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Plant habit AdDL information

Trees, shrubs, woody vines Edible fruits, used for scent or timber and some cultivated ornamentals Distichous Simple Exstipulate

Herbs, shrubs, vines and trees Source of white and black pepper, flavoring, medicinal plants, euphoric plants and cultivated ornamentals Spiral Simple Stipulate/Exstipulate

Terrestrial and aquatic shrubs, vines, herbs Food source, cultivated ornamentals.

Terrestrial/epiphytic perennial herbs


Distichous/Spiral Simple Bifacial Highly divided/Fenestrate Parallel/Penni-parallel/Netted

Distichous/Spiral Simple

Roots Stems Inflorescence

Solitary flower Cyme Spadix

Mychorrhizal, w/o root hairs Rhizomatous/Cormose/ Tuberous/Reduced Many-flowered Spadix, w/ spathe Terminal

Parallel Whorled; sheathing Tuberous (terrestrial) Aerial (epiphytic) Rhizomatous/Cormose (t) Pseudobulbs (epi) Solitary flower


Bi/Unisexual Hypogynous

Bi/Unisexual Very small Actinomorphic Bracteate => peltate/hypogynous

Bi/Unisexual (Female: proximal, male distal) Hypogynous Small Actinomorphic Ebracteate Sessile Sometimes foul-smelling

Raceme Spike Panicle Bisexual



Triseriate (3+3+3) -absentHypanthium absent

Biseriate [2+2] or 3/4 -absentApotepalous (or basally syn) Hypanthium absent

Resupinate -> 180 shift of floral parts Biseriate 3+3 Apotepalous (or basally syn) W/ enlarged saclike tepal Labellum: anterior tepal Homochlamydeous Solitary (median, outer) Two vestigial staminodes (lateral inner) *Gynostemium


Numerous, spiral Apostemonous

3 + 3 [1. 10]

4, 6, 8 [1, 12] Distinct or connate Antitepalous (for bi flowers)

Anthers Pollen Gynoecium Style Stigma placentation Ovules fruit Seeds

Longitudinally dehiscent

Longitudinal Dithecal (sometimes mono, by fusion of thecae)


Longitudinal/Modified Dithecal Bisporangiate

Monads, Tetrads, Polyads Numerous carpels Superior ovary => apocarpous (spiral) or syncarpous (whorled) 1 or 2/4 carpels Single pistil with superior ovary 1 locule Absent or solitary 1 or brushlike and lateral in Peperomia Basal Orthotropous Bitegmic (Uni in Peperomia) 1-seeded berry.drupe 3 [1 50] carpels, locules Superiour ovary Syncarpous 1, short or absent 1, short or absent Variable Anatropous Bitegmic [1, infinity] Multiple of berries, less often dry (ex. Utricles) Endospermous (fleshy testa) Oily, sometimes starchy Contains cyanogenic cpds, alkaloids, raphides and laticifers P2+2,3+3, (2+2), (3+3) or 0 [4+4, (4+4)] A4,6,8 or (4,6,8) [1-12] G(3) [1-()], superior Parietal/Axile Anatropous Bitegmic W/ Nectaries Loculicidal Capsule (rarely berry) Exalbuminous Membranous-winged P(3+3) A 1-3 G(3), inferior, w/ gynostemium. 3 carpels inferior ovary Syncarpous 1-3 locules

Variable Anatropous/Campylotropous Bi/Tritegmic 1-numerous Aggregate of berries or dry and indehiscent units Syncarp; unit berries fused to a receptacular axis Endospermous Ruminate Oily, sometimes starchy P3+3+3 A G , superior

Starchy perisperm; scanty endo

Floral formula

P0 A3+3(1-10) G1 or (3-4), superior