An Introduction to Turbulence
Models
1 Turbulence 5
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Turbulent Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Energy spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Turbulence Models 12
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Boussinesq Assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Algebraic Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 The Exact Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 The Equation for !#"%$'&($)&+* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
2.4.3 The Equation for !#"./$ &.)$ &+*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 The Modelled Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !0
2.6 One Equation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 TwoEquation Turbulence Models 22
3.1 The Modelled Equation . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2 Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.3 The 452
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.4 The 476
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.5 The 458
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4 LowRe Number Turbulence Models 28
4.1 LowRe :452
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.2 The LaunderSharma LowRe Models . . . . 452 . . . . . . ;3
2
4.3 Boundary Condition for and . . . . . . . . . . . 2< . . . . . . ;3;
4.4 The TwoLayer 4=2
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;?>
4.5 The lowRe 476
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;3
4.5.1 The lowRe 476
Model of Peng et al. . . . . . . . . . ;3
4.5.2 The lowRe 476
Model of Bredberg et al. . . . . . . . ;3
5 Reynolds Stress Models 38
5.1 Reynolds Stress Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;3
5.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Eddy Viscosity Models . . . . . . >90
5.3 Curvature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >.
5.4 Acceleration and Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >3>
!#"%$'&)(+* ,/.1032)4
568795;:<795>= constants in the Reynolds stress model
5@?6 795@?: constants in the Reynolds stress model
5@A 6 795BA : constants in the modelled equation 2
5BCD68795BCE: constants in the modelled equation 6
5@F
G constant in turbulence model
H energy (see Eq. 1.8); constant in wall functions (see Eq. 3.4)
damping function in pressure strain tensor 6
turbulent kinetic energy ( ) I : J &J &
$ instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in direction K
$& instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in direction K&
$ timeaveraged velocity in direction K
)$ & 7 timeaveraged velocity in direction K&
JL J M shear stresses
J: K
fluctuating velocity in direction
J K
normal stress in the direction
J& K&
fluctuating velocity in direction
JP & JON Reynolds stress tensor
P instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in direction Q
timeaveraged velocity in direction Q
L: fluctuating (or laminar) velocity in direction Q
L Q
normal stress in the direction
LER M shear stress
R instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in direction S
timeaveraged velocity in direction S
M : S
fluctuating velocity in direction
M S
normal stress in the direction
d & K&
timeaveraged vorticity component in direction
6 2?!
specific dissipation ( )
6/& K&
fluctuating vorticity component in direction
turbulent Prandtl number for variable
8a
a laminar shear stress
8 a total shear stress
8 turbulent shear stress
>
( $ U 0
$X& 0 (
Almost all fluid flow which we encounter in daily life is turbulent. Typical
examples are flow around (as well as in) cars, aeroplanes and buildings.
The boundary layers and the wakes around and after bluff bodies such as
cars, aeroplanes and buildings are turbulent. Also the flow and combustion
in engines, both in piston engines and gas turbines and combustors, are
highly turbulent. Air movements in rooms are also turbulent, at least along
the walls where walljets are formed. Hence, when we compute fluid flow
it will most likely be turbulent.
In turbulent flow we usually divide the variables in one timeaveraged
$
part , which is independent of time (when the mean flow is steady), and
one fluctuating part so that J . $ ^ $ J
There is no definition on turbulent flow, but it has a number of charac
%
D
teristic features (see Tennekes & Lumley [41]) such as:
. Turbulent flow is irregular, random and chaotic. The
flow consists of a spectrum of different scales (eddy sizes) where largest
eddies are of the order of the flow geometry (i.e. boundary layer thickness,
jet width, etc). At the other end of the spectra we have the smallest ed
dies which are by viscous forces (stresses) dissipated into internal energy.
Even though turbulence is chaotic it is deterministic and is described by
the NavierStokes equations.
. In turbulent flow the diffusivity increases. This means
that the spreading rate of boundary layers, jets, etc. increases as the flow
becomes turbulent. The turbulence increases the exchange of momentum
in e.g. boundary layers and reduces or delays thereby separation at bluff
bodies such as cylinders, airfoils and cars. The increased diffusivity also
increases the resistance (wall friction) in internal flows such as in channels
and pipes.
D 3
! #" ! %$& ('
. Turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds
number. For example, the transition to turbulent flow in pipes occurs that
)#*+, )#*./,
3 ;!03 0
102 43 , and
!5 in boundary
6
O
%3Z
layers at . 030303030
. Turbulent flow is always threedimensional.
However, when the equations are time averaged we can treat the flow as
twodimensional.
024 66%7 %
. Turbulent flow is dissipative, which means that ki
netic energy in the small (dissipative) eddies are transformed into internal
energy. The small eddies receive the kinetic energy from slightly larger ed
dies. The slightly larger eddies receive their energy from even larger eddies
and so on. The largest eddies extract their energy from the mean flow. This
process of transferred energy from the largest turbulent scales (eddies) to
the smallest is called cascade process.
3'
O%
Z
0
%
b
. Even though we have small turbulent scales in the
flow they are much larger than the molecular scale and we can treat the
flow as a continuum.
U . 2 W ( $V*O"2 W 4
As mentioned above there are a wide range of scales in turbulent flow. The
larger scales are of the order of the flow geometry, for example the bound
ary layer thickness, with length scale and velocity scale . These scales
extract kinetic energy from the mean flow which has a time scale compara
ble to the large scales, i.e.
$ 6
Q ^ "
*^
" *
The kinetic energy of the large scales is lost to slightly smaller scales with
which the large scales interact. Through the cascade process the kinetic en
ergy is in this way transferred from the largest scale to smaller scales. At
the smallest scales the frictional forces (viscous stresses) become too large
and the kinetic energy is transformed (dissipated) into internal energy. The
:
dissipation is denoted by which is energy per unit time and unit mass 2 c
2 ^
( ). The dissipation is proportional to the kinematic viscosity
times the fluctuating velocity gradient up to the power of two (see Sec
tion 2.4.1). The friction forces exist of course at all scales, but they are
larger the smaller the eddies. Thus it is not quite true that eddies which
receive their kinetic energy from slightly larger scales give away all of that
the slightly smaller scales but a small fraction is dissipated. However it is
assumed that most of the energy (say 90 %) that goes into the large scales
is finally dissipated at the smallest (dissipative) scales.
The smallest scales where dissipation occurs are called the Kolmogo
rov scales: the velocity scale , the length scale and the time scale . We
c 8
assume that these scales are determined by viscosity and dissipation . 2
Since the kinetic energy is destroyed by viscous forces it is natural to as
sume that viscosity plays a part in determining these scales; the larger vis
cosity, the larger scales. The amount of energy that is to be dissipated is
2. The more energy that is to be transformed from kinetic energy to inter
nal energy, the larger the velocity gradients must be. Having assumed that
the dissipative scales are determined by viscosity and dissipation, we can
express , and in and using dimensional analysis. We write 8 c 2
^ c: :2
^
"( *
where below each variable its dimensions are given. The dimensions of the
lefthand and the righthand side must be the same. We get two equations,
0 Z
! 0 O
b $&
O%
% DX
which gives ^
^ > . In the same way we obtain the expressions for
8
and so that
6
c 6
c 6 :
c
^ " 2?* 7 ^ 2
7 8 ^ 2
"( > *
0 U $X& & $8 , W 2[0 & $8, TVU " & W (3$ ( $ WDU " $X& 03(
The interaction between vorticity and velocity gradients is an essential in
gredient to create and maintain turbulence. Disturbances are amplified
– the actual process depending on type of flow – and these disturbances,
which still are laminar and organized and well defined in terms of phys
ical orientation and frequency are turned into chaotic, threedimensional,
random fluctuations, i.e. turbulent flow by interaction between the vor
ticity vector and the velocity gradients. Two idealized phenomena in this
interaction process can be identified: vortex stretching and vortex tilting.
In order to gain some insight in vortex shedding we will study an ide
neous vorticity (
d b& ^ d  & 6/&
alized, inviscid (viscosity equals to zero) case. The equation for instanta
) reads [41, 31, 44]
&N
where is the LeviCivita tensor (it is if ! , " are in cyclic order, if : 4
! , " are in anticyclic order, and if any two of ! , " are equal), and where 0
" _* N
denotes derivation with respect to . We see that this equation is not KN
an ordinary convectiondiffusion equation but is has an additional term on
the righthand side which represents amplification and rotation/tilting of
the vorticity lines. If we write it termbyterm it reads
d 6 $ 6 6 d : $ 6 : d $ 6 "( 9*
d 6 $ : 6 d : $ : : d $ :
d 6 $ 6 d : $ : d $
0 Z $#
The diagonal terms in this matrix represent vortex stretching. Imagine a
> 3&
slender, cylindrical fluid element which vorticity % . We introduce a cylin
drical coordinate system with the axis as the cylinder axis and as the K6 K:
0 Z
! 0 O
b $&
O%
% DX
d 6 d 6
radial coordinate (see Fig. 1.1) so that % ^ " d >6 7 0 7 0 * . A positive $ 6 6 will
stretch the cylinder. From the continuity equation
$ 6 6
" $ : * : ^ 0
we find that the radial derivative of the radial velocity must be negative, $ :
i.e. the radius of the cylinder will decrease. We have neglected the viscosity
since viscous diffusion at high Reynolds number is much smaller than the
turbulent one and since viscous dissipation occurs at small scales (see p. 6).
Thus there are no viscous stresses acting on the cylindrical fluid element
surface which means that the rotation momentum
:d
"( 3*
the circulation
d :
remains constant as the radius of the fluid element decreases (note that also
is constant). Equation 1.7 shows that the vortic
ity increases as the radius decreases. We see that a stretching/compressing
will decrease/increase the radius of a slender fluid element and increase/decrease
its vorticity component aligned with the element. This process will affect
the vorticity components in the other two coordinate directions.
0 $# Z
The offdiagonal terms in Eq. 1.6 represent vortex tilting. Again, take a
slender fluid element with its axis aligned with the axis, Fig. 1.2. The ve
K:
$ 6:
locity gradient will tilt the fluid element so that it rotates in clockwise
d :$ 6:
d 6
direction. The second term in line one in Eq. 1.6 gives a contribution
to .
Vortex stretching and vortex tilting thus qualitatively explains how in
teraction between vorticity and velocity gradient create vorticity in all three
coordinate directions from a disturbance which initially was well defined
in one coordinate direction. Once this process has started it continues, be
cause vorticity generated by vortex stretching and vortex tilting interacts
with the velocity field and creates further vorticity and so on. The vortic
ity and velocity field becomes chaotic and random: turbulence has been
created. The turbulence is also maintained by these processes.
From the discussion above we can now understand why turbulence al
ways must be threedimensional (Item IV on p. 5). If the instantaneous
flow is twodimensional we find that all interaction terms between vortic
ity and velocity gradients in Eq. 1.6 vanish. For example if and all $ I 0
derivatives with respect to are zero. If K
the third line in Eq. 1.6 $ I 0
vanishes, and if
$ & I0
the third column in Eq. 1.6 disappears. Finally, the
,
3 7' <
d:
$ 6 " K : *
d:
The turbulent scales are distributed over a range of scales which extends
from the largest scales which interact with the mean flow to the smallest
scales where dissipation occurs. In wave number space the energy of ed
] ]
dies from to can be expressed as ]
G "] * ] "( ,9*
where Eq. 1.8 expresses the contribution from the scales with wave number
between ] and ] ] to the turbulent kinetic energy . The dimension
of wave number is one over length; thus we can think of wave number
as proportional to the inverse of an eddy’s radius, i.e ] . The total
turbulent kinetic energy is obtained by integrating over the whole wave
number space i.e.
^
G "] * ] "( 9*
3 7' <
G "] *
]
;
The kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energy of the three fluctuat
ing velocity components, i.e.
: : :
^ J L M ^ J & J & "( 0 *
G
The spectrum of is shown in Fig. 1.3. We find region I, II and III which
correspond to:
I. In the region we have the large eddies which carry most of the energy.
These eddies interact with the mean flow and extract energy from the
mean flow. Their energy is past on to slightly smaller scales. The
eddies’ velocity and length scales are and , respectively.
III. Dissipation range. The eddies are small and isotropic and it is here
that the dissipation occurs. The scales of the eddies are described by
the Kolmogorov scales (see Eq. 1.4)
II. Inertial subrange. The existence of this region requires that the Reynolds
number is high (fully turbulent flow). The eddies in this region repre
sent the midregion. This region is a “transport” region in the cascade
2
process. Energy per time unit ( ) is coming from the large eddies at
the lower part of this range and is given off to the dissipation range
at the higher part. The eddies in this region are independent of both
the large, energy containing eddies and the eddies in the dissipation
range. One can argue that the eddies in this region should be char
acterized by the flow of energy ( ) and the size of the eddies2 . ]
Dimensional reasoning gives
G " ] * ^ 5 !B_ 2 #" ]
#
$
"( 3 *
0
3 7' <
^
"( 9*
3
( $ U 0
$X& 0 (
One reason why we decompose the variables is that when we measure flow
quantities we are usually interested in the mean values rather that the time
histories. Another reason is that when we want to solve the NavierStokes
equation numerically it would require a very fine grid to resolve all tur
bulent scales and it would also require a fine resolution in time (turbulent
flow is always unsteady).
The continuity equation and the NavierStokes equation read
^ 0
$/& " $ & * &
` "+ 9 *
^ 4 &
$ N &4 ; \ & N $
" _* N
where denotes derivation with respect to . Since we are dealing with KN
incompressible flow (i.e low Mach number) the dilatation term on the right
$/&
hand side of Eq. 2.3 is neglected so that
"+ > *
independent of pressure (
Note that we here use the term “incompressible” in the sense that density is
^ 0
) , but it does not mean that density is
constant; it can be dependent on for example temperature or concentration.
Inserting Eq. 2.1 into the continuity equation (2.2) and the NavierStokes
equation (2.4) we obtain the time averaged continuity equation and Navier
Stokes equation
/$ & $  N N ^ 4  & ` " /$ & N $ N & *'4 J & JN N _
"+ 9*
% $ '
%
8 8 a
8 a
a
8
Q
,
0
Q
This is called the closure problem: the number of unknowns (ten: three veloc
7 '
ity components, pressure, six stresses) is larger than the number of equa
tions (four: the continuity equation and three components of the Navier
Stokes equations).
For steady, twodimensional boundarylayer type of flow (i.e. bound
ary layers along a flat plate, channel flow, pipe flow, jet and wake flow, etc.)
where
P
 $ 7 K
"+ 3*
Q
Eq. 2.6 reads
$ $
P 
$  `
$ 4 ZJ L _
K
Q ^ 4 K
Q
Q
"+ ,9*
K ^ K6 denotes streamwise coordinate, and coordinate normal to
 Q ^ K:
the flow. Often the pressure gradient
is zero.
` $ Q K 63 ED
To the viscous shear stress on the righthand side of Eq. 2.8
appears an additional turbulent one, a turbulent shear stress. The total shear
> 6
stress is thus
8 a
a ^ ` Q $ 4 J L
In the wall region (the viscous sublayer, the buffert layer and the logarith
mic layer) the total shear stress is approximately constant and equal to the
8
wall shear stress , see Fig. 2.1. Note that the total shear stress is constant
only close to the wall; further away from the wall it decreases (in fully de
veloped channel flow it decreases linearly by the distance form the wall).
At the wall the turbulent shear stress vanishes as
shear stress attains its wallstress value
, and the viscous
. As we go away from the 8 V^ J :J ^ L ^0
,
wall the viscous stress decreases and turbulent one increases and at Q 0
they are approximately equal. In the logarithmic layer the viscous stress is
negligible compared to the turbulent stress.
In boundarylayer type of flow the turbulent shear stress and the ve
locity gradient
$ Q
have nearly always opposite sign (for a wall jet this
;
% $ '
%
Q:
L 0 L 0
$:"
Q.*
Q6
Q
K
4 ZJ L
is not the case close to the wall). To get a physical picture of this let us
study the flow in a boundary layer, see Fig. 2.2. A fluid particle is moving
downwards (particle drawn with solid line) from to with (the turbu Q: Q6
L
lent fluctuating) velocity . At its new location the velocity is in average $
smaller than at its old, i.e. :$ "
Q
. This means that when the par 6* :$ "
Q : *
Q:
ticle at (which has streamwise velocity ) comes down to (where
6* $:"
Q : * Q6
the streamwise velocity is $:"
Q
) is has an excess of streamwise velocity
compared to its new environment at . Thus the streamwise fluctuation is Q6
positive, i.e. J 0
and the correlation between and is negative ( ). J L JZL 0
If we look at the other particle (dashed line in Fig. 2.2) we reach the
same conclusion. The particle is moving upwards ( ), and it is bringing L 0
a deficit in so that $
. Thus, again, J 0
. If we study this flow for JL 0
a long time and average over time we get . If we change the sign JZL 0
of the velocity gradient so that
we will find that the sign of $ Q 0 ZJ L
also changes.
Above we have used physical reasoning to show the the signs of JL
and
$ Q
are opposite. This can also be found by looking at the produc
tion term in the transport equation of the Reynolds stresses (see Section 5).
In cases where the shear stress and the velocity gradient have the same
sign (for example, in a wall jet) this means that there are other terms in the
transport equation which are more important than the production term.
There are different levels of approximations involved when closing the
equation system in Eq. 2.6.
'
$ O
%
An algebraic equation is used to compute a tur
bulent viscosity, often called eddy viscosity. The Reynolds stress ten
sor is then computed using an assumption which relates the Reynolds
stress tensor to the velocity gradients and the turbulent viscosity. This
assumption is called the Boussinesq assumption. Models which are
based on a turbulent (eddy) viscosity are called eddy viscosity mod
>
6 7
3!5
%
els.
$ O
In these models a transport equation is solved
for a turbulent quantity (usually the turbulent kinetic energy) and
a second turbulent quantity (usually a turbulent length scale) is ob
tained from an algebraic expression. The turbulent viscosity is calcu
%Z '
$
%
`ba ^ c a
In eddy viscosity models we want an expression for the turbulent viscosity
c'a :
c $ $
. The dimension of is (same as ). A turbulent velocity
%8X
scale multiplied with a turbulent length scale gives the correct dimension,
i.e.
$ O
ca "+ 3 *
Above we have used and which are characteristic for the large turbulent
scales. This is reasonable, because it is these scales which are responsible
for most of the transport by turbulent diffusion.
In an algebraic turbulence model the velocity gradient is used as a ve
locity scale and some physical length is used as the length scale. In bound
ary layertype of flow (see Eq. 2.7) we obtain
ca ^
: & . $
Q "+ 9*
.
where Q is the coordinate normal to the wall, and where
&
is the mixing
length, and the model is called the mixing length model. It is an old model
.
and is hardly used any more. One problem with the model is that
is &
unknown and must be determined.
More modern algebraic models are the BaldwinLomax model [2] and
the CebeciSmith [6] model which are frequently used in aerodynamics
when computing the flow around airfoils, aeroplanes, etc. For a presen
tation and discussion of algebraic turbulence models the interested reader
is referred to Wilcox [46].
6
The equation for turbulent kinetic energy is derived from the ^ : J &J &
NavierStokes equation which reads assuming steady, incompressible, con
stant viscosity (cf. Eq. 2.4)
3 D
[2
E
3
Subtract Eq. 2.14 from Eq. 2.13, multiply by J& and time average and we
4 4  & J & ` $)& 4 )$ & N N J & " J & JN * N8J & "+ 9*
" $ & J & * " $ N J N *'4 $ & $  N N J & ^ $ & J N J & $ N J & J N N J & _ "+
The lefthand side can be rewritten as
9*
The third term in Eq. 2.16 can be written as (using the same technique as in
Eq. 2.18)
" J N J &J &* N _ "+ 9*
The first term on the righthand side of Eq. 2.15 has the form
4 & J &3^ 4" J &+* & "+ !0 *
For the first term we use the same trick as in Eq. 2.18 so that
` " J & N J & * N ^ ` " J & J & * N N ^ ` N N "+ 39*
The last term on the righthand side of Eq. 2.15 is zero. Now we can
assemble the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. Equa
tions 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21,2.22 give
" $ N .*
N ^ 4 J &JO N /$ &
N 4 JON
J N>J & J & 4 ` N 4 ` J & N;J N
N
&
"+ 3;9*
The terms in Eq. 2.23 have the following meaning.
3 D
[2
E
3
%EX
.
$ '
. The large turbulent scales extract energy from the mean
flow. This term (including the minus sign) is almost always positive.
The two first terms represent
3'
%
by pressurevelocity
%
$
fluctuations, and velocity fluctuations, respectively. The last term is
viscous diffusion.
10( % 6%7 D
. This term is responsible for transformation of kinetic
energy at small scales to internal energy. The term (including the
minus sign) is always negative.
P 
In boundarylayer flow the exact
JZL equation read
$ L LJ & J & 4 ` 4 ` J & N;J &"+ N ?> *
Q ^ 4
$ 4
K
Q Q
Q
Note that the dissipation includes all derivatives. This is because the dis
sipation term is at its largest for small, isotropic scales where the usual
boundarylayer approximation that
is not valid. J & K J & Q
33 3 D
[Z !#"%$/&($)&+*
6
The equation for the instantaneous kinetic energy is derived ^ : /$ &%$/&
from the NavierStokes equation. We assume steady, incompressible flow
with constant viscosity, see Eq. 2.13. Multiply Eq. 2.13 by so that $ &
$/& " $)&%$ N * N ^ 4 $/& & ` )$ & $)& N)N _ "+ 39*
" $ & $ & $ N * N 4 $ & $ N $ & N ^ $ N "%$ & $ & * N 4 $ N "%$ & $ & * N
^ $ N "%$/&%$/& * N ^ " $ N 7
"+ 39*
* N
where ^ !#"%$)&($)&+* .
The first term on the righthand side of Eq. 2.25 can be written as
The viscous term in Eq. 2.25 is rewritten in the same way as the viscous
term in Section 2.4.1, see Eqs. 2.21 and 2.22, i.e.
` $/&%$/& N N ^ ` N N 4 ` )$ & N $/& N _ "+ 3,9*
Now we can assemble the transport equation for by inserting Eqs. 2.26,
2.27 and 2.28 into Eq. 2.25
" $ N 5
* N ^ ` )N N 4 "%$ & * & 4 ` $ & N $ & N _ "+ 39*
,
3 D
[2
E
3
We recognize the usual transport terms due to convection and viscous dif
fusion. The second term on the righthand side is responsible for transport
of by pressurevelocity interaction. The last term is the dissipation term
which transforms kinetic energy into internal energy. It is interesting to
compare this term to the dissipation term in Eq. 2.23. Insert the Reynolds
decomposition so that
` $/& N $)& N ^ ` /$  & N $) & N ` J & N;J & N _ "+ ;!0 *
As the scales of $ is much larger than those of J & , i.e. J & N $/& N we get
` $/& N )$ & N , ` J & N;J & N _ "+ ;1 *
This shows that the dissipation taking place in the scales larger than the
smallest ones is negligible (see further discussion at the end of Subsection 2.4.3).
The equation for !#".)$ &#/$ & * is derived in the same way as that for !#"%$ &($)& * .
Assume steady, incompressible flow with constant viscosity and multiply
/$ & " )$ & $ N * N ^ 4 /$ &  & ` )$  & $) & N)N 4 )$ & " J & JN * N _
the timeaveraged NavierStokes equations (Eq. 2.14) so that
"+ ;39*
The term on the lefthand side and the two first terms on the righthand
side are treated in the same way as in Section 2.4.2, and we can write
" $ N 5 * N ^ `  N)N 4 " /$ &  * &4 ` /$ & N )$ & N 4 /$ & " J & JON * N 7 "+ ;3;9*
where  ^ !#" /$ & $) &+* . The last term is rewritten as
4 /$ & " J & JN * N ^ 4" /$ & J & JON * N " J & JON * /$ & N _ "+ ;?> *
" $ N 5 * N ^ `  N)N 4 " /$ &  * &4 ` /$ & N )$ & N "+ ;39*
4 "1)$ & J & JN * N J & JN )$ & N _
On the lefthand side we have the usual convective term. On the righthand
side we find: transport by viscous diffusion, transport by pressurevelocity
interaction, viscous dissipation, transport by velocitystress interaction and
loss of energy to the fluctuating velocity field, i.e. to . Note that the last
term in Eq. 2.35 is the same as the last term in Eq. 2.23 but with opposite
sign: here we clearly can see that the main source term in the equation
(the production term) appears as a sink term in the equation. 
It is interesting to compare the source terms in the equation for (2.23),

(Eq. 2.29) and (Eq. 2.35). In the equation, the dissipation term is
4 ` $ & N $ & N ^ 4 ` $ & N $ & N 4 ` J & N J & N _ "+ ;39*
33 $ O
$
%

In the equation the dissipation term and the negative production term
(representing loss of kinetic energy to the field) read
4 ` $/ & N )$ & N J & JON )$ & N 7 +" 9; 3*
and in the equation the production and the dissipation terms read
The dissipation terms in Eq. 2.36 appear in Eqs. 2.37 and 2.38. The dissi
pation of the instantaneous velocity field is distributed into $ &^ /$ & J &
the timeaveraged field and the fluctuating field. However, as mentioned
above, the dissipation at the fluctuating level is much larger than at the
timeaveraged level (see Eqs. 2.30 and 2.31).
Note that the last term in Eq. 2.39 is zero for incompressible flow due to
continuity.
'
O%
The triple correlations in term III in Eq. 2.23 is modeled using a gradient
$& 6
law where we assume that is diffused down the gradient, i.e from region of
high to regions of small (cf. Fourier’s law for heat flux: heat is diffused
from hot to cold regions). We get
J N J & J & ^ 4 b` a N _ "+ >90 *
where is the turbulent Prandtl number for . There is no model for the
pressure diffusion term in Eq. 2.23. It is small (see Figs. 4.1 and 4.3) and
thus it is simply neglected.
$
66%7 %
The dissipation term in Eq. 2.23 is basically estimated as in Eq. 1.12. The
velocity scale is now
^
"+ >. *
so that
#
2 I c J & ;N J & N ^
"
"+ > 9*
!0
3 3 D
$
%
We have one constant in the turbulent diffusion term and it will be de
termined later. The dissipation term contains another unknown quantity,
the turbulent length scale. An additional transport will be derived from
which we can compute . In the model,
# where is obtained from its :45 2 2 2
own transport, the dissipation term " in Eq. 2.43 is simply .
For boundarylayer flow Eq. 2.43 has the form
$
P 
` `ba
`ba
$
:
#" _
K
Q ^ Q
Q
Q
4 "+ >3> *
(W 0 W [2 4
"%$X& 0 (
In one equation models a transport equation is often solved for the turbu
lent kinetic energy. The unknown turbulent length scale must be given,
and often an algebraic expression is used [4, 48]. This length scale is, for
example, taken as proportional to the thickness of the boundary layer, the
width of a jet or a wake. The main disadvantage of this type of model is
that it is not applicable to general flows since it is not possible to find a
general expression for an algebraic length scale.
However, some proposals have been made where the turbulent length
scale is computed in a more general way [14, 30]. In [30] a transport equa
tion for turbulent viscosity is used.
1
W 0 W 2[2 W
"%$X& 03(
An exact equation for the dissipation can be derived from the NavierStokes
equation (see, for instance, Wilcox [46]). However, the number of unknown
terms is very large and they involve double correlations of fluctuating ve
locities, and gradients of fluctuating velocities and pressure. It is better to
2
derive an equation based on physical reasoning. In the exact equation for
2 the production term includes, as in the equation, turbulent quantities
and and velocity gradients. If we choose to include and in the J & JN )$ & N
production term and only turbulent quantities in the dissipation term, we
take, glancing at the equation (Eq. 2.43)
A ^ 4 5 A 6 2 /$ & N $ N & /$ & N "+; *
:
_
^ 4 5 A : 2 _
Note that for the production term we have
A ^ @5 A 6 " 2!!.* . Now we can
`
write the transport equation for the dissipation as
3
Z
3' % Z
20
10
!#"$"%'&(
0
−10
!, *)+.0"/1#
−20
0 200 400
600 800 1000 1200
17
98
;
2
43 65
>;
)#* ,
>3>9030 J $ ,
0O_ 0!> ;
other terms, see Fig. 3.1. The loglaw we use can be written as
$
G J Q
J ^ ]
c
"+; > *
G ^ _ 0 +" ; 9 *
<^ ] 1G _
In the loglayer we can write the modelled equation (see Eq. 2.44) as
:
0 ^ `ba Q 4 2_
$
"+; ,9*
# 2
4 ZJ L
where we have replaced the dissipation term " by . In the loglaw
region the shear stress is equal to the wall shear stress , see Fig. 2.1. 8
The Boussinesq assumption for the shear stress reads (see Eq. 2.10)
8 ^ 4 JZL ^ `ba Q $
"+; 9*
3;
Z
3' %
J : ! 5
From experiments we have that in the loglaw region of a boundary layer
,
0O_ ; 5;F ^ 0O_ 09
so that .
When we are using wall functions and are not solved at the nodes
2 > Z%
adjacent to the walls. Instead they are fixed according to the theory pre
sented above. The turbulent kinetic energy is set from Eq. 3.10, i.e.
' [
6 : :
^ 5 F J "+; 3 *
where the friction velocity is obtained, iteratively, from the loglaw (Eq. 3.4). J
Index denotes the first interior node (adjacent to the wall).
The dissipation is obtained from observing that production and dis 2
sipation are in balance (see Eq. 3.8). The dissipation can thus be written
' )Z
as
2 ^ J
^ ] Q
"+; 9*
' [
For the velocity component parallel to the wall the wall shear stress is
used as a flux boundary condition (cf. prescribing heat flux in the temper
O
b!
ature equation).
When the wall is not parallel to any velocity component, it is more con
venient to prescribe the turbulent viscosity. The wall shear stress is ob 8
tained by calculating the viscosity at the node adjacent to the wall from the
loglaw. The viscosity used in momentum equations is prescribed at the
nodes adjacent to the wall (index P) as follows. The shear stress at the wall
can be expressed as
^ ` a $ ` a $
8
$
where
denotes the velocity parallel to the wall and is the normal
distance to the wall. Using the definition of the friction velocity J
^ J
:
8
we obtain
`ba $
^ J :
`ba ^ J J
$
Substituting J $
with the loglaw (Eq. 3.4) we finally can write
`ba ^ J G ]
" *
where ^ J . .
c
?>
33 : 452 $
W 0 W 2
In the :452
model the modelled transport equations for and (Eqs. 2.43, 2
3.2) are solved. The turbulent length scale is obtained from (see Eq. 1.12,2.42)
:
^ 2 _
"+; > *
The turbulent viscosity is computed from (see Eqs. 2.11, 2.41, 1.12)
:
c a ^ 5 F 6 : #^ 5 F _ "+; 9*
2
We have five unknown constants and , which we hope 58FZ795 A 6>795 A :<7 ZA
should be universal i.e same for all types of flows. Simple flows are chosen
where the equation can be simplified and where experimental data are used
to determine the constants. The constant was determined above (Sub 5>F
section 3.2). The equation in the logarithmic part of a turbulent boundary
layer was studied where the convection and the diffusion term could be
0 ^
Q +D A Q
"+; 9*
The dissipation and production term can be estimated as (see Subsection 3.2)
:
2 ^
"+; 3*
]J 7
^ Q
In the logarithmic layer we have that . Q ^0 , but from Eqs. 3.17, 3.18 we
find that 2? Q ^ 0 . Instead the diffusion term in Eq. 3.16 can be rewritten
: 5 F6 : "+; 9*
A
Q Q ]D5 F Q
A
3
33 : 476 $ O
Inserting Eq. 3.19 and Eq. 3.17 into Eq. 3.16 gives
:
5 A 6 ^ 5 A : 4 6] : "+; !0 *
5 F DA
Z% 5
The flow behind a turbulence generating grid is a simple flow which
5A:
allows us to determine the constant. Far behind the grid the velocity
gradients are very small which means that . Furthermore and
^0 P ^0 >
the diffusion terms are negligible so that the modelled and equations 2
(Eqs. 2.43, 3.2) read
$ XK ^ 4 2
"+; 1 *
:
$ XK 2 ^ 4 5@A : 2
"+; 3 9*
6
Assuming that the decay of is exponential K
, Eq. 3.21 gives
4 K
. Insert this in Eq. 3.21, derivate to find 2! XK and insert it into
Eq. 3.22 yields
Experimental data give [43], and is chosen. ^ <_ 3 O0 _ 09 58A : ^ <_ 3
We have found three relations (Eqs. 3.10, 3.20, 3.23) to determine three
of the five unknown constants. The last two constants, and , are opti A
mized by applying the model to various fundamental flows such as flow in
channel, pipes, jets, wakes, etc. The five constants are given the following
values: , 5@F ^ 0O_ 09 5 A 6 ^ < _ >3> 5 A : ^ <_ 3
, , , . ^ <_ 0 DA ^ <_ ;1
W 0 W 2
The 4 6
model is gaining in popularity. The model was proposed by
Wilcox [45, 46, 36]. In this model the standard equation is solved, but as a
length determining equation is used. This quantity is often called specific 6
dissipation from its definition 6 2!! 6
`
. The modelled and equation read
" $ N .* N ^
`ba
C N N 4 6 "+; ?> *
`
"
`ba N 6
$ N 6 * N ^ C 6 N " 5BCD6 4 5BCE: 6 * "+; 39*
3
33 : 458 $ O
KN K& KN KN K& KN
W 0 W2
One of the most recent proposals is the model of Speziale [39] 4 8
where the transport equation for the turbulent time scale is derived. The 8
exact equation for 8 ^ .?2
is derived from the exact and equations. The 2
8
`
modelled and equations read
" 4
`ba
$ N .* N ^
N N
8 "+; 93*
`
" 8 (" 4 5 A 6 * " 5 A : 4 * "+; 3 ,9*
`ba
$ N 8 * N ^ : 8 N N
8
` `ba N 8 N 4 ` `ba 8 N 8 N
6 8 :
`ba ^ 5BF 18 7 2 ^ .?8
The constants are: 5;F , 5 A 6 and 5 A : are taken from the :4=2 model, and ^
6 ^ : ^ <_ ;3 .
9
In the previous section we discussed wall functions which are used in order
to reduce the number of cells. However, we must be aware that this is
an approximation which, if the flow near the boundary is important, can
be rather crude. In many internal flows – where all boundaries are either
walls, symmetry planes, inlet or outlets – the boundary layer may not be
that important, as the flow field is often pressuredetermined. For external
flows (for example flow around cars, ships, aeroplanes etc.), however, the
flow conditions in the boundaries are almost invariably important. When
we are predicting heat transfer it is in general no good idea to use wall
functions, because the heat transfer at the walls are very important for the
temperature field in the whole domain.
When we chose not to use wall functions we thus insert sufficiently
many grid lines near solid boundaries so that the boundary layer can be
adequately resolved. However, when the wall is approached the viscous
effects become more important and for the flow is viscous dom Q
inating, i.e. the viscous diffusion is much larger that the turbulent one
(see Fig. 4.1). Thus, the turbulence models presented so far may not be
correct since fully turbulent conditions have been assumed; this type of
)#*
models are often referred to as high
)#* number models. In this section
we will discuss modifications of high number models so that they can
be used all the way down to the wall. These modified models are termed
low Reynolds number models. Please note that “high Reynolds number”
and “low Reynolds number” do not refer to the global Reynolds number
)#* )#* . )#* .
(for example , ,
)#etc.)
* but here we are talking about the local
turbulent Reynolds number ^
formed by a turbulent fluctuation c
and turbulent length scale. This Reynolds number varies throughout the
computational domain and is proportional to the ratio of the turbulent and
physical viscosity , i.e.
)#* c'a c
ca c
. This ratio is of the order of 100 or
larger in fully turbulent flow and it goes to zero when a wall is approached.
We start by studying how various quantities behave close to the wall
when
Q 0
. Taylor expansion of the fluctuating velocities (also valid J&
for the mean velocities ) gives /$ &
:
J ^ 6 Q : Q : _>_>_
L ^ 6 Q# : Q : _>_>_
"> *
5 5 6
M ^ Q# Q _>_>_ ;
5 :
where _>_>_ 5;: are functions of space and time. At the wall we have no
slip, i.e. J ^ L ^ M ^ 0 which gives ^ ^ 5 . Furthermore, at the wall
J K ^ M S ^ 0 , and the continuity equation gives L Q^ 0 so that
3,
5" :452 $
%
0.3
0.2
0.1
2
−0.1
−0.2
Q
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
>
)#*
5
1
2
"
*
J c
J :: : : :
^ : 6 Q
_>_>_ ^ "
Q
*
L : ^ :: Q : _>_>_
^ "
Q : *
M ^ 5 6 6 Q : _>_>_
^
"
Q *
$ Q ^ _>_>_ ^ "
Q *
In Fig. 4.2 DNSdata for the fully developed flow in a channel is pre
sented.
There exist a number of LowRe number models [32, 7, 10, 1, 27]. :452
When deriving lowRe models it is common to study the behavior of the
terms when
Q 0
in the exact equations and require that the correspond
ing terms in the modelled equations behave in the same way. Let us study
3
5" :452 $
%
3 0.14
J ? J
J ? $
2.5 0.12
0.1
M ? $
2
1.5 M ? J 0.08
0.06
L ? J L ? $
1
0.04
0.5 0.02
. \
0 0
Q Q
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
> # ) *
1
J ?
J &
&^
K
Q ^ 4
Q
Q Q
: "
Q *
" Q *
"> > *
` :
Q
" Q *
K
Q ^
Q
Q Q
:
" Q * "
Q * " > 9*
` : 4 2
Q
"
Q *
When arriving at that the production term is "
Q * we have used
:
ca ^ @5 F ^
"
Q * ^ "
Q *
" > 9*
2 "
Q *
Comparing Eqs. 4.4 and 4.5 we find that the dissipation term in the mod
elled equation behaves in the same way as in the exact equation when
;!0
5" :452 $
%
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
−0.05
−0.1
Q
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
> ; )#* \ c ^ !,3 !0 J $ ^ 0O_ 09!0 5
17
^
1 $
J
c
Q
0
. However,
both the modelled production and the diffusion term
are of "
Q *
whereas the exact terms are of . This inconsistency of "
Q * 56 F 5;F H F
HF
the modelled terms can be removed by replacing the constant by
HF HF ^ "
Q * Q 0
HF
where
is a damping function
when
so that when
Q
and
. Please note that the term “damping term” in this !0 H F
case is not correct since actually is augmenting when
rather `3a Q 0
than damping. However, it is common to call all lowRe number functions
for “damping functions”.
Instead of introducing a damping function , we can choose to solve
HF
for a modified dissipation which is denoted , see Ref. [25] and Section 4.2. 2<
It is possible to proceed in the same way when deriving damping func
2
tions for the equation [39]. An alternative way is to study the modelled 2
equation near the wall and keep only the terms which do not tend to zero.
From Eq. 3.3 we get
$ 2 P  2
5 A 6 2 ` a
2
K6
Q 6
^ 6
Q D A Q
"
Q * "
Q * 6
"
Q * :
: *
" Q " > 3*
2
` : 4 5A:
2
Q
:
"
Q *
" Q *
where it has been assumed that the production term has been suitable
modified so that . We find that the only term which do not
^ "
Q *
vanish at the wall are the viscous diffusion term and the dissipation term
;1
33 $ 65
3 D< 5" 472 $ O
The equation needs to be modified since the diffusion term cannot balance
the destruction term when
. Q 0
W !#" ( DW U * " U  " ! 0 ! !$# W 0 W 2)4
There are at least a dozen different low Re models presented in the 452
literature. Most of them can be cast in the form [32] (in boundarylayer
`
form, for convenience)
$
P  :
4 2
`ba
`a
$
K Q ^ Q
Q
Q
" > 9*
$ 2 < P  2 <
` a 2 < 5 6 A H 6 2 < `ba `
$
:
K
Q ^ Q : Q
DA
Q "> 0 *
H
4 5 A : : 2 < G
:
` a ^ 5FHF " > 3 *
2<
^ `
" > ;9*
Q :
:
G ^ ` ` a
$
: Q:
)
^ c 2<
;3
$ D %$
[Z 2 $ 2 <
G Q ,
!0 H:
The term was added to match the experimental peak in around
[20]. The term is introduced to mimic the final stage of decay of turbu
lence behind a turbulence generating grid when the exponent in
K
changes from to . ^ < _ 3 ^_
0 ( "U, 0 ( & $X& 03( 0 U "b(
In many lowRe models is the dependent variable rather than . 472 2< 2
The main reason is that the boundary condition for is rather complicated. 2
The largest term in the equation (see Eq. 4.4) close to the wall, are the
dissipation term and the viscous diffusion term which both are of so "
Q *
that
:
0 ^ Q : 4 2 _
`
"> > *
From Eq. 4.14 we can derive alternative boundary conditions. The exact
form of the dissipation term close to the wall reads (see Eq. 2.24)
J : M :
^ c
2 Q
Q " > 9*
where
Q
K ,
S and J
, M L have been assumed. Using
Taylor expansion in Eq. 4.1 gives
: 5 :6
2 ^ c 6
_>_>_ " > 3*
In the same way we get an expression for the turbulent kinetic energy
: 5 :6 :
^ 6
Q _>_>_ " > ,9*
so that
:
: 5 :6
^ 6
Q
>_ _>_ " > 9*
;3;
33 5 :452 $ O
In the SharmaLaunder model this is exactly the expression for in Eqs. 4.12
and 4.13, which means that the boundary condition for is zero, i.e. . 2< 2 < ^0
In the model of Chien [8], the following boundary condition is used
F ^ 5 4
"(4 ) : F * 7 A ^ 5 4
"(4 ) : A *
( is the normal distance from the wall) so that the dissipation term in the
equation and the turbulent viscosity are obtained as:
:
2 ^ A 7 b` a ^ 5@F F
" > 3;9*
)
The Reynolds number and the constants are defined as
)
^
c D7 5@F ^0O_ 09 7 5 ^ D] 5 F
7 : F ^ ?0 7 : A ^ 5
The oneequation model is used near the walls (for ), and the
) 3!0
)#*
standard high in the remaining part of the flow. The matching line :452
could either be chosen along a preselected grid line, or it could be defined
as the cell where the damping function
"(4 ) : F *
4
takes, e.g., the value O 0 _ 3 . The matching of the oneequation model and the
`b:a 4=and
2 model does not pose any problems but gives a smooth distribution of
2 across the matching line.
;?>
33
5" :476 $ O
W 2[0 ! # W 0 W2
A model which is being used more and more is the model of Wilcox [45]. 4 6
The standard 46
model can actually be used all the way to the wall with
out any modifications [45, 29, 34]. One problem is the boundary condition
6
for at walls since (see Eq. 3.25)
2 ^ :
6^
"
Q *
" > ?> *
6
The equation is normally not solved close to the wall but for is Q _ 6
computed from Eq. 4.26, and thus no boundary condition actually needed.
This works well in finite volume methods but when finite element methods
6
are used is needed at the wall. A slightly different approach must then
be used [16].
Wilcox has also proposed a model [47] which is modified for vis :4=6
cous effects, i.e. a true lowRe model with damping function. He demon
strates that this model can predict transition and claims that it can be used
for taking the effect of surface roughness into account which later has been
confirmed [33]. A modification of this model has been proposed in [36].
;3
33
5" :476 $ O
33
5" :476 $
O
" $ N .
* ^
KN K N
KN
6
" $ N 6 * ^ c
c
C
a
6 6 " B5 CD6 H C ca
4 5BCE: 6 * B5 C
6
KN KN
KN
KN KN
ca ^ H F
6
H ^ 450O_ !3
4 ) a
0
H F ^ 0O_ 093
) a
4 4 0
:
a )
0O_ 9! 0O_ ) 030#a
4 !030
) a 6 :
) a 6 :
HC ^ >_ ;
4 <_ 7 H C ^ > _ ;
4
<_
5 ^ 0O_ 09 7 B
5 D
C 6 ^0O_ > 7 B
5 E
C : ^0O_ 0 !
5BC ^ 7
0O_ ! ^0O_ ,
7 C ^ <_ ;3
" > 93*
33
5" :476 $
$ ' E
A new '4 6 model was recently proposed by Bredberg et al. [5] which reads
c ca
N
K N " $ .*^ 4 62
KN
KN
6 N CD6 6 4 CE: 6 :
K N " $ 6 *^ c
" > 3,9*
C c a N 6 N
c ca 6
K K
KN C
KN
The turbulent viscosity is given by
ca ^ F H F
6
H F ^0O_ 09 O0 _ 1 ) 4
) a :
" > 39*
a 4 3
;3
33
5" :476 $ O
;9
:
%
In Reynolds Stress Models the Boussinesq assumption (Eq. 2.10) is not used
but a partial differential equation (transport equation) for the stress tensor
is derived from the NavierStokes equation. This is done in the same way
as for the equation (Eq. 2.23).
Take the NavierStokes equation for the instantaneous velocity (Eq. 2.4). $ &
Subtract the momentum equation for the time averaged velocity ((Eq. 2.6) $ &
JN
and multiply by . Derive the same equation with indices ! and " inter
changed. Add the two equations and time average. The resulting equation
reads
" $ J & J N *
^ 4 J & J $  N 4 J N J $ &
" J & N J N & *
N
& &N
N
&
JN \ & J & \ N c J JON
4 J & JN8J 4 " & *
"+ *
&N
4= c J & J N
2& N
where
&N J & JN && ^ :
6 && ^ 6 6 : :
is the production of
)];
[note that (
&N
is the pressurestrain term, which promotes isotropy of the turbu
lence;
2 &N
is the dissipation (i.e. transformation of mechanical energy into
heat in the smallscale turbulence) of ; J & JON
&N and
&N are the convection and diffusion, respectively, of J & JN .
Note that if we take the trace of Eq. 5.1 and divide by two we get the
equation for the turbulent kinetic energy (Eq. 2.23). When taking the trace
the pressurestrain term vanishes since
J: L: M :
equation does not add or destruct any turbulent kinetic energy it merely
redistributes the energy between the normal components ( , and ).
Furthermore, it can be shown using physical reasoning [19] that acts to & N
reduce the large normal stress component(s) and distributes this energy to
the other normal component(s).
;3,
" ! 3
%$&
$
%
# W ,( 032 4 * $ UXW 4<4 0 W 2)4
?= = 6 ^ 5 ?6 2 J : H
#
H ^ "
_ 3K 2
The object of the wall correction terms and is to take the effect of ? 6 ?= = 6
the wall into account. Here we have introduced a
coordinate system, 4
with along the wall and normal to the wall. Near a wall (the term
“near” may well extend to ) the normal stress normal to the wall isQ ^ !030
K ^ 0
L:
damped (for a wall located at, for example, this mean that the normal
stress is damped), and the other two are augmented (see Fig. 4.2).
In the literature there are many proposals for better (and more compli
cated) pressure strain models [40, 23].
%7
The triple correlation in the diffusion term is often modelled as [9]
XZ
5
5;= J J
" J & JN *
&N ^
2
"+ > *
The pressure diffusion term is for two reasons commonly neglected. First, it
is not possible to measure this term and before DNSdata (Direct Numerical
Simulations) were available it was thus not possible to model this term.
Second, from DNSdata is has indeed been found to be small (see Fig. 4.3).
The dissipation tensor is assumed to be isotropic, i.e. 2?& N
2& N ^ ; \ & N X2 _ "+ 9*
;3
" ! 3
%$&
$
% $ $ 0 X 6 $ O
%
J& JN
two derivative and are not correlated for ! " . This is the same as ^
J&
assuming that for small scales and are not correlated for ! JON" which is ^
a good approximation since the turbulence at these small scale is isotropic,
see Section 1.4.
We have given models for all unknown term in Eq. 5.1 and the modelled
Reynolds equation reads [24, 17]
2 ;
where & N should be taken from Eq. 5.3. For a review on RSMs (Reynolds
Stress Models), see [18, 22, 26, 38].
# W ,( 032 4 * $ UXW 4<4 0 W 2)4 , &)4O0 4& $8, 0 W 2)4
Whenever nonisotropic effects are important we should consider using RSMs.
Note that in a turbulent boundary layer the turbulence is always nonisotropic,
but isotropic eddy viscosity models handle this type of flow excellent as far
as mean flow quantities are concerned. Of course a model give very :452
poor representation of the normal stresses. Examples where nonisotropic
effects often are important are flows with strong curvature, swirling flows,
flows with strong acceleration/retardation. Below we present list some ad
vantages and disadvantages with RSMs and eddy viscosity models.
Advantages with eddy viscosity models:
i) isotropic, and thus not good in predicting normal stresses ( ); J :7L :7M :
ii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for curvature effects;
iii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for irrotational strains.
>90
63 '6
A A
0
0
B B
r Uθ (r)
$3 " * 7 $ ^0
3
^ 5 !
$ ^
of convex curvature as
) \ ^ 0O_ 0#
work reviewed by Bradshaw demonstrates that even such small amounts
can have a significant effect on the tur
bulence. Thompson and Whitelaw [42] carried out an experimental inves
>.
63 '6
y
streamline
x
3 3
K
" *
) , \
tigation on a configuration simulating the flow near a trailing edge of an
0O_ 09;
L:
airfoil, where they measured . They reported a 50 percent de
crease of
J: 4 ZJ L
(Reynolds stress in the normal direction to the wall) owing to
curvature. The reduction of and was also substantial. In addition
they reported significant damping of the turbulence in the shear layer in
the outer part of the separation region.
An illustrative model case is curved boundary layer flow. A polar coor
dinate system 4
(see Fig. 5.1)) with locally aligned with the streamline
is introduced. As (with
$ ^ $ !" *
and ), the radial $ 0 $ ^ 0
inviscid momentum equation degenerates to
$ :
4 ^0 "+ 3*
Here the variables are instantaneous or laminar. The centrifugal force ex
erts a force in the normal direction (outward) on a fluid following the stream
line, which is balanced by the pressure gradient. If the fluid is displaced by
some disturbance (e.g. turbulent fluctuation) outwards to level A, it en
counters a pressure gradient larger than that to which it was accustomed
at ^ , as "($ * " $ *
, which from Eq. 5.7 gives
. " * " *
Hence the fluid is forced back to
^
. Similarly, if the fluid is displaced
inwards to level B, the pressure gradient is smaller here than at and ^
cannot keep the fluid at level B. Instead the centrifugal force drives it back
to its original level.
It is clear from the model problem above that convex curvature, when
$
0
, has a stabilizing effect on (turbulent) fluctuations, at least in
the radial direction. It is discussed below how the Reynolds stress model
responds to streamline curvature.
>
63 '6 %
:
"! 7 J 4
17 _
66 ^ 4 JZL
$ "+ ,9*
Q
17 6[: J : P 4 L : $
"! 7 JZL 4
_ ^ 4 K
Q "+ 9*
:
17 :: JZL P 
"! 7 L 4
_ ^ 4
K "+ 0 *
$ P :
^ `a
:452
Q
K "+ 3 *
As long as the streamlines in Fig. 5.2 are parallel to the wall, all pro
duction is a result of
$ Q
. However as soon as the streamlines are de
P K P K
[6 : J:
flected, there are more terms resulting from . Even if is much
smaller that
$ Q :
it will still contribute nonnegligibly to as is
6[: 6[:
much larger than
P K 0 L
. Thus the magnitude of will increase ( is nega
6[: JL
:: J: L :4
tive) as . An increase in the magnitude of will increase ,
66
which in turn will increase
be larger and the magnitude of
and . This means that and
will be further increased, and so on. It
will
6[:
is seen that there is a positive feedback, which continuously increases the
Reynolds stresses. It can be said that the turbulence is #%$&('*)"+,,./$(# owing
to concave curvature of the streamlines.
However, the 452
model is not very sensitive to streamline curvature
(neither convex nor concave), as the two rotational strains are multiplied
by the same coefficient (the turbulent viscosity).
If the flow (concave curvature) in Fig. 5.2 is a wall jet flow where
$ Q
0 , the situation will be reversed: the turbulence will be &0'*)"+1,,./$(# . If the
streamline (and the wall) in Fig. 5.2 is deflected downwards, the situation
will be as follows: the turbulence is stabilizing when
, and desta $ Q 0
bilizing for
. $ Q 0
The stabilizing or destabilizing effect of streamline curvature is thus
dependent on the type of curvature (convex or concave), and whether there
is an increase or decrease in momentum in the tangential direction with
). For convenience, $
radial distance from its origin (i.e. the sign of
these cases are summarized in Table 5.1.
>;
XXO
E
Z $ " E D$ D
x2
y
x1 x2
x
x1
;
3
4 ZJ L $ Q K
In boundary layer flow, the only term which contributes to the pro
duction term in the equation is
( denotes streamwise direc
4 "J 4 L * $ K
tion). Thompson and Whitelaw [42] found that, near the separation point
as well as in the separation zone, the production term
: :
is of equal importance. This was confirmed in prediction of separated flow
using RSM [12, 13].
4 J L $ Q
In pure boundary layer flow the only term which contributes to the
production term in the and equations is
2
. Thompson and
4 " J 4 L * $ K
Whitelaw [42] found that near the separation point, as well as in the sepa
ration zone, the production term
is of equal importance.
: :
As the exact form of the production terms are used in secondmoment clo
J: L:
sures, the production due to irrotational strains is correctly accounted for.
,
In the case of stagnationlike flow (see Fig. 5.3), where the pro
duction due to normal stresses is zero, which is also the results given by
secondmoment closure, whereas models give a large production. In :4=2
strains
and
P Q
order to illustrate this, let us write the production due to the irrotational
$ K
for RSM and :452
:
) * ^ 4 J : $ 4 L : P
O0 _ " 6 6 : :
K
Q
$
: P :

452 ^ `ba
K Q
If J
: , L : we get 6 6 : : , 0 since $ K ^ 4 P Q
due to continuity.
The production term in 452 model, however, will be large, since it will
be & of the two strains.
>3>
" ! " 5
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>,
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