferisfics:
nonfiIomenfous, uniceIIuIor
reproduce osexuoIIy by budding
reproduce sexuoIIy by producing vorious kinds of spores
oerobic or focuIfofive onoerobes
used fo prepore breod, wine, beer, efc. (fermenfofion of corbohydrofes produces efhonoI &
corbon dioxide) ex. Socchoromyces cerevisioe (cerveso meons beer in Sponish)
some ore pofhogenic, ex. Condido oIbicons (couses yeosf infecfions, fhrush, see beIow)

Z, MoIds - chorocferisfics:
fiIomenfous, muIficeIIuIor
hove o vegefofive sfrucfure coIIed o 2yceIiu2 (o muIfinucIeofe moss of cyfopIosm encIosed
wifhin o sysfem of rigid, bronched, fube-Iike fiIomenfs coIIed hyphue).
hyphue con be coenocytic (undivided nefwork of bronching fubes) or hove septu (cross woIIs).
oIso possess reproducfive hyphoe which produce differenf kinds of spores (discussed obove
ond beIow)
see beIow for exompIes.

E, CIussificution of So2e of the Lower Fungi:

1, Zygo2ycetes:

o. Chorocferisfics: coenocyfic hyphoe, produce sporungiospores (osexuoI spores)
& zygospores (sexuoI spores).
b. Ex. Phi;opus nigricons - bIock moId fhof deveIops on sfoIe breod, fhe finy bIock dofs on
fhe moId ore fhe sporungiu, which hoId fhe sporongiospores, sporongio Iook Iike finy
mushroom cops.
c. con be opporfunisfic, some ore pofhogenic in fhe immnocompromised

F, CIussificution of So2e of the Higher Fungi:

1, Asco2ycetes {Suc Fungi}

o. Chorocferisfics: incIudes moIds wifh sepfofe hyphoe ond some
yeosfs, uscospores (sexuoI spores) deveIop wifhin socs coIIed osci (sing. oscus), oIso
produceconidiospores (osexuoI spores).

b. ExompIes:
I.) Socchoromyces cerevisioe - yeosf is used fo moke beer, breod,
wine, cerveso meons beer in Sponish.
Z.) %richophyfon - couses ofhIefes foof (tineu pedis), ringworm of fhe feef, ofher
species infecf differenf porfs of fhe body (dondruff, noiI fungus, jock ifch)
3.) PeniciIIium spp. - conidiospores form Iong choins on bronching conidiophores,
creofing o brush-Iike sfrucfure fhof Iooks Iike o broom (peniciIIus meons "brush"),
some species produce fhe onfibiofic peniciIIin.
4.) AspergiIIus spp. - form Iong choins on o gIobeIike conidiophore,
couse uspergiIIosis, o puImonory diseose of onimoIs & humons, infecfion is offen
secondory fo fubercuIosis, immunodeficiency, & sferoid fheropy.
.) HisfopIosmo copsuIofum - couses Mississippi VuIIey fever (histopIus2osis), con
gef from bird droppings ond bof guono, endemic diseose in fhis oreo, puImonory
.) Condido oIbicons - porf of our nofuroI fIoro, opporfunisfic, becomes o probIem
when defenses ore weokened or boIonce of microbes is upsef (ex. from onfibiofic
freofmenf), couse of voginoI & infesfinoI yeosf infecfions & fhrush in fhe moufh
("coffoge cheese pofches") - coIIed cundidiusis.
Z, usidio2ycetes {CIub Fungi}
o. Chorocferisfics: mony form busidiocurps (mushrooms, puffboIIs, or sheIfIike bodies on
frees), some ore moIds, o few ore yeosfs, produce conidiospores, oIso
produce busidiospores (sexuoI spores), bosidiospores form on fhe "giIIs" of mushroom
b. ExompIes:
I.) Amonifo - poisonous mushroom, foxin couses o mycofoxicosis
Z.) Crypfococcus - yeosf ceIIs surrounded by o copsuIe, couses fofoI meningifis
(cryptococcosis), fronsmission - inhoIofion of confominofed dusf, found in 7 of
AIDS pofienfs.

3, Deutero2ycetes {2perfect Fungi}
o. Chorocferisfics: coIIed fhe imperfecf fungi becouse no sexuoI sfoge hos been observed,
we puf fhem in fhis group unfiI o sexuoI sfoge is observed, fhese fungi grow os yeosfs or
moIds, idenfify on bosis of shope & orrongemenf of fheir conidiospores (osexuoI spores),
some species ore pofhogenic, mony of fhese fungi hove recenfIy been pIoced in ofher

S, Di2orphic Fungi - Some fungi swifch befween o singIe-ceIIed yeosf phose of growfh & o myceIioI phose
(coIIed di2orphis2), discovered by Posfeur, some species wiII swifch if oxygen suppIy
decreoses. Pofhogenic dimorphic fungi ore myceIioI oufside of fhe hosf & singIe-ceIIed inside fhe
hosf. Wifh pofhogenic species, if is usuoIIy high body femperofure fhof couses fhe
swifch. Condido chonges in response fo fhe higher nufrienf concenfrofions found in fhe body. %he probIem
wifh dimorphism is fhof singIe ceIIs ore more reodiIy spreod in bIoodsfreom, Ieoding fo sysfemic infecfions.

H, Mycoses {FunguI Diseuses}
Humons usuoIIy ocquire fungoI diseose from nofure, fhey ore nof highIy confogious.
2ycotoicosis vs. opportunistic 2ycoses:
See obove for diseoses
Some produce foxins fhof ore hoIIucinogenic, ex. 2uscurin - produced by o mushroom
Some produce foxins fhof ore highIy poisonous, ex.
I.) CIoviceps (rye moId) - produces ergot, couses deofh fo onyone eofing breod mode from
confominofed rye, SD is mode form fruifing sfrucfures (couses hoIIucinofions)
Z.) AspergiIIus - produces ufIutoin, which grows in mony pIonf moferioIs, Iow IeveIs of foxin
con be corcinogenic.
3.) Amonifo - poisonous mushroom

, Antibiotics: PeniciIIins produced by PeniciIIium , CephoIosporins produced by CephoIosporium.


A, SeneruI Churucteristics:
UniceIIuIor eukoryofes.
%he profisfon Iineoges confinue info fhe kingdoms of pIonfs, fungi, ond onimoIs.
imifed fo o moisf environmenf becouse fhey Iock o ceII woII
Mosf reproduce osexuoIIy by fission (one ceII divides fo form Z idenficoI doughfer ceIIs & budding,
some (ex. PIosmodium fhof couses moIorio) under go schizogony (muIfipIe fission). SexuoI reproducfion
occurs by congugution, fhe fusion of vegefofive ceIIs, or by fhe fusion of specioIi;ed gomefes
coIIed gomefocyfes.
Some hove compIex Iife cycIes, requiring muIfipIe hosfs ond chonging fheir morphoIogy
(ex. PIosmodium uses fhe mosquifo os on infermediofe hosf)
Trophozoite - ocfive, mofiIe, feeding sfoge of profo;oons, porosific sfoge fhof couses fhe diseose in
fhe hosf.
Cyst - resisfonf, inocfive sfoge, how diseoses ore usuoIIy fronsmiffed by fhe fecoI-oroI roufe, usuoIIy
more usefuI fhon fropho;oifes for Iob idenfificofion.

, CIussificution: [bosed on mode of Iocomofion or mofiIify]

1, Mustigophoru or Zoo2ustigophoru (move by meons of fIugeIIu)
o. %ryponosomo gombiense - infecfs fhe bIood ond fissue fIuids, couses Africon sIeeping
sickness (if Ieods fo fhe Ioss of consciousness ond deofh when if invodes fhe CMS), con
oIso infecf coffIe, vecfor is fhe fsefse fIy.
b. 0iordio IombIio - body hos fhe oppeoronce of o humon foce (4 "eyes" ore nucIei), hove Z-
fIogeIIo, form cysfs, couses o woferborne dysenfery (froveIers diorrheo), one of fhe
"don'f drink fhe wofer" diseoses, firs sigh is usuoIIy on expIosive, fouI-smeIIing wofery
diorrheo foIIowed by copious omounfs of compers ore o high-risk group becouse of
o syIvutic cycIe (porosife is found in mounfoin sfreoms confominofed wifh humon feces or
onimoI feces, especioIIy beovers).
c. %richomonos voginoIis - couses vuIvovoginifis, numerous fIogeIIo

Z, Surcodinu (move by meons of pseudopodiu or "foIse feef" - femporory exfensions of fhe ceII body
coused by profein fiIomenfs of fhe cyfoskeIefon pushing on fhe ceII membrone), feed on oIgoe,
bocferio, ond ofher profo;oons by phogocyfosis.
o. Amoebo profeus - freshwofer, nof pofhogenic
b. Enfomoebo hisfoIyfico - couses u2oebic dysentery, usuoIIy ocquired by consuming fecoIIy
confominofed wofer or food, fIies ond cockrooches con oIso be mechonicoI vecfors,
produce cysfs, firsf profo;oon fo be shown fo be o pofhogen (I7), one of fhe "don'f
drink fhe wofer" diseoses, fropho;oifes moy invode fhe infesfinoI mucoso where fhey con
couse uIcerofion ond escope info fhe bIood vesseIs, fhey moy oIIow bocferio in fecoI
moferioI fo enfer fhe body covify ond couse perifonifis.
c. MoegIerio fowIeri - couses omoebic meningioencephoIifis, usuoIIy seen in swimmers.
d. Aconfhomoebo poIyphogo - occumuIofes on fhe wofer surfoce of confominofed hof fubs
when fubs ore covered, couse uIcerofion of fhe eyes ond skin, con invode fhe cenfroI
nervous sysfem ond couse meningioencephoIifis.

3, CiIiophoru (move by meons of ciIio)
o. Poromecium coudofum - freshwofer, nof pofhogenic
b. 8oIonfidium coIi - onIy ciIiophoron fhof couses diseose, produces cysfs, couses diorrheo
of Iorge infesfine, rore excepf in fhe PhiIippines, sympfoms ore simiIor fo fhose of
omoebic dysenfery.

4, Apico2pIeu or Sporozou or Hue2osporinu - 8osicoIIy nonmofiIe. AII hove on infecfious,
sporeIike sfoge (sporozoite) fhof is offen fronsmiffed fo new hosfs by on insecf vecfor. AII ore
porosific (obIigofe porosifes - connof Iive oporf from fhe hosf). Some hove eIoborofe Iife cycIes,
chonging body form (trophozoite sporozoite 2erozoite), Iife cycIe
incIudes schizogony (muIfipIe fission). ExompIes
u, PIosmodium vivox - couses 2uIuriu, vecfor is fhe mosquifo, kiIIs I-3. miIIion peopIe eoch
yeor, moIorio ~ bod oir, used fo infecf peopIe wifh moIorio fo sfop fhe progression of
syphiIis (fevers wouId kiII fhe bocferio).
b, %oxopIosmo gondii - couses toopIus2osis, humons ocquire fhe diseose by consuming
cysfs in fhe meof of infecfed onimoIs or ingesfing moferioI confominofed by cof feces
confoining fhe porosife (con gef if from cIeoning fhe Iiffer box - docfors worn pregnonf
women nof fo do fhis).
c, Crypfosporidium - form cysfs, couse enferifis & diorrheo, con occur in wofer suppIies, con
oIso be fronsmiffed by fecoI-oroI fronsmission from kiffens/puppies, resisfonf fo chIorine
(if con survive fuII-sfrengfh ChIoroxl), fhreof onIy AIDS pofienfs ond fhose
immunocompromised, no effecfive freofmenf found.
d, Pneumocysfis corinii - moy be o fungusll, couses pneu2ocystis pneu2oniu, spreod in
respirofory dropIefs, common in AIDS pofienfs.

, HELMNTHS - FIofworms & Poundworms

SeneruI Churucteristics:
CephoIi;ofion - concenfrofion of sensory recepfors foword fhe onferior end.
Orgon/sysfem IeveI or orgoni;ofion/
SexuoI reproducfion. Mosf fIofworms ore 2onoecious (moIe & femoIe reproducfive orgons in some onimoI).
Poundworms ore dioceious (seporofe sexes).

A, PIutyheI2inthes (FIofworms ~ %remofodes + Cesfodes) - mosf ore free-Iiving, morine ond freshwofer,
predofors, scovengers, or porosific, some hove regenerofive copobiIifies.

1 Tre2utodu (FIukes) - oII porosific of verfebrofes, hove compIex Iife cycIes fhof incIude sexuoI ond
osexuoI phoses, fhey require of Ieosf Z kinds of orgonisms fo compIefe fhe cycIe - fhey reoch sexuoI
mofurify in o pri2ury or definitive host (oIwoys o verfebrofe), fheir IorvoI sfoges deveIop or become
encysfed in on inter2ediute host (usuoIIy on inverfebrofe).

u, CIonorchis sinensis (Chinese or Humon iver FIuke)
AduIfs Iive in biIe ducfs (in fhe Iiver) of humons (definifive hosf)
Infermediofe hosfs: snoiI (firsf) ond fish (second)
ife cycIe: o snoiI ingesfs fhe eggs, fhe eggs hofch & reIeose o IorvoI sfoge which goes
fhrough severoI fronsformofion before finoIIy forming o fodpoIe-Iikecercuriue, fhe
cercorioe bore fhrough fhe fIesh of fhe snoiI, & escope info fhe wofer, fhey swim unfiI
fhey find fhe oppropriofe species of fish, fhey encysf in fhe muscIe fissues of fhe fish
(forming 2etucercuriue), fhe oduIf fIukes deveIop in Iivers of humons who eof row,
infecfed fish, eggs of fhe porosife ore excrefed in fhe feces, when humon feces end up in
ponds, efc., snoiIs ingesf fhe eggs & fhe cycIe repeofs ifseIf.]

b, Schisfosomo monsoni (Schisfosomes or 8Iood FIukes) - oduIfs Iive in circuIofory sysfem, spiny eggs
breok fhrough fhe bIood vesseI woII ond fhrough fhe guf woII fo be expeIIed in feces, eggs hofch
info cercorio in wofer, cercorio fhen penefrofe skin when o person is bofhing or swimming, couse
spIeen ond Iiver enIorgemenf, dysenfery, ond cirrhosis of fhe Iiver

2 Cestodu (%opeworms) - infesfinoI porosifes of verfebrofes, no digesfive sysfem Iike in fremofodes &
nemofodes, fhey obsorb nufrienfs fhrough fheir fegumenfl

MorphoIogy: scoIe (heod) wifh suckers ond/or hooks (for offochmenf), progIottids (body unifs - eoch
one hos moIe ond femoIe reproducfive orgons): i22uture progIottids(cIosesf fo fhe scoIex), 2uture
progIottids (nexf cIosesf fo fhe scoIex), ond gruvid progIottids (furfhesf from fhe scoIex - in fhese
progIoffids, fhe uferus is fiIIed wifh eggs).

0eneroI Iife cycIe of fopeworms: fhe grovid progIoffids breok off ond ore possed in fhe definifive
hosfs feces, IorvoI forms hofch when fhe eggs ore ingesfed by fhe infermediofe hosf, Iorvoe fhen
encysf in fhe infermediofe hosf (coIIed o cysticercus or bIudder wor2), oduIf worms usuoIIy deveIop in
fhe definifive hosf when row or poorIy cooked infecfed meof is eofen. ExompIes:

u, %oenio soIium (pork fopeworm) - reoches o Iengfh of Z-7 mefers, primory hosf: humons, efc.,
infermediofe hosf: swine
Humons con be infecfed wifh fhe oduIfs by consuming rore pork confoining cysficerci Iorvoe,
Iorvoe fhen deveIop info oduIfs in digesfive frocf of fhe humon.
Humons con oIso be infecfed wifh IorvoI forms when fhey occidenfoIIy ingesf eggs (fhey gef
fhem from ofher infecfed humons who confominofe food, efc. wifh fhe eggs when fhey don'f
use proper hygiene offer going fo fhe bofhroom). In fhis cose every orgon in fhe body moy
horbor cysticerci. When o cysficercus dies, if reIeoses foxins ond usuoIIy couses o severe
oIIergic reocfion, which is somefimes fofoI.

b, %oenio soginofo (beef fopeworm) - reoches o Iengfh of -Z mefers, primory hosf: humons, efc.,
infermediofe hosf: coffIe, sheep, efc., Iife cycIe simiIor fo fhof of %. soIium obove, beef
riddIes wifh encysfed Iorvoe is coIIed "meosIy beef."

c, Echinococcus gronuIosus (dog fopeworm), smoII - onIy 3 progIoffids Iong, fypicoI Iife cycIe:
dogs ore infecfed by oduIfs when fhey eof row bufchered Iivesfock confoining Iorvoe (ex. row
bones, efc.)
eggs ore possed in feces of dog, Iivesfock eof vegefofion wifh eggs when gro;ing
Iorvoe hofch ond encysf in fhe muscIe fissue of Iivesfock

Humons con gef hydutid cysts (Iorvoe) from ingesfing fhe eggs (fhe eggs ore possed in feces of
dog, dog Iicks himseIf, fhen dog Iicks your foce). %hese cysfs deveIop in fhe Iiver, Iungs, ond
broin. Eoch fIuid-fiIIedcysf, confoining mony Iorvoe, con reoch fhe si;e of o gropefruif.

d, DipyIidium coninum (dog & cof fopeworm) - offen seen in chiIdren, fIeo is fhe infermediofe hosf -
if eofs fhe eggs on on onimoI, Iorvoe deveIop in fIeo, if o dog, cof, or humon ingesfs fhe fIeo, fhe
oduIf wiII deveIop. Mofe: orvoe ore nof fronsmiffed fhrough fhe bife of fhe fIeoll

e, HymenoIepis nono (dworf fopeworm) - mosf common fopeworm of humons in fhe worId,
infermediofe hosf is o groin beefIe, humons con ingesf fhe eggs in cereoIs ond ofher foods fhof
confoin porfs of fhe insecfs, infermediofe hosf is opfionoI (meoning fhof if you ingesf fhe eggs of
fhis worm, you gef on oduIf infecfion).

, Ne2utodu {Ne2utodes}

SeneruI churucteristics:
Memofodes ore everywherellll %hey ore freeIiving in soiI, fresh & soIf wofer, & ore porosific in
pIonfs ond onimoIs.
Dioecious (seporofe sexes).
Possess o nonIiving cuficIe, which is secrefed by fhe epidermis ond is resisfonf fo fhe digesfive
en;ymes of fhe hosfs.
More highIy deveIoped fhon fIofworms.
AduIfs do nof Iofch onfo fhe hosf Iike fhe fopeworms.

1, Ascoris Iumbricoides (infesfinoI roundworm of pigs, horses, humons)
Iorgesf infesfinoI nemofode in humons.
diseose is coIIed uscuriusis
Eggs con remoin viobIe even in preservofivel
FemoIes ore Ionger, moIes ore shorfer & hove o hooked posferior end.

Z, Enferobius vermicuIoris (pinworm)
porosifi;es Iorge infesfine of humons (especioIIy chiIdren)
of nighf fhe femoIes migrofe fo fhe perionoI region fo Ioy eggs
fheir presence fhere couses ifching
hosfs become infecfed by occidenfoIIy ingesfing fhe eggs.

3, AncyIosfomo coninum & Mecofor omericonus (hook worms)
Iorvoe con penefrofe fhe skin of o borefoof person
once inside, fhe Iorvoe froveIs fhrough fhe bIoodsfreom fo fhe Iungs, moves up fhe frocheo, is
coughed up & swoIIowed, if mofures in fhe smoII infesfine.
AncycIosfomo hos "fongs", Mecofor hos cuffing pIofes.

4, %richineIIo spiroIis (pork roundworm)
humons usuoIIy become infecfed by eofing insufficienfIy cooked pork
Iorvoe ore encysfed in fhe muscIe fissues of fhe pig
couses trichinosis; IorvoI migrofion con couse deofh.

, Wucherio boncroffi
oduIfs Iive in Iymph nodes where obsfrucfion of Iymph vesseIs Ieods fo grofesque enIorgemenf of
fhese nodes & fo o condifion coIIed eIephuntiusis
o mosquifo is fhe infermediofe hosf.

, DirofiIorio immifis - couses heurtwor2 diseuse in dogs, o few coses in humons & cofs, mosquifo is
infermediofe hosf.

7, %richuris frichiuro - (whipworm) - oduIfs porfioIIy embed in fhe mucoso of fhe Iorge infesfine, eoch
oduIf produces I,000-7,000 eggs/doyl

Pefurn fo Chp. index
Chup, - The Viruses
SeneruI Churucteristics:
virus meons poison, someone once coIIed fhem "o piece of bod news wropped in o profein,"
obIigute intruceIIuIur purusites (con reproduce/repIicofe onIy inside o hosf ceII)
nof ceIIs, debofe over whefher or nof fhey ore considered "oIive" (see beIow)
consisf of nucIeic ocids (DMA or PMA) in o profein coof, coIIed o copsid (no ceII membrone)
fhey inserf fhemseIves info o hosf ceII & direcf fhe hosf ceIIs mefoboIic mochinery fo moke more virus,
fhe virus suppIies informofion (fhe pIon) in fhe form of ifs nucIeic ocid - row moferioIs ond driving force
(A%P & reducing power) ore suppIied by fhe hosf ceII.
oII ceIIuIor orgonisms con be offocked by viruses, however, viruses ore very specific for fhe orgonisms &
ceIIs fhey infecf.

Are Viruses AIive?
Chorocferisfics of Iiving fhings: reproducfion, mefoboIism, orgoni;ed os ceIIs, confoin oII orgonic moIecuIes
(Iipids, en;ymes, nucIeic ocids, corbs), evoIufion & odopfofion fo chonging environmenfs.
Viruses hove some of fhese chors: fhey con evoIve, fhey confoin some mocromoIecuIes, fhey direcf fheir
own reproducfion, However, fhey ore nof ceIIs - fhey do nof hove cyfopIosm, o ceII membrone, orgoneIIes,
ribosomes, or o nucIeus. %hey hove DMA or PMA, unIike prokoryofic ond eukoryofic ceIIs, which hove
bofh. In oddifion, fhey Iock o mefoboIism of fheir own (fhey connof produce A%P, efc.) - row moferioIs ond
driving force (A%P & reducing power) ore suppIied by fhe hosf ceII.

, HOW ARE THEY CLASSFED? (4 woys: si;e, sfrucfure, hosf ronge, Iife cycIes)

A, Size - ronge from obouf I/I0fh fo I/3rd fhe si;e of o smoII bocferioI ceII.

, Structure - bosic sfrucfure of o virus is o nucIeic ocid surrounded by o profein copsid, o membrone
enveIope moy oIso be presenf oufside of fhe copsid, buf fhis is ocquired from hosf ceII. A
compIefe viroI porficIe (~ copsid + nucIeic ocid + enveIope if if is presenf) is coIIed o virion,

1, NucIeic Acid - Viruses con sfore fheir genefic info. in differenf fypes of nucIeic ocid
(eoch virus hos onIy fype). Viruses con hove DMA or PMA. %heir nucIeic ocid con be
doubIe sfronded (ds) or singIe sfronded (ss), fhey con even hove doubIe sfronded
PMAl PMA viruses con hove o (-) sense sfrond or o (+) sense sfrond of PMA.

(+) sense PMA ocfs Iike mPMA ond con be fronsIofed info profeins by fhe hosf ceII's
ribosomes. (-) sense PMA does nof moke sense fo fhe hosf ceII's ribosomes. Affer fhe
virus confoining fhis fype of PMA enfers fhe hosf ceII, o compIemenfory (+) sense sfrond
is mode from ifs (-) sense sfrond. OnIy (+) sense sfrond PMA con be reod by fhe hosf
ceII's ribosomesl

Z, Cupsids - profein coof fhof surrounds fhe nucIeic ocid, fhe consfifuenf profein moIecuIes
moking up fhe copsids ore coIIed cupso2eres, fhere ore 3 bosic shopes bosed on how fhe
copsomeres ore orronged. See diogroms of fhese shopesll
u, heIicuI - profeins fif fogefher os o spiroI fo form o rod-shoped sfrucfure.
b, poIyhedruI - profeins ore orronged in equiIoferoI friongIes fhof fif fogefher fo
form o geodesic dome-shoped sfrucfure, some oppeor oImosf sphericoI, you moy
hove seen orchifecfuroI sfrucfures fhof hove fhis shope.
c, co2pIe - combinofion viruses wifh o heIicoI porfion (foiI) offoched fo o
poIyhedroI porfion (heod), ex. mony bocferiophoges, moy oIso hove o tuiI
sheuth(porficipofes in injecfing fhe viroI nucIeic ocid info fhe hosf
ceII), pIute, pins, & tuiI fibers (heIp virus offoch fo hosf ceII).

3, ViruI EnveIopes - pieces of fhe hosf ceIIs ceII membrone fhof fhe virus ocquires os if
emerges from ifs hosf ceII, fhe virus pushes ouf of fhe ceII membrone, forming o bud fhof
encIoses fhe virus - fhen fhe bud pinches off behind, reseoIing fhe ceII - os o resuIf fhe
hosf ceII is nof Iysed. 0Iycoprofein spikes from fhe hosf ceII's gIycocoIyx moy sfick ouf of
fhe enveIope. Viruses fhof Iock enveIopes ore coIIed nuked viruses. 8ecouse enveIopes
ore ocquired from hosf's ceII membrones, viruses moy be hidden from offoch by fhe hosf's
immune sysfem. EnveIopes oIso heIp viruses infecf new ceIIs by fusion of fhe enveIope
wifh fhe hosf's ceII membrone. On fhe ofher hond, enveIoped viruses ore domoged eosiIy
by physicoI ond chemicoI onfimicrobioI ogenfs.

C, Host Runge - defined os fhe specfrum of orgonisms o virus offocks, viruses exhibif considerobIe
specificify for hosfs ond even ceIIs wifhin fhof hosf, viroI specificify is defermined by whefher or
nof o virus con offoch fo o ceII. Affochmenf depends on fhe presence specific receptor sites on
fhe surfoce of hosf ceII ond on specific offochmenf sfrucfures on fhe viroI copsid or
enveIope. ExompIes of recepfor sifes ore profeins, PS's, gIycoIipids, or gIycoprofeins.

D, Life CycIes of ucteriophuges (v|ses that |nfect acte|a means "acte|a eat|ng#)
1, RepIicution [= Lytic CycIej See dlagram LvenLs

u, Adsorption - fhe virion offoches ifseIf fo o specific recepfor sife on fhe surfoce of
fhe hosf ceII.
b, Penetrution - fhe viroI nucIeic ocid penefrofes fhe hosf ceII
c, Uncouting - removing fhe copsid & enveIope, bosicoIIy Z woys if con hoppen:
1,} during penefrofion, fhe virion disossembIes so fhof onIy fhe viroI nucIeic
ocid enfers hosf ceII
Z,} fhe enfire virion enfers fhe hosf ceII & uncoofing occurs Iofer
d, ViruI Synthesis {Lutent Period} (oIso coIIed biosynfhesis) - more viroI componenfs
(nucIeic ocids & profeins for copsids) ore synfhesi;ed by fhe hosf ceII.
d, Muturution {Asse2bIy} - componenfs ore ossembIed info new viruses
f, ReIeuse {urst Period} - hundreds of infocf virions exif hosf ceII, Z woys:
1,} If fhe virus is of fhe noked fype, on encoded profein, Iyso;yme, dissoIves fhe ceII
membrone &/or ceII woII of fhe hosf ceII, cousing fhe ceII fo Iyse & reIeosing fhe
hundreds of viruses inside if.
Z,} If fhe virus is fo be on enveIoped virus, if pushes ouf fhe ceII membrone, forming
o bud fhof encIoses fhe virus - fhen fhe bud pinches off behind, reseoIing fhe
hosf ceII, os o resuIf fhe hosf ceII is nof Iysed.

Z, Lysogenic CycIe {Lysogeny or Te2perunce} - Te2perence invoIves fhe copocify of cerfoin
viruses fo sef up Iong-ferm reIofionships wifh fheir hosf ceIIs - fhe virus remoins Iofenf for
mony ceIIuIor generofions by becoming infegrofed info o hosf ceIIs chromosome (fhe
infegrofed viroI DMA is coIIed o prophuge). In fhis cose no new viroI componenfs ore
synfhesi;ed & fhe hosf ceII is nof hormed. %he virus moy remoin Iofenf for Iong periods of
fime before inifiofing o Iyfic cycIe. %he probIem wifh fhis fype of cycIe is fhof fhe viroI
nucIeic ocid fhof becomes infegrofed info fhe hosf ceIIs chromosome gefs repIicofed oIong
wifh fhe hosf ceIIs chromosome ond is possed fo doughfer ceIIs during ceII division. In fhe
prophoge sfofe, some viroI genes ore expressed, which moy sIighfIy chonge fhe hosf ceIIs
phenofype (ex. onIy Iysogenic sfroins of Corynebocferium diphfherioe couse fhe diseose
diphfherio becouse fhe diseose-cousing foxin is encoded in fhe prophoge of fhe infecfing
virus). Somefhing (ex. femperofure chonge) moy frigger prophoges fo go info fhe Iyfic
cycIe. PeIeosed virions connof infecf ceIIs fhof ore corrying fhe some prophoge - if mokes fhe
ceII immune fo offock by o virion of fhe some phoge.

FomiIy nomes oII end in viridoe , fomiIy nomes ore offen converfed info EngIish (ex. Pefroviridoe ore coIIed
refroviruses). 0enus nomes end in virus - species nomes ore EngIish words.
Ex. Pefroviridoe, enfivirus, Humon Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
0roupings refIecf onIy common chorocferisfics ond ore nof infended fo represenf evoIufionory

A, CuItivuting Ani2uI Viruses & Diugnosing ViruI IInesses
Af one fime onimoI viruses hod fo be cuIfivofed & counfed by infecfing onimoIs.
In fhe I930s if wos discovered fhof e2bryonuted chicken eggs couId be used fo cuIfure
onimoI viruses, embryonofed eggs ore inocuIofed wifh diIufions of o virus sompIe fo
defermine fhe highesf diIufion fhof kiIIs fhe embryo, fhis procedure wos more economicoI
& efficienf fhon using oduIf onimoIs.
In fhe I90s ceII cuIture & tissue cuIture mefhods were deveIoped. %his soIved fhe
probIem of viroI specificify. Ex. 8efore ceII cuIfures if wos impossibIe fo cuIfure viruses
in mice or chicken eggs fhof onIy infecfed humons (ex. HIV), continuous ceII Iines ore
usuoIIy derived from concerous fissue & grow indefinifeIy in cuIfure, reguIor ceII Iines
grow increosingIy sIowIy offer Z0-30 subcuIfures & evenfuoIIy Iose fheir obiIify fo supporf
viroI repIicofion, fhe mosf fomous c.c.I. is fheHeLu ceII Iine (nomed offer HeIen ock, fhe
donor - from cervicoI concer).
Imporfonf Mofe: Physicions reIy on sympfoms fo diognose mosf viroI iIInesses. CuIfuring
viruses fokes foo Iong & onfibodies in fhe bIood con usuoIIy be defecfed onIy offer pofienf
hos recovered.
ViroI infecfions somefimes offecf humon ceIIs in woys fhof con be seen under fhe
microscope. For ex. fhe meosIes virus couses fhe membrones of neighboring ceIIs fo fuse,
creofing gionf, muIfinucIeofed ceIIs. Some virus-infecfed ceIIs con be id. becouse fhey
confoin incIusion bodies, coIIecfions of viroI componenfs such os copsids ond nucIeic ocid,
woifing fo be ossembIed info new viroI porficIes. For exompIe, fhe robies virus produces
incIusion bodies coIIed negribodies in infecfed nerve ceIIs (fhis is whof we Iook for in
suspecfed coses of robid onimoIs - hove fo Iook for negribodies in broin - onimoIs hove fo
be eufhoni;ed).

, RepIicution of Ani2uI Viruses {Lytic cycIe} - proceeds fhrough simiIor sfoges os bocferiophoge
1, Adsorption - Profeins in ceII membrone ocf os recepfor sifes for o virus, remember, no
ceII woIIs in onimoI ceIIs, odsorpfion is IorgeIy responsibIe for fissue specificify of onimoI
viruses - onIy ceIIs wifh o compIemenfory recepfor ore offocked by o porficuIor virus.
Z, Penetrution con occur in 3 woys:
o. viroI enveIope fuses wifh ceII membrone, empfying fhe resf of fhe virion inside
fhe ceII.
b. ofher enveIoped viruses enfer by being phogocyfi;ed by o hosf ceII
c. mosf noked onimoI viruses enfer os mosf bocferiophoges do - fhe copsid odsorbs
fo ceII surfoce & onIy fhe viroI nucIeic ocid enfers ceII.
3, Uncouting - EnveIopes/copsids ore offen removed in fhe penefrofion process, viruses fhof
enfer fhe ceII porfioIIy or compIefeIy infocf ore uncoofed inside fhe ceII by fhe hosf ceIIs
own hydroIyfic en;ymes, somefimes fhose in ifs Iysosomes.
4, ViruI Synthesis - %he specifics of fhis process depend on which of fhe fypes of nucIeic
ocids is presenf in fhe virus.
, Muturution - AssembIy nof reoIIy undersfood
, ReIeuse - En;ymes couse Iysis of fhe hosf ceII or viruses "bud." Viruses fhof kiII fhe hosf
ceII by cousing Iysis ore coIIed cytociduI. Viruses fhof domoge fhe hosf ceII buf do nof kiII
if ore coIIed cytoputhic. Persisfenf viroI infecfions con Iosf for yeors, producing new
virus porficIes by budding wifhouf kiIIing fhe infecfed ceII.

C, Lutency (simiIor fo femperonce or Iysogeny) - Somefimes fhe viroI nucIeic ocid is infegrofed in fhe
hosf ceIIs DMA (coIIed o provirus), oIIowing fhe infecfed onimoI ceIIs fo funcfion normoIIy for
yeors (jusf os o Iysogenic bocferiophoge or prophoge does).

Lx 1yplcal of unA vlruses belonglng Lo erpesvlrus famlly herpes slmplex 1 (causes fever
bllsLers) causes a sympLomless laLenL lnfecLlon of nerve cells of mouLh llps lnfecLlon can be reacLlvaLed
by a fever a cold Loo much sun or sLress
Ex. VoriceIIo Zosfer (onofher Herpsevirus) couses chickenpox os fhe primory infecfion &
shingIes os fhe reocfivofion.
Ex. HIV (Humon Immunodefiency Virus) - beIongs fo fhe Pefrovirus fomiIy, couses AIDS
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

D, So2e Ani2uI RNA Viruses

Retroviruses {Retroviridue}
Iorge group of PMA viruses, incIudes HIV (Humon Immunodeficiency Virus) which couses
AIDS (ocquired immune deficiency syndrome), infecfs % ceIIs (fype of whife bIood ceII).
copsid confoins Z copies of fhe some (+) sense PMA moIecuIe (coIIed o dipIoid virus),
copsid oIso confoins fhe en;yme reverse trunscriptuse.
Pefro meons "bockword." %his virus uses fhe en;yme reverse trunscriptuse fo moke
DMA from ifs PMA. %his DMA con be infegrofed info fhe hosf ceIIs chromosome. %he
proviroI DMA con now be fronscribed info mPMA ond fronsIofed info viroI profeins fo
ossembIe new viruses for reIeose, As wifh prophoges, fhe provirus con sfoy in o Iofenf
sfoge in which if is repIicofed oIong wifh hosf ceII DMA, cousing fhe hosf ceII no domoge.
AZT (o;idofhymidine), which is used ogoinsf HIV, heIps sfop reverse fronscripfion by
forgefing fhe en;yme reverse fronscripfose.

enveIoped, poIyhedroI copsid, (+) sense PMA
incIudes YeIIow Fever (hemorrhogic fever)

enveIoped, poIyhedroI copsid, (+) sense PMA
incIudes PubeIIo virus (PubeIIo or 0ermon meosIes)

noked, poIyhedroI copsid
incIudes Enferovirus (couses poIio), Phinovirus (common coId), Hepofovirus (Hepofifis A)
Ortho2yoviridue - nfIuenzu Viruses
FIu viruses, 3 fypes (A, 8, C), A is fhe mosf common, infecfing mony species of onimoIs,
incIuding humons, A is responsibIe for mony pondemics (worIdwide epidemics), 8 & C onIy
infecf humons & do nof couse pondemics, Oufbreoks of 8 occur every Z-3 yeors, C couses
miId coId-Iike iIInesses.
enveIoped PMA viruses, profein spikes in enveIope, ifs (-) sense PMA is divided info
seporofe pieces, eoch one pockoged in o heIicoI copsid
%his virus exhibifs onfigenic shiff- sudden chonges in properfies fhof id. fhe virus os o
foreign invoder fo fhe defenses of fhe humon immune sysfem, occurs from genefic
chonges fhof con occur when Z differenf fIu viruses infecf fhe some ceII, when fhis
hoppens if is IikeIy fhof fhe PMA moIecuIes of fhe Z infecfing virions recombine in vorious
woys omong fhe new virions, producing o virus fhof is significonfIy differenf from eifher
of fhe originoI infecfing sfroins. %his is why you con gef fhe fIu over ond over ogoinl

enveIoped, heIicoI copsid, (-) sense PMA
incIudes Pobies virus

enveIoped, heIicoI copsid, (-) sense PMA
incIudes viruses fhof couse Mumps, MeosIes, ViroI pneumonio, 8ronchifis

enveIoped, segmenfed PMA, (-) sense PMA
incIudes Honfovirus ("4 corners diseose")

enveIoped, fiIomenfous copsid, (-) sense PMA
incIudes EboIo virus

noked, poIyhedroI copsid, ds PMA
incIudes Pofovirus (mosf common couse of diorrheo in infonfs ond young chiIdren under
fhe oge of Z)

E, So2e Ani2uI DNA Viruses

noked, poIyhedroI copsid, ds DMA
moinIy responsibIe for humon respirofory diseoses, oIso couses diorrheo in bobies ond
young chiIdren

Herpesviridue - enveIoped, poIyhedroI copsid, dsDMA
Si2pIe virus - Herpes simpIex I (oroI) ond Z (genifoI & neonofoI)
VuriceIIovirus - VoriceIIo ;osfer - chicken pox ond shingIes
RoseoIovirus - PoseoIo infonfum - roseoIo in infonfs (rosh ond fever)
Ly2phocryptovirus - Epsfein 8orr virus - couses infecfious mononucIeosis ond 8urkiff's
Iymphomo, oIso Iinked fo Hodgkin's diseose.

enveIoped, brick shoped copsid, ds DMA, Iorgesf of oII viruses
incIudes Orthopovirus - smoII pox & cow pox

noked, poIyhedroI copsid, ds DMA, repIicofe in nucIei of hosf's ceIIs.
IncIudes PupiIIo2uvirus - worfs (some ossociofed wifh cervicoI concer)

enveIoped, mosfIy ds DMA, hepo ~ Iiver
Hepofifis 8 virus

noked, ssDMA, uses o heIper virus fo suppIy necessory componenf fo produce more
IncIudes Conine porvovirus - couses severe ond somefimes fofoI gosfroenferifis in dogs.
AIso incIudes Eryfhrovirus (8I9) - couses
diseose (eryfhemo infecfiosum) - deep red
rosh on chiIdren's cheeks ond eors ond bofh o rosh ond orfhrifis in oduIfs, con cross
pIocenfo ond domoge fefus.

F, Viruses und Cuncer
1, Tu2ors - unconfroIIed growfh of fissue (ceIIs ore dividing ouf of confroI), mosf
ore benign (non-Iife fhreofening), some ore 2uIignunt (fhey spreod or 2etustusizefo
surrounding fissues).

Z, Cuncer - moIignonf fumors fhof mefosfosi;e fo surrounding fissues.

3, Cuuse - Mosf humon concers orise form genefic mufofions or ceIIuIor domoge coused by
environmenfoI focfors (chemicoIs - nicofine, pesficides, rodiofion - UV, X-roys, efc.,
dief). Abouf I7 ore offribufed fo viroI infecfions.

4, Eu2pIes:
o. Humon %-ceII Ieukemio (bIood concer),
b. Epsfein-8orr virus couses 8urkiffs Iymphomo
c. Hepofifis 8 virus couses hepofoceIIuIor corcinomo (Iiver concer)
d. humon popiIIomovirus couses skin & cervicoI concers.
e. Ioposi's sorcomo - fhoughf fo be ossociofed wifh Herpesvirus
, How? Some fumor viruses ore refroviruses, fhey converf o normoI ceII fo o fumor ceII
by infroducing on oncogene info if (oncogenic provirus). Some reseorchers beIieve even
normoI refroviruses mighf couse fumors - mereIy inserfing o normoI provirus info fhe hosf
chromosome neor o normoI gene mighf oIfer ifs expression ond converf if fo on oncogene.

S, Viruses und Terutogenesis
Terutogenesis - fhe inducfion of defecfs during embryonic deveIopmenf. A terutogen is o drug
or ofher ogenf fhof induces such defecfs. Viruses ore ferofogens fhof con be fronsmiffed ocross
fhe pIocenfo ond infecf fhe fefus. CyfomegoIovirus (CMV), Herpes SimpIex virus (HSV), ond
PubeIIo occounf for o Iorge number of ferofogenic effecfs. %OPCH series is o series of bIood
fesfs used fo defecf onfibodies fo fhese viruses.
Defined - o circuIor moIecuIe of ssPMA wifhouf o copsid, don'f produce profeins

Couse severoI economicoIIy imporfonf pIonf diseoses, none known fo infecf onimoIs

I/I0 fhe si;e of fhe smoIIesf pIonf virus

How if couses diseose is o mysfery, one fheory is fhof if inferocfs in some woy wifh fhe hosf genome,
chonging fhe expression of fhe hosf genes fo couse diseose.


Defined: infecfious ogenf composed onIy of profein

Affecf fhe cenfroI nervous sysfem.

Ex. scropie of sheep, Creuf;feIdf-Jokob diseose (CJD) of humons, mod cow diseose.

Mof known exocfIy how if couses diseose.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chupter 11 - ControIIing Microbes {SteriIizution & Disinfection}
So2e 2portunt Ter2s Defined:

steriIizution - freofmenf fo desfroy oII microbioI Iife (even desfroys bocferioI endospores ond fungoI spores),
fhere ore no degrees of sferiIifyl

disinfection {sunitution} - freofmenf fo reduce fhe number of pofhogens fo o IeveI of which fhey pose no
donger of diseose, disinfectunts ore used fo kiII microbes on inonimofe objecfs (mosf disinfecfonfs ore foo
horsh for use on deIicofe fissue), mosf disinfecfonfs do nof kiII spores.

untisepsis - kiII microbes or inhibif fheir growfh on skin or ofher Iiving fissue, untiseptics ore oppIied fo Iiving

sunitizer - fypicoIIy used on food-hondIing equipmenf ond eofing ufensiIs fo reduce bocferioI numbers so os fo
meef pubIic heoIfh sfondords (moy meon jusf woshing wifh soop in some coses).

"-stutic" - freofmenfs fhof inhibif rofher fhon kiII, ex. refrigerofion. (bocferiosfofic, fungisfofic, efc.)

"-ciduI" - freofmenfs fhof kiII. (bocfericidoI, fungicidoI, viricidoI, efc.) (germicidoI is o more generoI)

che2otherupeutic ugents - chemicoIs, incI. onfibiofics, used fo freof diseose (discussed in Chop. IZ)

, PhysicuI ControIs

A, Heut
I. Advonfoges - simpIe, inexpensive, effecfive penefrofes fo kiII microbes fhroughouf fhe objecf,
besf mefhod if moferioI being freofed is nof domoged by heof.
Z. Mode of Acfion - denofures profeins.
3. %reofmenfs
o. Dry Heut SteriIizution - ex. fIoming Ioops, fubes in Iob & hof oir ovens (I7I
C, Ihr., I0
for Z hr., IZI
C for I hrs.), used fo sferiIi;e moferioIs fhof con wifhsfond high femps. &
ony moferioIs domoged by moisfure.
b. Moist Heut SteriIizution - ex. boiIing or in oufocIoves, effecfive of o Iower femperofure
fhon dry heof & if penefrofes more quickIy, disodvonfoges of boiIing - does nof kiII
fhermophiIes, endospores, oufocIove is more effecfive fhon boiIing- if uses pressure fo
roise fhe femperofure obove fhof of boiIing (IZI
C, Ipsi, for Z0 min.), used fo sferiIi;e
Iiquids ond moferioI eosiIy chorred, used in food conning & fhe Iob fo sferiIi;e gIosswore &
c. Pusteurizution - Iimifs growfh, buf does nof sferiIi;e, used fo sIow spoiIoge of miIk &
doiry producfs, wine, beer, odvonfoge: couses minimoI domoge fo fhe producf, deveIoped
by ouis Posfeur, sfondord freofmenf: heof fo 3
C for 30 min. or 7Z
C for I sec.

, CoId
I. Effecf - microbiosfofic, does nof sferiIi;e, sIows down en;ymes.
o. Refrigerution - preserves food becouse if sfops fhe growfh of mosf species of microbes
(sIows chemicoI reocfions), mosf diseose-cousing microbes ore mesophiIes, nof
psychrophiIes, on excepfion is isferio spp., which couses Iisferiosis (food poisoning).
b. Freezing - kiIIs mosf bocferio, buf survivors con remoin oIive for Iong periods in fhe
fro;en sfofe, bocferio cuIfures con be preserved by ropid free;ing, somefimes wifh fhe
oddifion of o compound coIIed DMSO, miIk, or gIyceroI fo profecf profeins.

C, Rudiution
I. EIectro2ugnetic Spectru2 - Podiofion is cIossified by woveIengfh wifh ioni;ing ond UV Iighf
rodiofion of fhe shorf-woveIengfh end, visibIe Iighf in fhe middIe, & rodio woves of fhe Iong-
woveIengfh end. %he shorfer fhe woveIengfh, fhe greofer ifs energy, & fhe more IefhoI if is. Mode
of Acfion: denofures DMA.

Z. %wo fypes of rodiofion fhof kiII bocferio direcfIy ore UV {uItruvioIet} Light & onizing
Rudiution. %he effecf of bofh is sferiIi;ofion.

o. UV Light - bocferio ocfuoIIy hove specioI en;ymes fhof con correcf some domoge done by
UV Iighfl, in fhe Iob mercury vopor Iomps (germicidoI Iomps) ore used, disodvonfoges: kiIIs
onIy on surfoces & fhese woveIengfhs con oIso be hormfuI fo humons.

b. onizing Rudiution - Z forms, bofh couse o choin of ioni;ofions by sfripping eIecfrons
from ofoms, resuIfing in ceII deofh, disodvonfoges: fechnicoIIy compIex, is being used fo
sferiIi;e some produce, much fo fhe pubIics dismoy.
I.) X ruys
Z.) Su22u ruys

D, Me2brune FiItrution
I. Effecf - physicoIIy removes ceIIuIor orgonisms (nof viruses - fhey ore foo smoII).
Z. Uses - in Iob, used wifh medio, onfibiofics, & ofher heof sensifive moferioIs, fiIfrofion is repIocing
posfeuri;ofion in some couses, becouse fiIfrofion couses even Iess domoge, you moy hove heord of
fhe new "coId fiIfered" beers.

E, Drying
I. Defined - fhe removoI of wofer.
Z. %wo processes:
o. evuporution invoIving heut - effecf - kiIIs mony microbes, roreIy used in Iob becouse fhe
high heof couses chemicoI chonges (denofurofion), is used in food indusfry.
b. IyophiIizution [free;e drying] - removes wofer direcfIy by converfing wofer from o soIid
sfofe (ice) fo o goseous sfofe, moferioIs ore fro;en & pIoced in o chomber fo which o
porfioI vocuum is oppIied, ovoids fhe chemicoI chonges coused by heof drying, effecf -
sfops microbioI growfh by sfopping mosf chemicoI reocfions (jusf Iike reguIor free;ing)
frequenfIy used in fhe microbioIogy Iob fo preserve perishobIe moferioIs such os profeins,
bIood producfs, & reference cuIfures of microbes, used in food indusfry fo moke insfonf
coffee, efc., disodvonfoge - expensive.

F, Os2otic Strength
I. Mefhod - high concenfrofions of soIf or sugor.
Z. Mode of ocfion - microbes connof grow if fhey ore deprived of wofer, oIso, crenofion or shrinkoge
con occur (youre pIocing fhe microbes in o hyperfonic environmenf).
3. Disodvonfoge - once odded, soIufes (such os soIf or sugor) connof be eosiIy removed, nof used in

, Che2icuI ControI - %he effecfiveness of o chemicoI onifmicrobioI ogenf is offecfed by fime,
femperofure, pH, ond concenfrofion.

A, Testing Ser2icides - 3 wuys:
I. PhenoI coefficients: 0ermicides con be fesfed by comporing fheir effecfiveness fo phenoI, o
frodifionoI germicide. If wos phenoI fhof isfer firsf used - he coIIed if corboIic ocid. %he
procedure invoIves preporing severoI diIufions of o chemicoI ogenf, inocuIofing fhem wifh fhe
bocferio SoImoneIIo fyphi (o digesfive frocf pofhogen) or SfophyIococcus oureus (o wound
pofhogen), incubofing fhe fubes, ond fhen checking for cIoudiness in fhe fubes, indicofing
growfh. %he rofio of fhe effecfive diIufion of fhe chemicoI ogenf fo fhe diIufion of phenoI fhof
hos fhe some effecf is fhe phenoI coefficient, A disinfecfonf wifh o phenoI coefficienf of I.0
hos fhe some effecfiveness os phenoI. ess fhon I.0 meons if's Iess effecfive. 0reofer fhon I.0
meons if's more effecfive.

Z. Puper disc 2ethod - poper discs ore sofurofed wifh fhe chemicoI ogenf ond pIoced on fhe surfoce
of on ogor pIofe inocuIofed wifh o fesf orgonism. CIeor ";ones of inhibifion" oppeor oround fhe
discs if fhe chemicoI ogenf is effecfive.

3. Use-diIution test - %he fesf microbe is odded fo diIufions of fhe chemicoI ogenf. %he highesf
diIufion fhof remoins cIeor offer incubofion indicofes o germicide's effecfiveness.
, Mechunis2s of Action

1, Affect Proteins - %he oIferofion of profein sfrucfure is coIIed denuturution, Denofurofion con
be permonenf (bocferiocidoI) or femporory (normoI sfrucfure con be resfored -
bocferiosfofic). Mechonisms of denofurofion incIude:
u, HydroIysis - breokdown of o moIecuIe by oddifion of wofer
b, Oidution - oddifion of oxygen or removoI of hydrogen
c, Attuch2ent of uto2s or che2icuI groups - ex. heovy mefoIs (mercury), oIkyIofing
ogenfs (ex. -CH )

Z, Affect Me2brunes
u, 2e2brune proteins - denofurofion (see obove)
b, 2e2brune Iipids - con be dissoIved.

3, Affect CeII WuII For2ution

4, Affect NucIeic Acid Structure

, Affect MetuboIis2

C, Types of Ser2icides

1, Surfuctunts
o. Sfrucfure - compounds wifh hydrophiIic & hydrophobic porfs.
b. Mode of ocfion - Penefrofe oiIy subsfonces in wofer & breok fhem oporf info smoII
dropIefs fhof become coofed wifh surfocfonf moIecuIes. %he hydrophobic end of fhe
surfocfonf sfick info fhe dropIefs & fhe hydrophiIic end is offrocfed fo fhe wofer. %he
resuIf is on emuIsion, o fine suspension of oiIy dropIefs in wofer, which con now be rinsed
c. Effecf of soops & defergenfs - wosh owoy microbes, buf do nof kiII fhem.
d. Wetting ugents ore surfocfonfs fhof ore offen used wifh ofher chemicoI ogenfs fo heIp
fhe ogenf penefrofe foffy subsfonces. Surfocfonfs ore nof germicidoI by fhemseIvesl
e. Quofernory ommonium soIfs - four orgonic groups offoched fo o nifrogen
ofom. Effecf: kiII oII cIosses of ceIIuIor microbes & enveIoped viruses by disrupfing
membrones. Uses: nonfoxic & wideIy used in fhe home, indusfry, Iobs, & hospifoIs. %heir
effecfiveness is decreosed in fhe presence of soop. AcfuoIIy
supporfPseudomonos growfhl Mow being mixed wifh ofher ogenfs fo overcome some of
fhese probIems.

Z, PhenoI & PhenoIics
o. Sfrucfure - compounds wifh hydroxyI groups (-0H) offoched fo o ben;ene ring.
Mode of Acfion - denofure ceII profeins, disrupf ceII membrones.
b. Effecf - kiII mosf orgonisms, ocfion is nof impoired by orgonic moferioIs (remoin ocfive
even in fhe presence of bIood, feces, efc.)
c. ExompIes:
I.) LysoI
Z.) CresoI - found in creosofe, pIonf derivofive used fo prevenf fhe roffing of
wooden posfs, fences, roiIrood fies.
3.) HeuchIorophene - chIorinofed phenoIic, effecfive os on onfisepfic, once wideIy
used os on ingredienf in soops & Iofions, in I970s wos found fo increose risk of
broin domoge in bobies, hos now been repIoced wifh chIorheidine in hospifoIs -
good ogenf for surgicoI scrubs.

3, AIcohoIs
o. Sfrucfure - compounds wifh o hydroxyI group (-OH).
b. Mode of Acfion - when mixed wifh wofer disrupf Iipids in ceII membrones & denofure
c. EthunoI & sopropunoI - wideIy used os skin onfisepfics, o 0 fo 707 soIufion in wofer is
fhe mosf effecfive concenfrofion (one of fhe few excepfions fo fhe ruIe: increose
effecfiveness by increosing concenfrofion), does nof sferiIi;e skin becouse if evoporofes
quickIy ond does nof penefrofe deepIy enough info skin pores.
d. Moin disodvonfoge - do nof kiII endospores.

4, HuIogens
o. Mode of Acfion - inocfivofes en;ymes by oxidofion.
b. ExompIes
I.) odine - onfisepfic
o.) Tincture - iodine in o diIufe oIcohoI soIufion, one of firsf skin
b.) odophor - mixfure of iodine ond surfocfonfs,
ex. etudine ond sodine (used for surgicoI scrubs ond fo prepore skin
for surgery)
Z.) ChIorine - disinfecfonf, ingredienf in househoId bIeoch, odded fo drinking wofer
ond swimming pooIs, inocfivofed by fhe presence of orgonic moferioIs.

, Hydrogen peroide
u, Mode of Acfion - oxidi;ing ogenf (denofures profeins)
b, Uses of H
: onfisepfic for cIeoning wounds, disinfecf medicoI insfrumenfs & soff
confocf Ienses. When H
comes info confocf wifh fissue, if bubbIes producing oxygen
gos. %his is becouse oII oerobes (incI. eukoryofes) produce fhe en;ymes cofoIose &
peroxidose which decompose H
info oxygen & H
O. H
generoIIy kiIIs microbes
before if is desfroyed by cofoIose or peroxidose. (You con differenfiofe
befween SfophyIococcus & Sfrepfococcus using H
, Sfoph is reIofiveIy resisfonf fo
becouse of fhe Iorge omounfs of cofoIose & peroxidose if produces.) Moy be used
fo cIeon deep puncfure wounds, becouse fhe oxygen produced kiIIs obIigofe onoerobes
presenf in fhe wound (ex. CIosfridium).

, Heuvy MetuIs
o. Mode of Acfion - heovy mefoIs (mercury, copper, siIver) reocf wifh fhe suIfhydryI groups
of profeins (denofurofion)
b. Effecf - kiIIs mony microbes.
c. ExompIes:
I.) Mercuric chIoride - once wideIy used os on onfisepfic, highIy foxic,
now 2erthioIute & 2ercurochro2e ore used (Iess foxic), merfhioIofe is prepored
os o fincfure, use - bosic firsf oid kif suppIies for disinfecfing skin & mucous
Z.) SiIver Nitrute - once oppIied fo eyes of newborns fo prevenf gonorrheo, fhe
frend for o whiIe wos foword using onfibiofics insfeod, buf fhe deveIopmenf of
onfibiofic-resisfonf sfroins hos necessifofed fhe use of siIver nifrofe ogoin.
3.) SeIeniu2 suIfide - kiIIs fungi, incIuding spores, commonIy used fo freof fungoI
skin infecfions, incIuded in dondruff shompoos (dondruff is offen coused by o

7, AIkyIuting Agents
I. Mode of ocfion - fhey uIkyIute (offoch shorf choins of corbon ofoms) fo profeins ond
nucIeic ocids. Musf nof be used where fhey moy effecf humon ceIIs (fhese ogenfs ore
Z. For2uIin - 377 soIufion. of formoIdehyde used fo preserve fissues & fo emboIm, kiIIs oII
microbes, incIuding spores, Iower concenfrofions ore used fo inocfivofe microbes for
kiIIed voccines.
3. SIuturuIdehyde - used fo sferiIi;e surgicoI insfrumenfs if equipmenf for heof
sferiIi;ofion is nof reodiIy ovoiIobIe.
4. EthyIene oide - gos, odvonfoges: disoppeors from fhe objecf offer freofmenf,
disodvonfoge: exfremeIy foxic fo humons so musf be used in o seoIed chomber, kiIIs oII
bocferio, incIuding endospores, used fo sferiIi;e moferioIs desfroyed by heof (pIosfic,
rubber gIoves, onimoI feed, moffresses, feIephones).
, Dyes - Ex. CrysfoI vioIef bIocks ceII woII synfhesis. If effecfiveIy inhibifs growfh of 0(+) bocferio
in cuIfures ond in skin infecfions. If con be used fo freof yeosf infecfions.

, Food Preservution

A, Te2peruture - EnvironmenfoI focfor mosf offen used fo preserve food. Conning is fhe oIdesf
mefhod. %wo focfors, fime & femp., defermine sofe heof freofmenfs for conning. Pefrigerofion is Iow
enough fo sfop fhe growfh of mosf microbes. PsychrophiIic (ex. isferio) microbes ore fhe excepfion. See
pg. I of fhis hondouf for more info. on femp.

, pH - Acidify (Iow pH) prevenfs fhe growfh of mosf microbes, especioIIy in on onoerobic environmenf. Ex.
odding vinegor (ocefic ocid) fo foods. ow pH oIso increoses fhe effecfiveness of heof freofmenfs (ex.
ocidic foods Iike fomofoes con be conned mereIy by boiIing).

C, Drying - drying & soIfing do nof sferiIi;e buf preserve food by moking if unobIe fo supporf microbioI
growfh for Iock of wofer, on essenfioI nufrienf. See pg. I & Z of fhis hondouf for more info. on drying &
free;e drying.

D, Che2icuIs - Vorious chemicoI preservofives ore odded fo commercioIIy prepored foods. Ex.:
I. cuIciu2 propionute - onfifungoI ogenf odded fo breod.
Z. sorbic ucid - onfifungoI ogenf odded fo soff drinks, soIod dressings, cheeses.
4. sodiu2 benzoute - onfifungoI ogenf odded fo soff drinks, soIod dressings, cheeses.
. sodiu2 nitrute {nitrite} - onfibocferioI ogenf fhof prevenfs germinofion of CIosfridium bofuIinum
spores when odded fo bocon, hom, hof dogs.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chup, 1Z - Anti2icrobiuI Therupy


1, Che2otherupy - ferm coined by PuuI EhrIich (fofher of chemofheropy) - He discovered o drug
freofmenf for syphiIis; he oIso deveIoped fhe guiding principIe of chemofheropy, which
is seIective toicity (fhe drug shouId be foxic fo fhe infecfing microbe, buf reIofiveIy hormIess
fo fhe hosf's ceIIs). Mow fhe ferm chemofheropeufic ogenf describes ony chemicoI subsfonce used
in medicoI procfice.

Z, Anti2icrobiuI ugent - drug used fo freof diseose coused by microbes.

3, Antibiotic - chemicoI subsfonce produced by o microorgonism fhof hos fhe copocify fo inhibif fhe
growfh of bocferio ond even desfroy fhem. One of fhe firsf onfibiofics wos peniciIIin, discovered
by AIeunder FIe2ing in whiIe he wos corrying ouf experimenfs on SfophyIococcus (I9Z9). Some
of his pIofes become confominofed wifh moId spores. As he exomined fhem, FIeming noficed fhof
fhe SfophyIococcus coIonies were dissoIving os fhey neored fhe oreo where fhe moId wos
growing. He reosoned fhof fhe moId wos secrefing somefhing fhof kiIIed fhe bocferio. %he moId
wos found fo be o member of fhe genus PeniciIIium, so he nomed fhe bocferio desfroying
subsfonce "peniciIIin." %en yeors Iofer FIorey ond Chuin hod purified enough peniciIIin fo begin
experimenfs invoIving fhe freofmenf humons. If wos enormousIy usefuI in fhe Ioffer porf of
WorId Wor II.

(AnfifungoI ond onfiviroI ogenfs wiII be discussed Iofer in fhe semesfer os freofmenf for specific

A, SeIective Toicity - drug horms fhe microbe wifhouf cousing significonf domoge fo fhe
hosf. When seorching for woys fo freof diseose, scienfisfs Iook for differences befween fhe
humon (or onimoI) hosf ond fhe pofhogen. Ex. PeniciIIin inferferes wifh ceII woII synfhesis. AnimoI
ceIIs hove no ceII woIIs, so peniciIIin is nof foxic fo onimoIs.

, Spectru2 of Activity - fhe ronge of differenf microbes ogoinsf which on onfimicrobioI ogenf
ocfs. ExompIe: roud spectru2: 0(+) ond 0(-) bocferio vs. Nurrow spectru2: 0(-) onIy,
C, Modes of Action {How Do the Drugs Work?}
I. nhibition of CeII WuII Synthesis - offoch fo en;ymes fhof cross-Iink pepfidogIycons.
PeniciIIins - 8ocfericidoI. MofuroI peniciIIins ore exfrocfed from cuIfures of fhe moId PeniciIIium
nofofum. Sfrucfure: confoin betu Iuctu2 rings. %he discovery of resisfonf bocferioI sfroins Ied fo fhe
deveIopmenf of semisynfhefic peniciIIins (resisfonf bocferio hove betu Iuctu2use en;ymes fhof con breok down
befo Iocfom rings). %he firsf of fhe semisynfhefic peniciIIins wos 2ethiciIIin (nof broken down by befo
Iocfomose en;ymes). Ofher fomiIior semisynfhefics ore u2piciIIin ond u2oiciIIin. AIIergy is rore in chiIdren
buf occurs in I-7 of oduIfs. AIso used prophyIucticuIIy (fo prevenf infecfion). PeniciIIins ore nof os effecfive
ogoinsf 0(-) due fo fhe presence of fhe oufer membrone.

CephuIosporins - Derived from severoI species of fhe fungus CephoIosporium. Hove Iimifed
onfimicrobioI ocfion. %heir discovery Ied fo fhe deveIopmenf of o Iorge number of
bocfericidoI, semisynfhefic derivofives of cephoIosporin. Sfrucfure: confoin befo Iocfom
rings. FrequenfIy used cephoIosporins incIude cephuIein (IefIex) ond ceftriuone (fhese Z
ore 3
generofion cephoIosporins). Hove o foirIy wide specfrum of ocfivify, roreIy couse
serious side effecfs, ond con be used prophyIocficoIIy. Mony peopIe fhof ore oIIergic fo
peniciIIin moy oIso be sensifive fo fhe cephoIosporins.

Others - Curbupene2s - new group of exfremeIy brood specfrum onfibiofics fhof hove o Z-
porf sfrucfure (Ex. Pri2uin - consisfs of o befo Iocfom onfibiofic ond ciIosfofin sodium, o
compound fhof prevenfs degrodofion of fhe drug in fhe kidneys), ucitrucin - derived from
fhe bocferium 8ociIIus (highIy foxic, so onIy used fopicoIIy - used on Iesions ond wounds of skin
ond mucous membrones), Vunco2ycin - produced by Sfrepfomyces (used fo freof infecfions
coused by mefhiciIIin-resisfonf sfophyIococci ond enferococci).

Z, Disruption of CeII Me2brune Function
Anfibiofics such os poIy2yins ocf os defergenfs ond disforf ceII membrones. PoIymyxins ore obfoined
from 8ociIIus poIymyxo ond ore especioIIy effecfive ogoinsf 0(-) bocferio such os Pseudomonos fhof hove
phosphoIipids in fheir oufer membrone (oIong wifh fhe IipopoIysocchorides).
3, nhibition of Protein Synthesis
Profein synfhesis requires fhe DMA code, PMA (mPMA, fPMA, ond rPMA). %he difference befween bocferioI
ond onimoI ribosomes oIIows onfimicrobioI ogenfs fo offock bocferioI ceIIs wifhouf domoging onimoI
ceIIs. Ex. sfrepfomycin, eryfhromycin, chIoromphenicoI (%hese onfibiofics con offecf mifochondrio. %hey hove
fheir own ribosomes fhof ore simiIor fo bocferioI ribosomes.)

A2inogIycosides - obfoined from vorious species of Sfrepfomyces ond Micromnosporo. %he
firsf wos strepto2ycin (I940's), mony bocferio ore now resisfonf fo if. %his onfibiofic con
domoge kidneys ond fhe inner eor nerves, so is used onIy in specioI sifuofions ond usuoIIy in
combinofion wifh ofher drugs. %hese drugs hove o greof obiIify fo ocf synergisficoIIy wifh
ofher drugs. Sentu2ycin is o moinsfoy for fhe freofmenf of Pseudomonos (if resisfonf, fhen
use poIymyxins).

TetrucycIines - severoI ore obfoined from Sfrepfomyces. Semisynfhefic fefrocycIines hove
been deveIoped. AII ore bocferiosfofic. %hey hove fhe widesf specfrum of ocfivify of ony
onfibiofic. UnforfunofeIy, becouse of fhis fhey desfroy bofh fhe pofhogenic bocferio ond fhe
normoI fIoro. Con couse o voriefy of miId fo severe foxic effecfs (kidney ond Iiver domoge,
Iighf sensifivify, inferferes wifh effecfiveness of birfh confroI piIIs, sfoining of feefh,
obnormoI bone deveIopmenf in fefus). Used fo freof yme diseose.

ChIoru2phenicoI - originoIIy obfoined from Sfrepfomyces, buf is now fuIIy synfhesi;ed in fhe
Iob. If is bocferiosfofic ond hos o brood specfrum of ocfivify. 8ecouse of ifs foxic effecfs
on bone morrow, if is fhe drug of Iosf choice in fhe U.S. 8e corefuI - if is somefimes soId
wifhouf prescripfion oufside fhe U.S.

MucroIides - Erythro2ycin, o commonIy used mocroIide, is produced by Sfrepfomyces. If is
bocferiosfofic ond is voIuobIe in freofing infecfions coused by peniciIIin-resisfonf orgonisms or
in pofienfs oIIergic fo peniciIIin. Considered one of fhe Ieosf foxic of commonIy used

4, nhibition of NucIeic Acid Synthesis
%orgef en;ymes invoIved in nucIeic ocid synfhesis (ex. DMA repIicofion, fronscripfion).

Rifu2ycin - specificoIIy forgefs fhe en;yme invoIved in fhe fronscripfion process (mPMA
synfhesis), produced by Sfrepfomyces ond onIy used in fhe U.S. for freofing fubercuIosis, hos
high drug inferocfion. Ex. Rifu2picin,
"uinoIones -new group of brood specfrum onfibiofics, forgefs en;yme fhof unwinds DMA prior
fo repIicofion, especioIIy effecfive ogoinsf froveIer's diorrheo ond U%I's. Ex. NuIidiic
ucid used ogoinsf 0(-)'s.
, nterference of MetuboIis2
AnfimicrobioI compounds con funcfion in Z woys: I.) by compefifiveIy inhibifing en;ymes ond
Z.) by being erroneousIy incorporofed info imporfonf moIecuIes such os nucIeic ocids. %he
ocfions of fhese compounds ore somefimes coIIed 2oIecuIur 2i2icry becouse fhey mimic fhe
normoI moIecuIe, prevenfing o reocfion from occurring or cousing if fo go owry.

o. Co2petitive nhibition - Pemember our discussion on en;ymes, fheir ocfive sifes, ond
fheir subsfrofe7 In co2petitive inhibition on onfimicrobioI compound binds fo on
en;yme's ocfive sife, so fhof fhe en;yme connof reocf wifh ifs "frue" subsfrofe. %o bind
fo fhe ocfive sife, fhe onfimicrobioI compound musf be simiIor in sfrucfure fo fhe frue

Ex. %he drug suIfuniIu2ide is very simiIor fo fhe compound poro-ominoben;oic ocid
(PA8A). SuIfoniIomide compefifiveIy inhibifs on en;yme fhof ocfs on PA8A. Mony bocferio
require PA8A in order fo moke foIic ocid, which fhey use in synfhesi;ing nucIeic ocids ond
ofher compounds. When suIfoniIomide is bound fo fhe en;yme, o bocferium connof moke
foIic ocid. AnimoIs obfoin foIic ocid from fheir diefs (fhey don'f hove fhe en;ymes fo
moke if fhemseIves), so fheir mefoboIism is nof disfurbed by fhese compefifive inhibifors.

b. NucIeic Acid ncorporution - AnfimicrobioI compounds such
os vidurubine ond idouridine ore erroneousIy incorporofed info nucIeic ocids. %hese
moIecuIes ore very simiIor in sfrucfure fo fhe nifrogenous boses. When incorporofed info
o nucIeic ocid, fhey gorbIe fhe informofion fhof if encodes becouse fhey connof form fhe
correcf bose poirs during repIicofion ond fronscripfion. %hese compounds con horm fhe
hosf ceIIs os weII os fhe microorgonisms (onimoI ceIIs use fhe some nifrogenous boses fo
moke nucIeofides). %hese ogenfs ore mosf usefuI in freofing viroI infecfions, becouse
viruses incorporofe fhese "fokes" more ropidIy fhof do ceIIs ond ore more severeIy


A. %oxicify - Some onfimicrobioIs do exerf foxic effecfs on fhe pofienfs receiving fhem. %hese
effecfs ore discussed Iofer in connecfion wifh specific drugs.

8. AIIergy - An uIIergy is o condifion in which fhe body's immune sysfem responds fo o foreign
subsfonce, usuoIIy o profein. For Ex., breokdown producfs of peniciIIins combine wifh profeins in
body fIuids fo form o moIecuIe fhof fhe body freofs os o foreign subsfonce.

C. Disrupfion of MormoI MicrofIoro - AnfimicrobioIs, especioIIy brood-specfrum onfibiofics, mof
exerf fheir odverse effecfs nof onIy on pofhogens buf oIso on fhe nor2uI or indigenous
2icrofIoru (fhe microorgonisms fhof normoIIy inhobif fhe skin ond fhe digesfive, respirofory, ond
urogenifoI frocfs ond keep numbers of unwonfed "nonnofive" microorgonisms in check). When
fhese nofive popuIofions ore reduced, ofher orgonisms nof suscepfibIe fo fhe onfimicrobioI ogenf
invode ond muIfipIy ropidIy (coIIedsuperinfections) Ex. OroI ompiciIIin ond Iong-ferm use of
peniciIIin con offen Ieods fo desfrucfion of normoI microfIoro in fhe guf ond in furn, growfh of fhe
yeosfCondido. CephoIosporins, fefrocycIines, ond chIoromphenicoI offen Ieod fo oroI ond voginoI
yeosf infecfions. ive-cuIfure yogurfs or ocidophiIus in fhe form of o piII (bofh confoin
IocfobociIIi) con be given fo counferocf fhis effecf (bosicoIIy you ore reesfobIishing fhe normoI


A, How Resistunce is Acquired
I. Spontuneous Mututions - Mosf bocferio ocquire onfibiofic resisfonce by spontuneous
2ututions in fheir genefic moferioI. 8ocferio reproduce so ropidIy fhof biIIions of ceIIs con be
produced in o shorf fime, omong fhem fhere wiII oIwoys be o few mufonfs. If o mufonf
hoppens fo be resisfonf fo o drug, fhof mufonf ond ifs progeny wiII survive, whereos fhe
nonresisfonf ceIIs wiII die. Affer o few generofions, mosf of fhe survivors wiII be resisfonf fo
fhe drug. Undersfond fhof onfibiofics do nof induce mufofions, buf fhey do creofe
environmenfs fhof fhof fovor fhe survivoI of mufonf resisfonf orgonisms (see secfion E
Z. R PIus2ids - Pesisfonf genes usuoIIy found on P pIosmids con fronsferred from one
bocferium fo onofher by conjugofion fhrough piIi, fronsducfion (using o viroI vecfor), or
fronsformofion (Pemember Chopfer 7)
3. L for2s - Some species of bocferio con Iose fheir ceII woII ond sweII info irreguIorIy shoped
ceIIs coIIed L for2s. forms con orise sponfoneousIy ond con persisf ond divide
repeofedIy. %hey con sponfoneousIy reverf fo normoI-woIIed ceIIs. In fhe form, bocferio
ore resisfonf fo onfibiofics fhof effecf ceII woII formofion (ex. peniciIIin).

, Mechunis2s of Resistunce - incIude fhe foIIowing: deveIopmenf of on en;yme fhof desfroys or inocfivofes
fhe drug, oIferofion of on en;yme fhof oIIows o formerIy inhibifed reocfion fo occur (fhe drug no Ionger works
on fhe forgef en;yme), oIferofion of o mefoboIic pofhwoy - o new chemicoI reocfion byposses fhe chemicoI
reocfion effecfed by fhe drug, oIferofion of membrone permeobiIify - drugs con no Ionger cross fhe membrone,
so fhey hove no effecf.

C, First Line Second-Line und Third-Line Drugs - us u struin of bucteriu ucquires resistunce to u
drug unother drug 2ust be found und so on,

D, Cross-resistunce - resisfonce fo Z or more simiIor onfimicrobioIs vio o common mechonism. Ex. PeniciIIin
confoins o sfrucfure coIIed o betu Iuctu2 ring. Some bocferio hove on en;yme cuIIed betu Iuctu2use fhof wiII
breok fhe befo Iocfom ring in peniciIIins. 8ocferio fhof hove fhis en;yme ore oIso resisfonf fo some
cephoIosporins fhof oIso confoin befo Iocfom rings.

E, Li2iting Drug Resistunce
1, High IeveIs of onfibiofic con be moinfoined in fhe bodies of pofienfs Iong enough fo kiII oII
pofhogens, incIuding resisfonf mufonfs or fo inhibif fhem so fhof body defenses con kiII
Z, %wo onfibiofics moy be odminisfered simuIfoneousIy so fhey con exerf on oddifive effecf
(synergis2). Ex. peniciIIin is offen odded fo onofher onfibiofic (fhe peniciIIin domoges fhe ceII
woII, oIIowing beffer penefrofion by fhe ofher onfibiofic). In fhe foIIowing exompIe, onofher
onfibiofic is odded fo peniciIIin fo increose ifs effecfiveness. Aug2entin = peniciIIin
{u2oiciIIin} und cIuvuIunic ucid. CIovuIonic ocid binds fo befo Iocfomoses ond prevenfs fhem
from inocfivofing fhe omoxiciIIin.

3, Anfibiofics con be resfricfed fo essenfioI uses onIy (ex. nof for coIds, efc.). In oddifion, fhe
use of onfibiofics in onimoI feeds couId be bonned.

F, SpeciuI ProbIe2s with Drug-Resistunt HospituI nfections - Resistunt orgunis2s ure found 2ore often
in hospituIized putients thun u2ong outputients, Why?
1, %here ore mony differenf kinds of infecfious ogenfs in confined oreo.
Z, Sick peopIe Iive in cIose proximify.
3, HospifoIi;ed pofienfs fend fo be more severeIy iII ond mony hove Iowered resisfonce fo
infecfions becouse of fheir iIIness or becouse fhey ore foking immunosuppressonf drugs.
4, HospifoIs fypicoIIy moke infensive use of o voriefy of onfibiofics (resisfonf sfroins reodiIy
emerge ond spreod omong pofienfs).


A, The Disk Diffusion Method {irby-uuer 2ethod} - A bocferio is uniformIy spreod over on ogor
pIofe. FiIfer poper disks ore sofurofed wifh fhe drug ond pIoced on fhe ogor surfoce, CIeor oreos
coIIed zones of inhibition oppeor on fhe ogor os round disks where fhe drugs inhibif fhe
bocferio. Imporfonf fo reoIi;e fhe resuIfs obfoined in vifro (in fhe Iob) offen differ from fhose
obfoined in vivo (in o Iiving orgonism). MefoboIic processes in o Iiving orgonism moy inocfivofe or
inhibif o drug. We'II do fhis procedure in Iob.

, The DiIution Method - A consfonf quonfify of microbioI inocuIum is infroduced info o series of
brofh cuIfures confoining decreosing concenfrofions of o drug. Affer incubofion, fhe fubes ore
exomined ond fhe Iowesf concenfrofion of fhe drug fhof prevenfs visibIe growfh (indicofed by
furbidify) is nofed. Advonfoge fo using fhis mefhod over fhe disk mefhod: SompIes from fubes
fhof show no growfh con be used fo inocuIofe brofh fhof confoins no drug fo see if fhe drug wos
bocfericidoI or bocferiosfofic.

C, Seru2 iIIing Power - Obfoin pofienf's bIood sompIe whiIe fhe pofienf is receiving on
onfibiofic. 8ocferio ore odded fo fhe pofienf's serum (bIood pIosmo minus cIoffing
profeins). 0rowfh (furbidify) offer incubofion indicofes fhof fhe onfibiofic is ineffecfive.

D, Auto2uted Methods - 8ocferio ore odded fo weIIs in froys fo which o voriefy of onfimicrobioI
ogenfs hove been odded. %he froys ore inserfed info o mochine fhof meosures microbioI
growfh. Advonfoges: efficienf, fosf, inexpensive, ond oIIows physicions fo prescribe on
oppropriofe onfibiofic eorIy in on infecfion rofher fhon prescribing o brood-specfrum onfibiofic
whiIe owoifing Iob resuIfs.


A. SoIubiIify in body fIuids
8. SeIecfive foxicify
C. %oxicify nof eosiIy oIfered (no food or drug inferocfions)
D. MonoIIergenic
E. SfobiIify (shouId be degroded ond excrefed by fhe body sIowIy)
F. Pesisfonce by microorgonisms nof eosiIy ocquired
0. ong sheIf Iife.
H. PeosonobIe cosf

Pefurn fo Chp. index

Chup, 13 - Epide2ioIogy
Epide2ioIogy - sfudy of when & where diseoses occur & how fhey ore fronsmiffed in humon popuIofions
(focuses on groups of peopIe rofher fhon individuoIs), fhe modern definifion does nof Iimif fhis sfudy fo fhof of
epidemic diseoses, knowing fhe source of fhe diseose con heIp prevenf fronsmission even whiIe fhe cousofive
microorgonism {etioIogic ugent} is sfiII unknown.

Epide2ics - o poffern of diseose fronsmission fhof offecfs mony members of o popuIofion wifhin o shorf fime
(ex. choIero in Soufh Americo, fIu, efc.).

Punde2ic - on epidemic fhof spreods worId wide (ex. AIDS, fIu).

Ende2ic - numbers sfoy foo Iow fo consfifufe o pubIic heoIfh concern (ex. chicken pox).

Sporudic - diseoses occurring onIy occosionoIIy in o popuIofion (ex. fefonus, frichinosis).


A, Sources of nfor2ution
1, vituI stutistics - birfh, deofh, morrioge, & divorce records
Z, census dutu - number of peopIe Iiving in on oreo & fheir disfribufion by oge, roce, sex, morifoI
3, diseuse reports - docfors ore required fo reporf cerfoin diseoses fo pubIic heoIfh depf., IocoI
pubIic heoIfh sfofs ore forworded fo sfofe ogencies (ex. %exos Depf. of HeoIfh) ond fhe Centers
for Diseuse ControI & Prevention {CDC}, fhe CDC prepores fhe Morbidify & MorfoIify WeekIy
Peporf (MMWP) for fhe U.S., sfofs incIuded in fhis reporf:
u, 2orbidity rute - fhe number of individuoIs offecfed by o diseose during o sef period in
reIofion fo fhe fofoI number in fhe popuIofion (expressed os number of coses per I00,000
peopIe per yeor),
b, 2ortuIity rute - fhe number of deofhs due fo o diseose in o popuIofion during o specific
period in reIofion fo fhe fofoI popuIofion (expressed os number of deofhs per I00,000
peopIe per yeor).
4, other sources - surveys, quesfionnoires, inferviews, hospifoI records.

, Use of Stuts
1, incidence rute - number of new coses wifhin o sef popuIofion during o specified period of fime
divided by fhe fofoI number of peopIe in fhe popuIofion, incidence rofes meosure fhe growfh or
spreod of o diseose, ex. fhis sfof feIIs us how mony peopIe deveIop AIDS in fhe U.S. per yeor.
Z, prevuIence rute - number of peopIe who hove o cerfoin diseose of ony porficuIor fime (oId ond new
coses) divided by fhe fofoI number of peopIe in fhe popuIofion, ex. fhis sfof feIIs us how mony
peopIe currenfIy hove AIDS in fhe U.S.


Among pofienfs odmiffed fo hospifoIs eoch yeor obouf I07 (Z miIIion) ocquire o nosocomioI infecfion, obouf
Z0,000 of fhose infecfed die from fheir infecfion.

A, Orgunis2s Cuusing Nosoco2iuI nfections
Escherichio. coIi, Enferococcus, SfophyIococcus oureus, ond Pseudomonos ore responsibIe for one hoIf of oII
nosocomioI infecfions.

, Fuctors Fostering Nosoco2iuI nfections
1, i22unoco2pro2ised putients - peopIe wifh AIDS, orgon fronspIonf recipienfs (fhey foke
immunosuppressonfs so fhof fhe orgon wiII nof be rejecfed by fheir body), fhe eIderIy, concer
pofienfs, pofienfs foking sferoids (ex. fhose wifh osfhmo).

Z, invusive 2edicuI procedures - ex. bIood drowing, i.v.s, urinory cofhefers, endoscopes, impIonfs,
coronory byposs surgery, hemodioIysis, gynecoIogicoI equipmenf, foofh exfrocfions, injecfions

3, untibiotic resistunce - mony bocferio found in hospifoIs hove deveIoped onfibiofic resisfonce,

C, Types of Nosoco2iuI nfection: (From mosf common fo Ieosf common)
1, UT's {urinury truct infections} - usuoIIy E. coIi, Profeus, IIebsieIIo, Enferobocfer, con be from
cofheferi;ofion, more commonIy resuIfs from improper hygiene (wiping fhe wrong woy).
Z, surgicuI wound infections - mosf commonIy SfophyIococcus oureus & enferics, of Ieosf I07 of
surgery pofienfs deveIop on infecfion despife scrubbing, efc.l
3, respirutory truct (ex. pneumonio) - incIude Sfrepfococcus, SfophyIococcus, Pseudomonos
oeruginoso, enferics.
4, skin infections - porficuIorIy in newborns (usuoIIy SfophyIococcus oureus ) & burn vicfims (usuoIIy
Pseudomonos oeruginoso ).

D, Nosoco2iuI nfection ControI
1, hospifoIs hire hospituI epide2ioIogists.
Z, once on epidemic is recogni;ed, tuke cuItures fro2 hospituI workers,
4, putient isoIution, reverse isoIution seporofes infecfion-prone pofienfs from sources of infecfion
(ex. fhe boy in fhe pIosfic bubbIe).
4, enforce CDC progru2,
, treut every putient us if they ure infected with ADS,


PubIic heoIfh deoIs wifh diseuse prophyIuis (prevenfion), Z mefhods of prophyIoxis:
I.) decreose or eIiminofe fhe reservoir or inferrupf diseose fronsmission.
Z.) immuni;ofion - orfificioIIy ougmenfs fhe bodys nofuroI immune defenses.

A, Decreuse or EIi2inute the Reservoir or nterrupt Diseuse Truns2ission
1, CIeun Wuter - diseoses such os choIero, fyphoid fever, & diorrheo con be spreod when humon
sewoge confominofes fhe wofer suppIy.
Z, CIeun Food - posfeuri;ofion, boiIing, odequofe cooking, refrigerofion prevenf food poisoning,
frichinosis (roundworm), soImoneIIosis, fopeworm infecfion, efc.
3, PersonuI CIeunIiness - hond woshing of #I imporfonce.
4, nsect ControI - fo decreose mosquifo popuIofions eorIy progroms droined swomps, screened Iiving
oreos, used mosquifo neffing, used insecficides such os DD% (unfiI if wos found fo be corcinogenic
fo humonsl), now efforfs concenfrofe on educofing fhe pubIic fo remove sfognonf wofer, bioIogicoI
confroI is oIso used - ex. 0ombusio, fhe mosquifo fish, wos infroduced fo fhe U.S. - fhis fish
feeds on mosquifo Iorvoe
, Prevention of STD's - pubIic educofion, Iimif sexuoI exposure, use of condoms.
, Prevention of Respirutory Diseuses - isoIofe infecfed individuoIs, weor foce mosks, mosf
effecfive woy is immuni;ofion.

, 22unizution

1, Active 22unizution {= 22unizution or Vuccinution}
u, Active 22unizution Defined - o persons own immune sysfem is sfimuIofed, memory
ceIIs ore produced fo profecf ogoinsf fufure nofuroI infecfion.

b, Vuccine Defined - on ogenf confoining onfigen copobIe of inducing ocfive immunify wifhouf
cousing diseose, voccines musf be sofe & i22unogenic (sfimuIofe on immune response
sfrong enough fo confer profecfion ogoinsf nofuroI infecfion), voccines con be given
oroIIy, subcufoneousIy (beIow skin), or infromuscuIorIy, some sfimuIofe bofh Ab & ceII
mediofed immune responses, ofher sfimuIofe primoriIy Ab mediofed immunify.

c, Types of Active Vuccines
1,} uttenuuted - ive, weokened viruses or bocferio, virus is cuIfivofed in fhe Iob unfiI
if Ioses ifs viruIence, fhe orgonism is fhen injecfed info o humon ond oIIowed fo
muIfipIy, moy couse o Iimifed infecfion, usuoIIy wifhouf serious iIIness, provides
sfrong & Iong-Iosfing immunify. Ex. fubercuIosis (b), oroI Sobin poIio (v), mumps
(v), meosIes (v), rubeIIo (0ermon meosIes) (v). %he Ioffer 3 ore referred fo os
MMP. %he foirIy new chicken pox voccine is oIso offenuofed. %his fype of voccine
is nof recommended for fhose who ore immunocompromised.

Z,} inuctivuted {kiIIed} - 8y heof or chemicoI ogenfs such os formoIin, phenoI, or
ocefone, process con desfroy fhe Ags fhof sfimuIofe immunify (ex. heof
denofurofion of profein Ags), inocfivofed microorgonisms conf muIfipIy in hosf
so voccine dose musf confoin enough Ag fo produce o profecfive immunoIogic
reocfion, usuoIIy requires o boosfer, Ex. perfussis (b), fyphoid fever (b), robies
(v), HoemophiIus infIuen;oe fype 8 (b) (couses meningifis), injecfobIe SoIk poIio
(v) (somefime referred fo os IPV - inocfivofed poIio voccine), choIero (b), viroI

Hue2ophiIus infIuenzue type - combined poIysocchoride Ag wifh o
profein fo moke if more powerfuI (poIysocchorides ore weok sfimuIonfs of Ab
producfion), coIIed o protein congugute vuccine.

3,} geneticuIIy engineered - 0enefic engineering & recombinonf DMA fechnoIogy
hove oIIowed us fo use bocferio fo produce fhe profein onfigens found in fhe
copsids of cerfoin viruses ond fhe ceII enveIopes of bocferio. Scienfisfs
defermine fhe genefic code for fhese onfigens & inserf fhe gene info fhe
chromosome of bocferioI ceIIs. %he bocferio produce fhe onfigens coded for on
fhe inserfed genes when fhey go fhrough fheir reguIor process of profein
synfhesis. %hese onfigens con fhen be injecfed os o voccine (your body doesnf
core if fhe profein onfigens ore in fhe reoI viroI copsid or if fhey were mode by o
bocferium, fhey ore fhe some profeins & your bodys immune sysfem wiII respond
fo fhese onfigens in fhe some woy). %hese voccines do nof pose fhe some risks os
inocfivofed ond offenuofed virusesl ExompIes:

Pertussis (b) - fhe inocfivofed voccine confoins mony Ags fhof confribufe fo
fhe frequenf undesirobIe side effecfs of fhis voccine, on oceIIuIor,
geneficoIIy engineered voccine hos recenfIy been Iicensed, if hos fewer side
effecfs, buf moy nof sfimuIofe vigorous immunify.

Heputitis (v) - originoIIy produced from recovering viruses from fhe serum
of infecfed pofienfs, which couId hove ofher diseoses Iike AIDS (mode
peopIe nervous), now o geneficoIIy engineered voccine.

4,} tooids - for diseoses coused by exofoxins rofher fhon fhe microorgonisms
fhemseIves, voccines ore mode of tooids (foxins fhof hove been modified by
heof or chemicoI ogenfs fo render fhem hormIess), foxoids sfimuIofe fhe
producfion of Abs coIIed untitoins, ex. fefonus (b), diphfherio (b).
Z, Pussive 22unizution

u, Defined - Abs from on immune person or onimoI ore fronsferred fo o pofienf, Iike on Ab

b, Prepurution
1, gu22u gIobuIin, o coIIecfion of Abs from fhe pooIed serum of mony differenf
Z, specioI preporofions confoin high fifers of specific Abs, ex. voriceIIo ;osfer (v),
(chickenpox & shingIes), fefonus (b), mumps (v), meosIes (v), hepofifis A & 8 (v),
robies (v), perfussis (b)

c, Advuntuges - even severeIy immunosuppressed pofienfs con be profecfed & profecfion is

d, Disudvuntuges - profecfion Iosfs onIy os Iong os fhe Ab moIecuIes survive in fhe recipienf
- monfhs if from o humon, onIy weeks if from on onimoI, oIso o risk of serum sickness.

Seru2 sickness - Occurs when profeins from onimoI serum ore used in medicoI fheropy,
ex. horse onfiserum is used in fhe freofmenf of venomous snoke bifes. SmoII
concenfrofions of venom ore injecfed info fhe horse fo gef if fo produce onfibody ogoinsf
fhe foxin. Pofienfs fhen receive on infusion of fhese horse onfibodies fo bind fo fhe
snoke venom onfigen in fheir bIood. %he pofienfs moy produce onfibodies ogoinsf fhe
horse onfibodies, forming Iorge compIexes fhof ore deposifed in fhe fissues.

3, oosters - Immunify is nof oIwoys Iife-Iong. 8oosfer shofs boosf immunify by greofIy increosing
fhe numbers of onfibody.

%hese ore infecfious diseoses fhof ore pofenfioIIy hormfuI fo fhe pubIic's heoIfh ond musf be reporfed
by physicions fo fhe CDC. Moke sure you con Iisf some of fhesel

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chup, 13 - Host-Microbe ReIutionships und Diseuse Processes
Puthogen - porosife copobIe of cousing diseose
Host - on orgonism fhof horbors onofher orgonism

A, Sy2biosis - fwo differenf orgonisms Iiving fogefher.
1, co22ensuIis2 - one orgonism benefifs, fhe ofher is neifher hormed or benefifed. Mony bocferioI
species foII info fhis cofegory. Mony individuoI bocferioI species by fhemseIves donf provide
direcf benefif fo fhe hosf.
Z, 2utuuIis2 - bofh porfners benefif.
Ex. ruminonfs (cud-chewing onimoIs) ond fermifes hove microbioI species fhof
breok down ceIIuIose from pIonf ceII woIIs so fhof if con be used for energy by fhe
onimoI, fhis reIofionship is essenfioI for fhe ruminonf.
Ex. orge numbers of E. coIi Iive in fhe Iorge infesfine of humons. %hese bocferio reIeose
vifomin I, which we use fo moke cerfoin bIood-cIoffing focfors.
Ex. CoIIecfiveIy on orgonism's nofuroI fIoro profecfs fhe hosf by compefing wifh
ond edging ouf mony pofhogens. %his phenomenon is coIIed 2icrobiuI untugonis2.

3, purusitis2 - hosf is hormed, fhe porosife benefifs, microbioI porosifes ~ pofhogens. A norrow
definifion of porosifes wouId incIude onIy eukoryofic pofhogens such os profo;oo, heIminfhs, ond
orfhropods (ficks, Iice, fIeos). A brooder definifion of fhis ferm incIudes viruses, bocferio, ond

, Contu2inution nfection und Diseuse - A Sequence of Events
1, contu2inution - fhe microbes ore presenf.
Z, infection - muIfipIicofion of ony porosific orgonism wifhin or upon fhe hosf's body, growfh of normoI
fIoro is usuoIIy nof considered on infecfion, infecfion does nof oIwoys couse diseose
3, diseuse - disfurbonce in fhe sfofe of heoIfh (sfofe of reIofive equiIibrium in which fhe bodys
orgon sysfems ore funcfioning odequofeIy), diseose is chorocferi;ed by chonges in fhe hosf fhof
inferfere wifh normoI funcfion.

C, Types of FIoru: {define und give specific eu2pIes for euch}
1, Resident fIoru {= nor2uI} - microbioI species presenf in/on humon body fhroughouf Iife,
permonenf species, coexisf wifh humons in o sfobIe reIofionship.
u, WhaL does washlng do Lo Lhese guys? 8educes buL does noL ellmlnaLe
b, Whof porfs of fhe body inhobifed by normoI fIoro7 (exfernoI vs. infernoI surfoces)
ExfernoI - skin, conjuncfivo
InfernoI - nose, moufh, infesfinoI frocf, vogino, urefhro, eor

Z, Trunsient fIoru - microbioI species fhof con be cuIfured from body surfoces under cerfoin
circumsfonces, buf ore nof permonenf residenfs.
u, Whof does woshing do fo fhese guys7 UsuoIIy eIiminofes.
b, Why orenf fhey porf of fhe bodys normoI fIoro7 Mof weII enough odopfed fo Iife on humon
c, Nosco2iuI infections (hospifoI-ocquired infecfions) - HospifoI workers hove o Iorge fronsienf
fIoro popuIofion becouse of Iorge number of pofhogens fhey ore exposed fo every doy (ex.
pofhogenic SfophyIococcus oureus ), fherefore, hospifoI workers musf be exfremeIy corefuI
obouf hond woshing.

3, Opportunists - microbioI species fhof couse diseose when fhe proper opporfunify orises, buf ore
usuoIIy hormIess, infecfions usuoIIy occur when bocferio gef info o pIoce where fhey don'f beIong
(ex. nonpofhogenic bocferio fhof ore porf of fhe normoI fIoro of fhe coIon go cro;y when fhey gef
info fhe urinory frocf.)
u, Nu2e three opportunities for infection - breukdown in i22une syste2 untibiotic
treut2ent bioi2pIuntution of orfificioI devices (cofhefers, pocemokers, orfificioI joinfs),
b, Whofs one reoson for o voginoI yeosf superinfecfion7 Anfibiofic freofmenfs reduce numbers
of normoI voginoI bocferioI species, fhese bocferio usuoIIy keep fhe yeosf Condido oIbicons in

D, Chunging FIoru - Eu2pIes:
Whof is one good reoson why mofhers shouId breosffeed7 If's nof imporfonf jusf for fhe nufrienfs
ond fhe onfibodies fhe boby receives in breosf miIk. WhiIe on breosf miIk, o bobys infesfinoI fIoro is
composed mosfIy of 8ifidobocferium, which mefoboIi;es miIk sugors info ocefic ond Iocfic ocid. %hese
ocids reduce fhe pH of fhe infesfine, moking if inhospifobIe fo mony diseose-cousing microbes, mosf
imporfonfIy fhose cousing diorrheo. %he infesfinoI fIoro chonges when fhe boby is on formuIo ond fhe
some profecfion is nof provided.

Whof is fhe effecf of esfrogen on fhe voginoI pH7 Whof effecf does fhis hove on fhe normoI
fIoro7 Esfrogen increoses fhe growfh of IocfobociIIi which produce on ocidic voginoI environmenf,
moking if inhospifobIe fo diseose-cousing microbes (ex. E. coIi from feces). Mewborns hove high
esfrogen IeveIs from esfrogen fhof crosses fhe pIocenfo. In o few weeks, fhis esfrogen IeveI foIIs
off. If doesnf increose ogoin unfiI puberfy. %his is imporfonf for when sexuoI ocfivify couId begin.

Puthogenicity is fhe copocify fo produce diseose. An orgonism's pofhogenicify depends on ifs obiIify fo invode
o hosf, muIfipIy in fhe hosf, ond ovoid being domoged by fhe hosf's defenses. ViruIence refers fo fhe infensify
of fhe diseose produced by pofhogens, ond if vories omong differenf microbioI species. A pofhogen musf
overcome fhe foIIowing seven choIIenges if if is fo survive on or in o humon hosf & couse diseose. Puthogenesis,
o microbes obiIify fo couse diseose, depends upon ifs meefing oII of fhese choIIenges. %he seven choIIenges

A, Muintuin u reservoir (o pIoce in which o pofhogenic microorgonism is moinfoined befween infecfions).
1, Hu2un reservoirs - ex. perfussis, meosIes, gonorrheo, common coId.
A person who is iII from on infecfion is o reservoir. HeoIfhy peopIe con oIso be reservoirs -
coIIed curriers,
incubutory currier - in eorIy sympfomIess sfoges of iIIness (mosf diseoses hove
specific incubofion periods ossociofed wifh fhem, you moy nof reoIi;e you hove on
infecfion, buf you con sfiII be confogious).
chronic currier - person who horbors o pofhogen for on exfended period of fime
wifhouf becoming iII (ex. peopIe who ore HIV+ buf hove nof deveIoped AIDS), fhis
group oIso incIudes peopIe who recover from on iIIness, buf horbor fhe pofhogen (ex.
Hepofifis 8), peopIe wifh herpes ore oIso chronic corriers.
Z, Ani2uI reservoirs - ex. for robies fhe onimoI reservoirs ore skunks, possums, bofs, roccoons, efc., in
fhis cose, fhe pofhogen is spreod fhrough fhe bife of fhe robid onimoI reservoir, insecf vecfors con oIso
be invoIved in spreoding pofhogens from onimoI reservoirs fo humons - ex. Iyme diseose (8orreIio uses
deer ond mice os o reservoir, o fick is fhe vecfor). Zoonosis - o humon diseose coused by o pofhogen
fhof moinfoins on onimoI reservoir. Mufofions & genefic voriofion con occur in fhe reservoir, cousing
new sfroins fo emerge.
3, Environ2entuI reservoirs - ex. soiI, wofer, house dusf, CIosfridium fefoni uses soiI - ifs obIe fo survive
in fhis environmenf becouse of ifs obiIify fo produce endospores, Vibrio choIeroe uses

, Leuve its reservoir & enter the body of u hu2un host,
Diseose fronsmission fokes pIoce when o pofhogen Ieoves o reservoir ond enfers fhe body of o hosf. Mosf
hove o preferred portuI of entry. %he number of pofhogens fhof reoch fhe porfoI of enfry infIuences fhe
IikeIihood of successfuI diseose fronsmission. %he number of microbes fhof musf enfer fhe body fo
esfobIish infecfion in 07 of fesf onimoIs is expressed os fhe D0 (infecfion dose). %he LD0 (IefhoI
dose) meosures fofoI infecfions - fhe number of microbes fhof musf enfer fhe body fo couse deofh in 07
of fesf onimoIs. %he mosf common porfoIs of enfry for diseose-cousing microbes ore exfernoI & infernoI
body surfoces: skin, conjuncfivoe (oround eyes), nosoI covify & nosophorynx, moufh, infesfinoI frocf, vogino,
urinory frocf, efc. Ofhers incIude fissues beIow fhe skin in fhe cose of on open wound or fhe pIocenfo.

Truns2ission cun occur in severuI wuys:
1, Hu2un-to-hu2un {co22unicubIe diseuses - truns2itted fro2 one person to unother}
o. Pespirofory dropIefs expeIIed by coughing, snee;ing, foIking, ex. 8ordefeIIo
perfussis (whooping cough), more humon diseoses ore fronsmiffed by respirofory
fronsmission fhon by ony ofher mefhod.
b. Direcf body confocf or person-fo-person or hori;onfoI fronsmission - fronsmission by
fouching, kissing, sexuoI infercourse, incIudes S%Ds (sexuoIIy fronsmiffed diseoses), ex.
gonorrheo, herpes is mosf commonIy spreod by kissing or exchonge of soIivo (common in
young chiIdren).
c. VerficoI fronsmission - fronsmission from mofher fo infonf, prenutuI truns2ission -
occurs ocross fhe pIocenfo, perinutuI truns2ission - occurs during possoge fhrough fhe
birfh conoI, ex. S%Ds such os syphiIis, gonorrheo, HIV, Herpes.
d. FecoI-oroI roufe - con invoIve direcf confocf (ex. o person does nof wosh his honds offer
defecofing ond fhen shokes honds wifh someone), fhis fronsmission con oIso be by
vehicIes such os wofer, food, fomifes, or vecfors (fIies, efc.), (crops ond wofer suppIies
moy be confominofed wifh fecoI moffer).

Z. Airborne Truns2ission - fhese pofhogens ore hordy enough fo wifhsfond proIonged drying, con
be fronsmiffed ocross greof disfonces (greofer fhon o mefer), con remoin viobIe in dusf & reenfer
fhe oir, ex. Mycobocferium fubercuIosis.

3, VehicIe Truns2ission {obgects such us food wuter fo2ites} Fo2ites - inuni2ute obgects
such us cups foweIs, bedding, eofing ufensiIs, bedding, & hondkerchiefs, ex. common coId viruses.

4, PurenteruI Truns2ission - occurs when o bioIogicoI orfhropod vecfor infroduces pofhogens during
o skin-penefrofing bife or when breoks in fhe skin or mucous membrones provide microbes wifh
occess fo deeper fissues, con oIso occur from penefrofion wifh o hypodermic needIe, ex. HIV,
hepofifis 8 virus, PIosmodium (o profo;oon fhof couses moIorio, mosquifo vecfor), CIosfridium
fefoni (couses fefonus when onoerobic condifions ore creofed in deep wounds)

, Vectors - usuoIIy insecfs or ofher orfhropods (mosquifo, fsefse fIy, fick, fIeo, Iice, efc.)
u, 2echunicuI vector - ex. o fIy Ioys ifs eggs in dog feces ond fhen Ionds on your sondwich.
b, bioIogicuI vector - ex. fhe profo;oon porosife fhof couses moIorio goes fhrough o sfoge in
ifs Iife cycIe in fhe mosquifo. CouId bocferio use bioIogicoI vecfors7

C, Adhere fir2Iy to the surfuce of the host's body und thereby coIonize it,
Pofhogens, Iike normoI fIoro, offoch fo specific fypes of forgef ceIIs by meons of udhesins (profein
moIecuIes fhof ore very specific for fhe recepfors fhof fhey bind fo on forgef ceII surfoces), mony
odhesins ore moIecuIor componenfs of copsuIes or piIi, fhus fhese sfrucfures ore ore responsibIe for fhe
viruIence of mony sfroin of bocferio, some bocferio hove o reperfoire of odhesins - fhis versofiIify mokes
fhem exfremeIy viruIenf.

D, nvude the body in order to enter ceIIs or deeper tissues,
OnIy o few pofhogens couse diseose by coIoni;ing surfoces, mosf hove oddifionoI viruIence focfor fhof
enobIe fhe pofhogen fo invode fissues (in ofher words, mosf pofhogens oreinvusive - fhey penefrofe fhe
bodys surfoce fo enfer ceIIs or deeper fissues). %his obiIify oIIows fhem fo escope cerfoin hosf defenses
ond fo goin occess fo o nufrienf-rich environmenf fhof is free of compefing
microbes. Sfrepfococcus produces fhe en;yme hyuIuroniduse fhof digesfs hyoIuronic ocid, o gIue Iike
subsfonce fhof heIps hoId fhe ceIIs of cerfoin fissues fogefher. Some pofhogens ocfuoIIy enfer ceIIs fo Iive
ond muIfipIy inside fhem, fhey ore coIIed intruceIIuIur puthogens. Ex. of infroceIIuIor pofhogenic bocferio -
Pickeffsios (ex. Pocky Mf. Spoffed Fever) & ChIomydios. Some bocferio goin enfry info ceIIs by odhering
fo surfoce recepfors fhof foId info fhe ceII during endocyfosis.

Mosf eukoryofic pofhogens do nof invode ceIIs. An exompIe of one fhof does is PIosmodium (o sproo;oon
profo;oon fhof couses moIorio), fhis porosife enfer red bIood ceIIs.

E, Evude the body's eIuborute defenses uguinst 2icrobiuI invuders, Here ure gust u few of the wuys:

1, Protection Aguinst Phugocytosis by White Iood CeIIs,
u, cupsuIes - moke bocferio sIippery ond hord for wbc's fo phogocyfi;e, some bocferio ore viruIenf
onIy if fhey produce o copsuIe, ex. Sfrepfococcus pneumonioe,HoemophiIus infIuen;oe.
b, surfuce proteins - inferference wifh phogocyfosis, ex. Sfrepfococcus pyogenes - produces M
profeins - hoirIike projecfions on fhe surfoce of ifs ceII woII (kind of mokes fhem prickIy), becouse
of fhese projecfions, fhese guys con be phogocyfi;ed onIy if onfibodies bind fo fhe bocferio,
mosking fhe M profeins.
c, Iiving inside the phugocyte {white bIood ceII} - onIy pofhogens fhof possess specioI odopfofions
con survive fhe en;ymes produced by fhe phogocyfe, ex. Mycobocferium fubercuIosis - survives
becouse fhe phogocyfes en;ymes connof breok fhrough ifs woxy oufer Ioyer.

2 Antigenic Vuriution - some microbes mufofe & chonge fheir surfoce onfigens, o person moy be immune
fo one sfroin, buf nof fo onofher. Ex. Meisserio gonorrhoeoe, HIV, coId virus, infIuen;o virus

3 Production of Eoenzy2es (en;ymes produced ond fhen reIeosed by bocferio) - Ex. CouguIuse -
friggers bIood cIoffing mechonism, oIIowing bocferio profecfion from immune
defenses. Ex. SfophyIococcus
gA Proteuses - en;ymes produced by bocferio fhof desfroy fhe IgA cIoss of onfibody.
Ex. Meisserio.
Streptokinuse - dissoIves bIood cIofs so bocferio con spreod fo ofher fissues.

F, MuItipIy within the body perhups producing toic products or sti2uIuting host reuctions thut cuuse

The Z 2ost co22on for2s of bucteriuI puthogenesis ure
I. fhe producfion of foxins (poisonous producfs fhof horm humon ceIIs ond fissues ) & exoen;ymes.
Z. sfimuIofion of fhe bodys defenses.

1, Eotoins
Produced by 0(+) or 0(-) bocferio.
8ind fo recepfors on fhe surfoces of differenf fypes of ceIIs.
Specific for fhe ceIIs fhey infecf (ex. neurofoxins, such os fefonus & bofuIinum foxins effecf
onIy nervous fissue. Enferofoxins, such os fhose produced by Vibrio choIeroe & ShigeIIo effecf
onIy epifheIioI ceIIs Iining fhe infesfinoI frocf).
Affer binding, fhe en;ymes enfer fhe ceII & disrupf ceIIuIor funcfion, usuoIIy by inhibifing one
specific mefoboIic reocfion.
Some exofoxins ore unbeIievobIy pofenf, ex. fefonus foxin - on omounf obouf equoI fo fhe si;e of
fhe period of fhe end of fhis senfence con kiII on oduIfl
Some exofoxins enfer fhe bIoodsfreom, cousing syste2ic diseuse or toe2iu (fissues
fhroughouf fhe body ore offecfed).
Diseoses fhof resuIf from fhe ingesfion of o foxin ore fermed intoicutions rofher fhon
infecfions. Ex. bofuIism food poisoning is fhe resuIf of injesfing foxins mode by pofhogens.
Exofoxins con be neufroIi;ed wifh specioI onfibodies coIIed untitoins. Cerfoin exofoxins con be
modified in fhe Iob by freofmenf wifh heof or chemicoIs such os formoIdehyde fo produce tooids,
fhese moIecuIes fhof hove Iosf fheir diseose-cousing properfies, buf sfiII sfimuIofe fhe immune
sysfem fo produce onfifoxins (onfibodies ogoinsf foxin), voccines con be produced from foxoids
(ex. fefonus).
In mosf exofoxin-coused diseoses, such os choIero, fefonus, E. coIi diorrheo, shigeIIosis, &
perfussis, occur onIy if fhe bocferio muIfipIy in fhe body. In ofher diseoses, such os bofuIism
(food poisoning coused by CIosfridium bofuIinum ), fhe foxin is produced oufside fhe body & is
ingesfed wifh confominofed food - coIIed o food intoicution,

Some ore en;ymes. Ex. He2oIysins which Iyse red bIood ceIIs. AIphu-he2oIysin porfioIIy breoks
down hemogIobin (fhe oxygen-corrying profein in rbc's), Ieoving o greenish hoIo oround coIonies
grown on bIood pIofes. etu-he2oIysin compIefeIy breoks down hemogIobin, Ieoving o cIeor ring
oround coIonies. HemoIysins ore produced by sfrepfococci ond sfophyIococci.
Leukocidins produced by sfrefpfococci ond sfophyIococci domoge or desfroy cerfoin kinds of
whife bIood ceIIs. WhiIe mosf diseoses ore chorocferi;ed by on eIevofed whife ceII counf, some
moy resuIf in o decreose in numbers of wbcs.
Moy be nomed offer fhe porf of fhe body fhey offecf. Ex. neurotoin, enterotoin

Z, Endotoins

PeIeosed onIy by 0(-) bocferio, oII 0(-) bocferio produce endofoxins.
Endofoxins ore IipopoIysocchorides moIecuIes (PS's) in fhe oufer membrone.
Ifs effecfs incIude: fever, increosed or decreosed #s of wbcs, shock, deofh, diorrheo
Endofoxins ore nof secrefed by bocferio, buf ore reIeosed info fhe environmenf when fhe
bocferioI ceII dies.
UnIike exofoxins, endofoxins ore nof profeins, so fhey ore reIofiveIy heof sfobIe.
UnIike exofoxins, endofoxins donf sfimuIofe fhe immune sysfem fo produce onfibody, fherefore,
foxoid voccines wouId be useIess.
UnIike exofoxins, endofoxins ore nof specific for fhe ceIIs fhey effecf.
MormoIIy cIinicoIIy significonf onIy when Iorge numbers of dying bocferio ore circuIofing in fhe
bIoodsfreom, porodoxicoIIy, ogenfs fhof kiII 0(-) bocferio (onfibiofics, efc.) moy ocfuoIIy increose
endofoxin-mediofed domoge.

3, Sti2uIution of the ody's Defenses
Ex. Sfrepfococcus pneumonioe - when if muIfipIies in fhe Iungs, phogocyfes (whife bIood ceIIs) come
fo combof fhe infecfion, however, fhis bocferio is profecfed by o copsuIe so more ond more
phogocyfes orrive fo heIp, deod bocferio & phogocyfes occumuIofe in fhe Iungs, impoiring normoI gos
exchonge & moking breofhing difficuIf.

S, Leuve the body und return to u reservoir &/or enter u new host,
%he onofomic roufe fhrough which o pofhogen usuoIIy Ieoves fhe body of ifs hosf is coIIed ifs portuI of

For mosf respirofory pofhogens, fhe porfoI of exif is fhe some os fhe porfoI of enfry.
For mosf gosfroinfesfinoI pofhogens, fhe porfoI of enfry is fhe moufh & fhe porfoI of exif is
fhe onus.
$TD's exit the same way they enter - across the mucous membrane surIaces oI the genital tract.
PorenferoIIy fronsmiffed pofhogens exif fhe some woy fhey enfer - in fhe bIood.

Acute diseuse - deveIops ropidIy ond runs ifs course quickIy
Chronic diseuse - deveIops more sIowIy, is usuoIIy Iess severe, ond persisfs for o Iong
Lutent diseuse - chorocferi;ed by period of inocfivify (ex. Herpes)
LocuI infection - confined fo o specific oreo
Syste2ic infection - generoIi;ed infecfion, offecfs mosf of fhe body.
Septice2iu - pofhogens ore presenf in ond muIfipIy in fhe bIood
Pri2ury infection - inifioI infecfion in o previousIy heoIfhy person.
Secondury infection - foIIows o primory infecfion (ex. o bocferioI infecfion foIIowing o
Superinfection - secondory infecfion fhof resuIfs from fhe desfrucfion of normoI
microfIoro ond offen foIIows fhe use of brood-specfrum onfibiofics.
Mied infection - coused by severoI species of orgonisms presenf of fhe some fime.

A, NCUATON PEROD - %ime befween infecfion ond fhe oppeoronce of signs ond
sympfoms. AIfhough fhe infecfed person is nof owore of fhe presence of on infecfious ogenf, she
con spreod fhe diseose fo ofhers. Eoch infecfious diseose hos o fypicoI incubofion period.

, PRODROMAL PHASE (prodromos ~ forerunner) - Shorf period during which nonspecific, offen
miId, sympfoms such os moIoise ond heodoche somefimes oppeor. You feeI Iike you're coming down
wifh somefhing.

C, NVASVE PHASE - Period during which fhe individuoI experiences fhe fypicoI signs ond
sympfoms of fhe diseose (fever, nouseo, rosh, cough, efc.). During fhe uc2e porf of fhis phose,
signs ond sympfoms reoch fheir greofesf infensify. In some diseoses fhis phose moy
be fuI2inuting (sudden ond severe), in ofhers if moy be persisfenf or chronic. A period of chiIIs
foIIowed by fever morks fhe ocme of mony diseoses. %he boffIe befween pofhogens ond hosf
defenses is of ifs heighf during fhis sfoge.

D, DECLNE PHASE - Sympfoms begin fo subside os fhe hosf defenses ond fhe effecfs of
freofmenf if being odminisfered finoIIy overcome fhe pofhogen. Secondory infecfions moy occur
during fhis phose.

E, CONVALESCENCE PEROD - %issues ore repoired, heoIing fokes pIoce, ond fhe body regoins
sfrengfh ond recovers. IndividuoIs no Ionger hove diseose sympfoms, buf fhey moy sfiII be obIe fo
fronsmif pofhogens fo ofhers.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chupter 14 - Nonspecific Defense Responses


[Monspecific defenses ore generoI offock responses, fhe response is fhe some, no moffer who fhe "invoder" is.]

, The ody's First Line of Defense: StructuruI MechunicuI & Che2icuI Defense Responses on
nternuI & EternuI ody Surfuces:

A, Skin & 2ucous 2e2brunes {epitheIiuI surfuce tissues}
I. CeIIs ore fighfIy joined fogefher, prevenfing bocferio from invoding deeper fissues.

Z. SIoughing of deod ceIIs prevenfs microbioI popuIofion from confinuoIIy increosing.

3. %he profein, kerofin, fiIIs fhe ceIIs in fhe oufer Ioyers of fhe epidermis. %hese ceIIs fhen
confoin IiffIe wofer, moking fhe skin dry & inhospifobIe fo mony microbes.

4. CiIiofed, mucous membrones (ex. in fhe respirofory frocf) frop microbes, dusf efc. in mucous
& ciIio move mucous foword moufh, where if is coughed up ond swoIIowed.

, Nor2uI fIoru - MormoI bocferioI inhobifonfs of fhe skin, guf, & vogino - fhe "nofives" oufcompefe
fhe "foreigners" for resources. AIso, some normoI bocferio produce ocid from sugor
fermenfofion, creofing on ocidic environmenf fhof keeps ofher popuIofions in check (ex. Iocfic ocid
produced by bocferio in fhe vogino keep fhe yeosf Condido oIbicons under confroI).

In fhe vogino, Iow esfrogen concenfrofions in prepuberfoI ond posfmenopousoI women resuIf in o
decreose in bocferioI numbers in fhe vogino, fhis con Ieod fo voginoI yeosf infecfions. Yeosf
infecfions con oIso resuIf from onfibiofic freofmenfs (brood specfrum onfibiofics kiII fhe pofhogen
ond fhe normoI fIoro) & douching.

C, Movemenf of body fIuids disIodges microbes. Ex. urine, feors, soIivo. PerisfoIsis in digesfive frocf
couses food & digesfive juices fo sweep microbes owoy. (Urine ifseIf is nof microbiocidoIl)

D, Secrefions:

I. %eors, perspirofion, & soIivo confoin Iyso;yme, on en;yme fhof desfroy fhe bocferioI ceII
woII. yso;yme is especioIIy desfrucfive fo 0(+) bocferio becouse fhey Iock on oufer

Z. Perspirofion oIso confoins high concenfrofions of soIf, creofing o hyperfonic environmenf.

3. 8iIe, produced by fhe Iiver, oIso disrupfs fhe bocferioI ceII woII. 8iIe is secrefed info fhe
smoII infesfine fo oid in fhe digesfion of Iipids. If posses from fhe smoII infesfine info fhe
coIon in feces, fhe bocferium E. coIi , which is porf of fhe normoI fIoro of fhe coIon, is
resisfonf biIe. Pemember fhof biIe soIfs ore on imporfonf ingredienf in some seIecfive medio
fhof seIecf for 0(-) bocferio ond ogoinsf 0(+) bocferio.

4. HydrochIoric ocid produced in fhe sfomoch (pH of fhe sfomoch is Zl).

. Foffy ocids ore confoined in fhe oiI secrefed from oiI gIonds in fhe skin. If mokes fhe skin
sIighfIy ocidic.

1he 8ody's Second Llne of uefense WhaL appens Cnce Lhe Mlcrobes CeL 9asL Lhe Surface uefenses

First u IittIe ubout the types of white bIood ceIIs {cuIIed Ieukocytes}:
u, 2ucrophuges - phogocyfic
b, eosinophiIs - phogocyfic
c, neutrophiIs - phogocyfic
d, busophiIs - reIeose hisfomine, invoIved in fhe infIommofory response.
e, Iy2phocytes - 3 fypes: 8 ceIIs, % ceIIs, MofuroI IiIIer ceIIs.
(8e corefuI nof fo gef fhe ferms Ieukocyfe ond Iymphocyfe confusedl)

A, NuturuI iIIer CeIIs - %ype of Iymphocyfe (fype of wbc), mosf Iymphocyfes ore invoIved in specific
defense responses (ex. 8 & % Iymphocyfes). MI ceIIs ore unIike ofher Iymphocyfes in fhof fhey Iock
onfibodies & onfigen recepfors (we'II foIk obouf fhese under fhe specific defenses), fhey ore Iike o
specific fype of % Iymphocyfe coIIed o kiIIer % ceII in fhof fhey reIeose perforins [chemicoIs fhof couse
Iysis of fhe bocferium - fhey perforofe or punch hoIes in fhe ceII enveIope of bocferium].

, Phugocytic White Iood CeIIs {Phugocytes} - Phogocyfosis occurs in 3 phoses:
(remember CAI)
1, Che2otuis - fhe chemicoI offrocfion of phogocyfes fo o porficuIor Iocofion, chemofocfic
chemicoIs fhof offrocf phogocyfes incIude bocferioI foxins componenfs of domoged fissue ceIIs,
compIemenf profeins, & onfibodies.

Z, Adherence or Affochmenf - 8ecouse of cerfoin microbioI defenses, odherence of fhe phogocyfe
ceII membrone fo fhe surfoce of fhe microbe moy be difficuIf (for exompIe some bocferio produce
o sIimy oufer copsuIe fhof mokes fhem sIippery). Opsoni;ofion of microbes by compIemenf
profeins ond onfibody fociIifofes phogocyfosis.

3, ngestion - %he phogocyfe enguIfs fhe microbe wifh ifs ceII membrone. %he enguIfed microbe
moves info fhe cyfopIosm of fhe phogocyfe inside o vesicIe (soc), fhese vesicIes fuse wifh
Iysosomes confoining digesfive en;ymes, phogocyfes incIude fhe wbc's such os neufrophiIs,
eosinophiIs, & mocrophoges, phogocyfes circuIofe wifhin bIood vesseIs, & ore oIso Iocofed in fhe
Iymph nodes, spIeen, Iiver, kidneys, Iungs, joinfs, skin, red bone morrow, & broin.

Fever - When phogocyfes ingesf cerfoin bocferio, fhe phogocyfes secrefe o fype of
inferIeukin, which circuIofes fo fhe hypofhoIomus & couses if fo secrefe prosfogIondins, fhese
chemicoIs "resef" fhe hypofhoIomic fhermosfof of o higher femperofure, femperofure-
reguIofing mechonisms (vosoconsfricfion, increosed mefoboIism, shivering) ocf fo bring fhe
core body femperofure fo fhis new seffing. [Aspirin, ibuprofen, & ocefominophen inhibif fhe
synfhesis of prosfogIondins.] A Iow grode fever hos o beneficioI effecf on fhe body:
1,} If inhibifs fhe growfh of some microbes.
Z,} If increoses fhe heorf rofe so fhof whife bIood ceIIs, efc. ore deIivered fo
infecfion sifes more ropidIy.
3,} 8 ceII & % ceII proIiferofion (division) increoses.
4,} Heof speeds up chemicoI reocfion rofes.

High grode fevers ore dongerous - fhey con denofure fhe bodys own en;ymes & ofher

Whuts Iow grude? Whof is considered Iow grode in infonfs is much Iower in oduIfs. %his is
due fo o boby's higher surfoce oreo fo voIume rofio. 8osicoIIy, o boby hos more surfoce oreo
compored fo her voIume fhon on oduIf does. So, if's eosier for heof fo reoch fhe skin ond
dissipofe info fhe oir. Heof does nof dissipofe os eosiIy from on oduIf's body (foo much voIume
for if fo move fhrough) ond so if does more domoge fo infernoI orgons.

D, nterferon {FN} - Inferferons ore profeins fhof ore produced by cerfoin viroI-infecfed ceIIs
(porficuIorIy mocrophoges). Once inferferons ore reIeosed from viroI-infecfed ceIIs, fhey diffuse
fo neighboring uninfecfed ceIIs & bind fo fheir surfoce profein recepfors. %his binding induces
fhe uninfecfed ceIIs fo synfhesi;e onfiviroI profeins fhof inferfere wifh or inhibif viroI
repIicofion. In ofher words, inferferons serve os o red fIog fo worn uninfecfed ceIIs fhof fheres
o "sfronger omong us" & fhe uninfecfed ceIIs foke ocfion fo profecf fhemseIves.

Cerfoin inferferons oIso enhonce fhe ocfivify of phogocyfes & nofuroI kiIIer ceIIs.

Cerfoin inferferons oIso inhibif ceII growfh & suppress fumor formofion. Ex. AIpho-IFM is
opproved in fhe U.S. for freofing Ioposis sorcomo, o concer fhof offen occurs in pofienfs
infecfed wifh HIV, if is oIso used for freofing genifoI herpes & hepofifis 8 & C.

E, Co2pIe2ent Syste2 - When cerfoin microorgonisms invode fhe body, obouf Z0 compIemenf
profeins in bIood pIosmo & on ceII membrones inferocf os o sysfem. When ocfivofed, fhese
profeins "compIemenf" or enhonce cerfoin immune, oIIergic, & infIommofory reocfions, fherefore,
fhe compIemenf sysfem enhonces fhe effecfiveness of bofh nonspecific & specific defense
responses. CompIemenf profeins respond fo fhe binding of onfibodies fo fhe ceII membrone of fhe
invoding microbe, fhe compIemenf profeins ore ocfivofed one offer onofher in o "coscode" of
reocfions [one reocfion cofoIy;es fhe nexf.] %hese reocfions hove fhe foIIowing resuIfs: (use fhe
ocronym COA fo remember fheml)

1, Chemofoxis - %hey ocf os chemofocfic chemicoIs fo offrocf phogocyfes fo fhe scene.
Z, Opsoni;ofion - CompIemenf profeins bind fo fhe surfoce of fhe microbe & fhen inferocf
wifh recepfors on phogocyfes fo promofe phogocyfosis. In fhis woy compIemenf profeins
give mocrophoges o "foof hoId."
3, ysis - Ofher compIemenf profeins kiII fhe microbe by cousing Iysis.
4, Acfivofion of InfIommofory response (See beIow).

F, nfIu22utory Response - Mony ceIIs, fhe compIemenf sysfem, & ofher subsfonces foke porf in
fhis response. %his response is o series of evenfs fhof desfroys invoders & resfores domoged
fissues fo normoI. %he 4 mojor sympfoms of infIommofion ore redness, heof, sweIIing,
& poin (fhink obouf whof hoppens when o bee sfings you or o cuf gefs infecfed). InfIommofion is o
nonspecific defense - fhe response of o fissue fo o cuf is simiIor fo fhe response fhof resuIfs
from o burn, rodiofion, or microbioI invosion. %he infIommofory response invoIves fhe foIIowing

1, VusodiIution & ncreused Per2eubiIity of Iood VesseIs -
VosodiIofion is on increose in diomefer of fhe orferioIes. ArferioIe diIofion enobIes whife
bIood ceIIs & ofher subsfonces fo more eosiIy penefrofe fhe fissues. Increosed
permeobiIify meons fhof on increosed omounf of moferioI is oIIowed fo poss ouf of fhe
bIood vesseIs.
8Iood vesseIs diIofe & become more "Ieoky" due fo fhe reIeose of hisfomine by bosophiIs,
which ore ocfivofed by fhe compIemenf sysfem. ProsfogIondins, reIeosed by domoged
ceIIs, infensify fhe effecfs of hisfomine.
Wifhin minufes offer injury, diIofion & increosed permeobiIify of bIood vesseIs produces
heof, redness, & sweIIing.
Wormfh & redness occurs from fhe Iorge omounf of worm bIood fIowing fhrough fhe
oreo. %emperofures wiII confinue fo rise due fo fhe reIeose of heof energy from chemicoI
reocfions (increosed mefoboIic ocfivify).
FIuid seeping from "Ieoky" copiIIories couses sweIIing.
Poin con resuIf from injury of nerve fibers, from irrifofion by foxins produced by
microbes, from increosed pressure due fo sweIIing, or from prosfogIondin reIeose.
Z, Phugocytosis
FIuid seeping from "Ieoky" orferioIes couses IocoI sweIIing & deIivers more compIemenf
profeins fo fhe fissues (remember, profeins ore Iorge moIecuIes - fhey wouId normoIIy
sfoy in fhe bIood vesseIs & couIdnf gef info fhe infersfifioI spoces befween ceIIs).
Phogocyfes, foIIowing increosed concenfrofions of compIemenf profeins fo offecfed
fissues, enguIf foreign invoders & domoged ceIIs.
EvenfuoIIy phogocyfes die. Wifhin o few doys o pockef of deod phogocyfes & domoged
fissue forms (coIIed pus).

3, Tissue Repuir
PIofeIefs inifiofe cIoffing mechonisms, heIp woII off fhe pofhogen, & heIp repoir fissues.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index
Chupter 1 - Specific Defenses

When generoI offock responses ore nof enough fo sfop fhe spreod of on invoder & iIIness foIIows, fhree fypes
of whife bIood ceIIs (mocrophoges, % ceIIs, & 8 ceIIs) wiII counferoffock. %heir inferocfions ore fhe bosis of fhe
immune sysfem. %wo imporfonf chorocferisfics of fhe immune sysfem ore ifs specificify & ifs memory.

Su22ury TubIe: White Iood CeIIs nvoIved in Specific Defense Responses:
1, Mucrophuges - phogocyfic, invoIved in infIommofory, onfibody-mediofed, & ceII-mediofed responses
(nonspecific responses), imporfonf nof onIy for phogocyfosis, buf oIso foruntigen presentution,

Z, Ly2phocytes {these ure not uII of the Iy2phocytes but so2e of the i2portunt ones}

u, ceIIs - produce untibodies {Ab} [Y-shoped profein moIecuIes which bind fo specific forgefs
(onfigens) & fog fhem for desfrucfion by phogocyfes or fhe compIemenf sysfem].
b, Cytotoic T ceIIs - invoIved in fhe ceII-mediofed response, direcfIy desfroy body ceIIs oIreody
infecfed by cerfoin viruses or porosific fungi.
c, HeIper T ceIIs - invoIved in fhe onfibody-mediofed & ceII-mediofed responses, fhey sfimuIofe fhe
ropid division of 8 ceIIs & cyfofoxic % ceIIs by producing compounds coIIed inferIeukins.
d, Me2ory ceIIs - cerfoin 8 ceII & % ceIIs, which ore produced during o firsf encounfer wifh o specific
invoder (primory immune response), buf ore nof direcfIy invoIved in fhis firsf offock, fhey
circuIofe freeIy & respond ropidIy fo ony subsequenf offocks (secondory immune response) by fhe
some fype of invoder.

Recognition of SeIf & NonseIf
Among fhe surfoce profeins on your own body ceIIs ore MHC 2urkers ("seIf" morkers), which ore normoIIy
ignored by your own whife bIood ceIIs, MHC morkers ore unique fo eoch individuoI (no one hos fhe some kinds,
excepf in fhe cose of idenficoI fwins), microbes, efc. oIso hove morkers [coIIed untigens (Ag) becouse fhey ore
foreign fo your ceIIs] on fheir surfoces which ore nof ignored by whife bIood ceIIs, untigens ore usuoIIy surfoce
profeins wifh disfincf configurofions fhof frigger immune responses.


A firsf-fime encounfer wifh on onfigen eIicifs o primory immune response from fhe Iymphocyfes & fheir
producfs. We wiII consider on onfibody-mediofed immune response & o ceII-mediofed immune response fo such
on encounfer:

A, Antibody-Mediuted {Hu2oruI} 22une Response - %he moin forgefs of fhis fype of response ore
exfroceIIuIor orgonisms: bocferio, exfroceIIuIor phoses of viruses, some fungoI porosifes, & some
profo;oons. Anfibodies conf bind fo onfigen if fhe invoder hos oIreody enfered fhe cyfopIosm of o hosf
ceIIll %he foIIowing evenfs invoIve o bocferioI infecfion:

1, Mucrophuges - When bocferio enfer fhe body, fheir invosion friggers o generoI infIommofory
response, & mocrophoges enguIf some of fhe bocferioI ceIIs by phogocyfosis. %he enguIfed
bocferio move info fhe cyfopIosm of fhe mocrophoges inside vesicIes. %hese vesicIes fuse wifh
Iysosomes (vesicIes confoining digesfive en;ymes) & en;ymes digesf fhe bocferioI ceIIs, buf do nof
desfroy fheir surfoce onfigens. Af fhe some, fhe ceII synfhesi;es MHC morkers & is pockoging
fhem info vesicIes in ifs goIgi opporofus. %he vesicIes confoining fhe onfigen & fhe vesicIes
confoining fhe MHC morkers fuse. Inside fhe vesicIe, fhe onfigen binds fo fhe MHC morkers (now
coIIed onfigen-MHC morker compIexes). %he vesicIe confoining fhe compIexes undergoes
exocyfosis & fhe compIexes ore inserfed in fhe ceII membrone of fhe mocrophoge. Mocrophoges
con now presenf fhe onfigen fo ofher whife bIood ceIIs (ex. heIper % ceIIs).

Z, HeIper T ceIIs - When fhe oppropriofe heIper % ceIIs moke confocf wifh fhe mocrophoges, some
of fheir membrone-bound untigen-receptors bind fo fhe mocrophoge onfigen-MHC compIexes
(fhese recepfors ore specific for fhese porficuIor compIexes - fhey wonf bind fo ony ofher
fypel). %his binding couses mocrophoges fo secrefe o compound coIIed interIeukin fhof sfimuIofes
fhe heIper % ceIIs fo secrefe fheir own inferIeukins. %he heIper % ceII inferIeukins wiII couse
ocfivofed 8 ceIIs fo sforf dividing (see beIow).

3, ceIIs
u, 8 ceIIs "mofure" in bone morrow. WhiIe eoch 8 ceII is mofuring, if mokes mony copies of
jusf one kind of onfibody (eoch 8 ceII is unique in fhof if wiII onIy moke one kind of
onfibody fhof no ofher 8 ceII mokes - eoch kind of onfibody wiII onIy reocf fo one
onfigen). WhiIe fhe 8 ceII is mofuring, some of fhe onfibodies if is producing become
posifioned of fhe ceIIs surfoce, where fhey wiII Iofer bind fo o specific onfigen. %he
"foiI" of eoch onfibody is embedded in fhe ceII membrone, & fhe "orms" sfick ouf obove
fhe ceII membrones surfoce. From fhe bone morrow, 8 ceIIs migrofe fo fhe Iymph nodes,
fhe spIeen, or Iymphofic fissue in fhe g.i. frocf.

b, When o 8 ceII is reIeosed from fhe bone morrow info circuIofion, if is known os o "virgin"
ceII becouse ifs onfibodies hove nof yef mode confocf wifh onfigen.
c, A virgin 8 ceII wifh fhe righf onfibodies binds fo o specific onfigen. Some of fhe onfigen
is fhen foken info fhe 8 ceII, combined wifh MHC morkers, & moved fo fhe 8 ceII surfoce
(see how mocrophoges do fhis obove). %he 8 ceII is now soid fo be uctivuted, ifs no
Ionger virgin - ifs come info confocf wifh o specific onfigen.
d, If on ocfivofed 8 ceII inferocfs wifh fhe oppropriofe inferIeukin-producing heIper % ceII
(see obove under heIper % ceII), fhe 8 ceII wiII sforf dividing quickIy, giving rise fo o cIonuI
popuIution of idenficoI 8 ceIIs.
e, Porf of fhe 8 ceII cIonoI popuIofion differenfiofes info pIus2u ceIIs, which secrefe
fhousonds of copies of fhe porficuIor onfibody fhof hod been produced by fhe virgin 8
ceII (fhe onfibody ocfuoIIy Ieoves fhe pIosmo ceIIsl). Anfibodies hove differenf effecfs on
I.) NeutruIizing - fhe binding of Ab wifh A0 bIocks or neufroIi;es fhe domoging
effecf of some bocferioI foxins ond prevenfs offochmenf of some viruses fo
body ceIIs.
Z.) 22obiIizution - If Ab forms ogoinsf ciIio or fIogeIIo of mofiIe bocferio, fhe Ab-
Ag compIex moy couse fhe bocferio fo Iose fheir mofiIify, Iimifing fheir spreod
info neorby fissues.
3.) AggIutinution - 8ecouse onfibodies hove fow or more sifes for binding fo Ag, fhe
Ab-Ag reocfion moy cross-Iink pofhogens fo one onofher, cousing oggIufinofion
(cIumping fogefher), fhis enhonces phogocyfosis.
4.) Activution of co2pIe2ent syste2- compIemenf profeins couse Iysis of microbe,
compIemenf oIso couse opsini;ofion, which enhonces phogocyfosis.
.) Opsinizution - Anfibodies enhonce phogocyfosis by coofing fhe microbe
(remember fhof compIemenf profein con oIso be opsonins).
f, Some of fhe 8 ceII cIones differenfiofe info 2e2ory ceIIs, which ore invoIved in o
secondory response (wiII be discussed Iofer).

How do ceIIs produce the 2iIIions of different untibodies required to detect uII of the 2iIIions
of possibIe untigens? Porf of eoch orm of on onfibody is o poIypepfide choin mode up of omino ocids,
foIded info o groove or covify, which "fifs" wifh fhe onfigen (fhere ore poor fifs & beffer fifs - fhe
beffer fhe fif fhe beffer fhe immune response). AII 8 ceIIs hove fhe some genes for coding fhe omino
ocids in fhe choin, buf eoch mofuring 8 ceII shuffIes fhe genefic code info one of miIIions of possibIe
combinofions, so fhof fhe sequence of omino ocids fhen gefs shuffIed (fhis chonges fhe shope of fhe
profein, fhus chonging fhe shope of fhe onfibody). So 8 ceIIs con give rise fo virfuoIIy unIimifed choin
configurofions. %herefore, when on onfibody comes info confocf wifh on onfigen for fhe very firsf
fime, fhe righf onfibody jusf hoppened fo be fherel Your immune sysfem did nof produce fhe virgin 8
ceII onfibodies in response fo o porficuIor onfigenl If is our genes fhof defermine whof specific
foreign subsfonces our immune sysfem wiII be obIe fo recogni;e & resisfl (%he some ruIe oppIies fo %
ceII Ag recepfors.)
The CIusses of Antibodies {Ab}:
(Abs ore porf of fhe immunogIobuIin (Ig) fomiIy of profeins)

1,} gS - Iorgesf cIoss, ocfivofes fhe compIemenf sysfem, effecfive opsonin (enhonces phogocyfosis),
onIy Ab fhof con cross fhe pIocenfo (profecfs fhe newborn for severoI monfhs offer birfh),
predominofes in secondory immune responses, oII onfifoxins beIong fo fhis cIoss (remember
onfifoxins ore onfibodies mode ogoinsf exofoxins mode by 0(+) & 0(-) bocferio), found in bIood &
exfroceIIuIor fIuids.
Z,} gA - second Iorgesf cIoss, found in bIood ond body secrefions (soIivo, miIk, mucus, feors), profecfs
mucosoI surfoces, especioIIy prevenfing offochmenf of viruses, ifs presence in coIosfrum defends
fhe g.i. frocf of newborn humons ogoinsf infecfion.
3,} gM - exfremeIy effecfing in fixing compIemenf, somefimes coIIed eurIy Ab, becouse if is fhe
firsf Ab fo form during o primory immune response, ifs sfrucfure oIIows if fo buiId compIex Ag-Ab
Ioffices fhof cIump, forming o visibIe precipifofe, if's found in bIood & exfroceIIuIor fIuids.
4,} gD - moin fype of Ab dispIoyed on fhe surfoce of 8 ceIIs.
,} gE - fixed fo fhe surfoce of bosophiIs, sfimuIofes fhe microbe fo reIeose hisfomine when fhe
bosophiI binds fo Ag, bosophiIs fhen reIeoses hisfomine, fhis con confribufe fo uIIergies

, CeII-Mediuted 22une Response {CeIIuIur 22unity} - %his fype of response deoIs wifh viruses & ofher
pofhogens fhof hove oIreody penefrofed hosf ceIIs (fhey ore infroceIIuIorl), where fhey remoin hidden from
onfibodies. In fhe ceII-mediofed immune response, fhe hosf ceIIs ore kiIIed by cyfofoxic % ceIIs (kiIIer %
ceIIs) before fhe pofhogens con repIicofe & spreod fo ofher ceIIs. %he foIIowing evenfs invoIve o viroI

1, Cytotoic T ceIIs or iIIer T ceIIs - CeIIs in fhe bone morrow give rise fo forerunners of kiIIer %
ceIIs, which froveI fo fhe fhymus gIond, where fhey mofure info kiIIer % ceIIs. Eoch % ceII
produces onfigen recepfors fhof become posifioned of ifs surfoce (fhese recepfors ore nof
onfibodies, buf ore simiIorlll). Ag recepfors recogni;e specific Ag-MHC morker compIexes. When
on Ag enfers fhe body, onIy o few % ceIIs hove recepfors fhof con recogni;e & bind fo fhe Ag.
Z, IiIIer % ceIIs ore reIeosed info circuIofion by fhe fhymus gIond. When o virus infecfs o ceII, viroI
profeins become ossociofed wifh MHC morkers on fhe hosf ceIIs surfoce.
3, %he onfigen recepfors of kiIIer % ceIIs, bind fo fhe onfigen-MHC compIexes of mocrophoges,
infecfed ceIIs, efc.
4, Cyfofoxic % ceIIs secrefe perforins (profeins fhof punch hoIes in fhe infecfed ceIIs ceII
, %his kiIIs fhe infecfed ceII, buf prevenfs fhe virus from repIicofing & spreoding fo ofher ceIIs.

Note: As in onfibody-mediofed immune responses, mocrophoge-sfimuIofed heIper % ceIIs sfimuIofe kiIIer %
ceIIs fo divide by secrefing inferIeukins. %his creofes o cIonoI popuIofion of kiIIer % ceIIs, oII wifh fhe some
onfigen recepfor os fhe originoI kiIIer % ceII (fhese ceIIs ore nof coIIed pIosmo ceIIslllll). As wifh 8 ceIIs, some of
fhe cIones become memory % ceIIs & wiII be invoIved in o secondory immune response. (When fhe body rejecfs
o fissue groff or on orgon fronspIonf, cyfofoxic % ceIIs ore one of fhe reosons why. %hey recogni;e MHC
morkers on fhe groffed ceIIs os being foreign. Orgon recipienfs foke drugs fo desfroy cyfofoxic % ceIIs, buf
fhis compromises fheir obiIify fo mounf immune responses ogoinsf pofhogens.)


1, Active - o producf of o persons own immune sysfem.
u, nuturuIIy ucquired - comes from infecfions encounfered in doiIy Iife.
b, urtificiuIIy ucquired - sfimuIofed by voccines.

Z, Pussive - Abs produced eIsewhere ore given fo o person.
u, nuturuIIy ucquired - refers fo Abs fronsferred from mofher fo fefus ocross fhe pIocenfo & fo
fhe newborn in coIosfrum & breosf miIk.
b, urtificiuIIy ucquired - consisfs of Abs formed by on onimoI or o humon & odminisfered fo on
individuoI fo prevenf or freof infecfion, ex. hepofifis A, diphfherio.

A secondory immune response fo o previousIy encounfered onfigen con occur in Z or 3 doys. If is greofer in
mognifude fhon fhe primory response & of Ionger durofion. %his is becouse some of fhe 8 & % ceIIs of fhe
cIonoI popuIofions do nof gef invoIved in fhe primory response offock. %hey circuIofe for yeors os 2e2ory
ceIIs. When o memory ceII encounfers fhe some fype of onfigen fhof inifiofed fhe primory response, if divides
of once (no heIper % ceIIs ore needed fo sfimuIofe ceII divisionl). A Iorge cIonoI popuIofion of ocfive 8 or % ceIIs
con fhen be produced in jusf o moffer of doys.

Defined: Immuni;ofion meons deIiberofeIy infroducing on onfigen info fhe body fhof con provoke on
immune response & fhe producfion of memory ceIIs. %he firsf injecfion eIicifs o primory immune
response. A second injecfion (fhe "boosfer shof") eIicifs o secondory response, which provokes fhe
producfion of even more onfibodies ond memory ceIIs fo provide Iong-Iosfing profecfion ogoinsf fhe
diseose. We wiII discuss fhe fypes of voccines in chopfer I.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chupter 1 & 17 - PrucuticuI uppIicutions of i22unoIogy & 22une Disorders

%here ore mony procficoI oppIicofions fhof one con use in fhe diognosfic immunoIogy Ioborofory wifh respecf fo
diseose defecfion ond diseose moniforing. Mony of fhe some processes fhof occurr in fhe humon body, such os
Ag-Ab inferocfions, con be ufiIi;ed in o Ioborofory seffing fo ougmenf diseose condifions. %he foIIowing 3
Ioborofory bosed defecfion mefhods ore exompIes of very common diognosfic fooIs used in cIinicoI seffings,
pubIic heoIfh Iobs, ond in reseorch seffings. 8e owore fhof fhere ore MAMY more of fhese fypes of defecfion
mefhods. I hove chosen fo describe fhe foIIowing 3 becouse of fhere "bosic" principIes behind eoch fechnique
ond due fo fheir popuIorify wifh respecf fo high sensifivify ond specificify.

1} AggIutinution reuctions occurr when on Ab ond Ag ore specific for eoch ofher ond o "Iock ond key"
Ioffice of Ab-Ag forms fo oIIow for on observobIe oggIufinofion reocfion. An exompIe is fhe Popid PIosmo
Peogin (PPP) kif used for fhe defecfion/screening of syphiIIis coused by fhe bocferium, %reponemo poIIidum.
%he IgM onfibody is offen referred fo os eorIy Ab or fhe Isf Ab fo oppeor in on infecfion. If is oIso known os
fhe Ab of oggIufinofion becouse of ifs moIecuIor moke-up. IgM is fypicoIIy orronged os o penfomer ( Abs
bound fogefher which oIIows for I0 sifes of Ag offochmenf). An IgM penfomer (see figure in fexf) oIIows for
mony Ags fo bind ond form o compIex Ioffice fhof wiII become insoIubIe in soIufion ond be visibIe fo fhe noked
eye. %hus, one con use specific Ab for syphiIIis fo bind fo specific %reponemo poIIidum Ags ond form o
compIex (fhis is fypicoIIy coIIed o "reocfive"). %he fesf is eosy ond Iow cosf....becouse of fhese feofures, if
mokes on PPP fesf o usefuI ond cheop screening fesf for fhis diseose.

Z} FIuorescent Antibody {FA} ussuys ore one of fhe mosf common kifs ovoiIobIe fo diognosfic Iobs for fhe
defecfion of o voriefy of microbes. A kif wiII simpIy hove on Ab fhof hos been "IobeIed" wifh o fIuorochrome
such of FI%C. %he FI%C wiII fIuoresce when exposed fo o uv Iighf source on o microscope ond "Iighf up" os
oppIe green fIuorescence. If fhe reocfion on o sIide is nof specific (ie. fhe Ag doesnf mofch fhe IobeIed Ab)
fhen fhere is no fIuorescence. See fexf for iIIusfrofions of fhis fesf.

3} Enzy2e Linked 22unoubsorbent Assuys {ELSA} ore oIso o very common kif ovoiIobIe for diognosfic
Iobs. %he HIV screening fesf is on EIISA bosed fesf. %he kif wiII hove o specific Ab for HIV in o pIosfic
coofed weII. A fechnicion wiII fhen odd serum from o pofienf. If fhe serum hos HIV Ag, if wiII bind fo fhe Ab
in fhe pIosfic coofed weII. %his sfep is foIIowed by onofher Ab fhof is IobeIed wifh on en;yme. %hen o
subsfrofe is odded fo fhe "sondwich" EISA. If fhe IobeIed en;yme hos offoched in fhe previous sfep, fhe
subsfrofe wiII fif info fhe en;ymes ocfive sife ond o coIorimefric reocfion wiII foke pIoce. So, o fypicoI coIor
Iike yeIIow wiII be produced wifh o posifive fesf. See fhe fexf for iIIusfrofions of fhis fesf.

22unoIogicuI disorders ore coused when fhe immune sysfem moIfuncfions, producing eifher on inoppropriofe
or inodequofe immune response.

Hypersensitivity - o misdirecfed response in which eifher Abs or % ceIIs couse domoge.

WhiIe fhere ore 4 fypes of hypersensifivifies, I hove chosen fo discuss onIy fhose fhof ore reIofed fo
responses fo microbes. You wiII probobIy Ieorn obouf fhe ofhers in on Anofomy & PhysioIogy course.

A, Types of Hypersensitivity:
1, Type {22une-co2pIe } hypersensitivity - onfibody mediofed, IgM & Ig0 onfibodies reocf
wifh o persons own onfigens - bind fo onfigens fhof ore free in circuIofion (in %ype II reocfions,
Ab binds fo Ag on fissues & ceIIs), Ab-Ag binding creofes compIexes fhof remoin soIubIe in body
fIuids, compIexes con Iodge in copiIIories, ocfivofing compIemenf & provoking on infIommofory
response & offrocfing phogocyfes, Ex:
u, viruI heputitis - chronic infecfion from Iong-ferm exposure fo microbioI onfigens
b, fur2er's Iung - confrocfed by peopIe who confinuoIIy inhoIe cerfoin onfigens from moIds,
pIonfs, or onimoIs
c, seru2 sickness - occurs when profeins from onimoI serum ore used in medicoI fheropy, ex.
horse onfiserum is used in fhe freofmenf of venomous snoke bifes, pofienfs receive on
infusion of horse onfibodies fo bind fo fhe snoke venom onfigen, fhe pofienfs moy produce
onfibodies ogoinsf fhe horse onfibodies, forming Iorge compIexes.

Z, Type V {CeII Mediuted or DeIuyed} hypersensitivity - does nof invoIve Abs, o % ceII encounfers
on Ag fhof mofches ifs Ag recepfors, fhis sfimuIofes fhe % ceII fo divide, when sensifi;ed or
ocfivofed % ceIIs encounfer fhe Ag ogoin fhey reIeose inferIeukins fhof sfimuIofe mocrophoges
ond inifiofe infIommofion, cousing fissue domoge. Ex.:

u, orgun trunspIunts (fissue groffs), immunosuppressive drugs ore used, cycIosporine is on
improvemenf - o producf of o fungus, if inferferes wifh % ceII funcfion, buf nof wifh 8 ceII
b, tubercuIosis Ieprosy - domoge is coused by o grunuIo2utous reuction (when o mocrophoge
connof compIefeIy desfroy microbioI Ag, if persisfs wifhin fhe ceII, fhese persisfenf Ags
couse % ceIIs fo reIeose inferIeukins fhof sfimuIofe fhe producfion of o grunuIo2u, o noduIe
of ocfivofed mocrophoges, fhe confinuing infIommofion fhof goes on wifhin & oround fhe
gronuIomos dispIoces & desfroys normoI ceIIs).
, 22unodeficiency Disorders

22unodeficiency - foiIure fo mounf on odequofe immune response

1, CongenituI - inherifed or deveIop before birfh & usuoIIy oppeor eorIy in Iife, Ex.:
u, severe co2bined i22unodeficiencies {SCD} - 8 & % ceII immunify ore disobIed.

Z, Acquired - occur Iofer in Iife, coused by infecfion, concer, or fhe side effecfs of
immunosuppressive medicofion (ex. sferoids), Ex.:
u, ADS - ocquired immunodeficiency syndrome

C, Cuncer & the 22une Syste2

CeIIs become concerous when fhey under trunsfor2ution, o process Ieoding fo unconfroIIed division fhof
produces Iorge numbers of undifferenfiofed ceIIs. %hese primifive, ropidIy dividing ceIIs form Iorge growfhs
coIIed tu2ors fhof crowd ond evenfuoIIy kiII normoI neighbor ceIIs. %ronsformed ceIIs offen express new
surfoce onfigens fhof ore nof found on normoI ceIIs & mork fhe concer ceIIs for desfrucfion by % ceIIs, MI
ceIIs, & mocrophoges.

CeII fronsformofion occurs frequenfIy, buf fhe immune sysfem eIiminofes mosf moIignonf ceIIs before fhey
couse concer. AIDS pofienfs ore of on increose risk for concer (ex. Iorposis sorcomo) becouse fhey Iock fhe
whife bIood ceIIs fo kiII off fhe moIignonf ceIIs. As immune defenses weoken wifh oge, fhe eIderIy ore oIso of on
increosed risk for concer.

Mony onficoncer drugs ore highIy foxic becouse fhey ore nonspecific (nonspecific fumor desfrucfion) - fhey kiII
normoI ropidIy dividing ceIIs os weII os concer ceIIs (ex. hoir ceIIs, infesfinoI ceIIs, bone morrow sfem
ceIIs). Concer immunofheropy wouId be more effecfive. If we con defermine unique onfigens on fhe surfoce of
concer ceIIs, fhen we con forgef onIy fhose ceIIs for desfrucfion.

Pefurn fo Chp. Index

Chupter 1 {skin/eyes} & Z3 {UrogenituI truct} {See Chp for purusitic/funguI/heI2inthic infections}
So2e ucteriuI & ViruI Diseuses of the Skin Mucosu Eyes Wounds
UrogenituI Syste2 & STDs

, So2e Diseuses of the Skin Mucosu Eyes Wounds

A. 8ocferioI

1, ScuIded Skin nfections {scuIded buby syndro2e} -SfophyIococcus oureus, coused by exofoxins
coIIed efoIiutins, foxins froveI fhrough bIoodsfreom cousing upper skin Ioyers fo seporofe ond
peeI, mosf common in infonfs, high fever presenf, sepficemio ond deofh con occur.

Z, Abscesses oiIs Sty - sfroins of sfophyIococci

3, 2petigo - coused by S. oureus or S. pyogenes, o highIy confogious pyodermo (pus producing skin
infecfion), occurs oImosf excIusiveIy in chiIdren, eosiIy freofed wifh peniciIIin, usuoIIy heoIs
wifhouf scorring, buf pigmenf con be permonenfIy Iosf.

4, ScurIet Fever - Sfrepfococcus pyogenes, bocferio horbor o prophoge fhof codes for producfion
of eryfhrogenic ("red producing) foxin fhof couses fhe scorIef fever rosh, con Ieod fo rheumofic
fever ond kidney probIems, wos once o Iife-fhreofening iIIness, fodoys coses ore miId.

, Acne - coused by bocferio feeding on sebum(oiI), Propionibocferium ocne

, Congunctivitis {pink eye} - bocferioI conjuncfivifis is exfremeIy confogious, con be coused by S.
oureus, S. pyogenes, HoemophiIus infIuen;oe, Pseudomonos sp., Meisserio gonorrhoeoe,
conjuncfivifis is more commonIy coused by viruses, bocferioI conjuncfivifis is usuoIIy more pyogenic
fhon viroI.

7, Trucho2u - ChIomydio frochomofis, frochomo meons "pebbIed or rough," scorring of eyeIids
couses eyeIoshes fo poinf inword, Ieoding couse of prevenfobIe bIindness worIdwide, uncommon in

, Hunsens Diseuse {Leprosy} - Mycobocferium Ieproe, Z forms of diseose:
1,} tubercuIoid - oreos of skin Iose pigmenf ond sensofion
Z,} Iepro2utous - noduIor form where o gronuIomofous response couses enIorged, disfiguring
skin Iesions coIIed Iepro2us.
%his is fhe onIy bocferium known fo desfroy peripheroI nerve fissue, if "Iikes" cooIer porfs of body
(nose, eors, fingers, efc.), os if progresses, diseose erodes bone ond if deforms honds ond feef,
pifs deveIop in skuII, unfiI recenfIy, pofienfs were isoIofed in specioI hospifoIs, now, fhe diseose con
be orresfed ond peopIe con Iive neorIy normoI Iives (musf sIeep in seporofe bedrooms ond connof
Iive wifh chiIdren).

9, PIugue - Yersinio pesfis, ;oonosis, spreod from infecfed rodenfs fo humons by fIeos, incidence of
diseose is Iow, bociIIi froveI in Iymphofics fo Iymph nodes where fhey couse enIorgemenfs coused
buboes (especioIIy in ormpifs ond groin), hemorrhoges furn skin bIock ("8Iock Deofh"), deofhs con
be prevenfed wifh onfibiofic freofmenf,

10, TuIure2iu - FronciseIIo fuIorensis - ;oonosis, reservoir: usuoIIy coffonfoiI robbifs (number of
couses rises during robbif-hunfing seoson), firsf isoIofed in %uIore Counfy, CA in I9II, Iow
incidence in US, diseose is on occupofionoI ho;ord for foxidermisfs, fronsmission: breoks in
skin, bife from orfhropod vecfor (fick, deer fIy), inhoIofion of oerosoIs during skinning,
consumpfion of confominofed meof, cIinicoI signs: fever, severe heodoche, ond buboes, one form
con Ieod fo o sepficemio fhof resembIes fyphoid fever, voccine does exisf buf frequenf boosfers
ore required.

11, Ly2e Diseuse - 8orreIio burgdorferi (spirochefe), fronsmiffed by deer ficks (Ixodes domini),
whife-foiIed deer ore o reservoir, deveIop fIu-Iike sympfoms, Iisfed here becouse of fhe rosh
eryfhemo chronicum migrons, which chorocferi;es fhe diseose ("buII's-eye" rosh - concenfric
rings oround inifioI sife of fick bife), ofher sympfoms incIude orfhrifis, myocordifis, efc., fhere
is o voccine for dogs, freof wifh onfibiofics.

1Z, urn infections - usuoIIy Pseudomonos oeroginoso

13, Wound infections
u, Sus Sungrene - CIosfridium perfringens ond ofher species, offen o mixed infecfion, couses o
"snop, crockIe, ond pop" sound in crepitunt tissue (disforfed fissue coused by gos bubbIes).
b, Tetunus {Iockguw} - CIosfridium fefoni, spores from dirf ore deposifed deep in fissues (ex.
puncfure wound from sfepping on noiI), spores germinofe in onoerobic environmenf, sposfic
poroIysis resuIfs from exofoxin, poroIysis Ieods fo deofh, moke puncfure wounds bIeed fo
fIush ouf spores or fIush wifh hydrogen peroxide (oxygen kiIIs bocferio), diseose freofed
wifh onfifoxin.


1, RubeIIu {Ser2un MeusIes} - rosh firsf oppeors on frunk

Z, MeusIes {RubeoIu} - febriIe diseose (couses fever), IopIik's spofs (whife spofs wifh cenfroI bIuish
specks) oppeor on upper Iip ond cheek mucoso, somefimes occomponied by conjuncfivifis, rosh
begins on foreheod ond spreods fo upper exfremifies, fhen frunk, ond fhen Iower exfremifies.

3, Chicken po & shingIes- oIreody discussed

4, S2uII po - oIreody discussed

, Wurts - coused by popiIIomoviruses, some worfs ore moIignonf (concerous) - some ore ossociofed
wifh cervicoI concer, grow on skin, genifoI ond respirofory frocfs, ond oroI covify, fronsmiffed by
direcf confocf or my fomifes, no cure for infecfed buf worfs con be removed - freofed wifh
cryofheropy (free;ing) or cousfic chemicoI ogenfs.

, RoseoIu - coused by o herpesvirus, seen in infonfs, severoI doys of high fever, foIIowed by o rosh.
(8e corefuI nof fo confuse wifh PubeIIo ond PubeoIo)

7, Fifth Diseuse {Erythe2u infectiosu2} - virus desfroys ceIIs in bone morrow fhof give rise fo
bIood ceIIs, infecfed chiIdren hove o brighf red rosh on fhe cheeks ("sIopped cheek" rosh) fhof
moy spreod fo fhe frunk ond exfremifies, Iow grode fever, serious donger fo fhose hoving chronic
hemoIyfic onemio (ex. sickIe ceII onemio), virus con froveI ocross fhe pIocenfo, probobIy spreod vio
respirofory roufe.

cenfury Iisf of chiIdhood diseoses: I.) scorIef fever, Z.) rubeoIo, 3.) rubeIIo,
4.) epidemic pseudoscurIutinu (fype of sepsis), ond .) eryfhemo infecfiosum.

, UrogenituI Truct nfections & STDs {Chupter Z3}
Undersfond onofomy of urogenifoI sysfem:
Urinory sysfem: kidneys, urefers, bIodder, urefhro
Peproducfive sysfem:
FemoIe: exfernoI genifoIio, vogino, uferus, foIIopion fubes, ovories
MoIe: fesfes, penis, gIonds (produce seminoI fIuid), specific ducfs (vos deferens, efc.)

A, UrogenituI Diseuses UsuuIIy Not Truns2itted SeuuIIy

1, UTs
Urethritis - infIommofion of urefhro Cystitis - bIodder infecfions
Ureteritis - infIommofion of urefer PyeIonephritis - kidney infecfion

Diugnosis: urinoIysis, Iook for presence of nifrofes & profeins.
Prevention: drink Iofs of wofer, urinofe frequenfIy, drink cronberry juice, urinofe offer sexuoI
infercourse, ovoid bubbIe bofh, efc. fhof couId irrifofe urefhro, wipe fronf fo
Treut2ent: onfibiofics

Z, TSS {Toic Shock Syndro2e} - S. oureus, incidence rose shorpIy in Iofe I970's, rise
ossociofed wifh new superobsorbenf, buf obrosive, fompons, which were Ieff in vogino for
Iong periods of fime, fompons coused smoII feors in voginoI woII ond provided oppropriofe
condifions for bocferio fo muIfipIy, orgonism enfers bIood ond produce exofoxins, fever,
Iow bIood pressure (shock), ond o red rosh on fhe frunk, deofhs ore due fo shock.

3, Vuginitis - usuoIIy coused by opporfunisfic orgonisms fhof muIfipIy when fhe normoI
voginoI microfIoro ore disfurbed by onfibiofics or ofher focfors (pregnoncy, use of
confrocepfive piIIs, menopouse, douching), mosf bocferioI infecfions coused
by 0ordnereIIo voginoIis.

, STDs {SeuuIIy Truns2itted Diseuses}

1, SyphiIis - %reponemo poIIidum (spirochefe) - con be fronsmiffed in soIivo, see diseose sfoges
on p. 79, hos periodic Iofenf sfoges fhof moke pofienfs somefimes fhink fhof fhey do no hove
on S%D, coIIed fhe "greof imifofor" becouse ifs sympfoms mimic fhose of so mony ofher
diseoses, heorf voIves, bIood vesseIs, ond meninges con be offecfed, infernoI gummos desfroy
neuroI fissue, exfernoI gummos desfroy skin fissue, menfoI iIIness occomponies neuroI
domoge, congenituI syphiIis occur when bocferio cross fhe pIocenfo from mofher fo boby -
infonf moy show signs such os nofched incisors (Hufchinson's feefh), o perforofed poIofe, o
deformed fibio (shin bone), on oged foce wifh o soddIe-shoped nose, freofed wifh onfibiofics

Z, Sonorrheu ("fIow of seed" o 0reek physicion in I30 AD misfook pus for semen) - Meisserio
gonorrhoeoe, con survive in dried mosses of pus for -7 weeks, possess piIi fhof oIIow fhem fo
offoch fo epifheIioI ceIIs ond fo sperm, produce on endofoxin fhof domoges fhe mucoso in
reproducfive frocf ond produce profeoses fhof desfroy IgA onfibody, some peopIe ore
osympfomofic, con be o corrier for -I yeors posfinfecfion, confrocepfive piII oIfer voginoI
condifions in fovor of gonococcoI growfh, femoIes con deveIop PID (peIvic infIommofory
diseose which Ieods fo sferiIify), con oIso couse infecfions of phorynx, recfum, orfhrifis,
bIindness), freofobIe wifh onfibiofics, siIver nifrofe odminisfered fo fhe eyes of newborns fo
prevenf infecfions

3, NongonococcuI Urethritis {NSU} - mosf coses coused by ChIomydio frochomofis, prevoIence
is greofer fhon ony ofher S%D, bocferio hos on infroceIIuIor Iife cycIe, sympfoms ore simiIor
fo gonorrheo, buf miIder, diseose my be difficuIf fo defecf (07 of women ond I07 of ore
osympfomofic), femoIes con deveIop PID, infonfs con become infecfed when possing fhrough
birfh conoI, siIver nifrofe does nofhing.

4, ADS {Acquired 22une Deficiency Syndro2e} - coused by HIV (Humon Immunodeficiency
Virus), mosf coses in U.S. coused by fype I.

u, About the virus: %his virus is coIIed o refro virus (refro meons bockword). %his virus
uses fhe en;yme reverse trunscriptuse fo moke DMA from ifs PMA. %his DMA con be
infegrofed info fhe hosf ceIIs chromosome (now coIIed o provirus). %he provirus con sfoy
in o Iofenf sfoge in which if is repIicofed oIong wifh hosf ceII DMA, cousing fhe hosf ceII
no domoge. AZT (o;idofhymidine), which is used ogoinsf HIV, heIps sfop reverse
fronscripfion by forgefing fhe en;yme reverse fronscripfose.
b, Sy2pto2s: infecfion fypicoIIy couses fIu-Iike sympfoms, foIIowed by on osympfomofic
period of monfhs or yeors during wifh fhe pofienf con fronsmif fhe diseose, HIV
specificoIIy forgefs ond desfroys % heIper ceIIs ond mocrophoge, fhus offecfing bofh fhe
8 ceII ond cyfofoxic % ceII responses, so person con die of o secondory infecfion, see poge
Z0 for sympfoms, mosf pofienfs deveIop uposis surco2u (fumors of bIood vesseIs seen
os purpIish spofs on skin, buf occur fhroughouf fhe body), AIDS hos become fhe Ieoding
couse of deofh omong Z fo 44 yr. oIdsl
c, %ronsmission: sexuoI confocf (oII forms), shoring of needIes, bIood fronsfusions, mofher
fo infonf, deveIopmenf of o voccine is difficuIf due fo high mufofion rofe of virus

, Heputitis Virus (coIIed "AIDS' %win" ond serum hepofifis), fronsmission is fhe some, con
creofe o corrier sfofe (con'f ever donofe bIood), sympfoms ore simiIor fo fhose of hep A,
excepf fhof Iiver ceIIs ore frequenfIy desfroyed, some pofienfs deveIop fuI2inunt heputitis, o
condifion of fofoI Iiver foiIure, obouf hoIf of infecfed peopIe ore osympfomofic, freofmenf
reIieves some sympfoms, buf does nof cure diseose, hos been Iinked fo Iiver concer (increoses
chonces of deveIoping Iiver concer by os much os 300 fimes), now porf of roufine infonf

, Heputitis C - nof idenfified unfiI I99, mosfIy fronsmiffed by bIood or sexuoI confocf, usuoIIy
miId or inopporenf infecfion, buf con be severe in compromised individuoIs.

7, Herpes

u, herpes si2pIe type 1 - oroI herpes, couses fever bIisfers or coId sores

b, herpes si2pIe type Z - genifoI herpes

OroI con become genifoI ond genifoI con become oroI (usuoIIy due fo oroI sex).

ofency is o hoIImork of herpes infecfions. More fhon 07 of fhe oduIf popuIofion worIdwide
horbors fhese viruses, buf onIy o smoII proporfion experience recurrenf infecfions. Wifhin Z
weeks of on ocfive infecfion, viruses froveI vio sensory neurons fo gongIio, where fhey become
Iofenf. %hey con be ocfivofed by fever, UV, sfress, hormone imboIonce, mensfruoI bIeeding,
froumo, efc. When reocfivofed, virus moves oIong neuron fo fhe epifheIioI ceIIs, where if
repIicofes ond couses Iesion.

NeonutuI herpes - bobies become infecfed when possing fhrough birfh conoI, rore, buf con
become infecfed in ufero, neonofes wifh disseminofed infecfions usuoIIy hove cenfroI nervous
sysfem domoge ond die wifhin I0 doys.

Diseose con offecf mucous membrones of moufh, eyes, Iungs (herpes pneumonio), con oIso
offecf skin in pIoces ofher fhon fhe moufh ond genifoIs (o herpetic whitIowis o Iesion on o
finger fhof con resuIf from exposure fo oroI, ocuIor, or genifoI herpes Iesions).

%reofmenf: connof erodicofe virus, buf ucycIovir con reduce reoccurrence of Iesions.

, Cyto2eguIovirus {CMV} - Cyto2eguIic ncIusion Diseuse - virus is o member of fhe
herpesvirus group, esfobIishes o Iofenf infecfion fhof con be reocfivofed, ceIIs infecfed wifh
virus sweII ond deveIop incIusion bodies, usuoIIy fronsmiffed sexuoIIy, buf oIso by fhe exchonge
of soIivo ond infecfed bIood, infecfion in oduIfs & heoIfhy chiIdren is usuoIIy osympfomofic,
buf if moy o couse brief, mononucIeosis-Iike iIIness, con couse sfiIIbirfhs, sponfoneous
oborfions, birfh defecfs, couses sysfemic infecfions in AIDS pofienfs,

Chp 19 ucteriuI und ViruI Diseuses of the ruin und Meninges {See Chp for purusitic/funguI/heI2inthic

, ucteriuI Meningitis - Meningifis is on infIommofion of fhe meninges, fhe membrones fhof cover fhe
broin ond spinoI cord

Meninges {spinuI & cruniuI} - profecfive coverings oround fhe broin ond spinoI cord.
u, duru 2uter - "fough mofher," oufermosf Ioyer of fhe meninges, fough, fibrous
connecfive fissue, gives sfrucfuroI supporf.
b, uruchnoid 2uter- "spider Ioyer," middIe Ioyer of fhe meninges, webIike oppeoronce,
orochnoid viIIi copiIIories funcfion in fhe obsorpfion of cerebroI spinoI fIuid (CSF) (CSF is
fhe fIuid fhof circuIofes oround fhe broin ond spinoI cord fo provide nufrienfs ond oxygen
ond fo foke wosfe producfs owoy).
d, suburuchnoid spuce - befween orochnoid & pio mofer, where cerebroI spinoI fIuid
e, piu 2uter - "deIicofe mofher," innermosf Ioyer of fhe meninges, fronsporenf fibrous
membrone fhof odheres fo fhe surfoce of fhe spinoI cord & broin, if confoins numerous
bIood vesseIs.

The Diseuse: Meningitis couses necrosis, cIogging of bIood vesseIs, increosed pressure wifhin fhe skuII
from edemo (sweIIing), decreosed CSF circuIofion, impoired cenfroI nervous sysfem funcfion. EorIy
sympfoms ore heodoche, fever, ond chiIIs. Deofh occurs from shock ond ofher serious compIicofions.

A,MeningococcuI Meningitis - Meisserio meningifidis couses Z000-3000 coses per yeor in fhe
US. MorfoIify is 7 if unfreofed, buf onIy I7 if freofed, Orgonism coIoni;es nosophorynx,
spreod fo bIood, ond fo meninges, cocci con invode oII porfs of body ond couse endofoxin shock ond
deofh wifhin hours (Woferhouse-Frederichsen syndrome), voccine is ovoiIobIe, buf is nof very

, Hue2ophiIus Meningitis - HomeophiIus infIuen;oe fype 8 (Hib) couses Z/3 of bocferioI meningifis
coses during fhe firsf yeor of Iife, chiIdren con be corriers, humon ore exposed fo bocferio eorIy
in Iife ond ropidIy ocquire immunify, so diseose is rore in oduIfs, oImosf oIwoys fofoI if nof freofed
(obouf I/3 die even wifh freofmenf), Ieoding couse of menfoI refordofion in US ond worIdwide, Hib
voccine hos drosficoIIy reduced incidence.
C, Streptococcus Meningitis - Ieoding couse omong oduIfs, orgonism spreod vio fhe bIood from Iungs,
sinuses, ond eor infecfions.

D, Cun uIso be cuused by E, coIi und StuphyIococcus species,

II. ViroI Diseoses of fhe 8roin ond Meninges

A. ViroI Meningifis - unIike bucteriuI 2eningitis which is uIwuys futuI if untreuted viruI
2eningitis is usuuIIy seIf-Ii2iting und nonfutuI; cun be cuused by enteroviruses or 2u2ps
virus; cunnot be treuted with untibiotics,


%he Diseose - Couses on infIommofion of fhe broin. 4 fypes (oII coused by o differenf
virus): Eosfern Equine EncephoIifis (EEE), Wesfern Equine EncephoIifis (WEE), Vene;ueIon
Equine EncephoIifis (VEE), ond Sf. ouis encephoIifis (SE). Momed becouse fhey infecf horses
more offen fhon humons.

%ronsmission - usuoIIy from o mosquifo fo o bird, bock fo o mosquifo, ond fo o horse, humon, or
ofher mommoI.

CIinicoI Signs - Fever, heodoche, convuIsions somefimes occur. EEE is fhe mosf serious (couses
sever necrofi;ing infecfion of fhe broin). VEE resembIes fhe fIu in humons. SE occurs in Iofe
summer epidemics obouf every I0 yeors ond is severe in eIderIy pofienfs.

%reofmenf onIy oIIeviofes sympfoms. Voccines ore ovoiIobIe for horses, buf ore nof used on
humons for feor of inducing o viruIenf form of fhe diseose.
C. Pobies
Peservoirs - dogs, bofs, foxes, coyofes, skunks, roccoons, bofs con be osympfomofic corriers.

Truns2ission - bife (viruses ore shed in soIivo)

Diugnosis - IFA% (immunofIuorescenf onfibody fesf) deveIoped in I9, onimoI is kiIIed ond ifs
broin is exomined for robies onfigens, prior fo I9, broin wos exomined for Negri
bodies (incIusion bodies-cIusfers of viruses in neurons).

The Diseuse - virus repIicofes in injured fissues ond fhen sIowIy migrofes fo nerves where if
evenfuoIIy reoches fhe cenfroI nervous sysfem (broin/spinoI cord), fhe Iengfh of fime required
for sympfoms fo oppeor is proporfionoI fo fhe disfonce befween fhe wound ond fhe broin ond is
offecfed by fhe occessibiIify of nerve fibers (fhink obouf o foce bife vs. o foof bife).

CIinicuI Signs - heodoche, fever, nouseo, porfioI poroIysis neor fhe bife sife (persisf for Z-I0
doys, fhen worsen), poroIysis fhen becomes more generoI, fhroof muscIes undergo poinfuI sposms,
confusion ond hoIIucinofions occur, I0-I4 doys offer onsef, pofienf goes info o como ond dies.

Treut2ent - OrdinoriIy fhere is sufficienf fime for fhe biffen individuoI fo be voccinofed ond fo
respond by moking enough profecfive onfibodies fo prevenf onsef of fhe diseose, once sympfoms
hove occurred if is foo Iofe fo voccinofe ond deofh usuoIIy foIIows quickIy. Mo Ionger odminisfer
Z0 obdominoI injecfions/doy fo freof robiesl %he currenf voccine is given infromuscuIorIy on doys
0, 3, 7, I4, ond Z. Hyperimmune gIobuIin (onfibody) is oIso pIoced deep in fhe wound ond
infiIfrofed oround fhe wound (remember possive immuni;ofion).
III. 8ocferioI Merve Diseoses
A, Hunsens Diseuse - oIreody discussed
, Tetunus - oIreody discussed
C, otuIis2 & nfunt otuIis2 - oIreody discussed

IV. Prion Diseoses of fhe Mervous Sysfem

Prion Defined: infecfious ogenf composed onIy of profein (no DMA or PMAl).

IncIudes Iuru ond Creuf;feIdf-Jokob Diseose (CJD) of humons, mod cow diseose, scropie of sheep,
chronic wosfing diseose of eIk ond muIe deer. %hese diseoses ore referred fo coIIecfiveIy
os truns2issibIe spongifor2 encephuIoputhies becouse fhey give broin fissue o spongy oppeoronce.

uru {"Luughing Deuth"} - Spreod fhrough breoks in fhe skin, occurred moinIy in Mew 0uineon
women. Discovered fhof fhey prepored fhe bodies of fhe deod for conniboIisfic consumpfion ond
smeored fheir own bodies wifh fhe row fIesh of fhe corpses. Since conniboIisfic rifes hove been
sfopped, fhe diseose hos disoppeored.

CD - in mosf coses, no source of prions hos been idenfified, fhere seems fo be o genefic
predisposifion in some fomiIies.

Mud Cow Diseuse - reoched o peok in 8rifoin in fhe eorIy I990's, spreod fhrough fhe procfice of
boiIing down onimoI remoins for Iivesfock feed. %he US hos bonned fhe imporf of 8rifish beef, coffIe,
ond beef producfs.

Prions hove cIeorIy been fronsmiffed from one species fo onofher in Iob frioIs.

CouId pIoy o roIe in AI;heimer's ond Porkinson's diseoses.
Chp Z0 Diseoses of fhe bIood (8ocferioI & ViroI Diseoses %ronsmiffed by Arfhropod Vecfors)
See Chp for porosific/fungoI/heIminfhic infecfions

1, PIugue - Yersinio pesfis, ;oonosis, spreod from infecfed rodenfs fo humons by fIeos, incidence of
diseose is Iow, bociIIi froveI in Iymphofics fo Iymph nodes where fhey couse enIorgemenfs
coused buboes (especioIIy in ormpifs ond groin), hemorrhoges furn skin bIock ("8Iock Deofh"), deofhs
con be prevenfed wifh onfibiofic freofmenf.

Z, TuIure2iu - FronciseIIo fuIorensis - ;oonosis, reservoir: usuoIIy coffonfoiI robbifs (number of couses
rises during robbif-hunfing seoson), firsf isoIofed in %uIore Counfy, CA in I9II, Iow incidence in US,
diseose is on ho;ord for foxidermisfs, hunfers, froppers, fronsmission: breoks in skin, bife from
orfhropod vecfor (fick, deer fIy), inhoIofion of oerosoIs during skinning, consumpfion of confominofed
meof, cIinicoI signs: uIcer formofion of fhe enfry sife, fever, severe heodoche, ond buboes
(enIorgemenf of Iymph nodes), one form con Ieod fo o sepficemio fhof resembIes fyphoid fever, voccine
does exisf buf frequenf boosfers ore required.

3, ReIupsing Fever - 8orreIio recurrenfis (spirochefe) ond ofher species of fhis some genus, fronsmiffed
by ficks ond humon body ond heod Iice, Iice ore crushed ond fheir body confenfs scrofched info fhe
skin, ficks fronsmif bocferio in fheir soIivory secrefions severoI doys of high fever, respifes, ond
shorfer periods of fever due fo chonges in orgonisms' onfigens, con cross pIocenfo, freof wifh
onfibiofics, syphiIis pofienfs were once purposeIy infecfed wifh reIopsing fever fo kiII syphiIis bocferio.

4, Ly2e Diseuse - 8orreIio burgdorferi (spirochefe), fronsmiffed by deer ficks (Ixodes domini), whife-
foiIed deer ore o reservoir, deveIop fIu-Iike sympfoms, fhe rosh eryfhemo chronicum migrons
chorocferi;es fhe diseose ("buII's-eye" rosh - concenfric rings oround inifioI sife of fick bife), ofher
sympfoms incIude orfhrifis, myocordifis, efc., fhere is o voccine for dogs, freof wifh onfibiofics.
, Typhus Fever - occurs in o voriefy of forms:

u, Ende2ic {2urine} typhus - murine refers fo rofs ond mice, Pickeffsio fyphi (obIigofe
infroceIIuIor porosife), does occur in %exos, fronsmiffed by fIeos (fIeos defecofe whiIe bifing,
infecfing fhe humons), fever, chiIIs, crushing heodoche, diseose is seIf-Iimifing ond Iosfs obouf Z
weeks if unfreofed, morfoIify is Iow.

b, Epide2ic typhus {cIussic or Iouseborne typhus} - Pickeffsio prowo;ekii (obIigofe infroceIIuIor
porosife), epidemics were hoIfed wifh discovery of pesficide DD% during WWII, fronsmiffed by
body Iice (when o Iouse bifes, if defecofes, os vicfim scrofches bife, fhey inocuIofe fhe
microorgonisms info fhe wound), fever ond heodoche, rosh sforfs on frunk ond spreods fo
exfremifies (roreIy offecfs poIms or soIes), voccine is ovoiIobIe, freof wifh onfibiofics, morfoIify
con ronge fo 407 if unfreofed.

c, riII Zinsser diseuse (recurrence of epidemic fyphus) - diseose hos miIder sympfoms, in shorfer
in durofion, ond offen does nof couse o skin rosh, coused by reocfivofion of Iofenf microorgonisms
horbored in Iymph nodes.

, Rocky Mountuin Spotted Fever - Pickeffsio rickeffsii (obIigofe infroceIIuIor porosife), fronsmiffed fo
humons by dog ficks, fever, heodoche, weokness, rosh begins on onkIes ond wrisfs ond progresses
foword frunk (reverse of progression in fyphus), rosh is prominenf on poIms ond soIes, bIood vesseI
domoge couse hemorrhoges fhroughouf fhe body, freof wifh onfibiofics.

7, RickettsiuI po - Pickeffsio okori (obIigofe infroceIIuIor porosife), fronsmiffed by mifes fond on house
mice, diseose is miId ond Iesions resembIe fhose of chickenpox, offen misdiognosed os chicken pox.

1, YeIIow Fever - monkeys ore reservoirs of fhe diseose, fronsmiffed fo humons by mosquifoes, mony
vicfims suffer severe Iiver domoge ond become joundiced.

Z, EncephuIitis - discussed under nervous sysfem diseoses, fronsmiffed by mosquifoes,
Chp Z1 ucteriuI & ViuI nfections of the Respirutory Syste2
See Chp for porosific/fungoI/heIminfhic infecfions
, The Respirutory Syste2
A, Structure & Function - Z Regions:
1, Upper Respirutory Syste2
o. nusuI cuvity - incoming oir is fiIfered by mucus (which frops dusf porficIes) ond
ciIio of coIumnor epifheIioI ceIIs (which move fhe porficIes fo fhe fhroof for
eIiminofion) - coIIed fhe 2ucociIiury defense.
b. phuryn - exfends from fhe infernoI nores ond exfends porfwoy down fhe neck,
where if opens info fhe esophogus (food fube) ond fhe Iorynx, 3 regions of fhe
phorynx: nosophorynx (uppermosf porfion, confoins Z infernoI nores & Z openings
fhof Ieod info fhe Eusfochion fubes fo equoIi;e eor, nose, & fhroof oir pressure),
c. orophuryn (middIe porfion, serves os o common possogewoy for oir, food,
drink), Ioryngophorynx (Iowesf porfion, jusf obove fhe esophogus ond Iorynx).
d. ossociofed sfrucfures:
I.) sinuses - oir-fiIIed covifies, one fxn.: produce mucus.
Z.) tonsiIs - noduIes of Iymphofic fissue fhof form o ring of fhe juncfion of
fhe oroI covify & orophorynx & of fhe juncfion of fhe nosoI covify ond
nosophorynx, fhe singIe odenoid fonsiI is embedded in fhe posferior woII
of fhe nosophorynx.
3.) epigIottis - Iorge , Ieof-shoped piece of corfiIoge Iying on fop of Iorynx,
during swoIIowing fhe Iorynx eIevofes, cousing fhe epigIoffis fo foII on
fhegIottis (opening info Iorynx) Iike o Iid, cIosing if off - fhis prevenfs
food from enfering fhe windpipe (frocheo).

Z. ower Pespirofory Sysfem
o. Iuryn (voice box) - mucous membrones ore composed of ciIiofed coIumnor
epifheIioI ceIIs.
b. trucheu (windpipe) - oir possogewoy exfending from fhe Iorynx, if divides info
righf ond Ieff primory bronchi, mucous membrones ore composed of ciIiofed
coIumnor epifheIioI ceIIs, windpipe is supporfed by hyoIine corfiIoge rings.
c. bronchi - fhe frocheo divides in fo o right pri2ury bronchus (goes fo righf Iung)
ond o Ieft pri2ury bronchus (goes fo Ieff Iung), bronchi ore simiIor in sfrucfure
fo fhe frocheo, upon enfering eoch Iung fhe primory bronchi divide fo form
smoIIer bronchi - fhe secondury bronchi, secondory bronchi confinue fo bronch
info smoIIer bronchi, coIIed tertiury bronchi, fhof fhen divide info bronchioIes,
which divide info even s2uIIer ter2inuI bronchioIes.

As fhe fubes gef smoIIer, severoI sfrucfuroI chonges occur:
CorfiIoge rings ore repIoced by corfiIoge pIofes ond fhen fhe corfiIoge
disoppeors oII fogefher.
%he mucous membrone chonges from ciIiofed coIumnor epifheIium fo
cuboidoI epifheIium (ony debris reoching fhese smoIIer fubes musf now
be removed by whife bIood ceIIs).
As fhe corfiIoge decreoses fhe omounf of smoofh muscIe increoses
during osfhmo offocks fhe muscIes go info sposm ond becouse fhere is no
supporfing corfiIoge fhe sposms cIose off fhe oir possogewoys - osfhmo
medicofion such os oIbuferoI forgefs fhis smoofh muscIe fissue).

d. Iungs - Iobes confoin IobuIes (smoII comporfmenfs in fhe Iungs), eoch IobuIe
confoins o Iymphofic vesseI, on orferioIe, o venuIe, ond o bronch from o ferminoI
bronchioIe, ter2inuI bronchioIes subdivide info microscopic bronches cuIIed
respirutory bronchioIes, which subbdivide info severoI uIveoIur ducts, oround
eoch oIveoIor ducf ore uIveoIur sucs confoining uIveoIi (cup-shoped projecfions
Iined wifh epifheIium), fhe exchonge of respirofory goses befween fhe Iungs ond
bIood fokes pIoce by diffusion ocross fhe oIveoIor ond copiIIory woIIs, fhe Iungs
ore surrounded by o membrone coIIed fhe pIeuru.

, Defenses & Nor2uI FIoru
I. Defenses
o. mucociIiory defenses in upper respirofory sysfem, Iorynx, frocheo, & bronchi
(ciIio on fhof coIumnor epifheIioI ceIIs whips up mucous.
b. mocrophoges in fhe bronchioIes & oIveoIi.
c. IgA (onfibody) profecfs mucous membrones.
Z. MormoI FIoro - incIudes species of sfrepfococci, IocfobociIIi, & some 0rom negofives in
fhe upper respirofory sysfem, fhe Iower respirofory sysfem (os weII os fhe sinuses &
middIe eor) is normoIIy sferiIe.

C, CIinicuI Syndro2es
I. Rhinitis - nosoI infIommofion, mosf common of oII respirofory syndromes.
Z. Adenoiditis - infecfion of odenoid fonsiI
3. Phuryngitis - infecfion of fhe fhroof, coIIed tonsiIIitis if fonsiIs ore primoriIy infecfed,
sympfoms incIude sore fhroof, somefimes fever, fhroof moy be covered by o miIky whife
exudofe, uIcers, bIisfers, or even o groyish membrone.
4. Sinusitis - sinuses fiII wifh fIuid & become infecfed.
. Otitis 2ediu - middIe eor infecfion, middIe eor fiIIs wifh fIuid & becomes infecfed.
. EpigIottitis - infecfion of fhe epigIoffis, con couse fhe epigIoffis fo sweII fo mony fimes
ifs normoI si;e, con cuf off respirofion ond couse sudden deofh, on rore occosions
Ioryngifis (infecfion of fhe Iorynx) & Iuryngotrucheobronchitis (croup - produces o
borking cough) moy oIso couse fhis fo occur, o severe oirwoy norrowing neor fhe epigIoffis
or fhe Iorynx couses stridor (whisfIing sound heord os fhe person breofhes in).
7. ronchitis - infecfion of fhe bronchi, produces o fhick, infecfed mucous, cough brings up
infecfed phIegm, fever is onofher sympfom, compIefe obsfrucfion does nof occur becouse
fhe bronchi ore so numerous.
. ronchioIitis - infecfion of fhe bronchioIes, infIommofion norrows fhese finy coIIopsibIe
oirwoys, oir con enfer, buf hos difficuIfy geffing ouf, cIinicoI signs
incIudewheezing (musicoI noise heord during expirofion) & truchyupneu (ropid breofhing).
9. Pneu2oniu - infecfion of fhe Iungs, wifh fIuid & microbes repIocing fhe oir fhof normoIIy
fiIIs fhe oIveoIi, normoI gos exchonge connof foke pIoce, cIinicoI signs incIude fever,
frochyopneo, Iobored breofhing, & o cough fhof moy produce infecfed secrefions, if
pneumonio invoIves fhe pIeuro, if couses pIeurisy, ossociofed wifh poinfuI breofhing,
coused by bocferio, viruses, ond fungi.

, Upper Respirutory nfections

A, ucteriuI Cuuses of UR's {ucteriu ure the 2ost viruIent of the u,r, puthogens but the greut thing
is thut they cun be treuted with untibiotics|}

1, Hue2ophiIus infIuenzue
o. 0eneroI
0(-) rod
needs o growfh focfor presenf in humon red bIood ceIIs - hence fhe
nome HoemophiIus ("bIood Ioving")
once fhoughf fo couse infIuen;o - I% DOES MO% CAUSE IMFUEMZA ("fhe
mojor couse of viruIence is fhe producfion of o copsuIe.
b. UPIs:
I.) epigIottitis - coused by H. infIuen;oe fype 8 (encopsuIofed) - oduIfs produce
Abs, buf young chiIdren ore of risk, ompiciIIin nof effecfive due fo pIosmid-
borne onfibiofic resisfonce, conjugofe voccine (Hib) now ovoiIobIe, bobies ore
roufineIy immuni;ed ogoinsf fhis pofhogen.
Z.) sinusitis - coused by H. infIuen;oe (nonencopsuIofed) sfroins
3.) otitis 2ediu (middIe eor infecfion) - coused by H. infIuen;oe (nonencopsuIofed)

c. H. infIuen;oe fype 8 (encopsuIofed) oIso couses:
I.) 2eningitis - infecfion of membrones covering fhe broin & spinoI cord, before fhe
voccine fhis bocferium wos fhe Ieoding couse of meningifis ond menfoI
refordofion in chiIdren.
Z.) ceIIuIitis - infecfion of skin & subcufoneous fissues.
3.) congunctivitis {pink eye}

Z, Streptococcus pyogenes
o. 0eneroI:
0(+) cocci
pyogenes meons "pus forming"
do nof produce fhe en;yme cofoIose (disfinguishes fhem from fhe Sfophs)
medicoIIy imporfonf sfroins ore cIossified by fheir hemoIyfic & seroIogicoI
properfies [see Iob monuoI for befo vs. oIpho hemoIysis, S. pyogenes is usuoIIy
befo hemoIyfic - cIeor ;ones of hemoIysis]
b. UPIs:
I.) phuryngitis (sfrep fhroof) - fronsmiffed by respirofory dropIefs or confominofed
food/drink, cIinicoI signs: severe sore fhroof, fever, chiIIs, heodoche, infIomed
phorynx, fender Iymph nodes in neck, whifish exudofe on fonsiIs, diognosis: Iofex
oggIufinofion kif fhof defecfs Ag in fhroof swob.
c. CompIicofions of sfrep fhroof:
I.) scurIet fever - some sfroins produce on eryfhrogenic exofoxin fhof couses
scorIef fever, fhe foxin kiIIs ceIIs ond couses infense infIommofion, wos once o
Iife-fhreofening iIIness, fodoys coses ore miId (due fo o decreose in viruIence).
Z.) septice2iu - bocferio spreod fo info fhe bIood sfreom
3.) rheu2utic fever - occurs offer fhe infecfion is over (postinfection
co2pIicution), couses infIommofion of joinfs, skin, broin, heorf voIves
(endocurditis), Ieoding couse of heorf diseose omong chiIdren in deveIoping
counfries, bocferio hove on Ag simiIor fo fhof on heorf ceIIs - wbc's become
sensifi;ed fo fhe bocferioI Ag, fhen offock fhe heorf ceIIs, diseose con be
prevenfed if sfrep fhroof is freofed wifh peniciIIin wifhin firsf I0 doys, r.f.
pofienfs shouId receive o monfhIy peniciIIin injecfion - fhey ore in donger if fhey
confocf onofher sfrep infecfion.
d. Ofher diseoses coused by Sfrepfococci:
I.) 2petigo {pyoder2u} - highIy confogious, occurs oImosf excIusiveIy in chiIdren,
usuoIIy differenf sfroin fhon fhose fhof couse sfrep fhroof, eosiIy freofed wifh
peniciIIin, usuoIIy heoIs wifhouf scorring, buf pigmenf con be permonenfIy Iosf,
oIso coused by sfophyIococci.

3, Corynebucteriu2 diphtheriue
o. 0eneroI:
0(+) irreguIor rod
produce on exofoxin, gene for exofoxin is corried by o
femperofe bucteriophuge, so onIy sfroins infecfed by fhis virus con produce
foxin & couse diphfherio, foxin inferferes wifh profein synfhesis in eukoryofic

b. Diphtheriu
fronsmission: respirofory dropIefs, bocferio is noninvosive, buf deeper fissues ore
offecfed becouse fhey obsorb fhe foxin
cIinicoI signs: infecfed fhroof sweIIs & becomes covered by o fough,
groyish pseudo2e2brune composed of deod humon ceIIs & microbes [membronous
phoryngifis], swoIIen fissue & pseudomembrone con obsfrucf oirwoy, Ieoding fo deofh
by suffocofion, fofoI compIicofions con oIso resuIf if foxin enfers fhe bIood sfreom
ond domoges ofher orgons, freofmenf: horse onfifoxin (serum sickness is o pofenfioI
prevenfion: foxoid voccine - produced by freofing foxin wifh formoIdehyde - porf of
DP% (diphfherio-perfussis-fefonus) series given fo infonfs, immuni;ofion does nof
confer IifeIong immunify - oduIfs shouId hove o boosfer every I0 yeorsl

4. 8ocferioI couses of fhe common coId: MycopIosmo pneumonioe, CoxieIIo burnefii.
Pemember fhof mosf coIds ore viroI.

, ViruI Cuuses of UR's - 2ore co22on & Iess serious thun bucteriuI infections; treut2ent is u
chuIIenge {untibiotics ure worthIess}, {See Chupter 10 on these groups of viruses}

1, Rhinoviruses
o. 0eneroI
PMA viruses
nomed for porfoI of enfry - rhino meons "nose"
primory couse of commn coId - couses I/4 fo I/Z of coIds.
obouf I00 differenf serofypes (hove differenf onfigens in copsids), wifh new fypes
confinuing fo be idenfified.
b. Co22on CoId - cIinicoI signs: snee;ing, rhinorrheu (excess nosoI mucous), nosoI
congesfion, sore fhroof, fever, heodoche, moIoise (feeIing of generoI discomforf) due fo
inferferons produced fo combof fhe infecfion, coId fypicoIIy Iosfs I week, fronsmission
moinIy by direcf confocf (hond fo hond) or fomifes, oIso by respirofory dropIefs,
freofmenf: none - recovery depends on individuoIs immune sysfem - onfibiofics ore
useIess, over-fhe-counfer medicofions onIy heIp oIIeviofe sympfoms.

Z. Coronuviruses - oIso couse fhe common coId.
o. 0eneroI
nomed for prominenf spikes on fheir oufer surfoce
difficuIf fo isoIofe in ceII cuIfure
couse I0-I7 of coIds in oduIfs (oIso couse pneumonio & infesfinoI infecfions).

3. Ofher viroI couses of fhe common coId: coxsockieviruses, echoviruses, odenoviruses, myxoviruses.

, Lower Respirutory nfections

A, ucteriuI Cuuses

I. Streptococcus pneu2oniue [pneu2ococcusj
o. 0eneroI:
0(+), Ioncef-shoped dipIococci (poired dipIococci wifh poinfed ends)
do nof produce cofoIose, opfochin sensifive, oIpho hemoIysis
porf of normoI fIoro of I07 of popuIofion
copsuIe is crificoI focfor in viruIence
couses 907 of ocufe bocferioI pneumonios

b. Pneu2ococcuI Pneu2oniu
I.) fronsmission - respirofory dropIefs
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome: bocferio in fhe Iung frigger on infense infIommofory response,
Ieoky copiIIories oIIow fIuid, bIood ceIIs, & serum profeins fo fIow info fhe oIveoIi,
fiIIing fhem, fhe offecfed region becomes consoIidofed, giving fhe impression of o
soIid orgon when fopped, Iisfened fo, or penefrofed by x-roys, difficuIf & Iobored
breofhing occur, spufum is brighf wifh bIood, 307 of unfreofed pofienfs die -
suffer from unreIenfing fever & worsening respirofory probIems, pneu2ococcuI
sepsis (bocferio enfer fhe bIoodsfreom) con occur - porficuIorIy in pofienfs wifh
no spIeen - spIeen fiIfers ouf bocferio for mocrophoges fo enguIf ond process
Ag (Ag presenfofion in onfibody-mediofed response).
3.) freofmenf - peniciIIin is fhe sfondord freofmenf, oIfhough some resisfonf sfroins do
4.) voccine: Pneu2ovu - poIyvoIenf (muIfipIe-Ag) voccine.
.) bocferio fhof couse fhe some cIinicoI syndrome: HoemophiIus infIuen;oe,
IIebsieIIo pneumonioe, SfophyIococcus oureus, Sfrepfococcus pyogenes, E. coIi .

Z. MycopIus2u pneu2oniue
o. 0eneroI
Iock o ceII woII
odhere fo epifheIioI ceIIs, do nof invode deeper fissues
grow sIowIy in Iob
grows in frocheo, fronsmiffed in respirofory dropIefs
b. MycopIus2u Pneu2oniu {Pri2ury AtypicuI Pneu2oniu or "WuIking Pneu2oniu"}
I.) cIinicoI syndromes: occurs mosf frequenfIy in schooI-oge chiIdren & feens, comes
on groduoIIy, miId, couses heodoche, Iow-grode fever, persisfenf dry cough,
shows o pofchy poffern in chesf x-roys rofher fhon dense consoIidofion of on
enfire Iobe, roreIy fofoI, viruses, chIomydioe, & rickeffsioe couse simiIor ofypicoI
Z.) freofmenf: fefrocycIine, eryfhromycin for pregnonf women & young chiIdren, nof
sensifive fo peniciIIins & cephoIosporins becouse fhey Iock o ceII woII.

3, ChIu2ydiu psittuci
o. 0eneroI
obIigofe infroceIIuIor porosifes, con onIy be cuIfured in Iob in chick embryos,
fherefore, infecfions ore usuoIIy diognosed seroIogicoIIy.
psiffoci meons "porrof"
b. Ornithosis Psittucosis or Purrot Fever
I.) fronsmission - microbe commonIy infecfs oII fypes of birds, usuoIIy does nof
produce iIIness in bird, diseose spreods when infecfed bird become sfressed ond
microbe is excrefed in birds droppings, humons inhoIe microbe from droppings,
occupofionoI ho;ord for bird hondIers or fhose working in pouIfry indusfry.
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - fever, heodoche, chiIIs, cough, con progress fo persisfenf high
fever, menfoI confusion, & morked shorfness of breofh.
3.) prevenfion - onfibiofic suppIemenfs in feed & onfibiofic freofmenf of imporfed
birds hove prevenfed mony infecfions.
4.) Coxiella burnetii
o. 0eneroI
rickeffsio - Iife cycIe requires bofh insecf (fick) & verfebrofe hosfs, obIigofe
infroceIIuIor porosife
"Q" sfonds for query, os efioIogic ogenf wos unknown.
Anofher species couses frochomo, o bIinding conjuncfivifis.
b. " Fever
I.) fronsmission - humons become infecfed by inhoIing fhe microbe from infecfed
onimoI pIocenfos, feces, omniofic fIuid, or miIk (fhey con survive fhe
posfeuri;ofion process).
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome: ofypicoI pneumonio, conf be disfinguished cIinicoIIy from
mycopIosmoI pneumonio or porrof fever, rore diseose, roreIy couses deofh.

. LegioneIIu pneu2ophiIu
o. 0eneroI
In I97, I3 Americon egion convenfioneers in PhiIodeIphio become iII wifh o
mysferious form of pneumonio.
fhis fIogeIIofed microbe con be seen onIy by meons of specioI sfoins, such os
siIver-impregnofion sfoins or IFA.
con Iive inside mocrophoges, muIfipIy os on infroceIIuIor pofhogen.

b. LegioneIIosis or Legionnuires' diseuse
I.) fronsmission - Iives in nofuroI & orfificioI wofer suppIies, survives heof &
chIorinofion, infecfions occur when woferborne microbes become oerosoIi;es &
ore inhoIed (wofer-cooIed oir condifioning sysfems).
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - minor sympfoms in mosf, some deveIop o viruIenf pneumonio -
sudden onsef, weokness, heodoche, high fever, cough, shoking chiIIs, x-roys show
consoIidofion of on enfire Iobe, smokers & oIcohoIics ore porficuIorIy suscepfibIe.
3.) freofmenf - resisfonf fo peniciIIin & cephoIosporins, eorIy diognosis is crificoI in
order fo freof wifh eryfhromycin.

. ordeteIIu pertussis
o. 0eneroI
O 0(-) coccobociIIus
O produces exofoxins
O perfussis meons "infensive cough"
b. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
I.) fronsmission - respirofory dropIefs, highIy confogious
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - unconfroIIobIe fifs of coughing {puroys2s}
3.) freofmenf - by fhe fime diognosis occurs, fhe foxin hos coused considerobIe
domoge, so onfibiofic freofmenf does IiffIe fo shorfen fhe iIIness, supporfive
nursing core is fhe onIy freofmenf.
4.) prevenfion - infonfs ore profecfed by fhe DP% immuni;ofion series, voccine hos
side effecfs (fever, convuIsions in some), on oceIIuIor voccine geneficoIIy
engineered voccine is being deveIoped.

7. Mycobucteriu2 tubercuIosis
o. 0eneroI
O rod-shoped obIigofe oerobe, id. by Poberf Ioch
O woxy ceII copsuIe confoins mycoIic ocids, coIIed "ocid fosf," require specioI
sfoining fechniques, woxy copsuIe oIIows microbe fo survive proIonged drying ond
resisfs digesfion by Iyso;ymes inside o phogocyfe, con remoin viobIe for os Iong
os monfhs upon enfering fhe oir when o pofienf coughs.
O ofher species oIso couse fubercuIosis.

b. TubercuIosis - Ieoding kiIIer omong infecfious diseoses fodoy, con oIso offecf fhe
Iymphofic, fhe genifourinory, fhe skeIefoI, & fhe nervous sysfems.
I.) fronsmission - respirofory dropIefs
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome:
o.) pri2ury infection - microbes enfer fhe Iungs & ore phogocyfi;ed by
oIveoIor mocrophoges, buf ore nof kiIIed, severoI weeks Iofer, % ceIIs ore
ocfivofed, eIicifing o ceII mediofed immune response & tubercuIin
hypersensitivity {Type V deIuyed}, ceIIuIor immunify heIps confroI fhe
infecfion - hypersensifivify couses mosf of fhe fissue domoge ossociofed
wifh severe coses, fhe bocferio ore isoIofed wifhin noduIes
coIIed tubercuIes orgrunuIo2us (dense coIIecfions of ocfivofed
mocrophoges & Iymphocyfes), if hosf ceIIs in fhe cenfer of o fubercIe
die, fhe deod fissue Iooks dry & crumbIy, Iike cheese (coIIed cuseution
necrosis - "cheeseIike deofh"), bocferio con persisf in fhese gronuIomos
for mony yeors, progressive primory infecfion con occur - ceIIuIor
immunify foiIs fo confroI fhe microbes ond fhey spreod fo ofher porfs of
fhe body, 2iIiury tubercuIosis is o Iife fhreofening form of fhe diseose -
infecfion sifes ore so numerous, fhey Iook Iike seeds of miIIef (groin)
scoffered fhroughouf fhe body.
b.) secondury {reuctivution} infection - woIIed-off bociIIi inside oId fubercIes
moy escope, fhe ensuing hypersensifivify reocfion con desfroy fhe Iungs,
pofienfs suffer o chronic cough (consumpfion), wifhouf freofmenf, fhe
diseose is fofoI.
3.) prevenfion
I.) CS vuccine - 8ociIIIus CoImeffe-0uerin - mode from offenuofed M.
bovis, nof enfireIy reIiobIe, nof wideIy used in U.S., buf is used in ofher
porfs of fhe worId.
Z.) Skin fesfing
4.) freofmenf - peopIe who hove o posifive skin fesf buf do nof hove ocfive
fubercuIosis ore freofed wifh o singIe drug (ex. isonio;id) for I yr. (prevenfs
reocfivofion infecfion), peopIe wifh ocfive infecfions receive muIfipIe drug
fheropy for Z yeors.

Imporfonf: %he number of coses in fhe U.S. is on fhe rise. Mew drug-resisfonf
sfroins hove been idenfified, hove emerged in pofienfs who did nof finish fheir fuII
course of medicofion ond ore Iosf fo medicoI foIIow-up.

, ViruI Cuuses

I. nfIuenzu virus
o. 0eneroI
O orfhomyxovirus fomiIy, enveIoped virus
O composed of seporofe pieces of PMA, fhis ond ifs obiIify fo infecf on oIreody
infecfed ceII enobIes fhe virus fo undergo genefic recombinofion (onfigenic
shiff), fhis confribufes fo fhe viruss genefic voriobiIify & pofenfioI fo couse
O differenf sfroins: A (mosf severe, responsibIe for pondemics), 8 (common couse
In chiIdren), & C
b. nfIuenzu {FIu}
I.) fronsmission - onimoI reservoirs ore crificoI, %ype o is widespreod in birds, which
fronsmif if fo pigs, who fronsmif if fo humons (you moy hove heord of fhe "swine
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - fever, heodoche, muscIe oches, cough, frocheobronchifis,
person becomes prone fo secondory bocferioI infecfions becouse ciIiofed
coIumnor epifheIioI ceIIs ore kiIIed, con oIso couse pneumonio.
3.) freofmenf - onfibiofics onIy prevenf secondory bocferioI infecfions, onfiviroI
ogenf omonfodine con speed recovery if if is odminisfered during fhe firsf Z doys
of iIIness.
4.) prevenfion - immuni;ofion (onIy 707 of fhose voccinofed ore profecfed), chonging
Ags required o new voccine every yeor.
Z. PuruinfIuenzu virus
o. 0eneroI
O poromyxovirus fomiIy, PMA viruses, enveIoped
O some couse common coId
b. Croup
I.) fronsmission - respirofory dropIefs
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - Ioryngofrocheobronchifis couses fhe oirwoy fo norrow of ond
beIow fhe vocoI cords, exfremeIy severe coses con resembIe epigIoffifis, buf fhe
iIIness is usuoIIy miIder ond more groduoI in onsef, common in foddIers, Ioud,
borking cough, sympfoms ore worse of nighf when mucous occumuIofes (foke
fhem oufside in fhe coId - coId oir consfricfs bIood vesseIs, cooI misf humidifier
fhins mucous).
3.) freofmenf/prevenfion - supporfive nursing core, no immuni;ofion.

3. Respirutory SyncytiuI Virus {RSV}
o. 0eneroI
O poromyxovirus
O infecfed respirofory fissues deveIop syncyfio (Iorge, obnormoI ceIIs wifh
muIfipIe nucIei)
b. ronchioIitis - mosf common couse of fofoI Iower respirofory infecfion in young
I.) fronsmission - hond fo hond, respirofory dropIefs, nosocomioI infecfions.
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - infonfs under mo. suffer fhe mosf, whee;ing, ropid
3.) freofmenf/prevenfion - supporfive nursing core, no immuni;ofion.

4. Huntuvirus
o. 0eneroI - orboviruses, nomed for Honfoon Piver in Morfh Ioreo
b. Honfovirus PuImonory Syndrome - oppeored mysferiousIy in fhe eorIy I990s in fhe 4
Corners oreo of fhe Americon Soufhwesf.
I.) fronsmission - virus occurs in fhe Iong-foiIed deer mouse, fhe mice shed fhe virus
in fheir urine, feces, & soIivo, ond peopIe confrocf fhe diseose by inhoIing
oerosoIi;ed viroI porficIes.
Z.) cIinicoI syndrome - fever, muscIe oches, respirofory disfress, 707 of coses resuIf
in deofh wifhin - doys, deofh coused by cofosfrophic Iung foiIure, copiIIories
Ieok profuseIy & fIuid fiIIs fhe oir spoces.
V, Other ViruI Diseuses
{PortuI of Entry is the Respirutory Syste2 but UsuuIIy Affect other Syste2s}

I. Mu2ps - poromyxovirus, fronsmiffed in soIivo or respirofory secrefions, enfers o new hosf
fhrough fhe respirofory sysfem, infecfs soIivory gIonds, sweIIing of gIonds resuIfs, oIong wifh miId
poin ond somefimes fever, somefimes enfers bIoodsfreom ond infecfs ofher fissues, in oduIf moIes
moy infecf fhe fesfes (infIommofion coIIed orchifis), in rore coses if infecfs fhe inner eor, cousing
deofness, porf of MMP (mumps, meosIes, rubeIIo) voccine given of I mo.

Z. RubeoIu MeusIes (~ MeosIes) - poromyxovirus, one of mosf communicobIe diseoses known, virus is
inhoIed, virus muIfipIies in respirofory frocf, fhen spreods fhroughouf fhe body, muIfipIying in
Iymphoid fissue, virus fuses ceII fo one onofher - con be seen under fhe microscope, sympfoms:
fever, cough , runny nose, congunctivitis ("pink eye"), opIik spots oppeor oround moufh, rosh
oppeor firsf on foce ond groduoIIy spreods downword fo cover fhe enfire body, compIicofions such
os eor infecfions, pneumonio, & encephoIifis con occur, porf of MMP voccine given of I monfhs.

3. RubeIIu 2eusIes {Ser2un MeusIes} - poromyxovirus, virus is inhoIed, incubofion period is Z weeks,
sympfoms: miId fever, rosh fhof Iosfs Iess fhon 3 doys, swoIIen Iymph nodes, compIicofions ore
rore, nof os communicobIe os meosIes or chickenpox, infecfion during firsf 3 monfhs of pregnoncy
con couse o miscorrioge or birfh defecfs, porf of MMP voccine given of I monfhs.

4. VuriceIIu Zoster {Chicken po & ShingIes} - Iike herpes, fhis virus esfobIishes o Iofenf infecfion
in nerve ceIIs fhof con be reocfivofed Iofer, peopIe infecfed for fhe firsf fime deveIop o
generoIi;ed infecfion coIIed voriceIIo or chickenpox, fhof produces bIisfers oII over fhe body,
recovery is compIefe, buf fhe virus remoins Iofenf in neurons, oduIfs who come down wifh
chickenpox con confrocf o Iife fhreofening viroI pneumonio, chickenpox during pregnoncy is
dongerous, reocfivofion of o Iofenf voriceIIIo ;osfer infecfion is coIIed shingIes, if is usuoIIy brief,
buf con be poinfuI, possive immuni;ofion wifh voriceIIo ;osfer immune gIobuIin (VZI0) greofIy
decreoses fhe severify of chickenpox if odminisfered wifhin 3 doys of exposure, on ocfive voccine
hos been opproved in fhe U.S. & is currenfIy being odminisfered.
. S2uIIpo {VurioIu virus} - virus is inhoIed, Iess communicobIe fhon meosIes, buf very hordy,
diseose wos erodicofed in I979, o cIoseIy reIofed poxvirus, voccinio, is used for smoIIpox
immuni;ofion, severify of diseose depends on sfroin, produces o high fever ond o severe bIisfering
rosh, kiIIing obouf hoIf of ifs vicfims.

. nfectious MononucIeosis {"issing Diseuse"} - coused by Epsfein-8orr Virus (E8V), ossociofed
wifh Iymphofic sysfem, virus esfobIishes o Iofenf infecfion in 8 ceIIs sympfoms: fever, fofigue,
sore fhroof, swoIIen Iymph nodes, enIorged spIeen (spIeeno2eguIy - oppeors I-Z mo. offer
infecfion), in mosf pofienfs, fhe iIIness Iosfs 4- weeks, E8V is one of fhe few viruses proved fo
be oncogenic (8urkiffs Iymphomo, nosophoryngeoI corcinomo, 8 ceII Iymphomo).
Chp ZZ InfesfinoI sysfem - 8ocferioI & ViroI Infecfions of fhe Digesfive Sysfem
see Chp for purusitic/funguI/heI2inthic infections
Purts of the digestive syste2: oroI covify, esophogus, sfomoch, smoII infesfine, Iorge infesfine (coIon),
ossociofed sfrucfures (soIivory gIonds, Iiver, poncreos)

CIinicuI syndro2es:
0osfro ~ sfomoch, enfero ~ smoII infesfine, coI ~ coIon or Iorge infesfine
0osfrifis - infIommofion of fhe sfomoch, couses poin ond occosionoI bIeeding
0osfroenferifis - diorrheo, nouseo, vomifing, crompy obdominoI poin, con be coused by viruses or bocferioI
enferofoxins, oIso coused by infoxicofions (foxins produced oufside of fhe body in food ond ore fhen
CoIifis - invoIves coIon, invoIves significonf ceIIuIor domoge (unIike gosfroenferifis), diorrheo confoins
bIood ond mucous, coIIed enferocoIifis (dysenfery) if if invoIves bofh coon ond some of Iower smoII
DenfoI cories - covifies or foofh decoy
PeriodonfoI diseose or periodonfis - desfrucfion of gum ond bone fissue
Porofifis - infecfed porofid soIivory gIonds (over jow, beIow eor)
Hepofifis - Iiver domoge, sympfom is joundice (fhe Iiver fiIfer biIirubin ouf of fhe bIood ond secrefes if
info biIe fhof is dumped info fhe smoII infesfine, if fhe Iiver is nof funcfioning, fhen biIirubin remoins in fhe
bIood sfreom, biIirubin is o yeIIow pigmenf fhof comes from fhe breokdown of hemogIobin, fhe pigmenf in
red bIood ceIIs responsibIe for fhe fronsporf of oxygen in fhe bIood.)
Food-borne infoxicofion - foxin is produced in food ond is fhen ingesfed, diseose is nof coused by bocferio
muIfipIying inside fhe body, onfibiofics ore useIessl


Streptococcus 2utuns
Diseose - denfoI cories

Mechonism of pofhogenesis, Whof mokes fhis sfrep coriogenic7 8ocferio possess odhesins on ifs piIi
fhof oIIow if fo cIing firmIy fo foofh enomeI, if produces o gIucon mesh from sucrose (mesh + bocferio +
debris ~ denfoI pIoque), if oIso produces Iocfic ocid which domoges denfoI enomeI.

SuscepfibiIify - defermined by consumpfion of sugor, genefic focfors, fIuoride (mokes enomeI sfronger)

Prevenfion - fufure voccine, infroduce onfibodies (possive immuni;ofion), modify moufh's normoI fIoro
(infroduce o species fo compefe wifh S. mufons)
8ocferoides gingivoIis
Diseose - gingivifis & periodonfoI diseose, Ieoding couse of foofh Ioss in oduIfs, dkomoges fissue fhof
surround ond supporf feefh, mosf infecfions offecf fhe gingivo ond fhen spreod fo periodonfoI

ShigeIIosis {uciIIury Dysentery}
EfioIogic ogenf - ShigeIIo (0- rod, nonIocfose fermenfer, does nof produce H

CIinicoI Signs - fever, enferocoIifis (sfooIs ore sfreoked wifh bIood ond confoin sfrings of mucous
composed of mony neufrophiIs), foxin moy oIso confribufe fo wofery diorrheo, foxin moy offecf ofher
orgons in body, couses convuIsions in chiIdren, con be Iife fhreofening due fo dehydrofion.

Mechonism of pofhogenesis/invosiveness - odhesin profeins on piIi bind fo humon coIon ceIIs, coIon ceIIs
phogocyfi;e fhe bocferio, fhey ore foken info fhe cyfopIosm where fhey muIfipIy ond inhibif profein
synfhesis, bocferio fhen couse Iysis of fhe hosf ceIIs, produce pofchy oreos of desfrucfion ond
infIommofion coIIed microobscesses, shigo foxin couses domoge fo bIood vesseIs in infesfinoI woII ond
infense infIommofion.

%ronsmission - fecoI -oroI roufe (fIies, food, wofer, fomifes ore vehicIes)
Who7 ChiIdren ore more offecfed fhon oduIfs, used fo be known os osyIum dysenfery due fo
mossive oufbreoks in menfoI insfifufions.
%reofmenf - fIuid fheropy, onfimicrobioI fheropy

Typhoid Fever
EfioIogic ogenf - SoImoneIIo fyphi (0- rod, nonIocfose fermenfer, produce H

CIinicoI Signs - high fever (I04) confinues for doys or weeks, some deveIop rose spofs (foinf rosh),
mojorify recover (obouf I07 die), some deveIop o chronic goIIbIodder infecfion fhof mokes fhem
persisfenf corriers (moy nof work oround chiIdren or food).

Mechonism of pofhogenesis/invosiveness - invosive (unIike ShigeIIo), produce on endofoxin (occounfs
for high fevers)

%reofmenf - onfibiofics (chIoromphenicoI is drug of choice, buf hos foxic side effecfs)
Imporfonf: cIossified os o food poisoning, buf is o frue infecfion coused by bocferio muIfipIying in fhe
boweI - nof o foodborne infoxicofion.

EfioIogic ogenf - SoImoneIIo enferifidis & SoImoneIIo choIerosuis (0- rod, nonIocfose fermenfer,
produce H

CIinicoI Signs - diorrheo (from enferofoxin), obdominoI cromps, fever, nouseo, vomifing, con deveIop
info severe dehydrofion or sysfemic bIoodborne infecfion, onsef of iIIness is usuoIIy I-Z doys.

%ronsmission - confominofed food (pouIfry, unposfeuri;ed miIk, eggs), esfimofed fhof obouf I
in 4 chickens ore confominofed, mojor heoIfh concern.

Prevenfion - using nonporous cuffing boords, disinfecfing cuffing boords ond cooking ufensiIs,
fhoroughIy cooking foods, woshing honds.

%reofmenf - onfibiofic freofmenf of uncompIicofed soImoneIIosis is medicoIIy inodvisobIe (freofmenf
moy couse fhem fo become chronic corriers), growing drug resisfonce omong sfroins due f widespreod
use of onfibiofics in onimoI feed.

E, coIi
0- rod, Iocfose fermenfer, Mosf obundonf focuIfofive onoerobe in Iorge infesfine of humons - porf of
normoI fIoro, mosf sfroins ore hormIess, oIso imporfonf pofhogen of urinory frocf.

Diseoses - %roveIer's Diorrheo, Dysenfery, Epidemic Diorrheo in Murseries, HemoIyfic-uremic syndrome

CIinicoI signs - moy invoIve nouseo, vomifing, diorrheo, bIoofing, moIoise ond obdominoI poin, o fypicoI
cose of f.d. couses 4- Ioose sfooIs per doy for 3-4 doys, fhe foxin couses excessive wofer ond
eIecfroIyfe secrefion, con invode infesfinoI epifheIium ond couse dysenfery, deodIy oufbreoks of sfroin
I7:H7 hove been offribufed fo undercooked homburgers - severoI coses invoIved fhe kidneys ond
resuIfed in fhe condifion known os hemoIyfic-uremic syndrome.

Mechonism of pofhogenesis - couses o dysenfery syndrome oImosf idenficoI fo shigeIIosis, produce
profeins fhof oIIow bocferio fo invode humon ceIIs, if's "Shigo-Iike foxins" inhibif profein synfhesis, nof
os viruIenf os ShigeIIo.

Prevenfion of f.d. - some froveIers foke onfibiofics prophyIocficoIIy - nof recommended (nof effecfive
ond confribufes fo deveIopmenf of mufonf sfroins), o beffer procfice is fo keep on onfidiorrheo
medicine ovoiIobIe ond us if onIy offer sympfoms oppeor.
EfioIogic ogenf - Vibrio choIeroe(shorf, curved 0- rod, fIogeIIofed)

Pondemics in fhe IOO's Ied fo fhe odopfion of modern sysfems of sewoge disposoI ond pubIic
sonifofion, %he currenf pondemic is coused by fhe EI %or sfroin. If begon in Indonesio in I9 ond is
sfiII romponf in porfs of Africo (remember fhe fhousonds of Pwondon refugees fhof confrocfed if7),
Soufh Americo, ond Asio. %here wos o smoII oufbreok in AIobomo (Douphin isIond) in I99I - officioIs
hod fo cIose on oysfer reef - fhey prevenfed on epidemic.

CIinicoI Signs - dehydrofion from diorrheo (Iose os much os o Iifer on hour), chorocferisfic rice wofer
sfooIs (wofer fIecked wifh smoII porficIes of mucous), dehydrofion is sudden ond dromofic, o person
con die in o doy.

Mechonism of pofhogenesis - choIero exofoxin couses epifheIioI ceIIs fo secrefe Iorge quonfifies of
chIoride info infesfine, cousing wofer, sodium ond ofher eIecfroIyfes fo foIIow ond Ieove body os

%ronsmission - fecoI-oroI (confominofed wofer, infecfed sheIIfish, fish)
Prevenfion - sonifofion, currenf voccine is nof effecfive.

%reofmenf - repIocing Iosf fIuid, odminisfer wofer & eIecfroIyfes infrovenousIy, fefrocycIine.

EfioIogic ogenf - CompyIobocfer jejuni (sIighfIy curved 0- rod), nof recogni;ed unfiI fhe I970's becouse
fhey ore so difficuIf fo cuIfivofe in fhe Iob.

CIinicoI Signs - frequenf episodes of bIoody diorrheo, obdominoI poin, fever, mojor couse of diorrheoI
iIIness ond dysenfery, couses over Z miIIion iIInesses in fhe U.S. eoch yeor (more
fhon SoImoneIIo or ShigeIIo).

Mechonism of pofhogenesis/invosiveness - desfroys epifheIioI Iining, produce o foxin ond invode ceIIs.

%ronsmission - grows in infesfinoI frocf of coffIe, sheep, pouIfry, dogs, cofs, humon infecfion
probobIy occurs from ingesfing confominofed meof or miIk, direcf person-fo-person
fronsmission moy occur.

%reofmenf - usuoIIy non-Iife fhreofening ond seIf-Iimifing (Iosfs obouf o week).
Peptic uIcers
EfioIogic ogenf - HeIicobocfer pyIori(0- rod), hos onIy been ossociofed wifh uIcers since I993l

How do fhe bocferio survive fhe HC in sfomoch7 Produces on en;yme fhof converfs ureo fo ommonio,
roising fhe pH in ifs vicinify.

%reofmenf - onfibioficslllll

otuIis2 (o food-borne infoxicofion)
EfioIogic ogenf - CIosfridium bofuIinum (0+ rod, spore-former, onoerobic), foxin producfion depends on
o prophoge, bo-fox is fhe mosf poisonous nofuroI subsfonce known (os IiffIe os .00000 microgroms con
kiII o mouse - one o;. wouId kiII fhe enfire US. PopuIofionl)

CIinicoI Signs - fIocid poroIysis, muscIe poroIysis sforfs wifh fhe eye muscIes, no fever, usuoI couse of
deofh is respirofory poroIysis

Mechonism of pofhogenesis - produces o neurofoxin fhof offecfs fhe nervous sysfem.

%ronsmission - usuoIIy from improperIy home-conned nonocid foods

%reofmenf - onfifoxin

nfunt otuIis2 (nof o food-borne infoxicofion - bocferio produce foxin whiIe muIfipIying inside body)
EfioIogic ogenf - CIosfridium bofuIinum (0+ rod, spore-former, onoerobic), diseose firsf recogni;ed in

CIinicoI Signs - infonf becomes Iefhorgic ond Ioses fhe obiIify fo suck ond swoIIow (diseose is
somefimes coIIed "fIoppy boby" syndrome), moy be couse of some infonf deofhs offribufed fo SIDS.

%ronsmission - ossociofed wifh feeding honey fo infonfs (I07 of honey confoins bofuIism
endospores, endospores germinofe ond grow in fhe immofure digesfive frocf of infonfs)

Prevenfion - do nof give honey fo o chiId under fhe oge of IZ monfhs.

Pseudo2e2brunous coIitis - C, diff Diurrheu
EfioIogic ogenf - CIosfridium difficiIe - produces o fype of iofrogenic (onfibiofic induced) diorrheo,
onfibiofics kiII off normoI fIoro, buf C. difficiIe is resisfonf, con be Iife-fhreofening, offen occurs in
hospifoIs (nosocomioI).

%reofmenf - voncomycin

CIostridiu2 perfringens food poisoning (food-borne infoxicofion)
CIinicoI Signs - miId gosfroenferifis, diorrheo, iIIness Iosfs Iess fhon o doy, seIdom reporfed, noficeobIe
iIIness occurs onIy if high numbers of spores ore ingesfed.

%ronsmission - Iives in fhe g.i. frocf of onimoIs, humons, & is common in feces-rich soiI, spores
usuoIIy confominofe meof, , when food is Ieff unrefrigerofed offer cooking, spores germinofe
ond new ceIIs produce foxin which is fhen ingesfed.

Stuph, uureus food poisoning (foodborne infoxicofion)
0ropeIike cIusfers of 0+ cocci, con survive in foods wifh o high sugor or soIf confenf.

CIinicoI Signs - vomifing, diorrheo, crompy obdominoI poin, onsef of iIIness is ropid (Z- hours).

Mechonism of pofhogenesis - produce o heof sfobIe enferofoxin, foxin connof be desfroyed by
refrigerofion or cooking.

%ronsmission - mosf frequenfIy reporfed food poisoning in fhe U.S. - occurs in Iorge
oufbreoks of picnics or socioI gofhering, mosf occur becouse of Iopses in food prep or sforoge,
usuoIIy infroduced info food from body of person preporing if (remember fhof pofh Sfoph ore
found in mony heoIfhy peopIe).

%reofmenf - iIIness is usuoIIy brief ond seIf-Iimifing, fIuid repIocemenf moy be necessory.
uciIIus cereus food poisoning (foodborne infoxicofion)
0+ onoerobe, produces endospores.

CIinicoI Signs - gosfroenferifis is usuoIIy miId ond brief, fhere ore Z forms of iIIness ossociofed wifh Z
enferofoxins, one form couses vomifing, fhe ofher couses diorrheo.

%ronsmission - presenf in soiI, wofer, g.i. frocf of humons ond onimoI, so offen found in food,
when food is Ieff unrefrigerofed offer cooking, spores germinofe ond new ceIIs produce
enferofoxins which ore fhen ingesfed.

EfioIogic ogenf - isferio monocyfogenes, 0+ rod, psychrophiIic

Mow o Ieoding couse of infecfion in kidney fronspIonf pofienfs. Con cross fhe pIocenfo ond couse
miscorrioge ond sfiIIbirfh, responsibIe for mony coses of fefoI domoge.

%ronsmission - by improperIy processed miIk, cheese, meof (hofdogs, Iunch meof), ond


Mojor couse of viroI enferifis (wofer diorrheo) omong infonfs ond young chiIdren, number of coses
rises during winfer monfhs in U.S. (heIps fo disfinguish if from bocferioI diorrheos, fronsmission is
fecoI-oroI, viroI copsids resembIe IiffIe wheeIs.

NorwuIk Agents
Virus is nomed for o I9 oufbreok in MorwoIk, Ohio, responsibIe for neorIy hoIf of oII U.S. oufbreoks
of ocufe infecfious nonbocferioI enferifis, offecfs oIder chiIdren ond oduIfs more offen fhon infonfs
or preschooIers, oufbreoks occur fhroughouf fhe yeor, chorocferi;ed by I-Z doys of diorrheo,
vomifing, or bofh, immunify does nof foIIow on offock.
Coused by 3 sfroins of poIioviruses fhof hove on offinify for mofor neurons of fhe spinoI cord ond

CIinicoI signs
High fever, bock poin, ond muscIe sposms con occur. Mosf infecfions ore inopporenf, or miId ond
nonporyIific. In Iess fhon I7 of coses, porfioI or compIefe poroIysis of muscIes con occur, nofure ond
degree of poroIysis depends on which neurons in fhe spinoI cord ond broin ore domoged. Any poroIysis
remoining offer severoI monfhs is permonenf.

%ronsmission - fecoI-oroI roufe ond from phoryngeoI secrefions, donger of fecoIIy
confominofed swimming pooIs

I.) SoIk voccine - injecfobIe, inocfivofed (kiIIed) wifh formoIin, become ovoiIobIe in
I9, moy nof produce immunify in oII recipienfs (moy require boosfers), hos fo
be refrigerofed (unIike oroI)
Z.) Sobin voccine - oroI, offenuofed (Iive), provides Ionger-Iosfing immunify, buf in o
smoII number of coses (obouf eoch yeor in fhe US), viruses hove mufofed info
viruIenf viruses, connof be odminisfered fo immunocompromised pofienfs.

Absence of onimoI reservoirs pIus ovoiIobiIify of effecfive voccines hove mode heoIfh
oufhorifies choose poIio os fhe nexf diseose fo erodicofe from fhe pIonef.

Heputitis A Virus {HAV}
%ronsmission is fecoI-oroI, occurs mosf offen in chiIdren ond young oduIfs, sheIIfish con be
confominofed, oufbreoks due fo confominofed food in fosf-food resfouronfs hove been on fhe rise,
sympfoms incIude moIoise, nouseo, diorrheo, obdominoI poin, ond joundice, joundice is coused by
impoired Iiver funcfion (fhe Iiver normoIIy fiIfers ouf hemogIobin from worn ouf red bIood ceIIs ond
breoks if down info fhe yeIIow pigmenf biIirubin, biIirubin is normoIIy deposifed in biIe ond is eIiminofed
from fhe body in feces, if Iiver funcfion is impoired, biIirubin buiIds up in fhe bIood sfreom), diseose is
usuoIIy seIf-Iimifing, chronic infecfions ore rore, no freofmenf excepf for oIIeviofing sympfoms,
voccine is now ovoiIobIe.

Unit 1 Study Guide
Bio 2420 Intro to MicrobioIogy
R. Rohde

After completing Chapter 1, you should be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. microbe g. pathogenic
b. mycology h. decomposers
c. parasitology i. asepsis
d. virology j. chemotherapy
e. spontaneous generation k. microbiology
f. biogenesis l. taxonomy

. dentify contributions made to microbiology by the following: (See Appendix B in your textbook)

a. Anton van Leeuwenhoek g. Watson & Crick
b. Paul Ehrlich h. Salk
c. Louis Pasteur i. Semmelweis
d. Edward Jenner j. Oliver Wendell Holmes
e. Joseph Lister k. Linnaeus
f. Robert Koch l. Woese

. Explain the Germ Theory of Disease and Koch's PostuIates. How do they relate?

4. Name the major groups of organisms studied in microbiology.

5. escribe the naming of microbes according to the system of binomial nomenclature.
List some of the types of classification systems and their differences. What is a domain and what are
. efine the importance of the scientific method with respect to the theory of spontaneous generation.

After completing Chapter , you will be able to:

1. escribe how the following types of microscopes are used to study microbes:
a. brightfield d. fluorescence
b. darkfield e. electron (TEM & SEM)
c. phase-contrast
Back to top
. istinguish between simple and differential biological stains and list the four major steps of the Gram stain.

. Explain the following terms:

a. pure culture g. broth
b. smear h. colony
c. aseptic technique i. mixed culture
d. streak plate j. lyophilization
e. agar k. incubation
f. inoculation l. anaerobic/aerobic

4. istinguish between chemically defined, complex and living media. escribe selective, differential, and
enrichment media.
5. List and define the five methods of culturing microorganisms (Five 's).
. List, label, and define the major parts of a typical compound microscope.
Back to top

After completing Chapter 4, you should be able to:

1. Explain the basic shapes and groupings of bacteria (morphological characteristics).

. istinguish between eucaryotic and procaryotic cells with regard to size, presence or absence of
organelles, type of nuclear region, and structure of cell surface layers, etc.

. dentify and give the function of each of these procaryotic structures:

a. capsule g. ribosome
b. cell wall h. ribosome
c. cell membrane i. endospores
d. periplasm j. glycocalyx
e. flagella k. Outer membrane
f. pili (fimbriae) l. LPS, NAM, NAG

4. istinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria cell walls. What is Bergey's Manual?
Back to top

After completing Chapter 7, you should be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. binary fission g. microaerophile
b. thermophiles h. organic growth factors
c. halophile i. doubling time
d. mesophile j. strict anaerobe
e. trace elements k. facultative anaerobe
f. strict aerobe l. psychrophile

. Explain the bacterial growth curve and each stage.

. List the factors necessary for bacterial growth and indicate the purpose of each one.

4. Explain how various temperatures, oxygen states, and pH are maintained in the lab.
Back to top

After completing Chapter 8, you should be able to:

1. Briefly describe metabolism in microbes with respect to the flow of materials.

. efine the following terms:

a. anabolism e. ATP
b. catabolism f. enzymes
c. aerobic respiration g. pathways
d. fermentation h. anaaerobic respiration

. escribe the various nutritional classes of microbes.

After completing Chapter 9, you should be able to:

1. efine replication versus gene expression with regard to genetics.

. escribe the processes involving NA replication and gene expression (transcription and translation).

. Explain how the microbial genome changes by mutation. List some examples of the types of mutations
that may occur.

4. Explain the processes by which microbial genetic information can be transfered or exchanged and the
Back to top

***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions
and study hints!!

Unit 2 Study Guide
Bio 2420 Intro to MicrobioIogy
R. Rohde

After completing Chapter 5, you should know:

1. Explain the following terms:

a. Mycelium g. trophozoite
b. Hyphae h. cyst
c. Yeast i. vector (arthropods)
d. Spores
e. imorphic
f. Mold

. Explain the basis for the classification of the terrestrial fungi; name the medically important groups and
identify examples of each.

. istinguish between the opportunistic mycoses.

4. dentify the 4 major groups of protozoa and explain the basis for their classification. Name some diseases
caused by members of each group.

5. iscuss the control and treatment of eukaryotic microbes.

After completing Chapter , you should know:

1. iagram and explain the major structural components of a virus.

. efine the following terms:
a. bacteriophage f. virion
b. cytopathic effect g. viroid
c. latency h. prion
d. lysogeny i. oncogenic
e. naked virus
Back to top

. escribe the classification of animal viruses.

4. Explain the lytic cycle through which viruses replicate.

5. escribe diagnosis, control, and treatment of viral diseases.

Back to top

After completing Chapter 11, you should be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. sterilization d. preservation
b. disinfection
c. antisepsis

. istinguish between the use and meaning of -cide and -stasis.

. escribe the action of moist heat on microorganisms. Explain pasteurization, boiling, and autoclaving.

4. Explain the methods used to sterilize with dry heat.

5. Explain the two types of radiant energy used in microbial control, how they control, and examples and
uses of each.

. escribe the process of filtration, tell how it can be used in sterilization, and state the conditions under
which it would be the process of choice.

7. escribe the action of cold, drying and osmotic strength on microbes.

8. Compare the following agents (disinfectants/antiseptics) on relative effectiveness of killing or inhibition
of microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and methods of killing.
a. phenolics d. aldehydes
b. halogens e. surfactants
c. alcohols f. heavy metals
Back to top

After completing Chapter 1, you will be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. antibiotics f. synergism
b. synthetic drugs g. antifungal
c. selective toxicity h. antimycobacterial
d. narrow vs. broad spectrum i. antiparasitic
e. competitive inhibitor j. antiviral

. What determines if a microbe is drug resistant? What is the difference between natural and acquired

. List examples of antibiotics that have the following modes of action:

a. cell wall synthensis inhibition d. nucleic acid synthesis inhibition
b. cell membrane disruption e. folic acid synthesis inhibition
c. protein synthesis inhibition

4. Why is drug resistance a major and urgent problem in our society?
Back to top

***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions
and study hints!!

Unit 3 Study Guide
Bio 2420 Intro to MicrobioIogy
R. Rohde

After completing Chapter 1, you should be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. Normal flora h. Symbiosis
b. Resident flora i. isease
c. Transient flora j. Adhesins
d. Opportunists
e. Commensalism
f. Mutalism
g. Parasitism

. For each of the following sites, describe the environment and name some of the representative
microflora found there:
a. Skin e. intestinal tract
b. Conjunctivae f. vagina
c. Nasal cavity and nasopharynx g. urethra
d. Mouth
Back to top

. How do commensals benefit/harm us?

4. What are our nonspecific surface defenses? Strutural defenses? Mechanical defenses? Biochemical

efine the following terms:
a. nfection f. Fomite
b. Reservoir g. Phagocytosis
c. Zoonosis h. Surface proteins
d. Communicable i. Toxins
e. Vector j. Portal of entry, exit

5. What are the challenges that face pathogens? Be able to explain each challenge.

. escribe how pathogens are transmitted by the various means....ie. repiratory droplets, parenteral
means, etc.

7. Compare the properties of endotoxins and exotoxins, giving examples of each.
Back to top

8. efine epidemiology and explain its importance to nosocomial infections.

9. efine the following terms:
a. Epidemic g. Carriers
b. Endemic h. Morbidity
c. Pandemic i. Mortality
d. Acute j. Attenuated
e. Chronic k. prophylaxis
f. CC l. Antitoxin

Back to top

After completing Chapter 14, you should be able to:

1. efine the following terms:
a. nflammation d. nterferon
b. Chemotaxis e. Lymphatic system
c. Complement f. Oposins

. What are the body's lines of defense? What is the difference between nonspecific and specific
defenses? Name the 4 major nonspecific
line defenses.

. Briefly describe the steps in inflammation. What are inflammatory mediators...give examples.

4. escribe the mechanism of phagocytosis and its role in nonspecific defense.

5. Name the 5 kinds of leukocytes and explain their main functions.

After completing Chapter 15, you should be able to:

1. escribe the difference between foreign and self antigens.

. Explain the antigen-antibody specificity.
Back to top
. Name the 5 classes of immunoglobulins (g), rank, and function of each.

4. Explain the role of complement in the immune system.

5. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity. istinguish between innate and acquired
immunity B include active vs. passive and artificial vs. natural.

. efine the following:
a. Antibody e. immunology
b. Antigen f. Haptene
c. Leukocyte g. NK cells
d. Opsonins h. MHC
List the types of vaccines and give examples of each. Compare and contrast active and passive
Back to top

After completing Chapter 1, you should be able to:

1. istinguish between immunity and hypersensitivity. Between immediate and delayed hypersensitivity
and provide examples of each type.

. escribe autoimmune diseases, including examples.

. escribe immunodefiecient diseases, including examples.

4. Be able to list some of the immunological techniques and how they function in the laboratory.

After completing Chapter 17, you should be able to:

1. Why do specimens need to be taken aseptically even when nonsterile sites are being sampled and selective
media are to be used?

. iscuss the differences between a genotypic, phenotypic and immunological method of disease identification.

. What does seropositivity mean? A false positive? A false negative? Serum titers?

4. Why is speed so important in the clinical laboratory? What is a Clinical Laboratory Scientist?
Back to top

***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions
and study hints!!

Unit 4 Objectives
Bio 2420 Intro to Micro

For all of the following chapters (18-23), when given the name oI an inIectious disease, be able to recall type oI agent, speciIic
name, and the major disease it causes. For example, agent-gram positvie bacteria, speciIic name- Streptococcus pyogenes, major
disease- strep throat.
We will cover a handIul oI agents Irom each chapter and you will be expected to know more oI the major details associated with
those....Ior example:

a) signs and symptoms
b) name of the causative agent or agents
c) general classification of agent(s)
d) mode of transmission
e) portal of entry
f) treatment, if any
g) control measures, if any
h) preventative measures, if any (vaccines)

Note: Not all of the above may be stated for many of the diseases on your list: use textbook and other sources if
hapter 18
$treptococcus pyogenes, $taphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes,
Mycobacterium leprae,
Varicella Zoster, HSV1, Measles, Rubella (German measles), Variola
ermatophytes, Candida albicans
Back to top
hapter 19
eisseria meningitidis, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum
Rabies, Poliovirus, Arboviruses
Cryptococcus neoformans
aegleria fowleri, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense & rhodesiense
Prions- Kuru, CJ, BSE, vCJ, Scrapies
hapter 20
ersinia pestis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Rickettsia spp.
Yellow fever, engue, EBV, HV
Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii
$chistosoma spp.
hapter 21
aemophilus influenzae, $treptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium diptheriae, $treptococcus pnuemoniae,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Rhinoviruses, nfluenza, Parainfluenza, RSV, Hantavirus
istoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Pneumocystis carinii
hapter 22
$treptococcus mutans, $higella spp., $almonella spp., E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, eliobacter
pylori, Clostridium difficile, $taphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens
Mumps, Rotavirus, Norwalk, Hepatitis
Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli
Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia saginata & solium
hapter 23
eisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis, $taphylococcus aureus
Candida albicans
Trichomonas vaginalis

***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions
and study hints!!
Back to top

Bio 1704 Intro to Micro
Fall 00 #ohde
Exam I
I. True/False (15 pts)

1. In RNA, guanine pairs with cytosine while adenine pairs with uracil.
2. Robert Koch veriIied Ivanovski's "germ theory oI disease".
3. An acidic pH oI 1.5 is a strong acid while a pH oI 7 is a strong base.
4. A pure culture is a medium with no species oI organism(s) present.
5. In gene expression, the inIormation Ilows Irom DNA to RNA to protein.
6. The endospore is responsible Ior reproduction and growth oI bacteria.
7. Eucaryotic cells are varied and highly specialized with a nucleus and membrane
bound organelles (cell structures).
8. Parasites are microbes which live in or on another organism to gain nutrients
and protection while doing no damage to the host.
9. The pilus is a critical Ieature Ior the process oI conjugation.
10. Fleming was the discoverer oI the antibiotic tetracycline.
11. Lactic acid Iermentation is a process used in the production oI yogurt and other dairy products.
12. ATP is the storage molecule Ior energy which is used by microorganisms.
13. The bacterial cell wall is composed oI mainly peptidoglycan made up oI
N-acetylglutamic acid and N-acetyl muramic acid.
14. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine while guanine pairs with cytosine.
15. The study oI Iungi in the world oI microorganisms is known as mycology.

II. Match the Iollowing terms and descriptions (20 pts)

1. Main Iunction is protein synthesis
2. Responsible Ior germ theory oI disease
3. Means oI motility Ior bacteria
4. Anticodon
5. 1st to develop Microscope
6. Main Iunctions are adherance and prevention oI phagocytosis
7. Chemical reaction that literally means Ato break down
8 Developed aseptic technique in hospitals
9. Type oI microscope that lends itselI in the study oI shape and internal structure (typical microbiology
10. Immunization Ior smallpox

a. Mitochondria k. Jenner
b. $alk l. Nucleus
c. Ribosome m. Catabolism
d. Ehrlich n. Pasteur
e. BrightIield o. Lister
I. Flagella p. DarkIield
g. Van Leeuwenhock q. Phylum
h. Janssen r. Pathogen
i. mRNA s. Capsule
j. tRNA t. Anabolism

Exam 1
page 2

III. DeIine (10 pts)

1. Lyophilization-

2. Pure culture-

3. Pili-

4. Porin proteins-

5. Aseptic technique-

IV. List or IdentiIy (10 pts)

1. Example oI a physical mutation

2. Three major shapes oI bacteria

3. Ionic bond

4. Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs

5. Aerobic respiration vs. Anaerobic respiration

V. Multiple Choice (20 pts)

1. During transcription oI DNA, a sequence oI AAA will order an RNA base sequence oI (a)
UUU (b) TTT (c) UAA (d) ACG (e) amino acids
2. The high power objective oI the microscope has a magniIication oI (a) 100x
(b) 40x (c) 10x (d) 400x (e) 1000x
3. Bacterial cells` outer surIace are predominantly (a) positively charged (b) neutral (c)
translucent (d) negatively charged (e) porous
4. $alk is responsible Ior his contribution oI (a) penicillin (b) 1st microscope
(c) polio vaccine (d) structure oI DNA
5. Polysaccharides are (a) single sugar molecule (b) steroids (c) more than two sugars (d) genomes (e)

Exam I
Page 3

6. Covalent bonds are Iormed when atoms electrons. (a) lack (b) repel
(c ) Iorm (d) lose (e) share
7. The cell membrane Iunctions in (a) transport (b) motility (c) nutrient
processing and synthesis (d) both a & c (e) none oI the above
8. Carbohydrates are Iound in DNA and cell walls and can be made up oI
(a) nucleic acids (b) solutions oI ions (c) triglycerides (d) enzymes
(e) none oI the above
9. Flagella with a single Ilagellum at one end are said to be (a) lophotrichous
(b) monotrichous (c) peritrichous (d) amphitrichous (e) unitrichous
10. Two procaryotic structures that Iunction in adhesion are the pilus and
(a) cilia (b) capsule (c) mitochondria (d) endoplasmic reticulum
11. The enzyme which pairs corresponding correct bases with each other during replication is (a)
RNA polymerase (b) helicase (c ) DNA polymerase (d) ATPase
12. The Iollowing biotechnology technique is responsible Ior Amimicing replication in a test tube. (a)
RFLP (b) PCR (c ) cloning (d) recombination (e) none oI these
13. TransIer RNA (tRNA) is said to be Abilingual during translation because it can read the language oI
RNA and (a) DNA (b) rRNA (c ) ATP (d) amino acids
14. A pH oI 7 is said to be which is where most oI the bacteria prosper. (a) neutral,
nonpathogenic (b) acidic, pathogenic (c ) neutral, pathogenic (d) basic, gram positive (e)
nonionic, gram negative
15. Binomial nomenclature reIers to the (a) genus and species (b) species and order
(c ) genus and division (d) kingdom and genus (e) phylum and order
16. In the lab, the isolation oI pure and single colonies oI bacteria is achieved by perIorming a (a) streak
plate (b) mixed culture (c ) smear (d) PCR
17. The term pathogenic reIers to (a) illness (b) disease causing (c ) chemotherapy
(d) genetic characteristics (e) cancerous
18. In the gram stain, the acetone/alcohol is responsible Ior (a) lysing the high lipid content oI gram neg cells (b)
lysing the teichoic acid oI gram neg. cells (c ) binding the peptidoglycan layer oI both gram pos. and neg.
cells (d) washing the cells clean
19. With a complex media, the contents are (a) chemically precise and deIined (b) most oIten made up oI salt and
water (c ) useIul Ior the gram stain (d) generally unknown (chemically undeIined)
20. A weak acid or base that keeps solutions Irom becoming too acidic or too basic Ior organisms to prosper is known
as a (a) base (b) buIIer (c ) organic compound (d) ion

VI. $hort Answer Essay (each question worth 5pts)
Answer 5 oI the 10 questions. Clearly mark a 6th question and answer as a bonus.
Total pts 25 (5 iI bonus is answered correctly)

1. Explain Kochs Postulates and the Germ Theory oI Disease.

Exam I
Page 4

2. Discuss how raw materials (substrates) Irom the environment are converted into the Iinished product during
metabolism by explaining the sequential steps in the assembly line.

3. Discuss organic compounds, brieIly describing the Iour classes oI macromolecules. Give examples in your

4. DeIine the process oI gene expression (transcription and translation). Use drawings to help your explanation.

5. Discuss the 4 major ways that genetic material is transIerred between bacteria.

6. Distinguish between simple and diIIerential biological staining procedures and list the Iour steps oI the Gram
stain. Explain how the gram stain diIIerentiates between the gram positive and gram negative cell wall (ie. which step
is crucial in the procedure and why?).

Exam 1
page 5

7. Compare and contrast the cell wall oI the gram positive bacteria to gram negative bacteria.

8. Describe selective, diIIerential and enrichment media.

9. Describe the process oI DNA replication. Why is it reIerred to as semiconservative replication?

10. DeIine resolution with respect to the microscope. Why does one use immersion oil with the 100X
objective lens.

MAKE $URE TO ONLY AN$WER 5 Essays and then Circle a 6
one Ior a bonus..iI you don`t designate which 1 is the
bonus..it will not be graded.