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AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 1

Acarnaie [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 442 in the genitive case, Acrniś.
Acrie [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Acarie, affected by the addition of Acarnaie above.
Aiásun 'Jason [mythos]' modify Modified form to Eiasun, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
aisunaiuχ 'small sacrifices, small modify Modified form to aisunaiu. I'm pursuing a new analysis that attested
offerings' eisnevc (TLE 195) contains conjunctive -c. Pallottino did not parse
the word at all and assumed that the undivided noun stem was a
'priestly title', no doubt because of its obvious etymological origin:
aisu 'god' and his belief that accompanying ten was a verb for
magistrative positions. However, I'm curious of what if any arguments
exist to oppose simply interpreting final -c as a conjunctive. I believe
there are none. This word then would simply be formed on aisuna and
diminutive -iu. The resultant dipthong -ai- later became -e- towards
Late Etruscan.
Alfi [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Alfiie.
Apirie [gentilicium] add Attested in the genitive case as Apries in TLE 118.
apirθinaiu 'small libations' add Attested in TLE 233 as eprθnev-c with what I presume to an attached
conjunctive -c. The diphthong -ai- had coalesced to -e- during
recorded Etruscan history. Etymologically, it's likely formed on the
verbal root apir.
aracuna 'of the hawk, hawk-related' add Attested in the unspaced phrase salaracuneta on a bronze mirror
(CSE Italy I.1.15). Note also TLE 810, a gloss made in Greek,
αρακος, of a purported Etruscan word for 'hawk'. The epithet is
written next to the image of a winged nude female (Vanth?).
Atranie [gentilicium] modify Modified form to unsyncopated Atrannaie to align better with the
apparent etymology of name.
Avilnaie [gentilicium] add Attested in the genitive as Aulniś in TLE 512.
cela 'cella' add Attested in TLE 105 with an inessive postclitic, cela-ti. I've been
skeptical of cela meaning 'cella' as the Bonfantes have claimed (due to
the number of other ad hoc Etruscan-Latin comparisons they've
suggested), however, it seems to make the most sense since I can't
reconcile the final vowel -a in this word if it were truly a form of celu
'earth'. So in other words, there seem to be two very similar but
unrelated words at work here, celu 'earth' and cela 'cella', the latter
being a Latin borrowing.
ceraχra 'vessel, pottery' modify Modified meaning to 'creation, product'. I've been assuming that it
means 'vessel' because of it being inscribed on an Attic kylix (a type
of vessel) in the phrase etun Hercles carucra. Thus I naturally
deduced it to mean: 'This, to Heracle, a vessel (was given).' Yet, the
underlying root of ceraχra must surely be cer 'to make', so the value
of 'creation' (i.e. referring to any sort of man-made object) might fit
better etymologically, hence 'This, to Heracle, a creation (was given).'
cezpalχal 'eighty' modify Modified form to cezpalχ. At this point, I think that the Lemnian
numeral sialχveiś, a declined form of 'sixty', provides conclusive
external evidence to suggest that the underlying roots of all decadic
numerals in the earliest stage of Etruscan bear the simple suffix -alχ
(< Pre-Proto-Etruscan *-alχu) and also that -al and -als represent
genitive and ablative case endings respectively.
ceθu [unknown transitive verb] modify Modified form to ceθu and meaning to 'kyathos', a type of vessel.
cialχals 'thirty' modify Modified form to cialχ. At this point, I think that the Lemnian
numeral sialχveiś, a declined form of 'sixty', provides conclusive
external evidence to suggest that the underlying roots of all decadic
numerals in the earliest stage of Etruscan bear the simple suffix -alχ
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 2

(< Pre-Proto-Etruscan *-alχu) and also that -al and -als represent
genitive and ablative case endings respectively.
Cluθumusθa [mythos] modify Modified form to Cluθamasθa. The likeliest source of borrowing of
this name is specifically Doric Greek Κλυταιμνάστρα
(Klutaimnástra). Given this origin, a most natural Etruscan
approximation of this foreign name would in fact be *Cluθamasθa
with accent on the initial syllable. Indeed, it's conceivable that
*Cluθamasθa would eventually become attested Cluθumusθa and
Clutmsta by way of syncope. This then may be a more reasonable
archaic form of the name to use for this entry.
Cutuna [gentilicium] add Attested in the genitive case as Cutnas in TLE 125.
ep 'blood' add Attested as ep-c with conjunctive -c attached in the Liber Linteus (LL
5.xvii).
epana 'blood offering' add Attested in TLE 56.
epil [type of offering] modify Modified meaning to 'blood'.
epl [type of offering] modify Modified form to epil based on phonotactics as well as the likeliest
native source of its formation. Note that -il is a very common
derivational suffix for inanimate nouns and the words epni and
epnina may be related.
epni [type of animal] modify Modified meaning to 'bloodletting cup'.
erc 'to rise up from, to elevate' delete Merging data with entry ar 'to rise up'. The verb ar is well attested
already and it has enough instances for me to be certain of its
connotation of 'rising up' or 'lifting'. I've relied on a misreading of
*ercse in TLE 334 but a clear picture that I now have shows ersce
instead. I had already dertermined that the sentence on the black-
finish vase, Eca ersce nac Aχrum flerθrce, must mean 'This one rose
up when Acheron received gift'. In this context, rising would be
metaphor for resurrecting from Hades and would be an appropriate
translation given what we know of this legend of Greek origin.
Acheron, the embodiment of death and also one of the legendary
rivers to Hades, is receiving a human 'bribe' of one person in place of
another who is otherwise destined to die. Analysing the grammatical
composition of the verb ersce, we can see that it's terminated by the
perfect preterite -ce and augmented by an aspectual marker -as-. The
change in vowel of the root is no different than what we observe with
clan ~ clen 'son'.
Etule [mythos] add Attested on a 4th c. BCE bronze mirror indexed by Helmut Rix as ET
Vs S.5. The name is borrowed from GreekΑιτωλός (Aitōlós), from
whence we get the word Aetolia. However, on this mirror experts
have claimed that it refers to Aitolos' brother, Epeios, who is known
to have built the Trojan Horse thought to be depicted here.
ez 'old, aged' modify Modified type from 'adj.' to 'ni.(II)' (i.e. an inanimate noun) and
modified meaning to 'age, lifetime'. Inscription ET Ta 8.1 shows esi-c
with conjunctive attached which may be the same word, although the
change of affricate z to sibilant s would then require further
explanation. However, similar erosion is witnessed in eśl-em 'taking
away two' (as in eślem zaθrum '18', lit. '20 taking away 2') derived
from zal 'two'. Even so, the coherent motivation of such a sound
change in this particular word leaves me wanting.
Faníscaie [praenomen, gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 746 in the genitive as Fniścial.
Faníscaie [praenomen, gentilicium] modify Modified form to Fniscaie, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
fel 'to devote' add Attested as a participle, vhelequ, on a 7th c. BCE vessel, in TLE 56.
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 3

The digraph vh was once used to spell the voiceless bilabial fricative
/φ/ before the figure-8 became standard for the letter ef.
feli [type of offering] modify Modified meaning to 'devotion, dedication' and is probably related to
the verb fel for which I've already given the value 'to devote' (note
TLE 56: vhelequ).
Felmuie [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 401 as Felmuial in the genitive.
Felusce [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 363 in the genitive case (Feluskeś).
Flacunaie [gentilicium] modify Attested in TLE 429 as Vhlakunaie on a 7th c. kyanthos.
fler 'gift' modify Modified form to mler. It seems that mler is attested between the 7th
and 5th centuries BCE (i.e. the earliest stages of attested Etruscan)
while the form fler occurs later. This leads me to believe that the two
words are related and that the change of initial m- to the closest
bilabial fricative available, namely f, was a sporadic means to resolve
a word-initial cluster of two resonants. This change seems to occur
only with mler and not with mlaχ 'blessed' which instead appears to
have opted for epenthesis to mulaχ as attested in the Liber Linteus.
The height of the vowel following the initial cluster may be a factor in
the differences between the paths of the two words.
fler-eθar 'to receive gifts' modify Modified form to mler-eθar. See changes to fler above.
fleriś 'small gift' modify Modified form to mleriś. See changes to fler above.
Fraucna [gentilicium] add Attested as Fraucnal in the genitive case in CIE 475.
fuśil [type of offering] modify Modified form to puśil. This change is based admittedly on a hunch,
not an attested spelling of the word, but it should be noted that a few
other words with p neighbouring u (such as pulum 'star') are
sometimes spelled with f, at least after 500 BCE. This seems to
indicate that the pronunciation of p was weakened to a bilabial
fricative in these instances. I'm as yet undecided whether all instances
of f neighbouring u in Etruscan are originally from p (but it's really
starting to look like it). I'm currently looking into whether puznu in
TLE 14 might share a same root *puś-.
Haparna [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Hapirna based on the Latin-Etruscan bilingual
inscription of TLE 455 showing Hapirnal in the genitive.
hatrencu 'unmarried' add Attested in numerous funerary inscriptions like ET Vc 1.49 and Vc
1.50, all from Vulci, all female. I've decided to analyse this as a
transitive participle in -u. The word and its stem are otherwise
unattested as far as I'm aware and its exact meaning is a source of
interest for Etruscologists.
Hauranaie [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 210 in the genitive, Havrenies.
Helene [mythos] modify Modified form to Elenai, the name for Helen borrowed from Greek
Ελένη, probably via the Doric dialect. I'm not sure what happened
here but I guess I must've been sleep-typing. Fortunately, resistance is
futile so this error won't be bothering anyone anymore, hehe.
heliś 'small sacrifice' add Attested in TLE 317, 908, and 909 as hels, all inscriptions from Vulci.
hi [verb for religious dedication] modify Modified translation to 'to cry out'. It's attested in the presentive as hia
in the Liber Linteus. I'm suspecting that these passages where the
word is used has some connection with the announcing of the
deceased's name three times by a relative during funerary rites. As
always, this is one of several ideas that I'm currently pursuing proof or
disproof for. It's worth a try. If the value is correct, it would probably
be of onomatopoeic origin.
hiiuls 'owl' modify Modified form to hivil. This change is based on purely etymological
considerations. The 'screech-owl' hapax as translated by Massimo
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 4

Pallottino in TLE 333 would, in my view as I revisit this word, most


likely have been formed on a monosyllabic onomatopoeic root *hiu
'to hoot' plus -il. If so, the word which is found on only one vessel
depicting an owl could be declined in the genitive case, not
nominative, and would then be signifying 'of/to the owl', rather than
simply 'owl' as Pallottino and others have been claiming. Taking away
the s-genitive, we are left with *hiul.
Himaraie [mythos] add Attested on a mirror (CSE Italy I.1.15) in the phrase Lasa Himrae.
The spelling ae was no doubt to represent the pronunciation /-aje-/
with an automatic intervocalic glide (or as I've become fond of calling
it, an intrusive-y). Thus my addition of -i- is for phonotactic reasons.
Also a vowel between m and r appears likely to me and so I've chosen
a by default. As yet, I'm unsure of the source of the name but will
investigate in the next month.
hupni 'ossuary' modify Modified meaning to 'ossuary chamber'. See hupnina below for
explanation.
hupnina 'ossuary' add I'm taking the forms hupnina (TLE 442) and hupnineθi (TLE 630)
out of the entry hupni above and putting it in a seperate entry. In TLE
442, its inscription (Mi hupnina Larθ(al) Acrniś, Larθial Felśnal.)
is written in the first person on the urn or ossuary itself, indicating
clearly then that hupnina must signify 'ossuary'. However, in TLE 53,
the shorter word hupni must refer rather to the tomb chamber in
which the ossuary is held since the word is written on the surface of
an erected cippus, not an urn. Pallottino's claims then (i.e. lumping
hupni with hupnina together under the same value) found in the
vocabulary section of The Etruscans (1975) is inaccurate.
il 'to declare' add Attested on the Lead of Magliano in the passive preterite (ilaχe) and
on a curse tablet in participial form, iluu.
Lave [male praenomen] add Attested in TCort A.xiv in the genitive: Laves. Probably also related to
Rhaetic Lavise, perhaps a dative form, in Schum CE 1.
Leinie [gentilicium] modify Modified form to unsyncopated Leinaie based on its etymology.

Lemne 'Lemnos [island]' add Attested in a name in TLE 105 as Lemniśa.


Lenie [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Leinie. This is a typo but the extra “i” is confirmed
by Rix's transcription of the name in TLE 232.
lis 'field' add Attested in TLE 56 in a rather archaic form of the locative case (circa
7th c. BCE) with an added inessive postclitic, liśiai-θi. So far, I'm
presuming it means 'in the fields' based on the context of the entire
inscription. The marker -ia is the previously encountered collective
plural marker presumably attached to a singular form *lis. This also
seems to fit the semantic context observable in the Tabula
Cortonensis where mleśieθic would then unfold as a clumsy
misparsing by modern Etruscanists. That is, the initial m- is to be
properly identified as the phrasal conjunctive belonging to the
previous word. See also span.
lup 'crossing, crossroads ' add Attested in ET Ta 7.78 in the epithet Xarun Lufe. After interpreting
-e as a locative ending, it's reasonable to assume that luf- is related to
the verb most often used for death, lup, which I've already come to
realize is merely a euphemism for death. I think rather that it refers
more specifically to the 'crossing over' of the dead by Charun. Hence
I've suggested that lupu more literally means 'crossed over' rather than
'dead'. It seems to me that the meaning of this epithet in the Tomba di
Caronti then is self-evident: “Charun at the Crossing”.
luri 'beverage' add Attested on the Lead of Magliano (TLE 359) as lur-ca-c with
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 5

conjunctive and demonstrative attached.


lurs 'to shine, to be bright' add Attested on the Lead of Magliano (TLE 359) in the participial form,
lursθ.
lut 'egg' delete I'm merging this entry with luθ (see luθ which has also been
modified).
luθ 'salt-cakes, mola salsa' modify Modified meaning to 'egg'. In the process of merging lut 'egg' with
this entry, I will retain the value of 'egg' for instances of both lut and
luθ. I believe now that they are the same word given that word-final
stops in Etruscan are undistinguished for aspiration in pronunciation
because of the constant spelling variants between aspirated and
unaspirated letters. The value of 'egg' is in my most recent view
likelier because of the phrase Tinś lut which may be convincingly
interpreted as 'egg of the sun', in reference to the orb of the sun. The
egg is a known symbolism in Etruscan funerary murals and so
presumably was associated with the cyclical 'renewal' of not only the
sun each morning but of human souls resurrected in the afterlife as
well. My original value of 'salt-cakes' relied only on inscriptions
which implied only that the inanimate noun in question was some
kind of offering and mola salsa is one such ritual offering in Roman
traditions. Indeed, eggs were also used as offerings in tombs, strange
as it may seem, because of the above-mentioned association with the
concept of rebirth and renewal. Note also the solar-related Cosmic
Egg motif featured in Egyptian and Orphic cosmology.
macistraiu [small religious add Attested in TLE 195 as macistrev-c with conjunctive -c 'and, also,
offerings] too' attached.
maláχ 'blessed, sanctified' modify Modified form to mlaχ. This is part of my sweeping phonotactic
changes to now represent word-initial clusters as they are in my
dictionary listings in light of Rhaetic evidence also showing these
clusters. The syncope to have produced word-initial clusters then must
have occurred in the parent language of Etruscan, Rhaetic and
Lemnian, not Proto-Etruscan itself, meaning also that shifting accent
must be relegated to that pre-Proto-Etruscan stage.
Maláχiuχ [mythos] modify Modified form to Maláχuχ due to changes in my etymological and
grammatical interpretations of the language. The name is built on
what is later attested as mlaχ, there is little doubt. However the ending
that I've previously analysed as a kind of diminutive derivative -iuχ
might be best understood simply as -uχ.
Maláχuχ [mythos] modify Modified form to Mlaχuχ, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
malvá 'to be blessed' modify Modified form to mulva, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
Mania [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 184, declined with the genitive-II ending, Manial.
maraniu 'small harvest' delete Based on an incorrect transcription of TLE 233. I'm now siding with
Rix who writes marnuχ with a terminating chi and am therefore
moving this item to the entry maranuχ. Larissa Bonfantes points to a
word marunu in her glossary in Treading the Past – Etruscan (1990)
but there's no way for the reader to know which inscription this is
based on. I may learn these secrets one day but I'm more focussed
right now on the history of the Etruscans more than the history of
Etruscanists.
maraniuχ 'bounty, harvest' modify Modified form to maranuχ. My original thought was that maraniuχ
was based on the recently deleted diminutive *maraniu (see
maraniu). This particular word has never shown the word-internal -i-
and it can be more directly explained as a product of maran +
derivational suffix -uχ. Note also Mlacuχ < mlaχ + -uχ. (See
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 6

Maláχiuχ).
maválχal 'fifty' modify Modified form to muvalχ. At this point, I think that the Lemnian
numeral sialχveiś, a declined form of 'sixty', provides conclusive
external evidence to suggest that the underlying roots of all decadic
numerals in the earliest stage of Etruscan bear the simple suffix -alχ
(< *-alχu) and also that -al and -als represent genitive and ablative
case endings respectively. Also, I'm changing phonotactic rules in my
citation forms to allow word-initial consonant clusters in light of
Rhaetic evidence also showing that these clusters precede Proto-
Etruscan.
maθ [type of offering] modify Modified meaning to 'picking, fruit harvest'. I've arrived at this latest
hypothesis after cross-correlating this word with the instance of Eteo-
Cypriot maθuva (spelled syllabically in Linear script as ma-tu-wa) in
Tablet 90, Side A. The notion that this could possibly mean 'honey' (as
per the Bonfantes) is simply a lazy attempt at translation through
dictionary eyeballing. This ad hoc comparison to Indo-European
languages who share the root *médʰu 'honey' should be treated with
deep suspicion based on the absence of systematic methodology to
uncover its meaning and the fact that Etruscan is squarely un-Indo-
European.
Meteli [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Metelie. Afterall, we do find the Roman name
Metelia.
meχ 'people' modify Modified meaning to 'person, people'. One thing is certain: this word
has no identified plural as yet. If animate, the plural would have been
expected to be *meχar and if just a collective inanimate, *meχva.
Neither are present in the data despite the ubiquity of the word. This is
intriguing but many languages which mark plurals have a small class
of exceptions which lack overt plural marking even when countable
(note Swahili ngombe and Proto-Indo-European inanimate nouns like
*yēkʷr). Should we perhaps expect the same quirk for Etruscan?
Assuming that θuta means 'every' (see θuta), then the phrase meχ
θuta in the Pyrgi Tablets would mean 'every person', not 'every
people', and yet we also observe meχl Rasnal 'of the people of
Etruria', not 'of the person of Etruria'. This then suggests that this
word is part of just such a class of nouns void of overt plural marking.
murinaśa 'funerary offering' add Attested on the Lead of Magliano (TLE 359), perhaps in a locative
plural form: murinaśie.
naitiś 'lake' add Attested on the Tabula Cortonensis (TCort B.iii), found in the phrase
cel-ti neitisś Tarsminaśś which appears to mean 'in the earth of the
lake of Tarsimenna'. The diphthong ai often underlies later ei, as we
observe in aiser 'gods' > eiser. Further evidence of this word in the
Etruscan lexicon is in a Roman river name Neaethus in Calabria
(Italy), a hydronym suspected by others of being of Etruscan origin.
Perna [gentilicium] add Attested as genitive Pernal in TLE 463.
Petce [gentilicium] add Attested in TCort A.xxx.
Peθna [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Peθuna, attested in TLE 575.
prumaθs 'great-grandson' modify Modified form to prumaθś. The use of a final san is attested in TLE
232.
purθiśvaiuχ 'dedicatory object' modify Modified form to purθiśvauχ. Attested in TLE 325 with the inessive
postclitic as purtiśvavc-ti, I've decided on a new etymology of this
word: *purθiśva + derivational suffix -uχ. (as in the name Mlacuχ)
Remza [female praenomen] modify Modified form to Remiza. A female by the name Ramza Mura
appears to be attested in TLE 908: murai . ramza . hels . atrś. The
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 7

name is interesting in that it seems on the surface to contain a root


ram- plus diminutive -za. Without anything else to go on, it would be
hard to assess what ram- might signify. However in Rhaetic, a
language related to Etruscan, Remi appears to be used as a name
(Schum. SZ 2). If these things are connected, Remi may then also lie
beneath the Etruscan name Ramza (from earlier *Remiza).
Remzana [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Remizana based on recent changes to the entry
Remza, its etymological root above.
rena [physical object] modify Considering rens in ET Ta 8.1, perhaps reneθi from the Cippus
Perusinus reflects a word without terminating -a afterall. Also, since
most nouns which use the s-genitive are animate, perhaps this isn't an
'object' per se although the semantics of fulumχva śpelθ reneθi still
elude me despite my understanding of its grammatical structure. Rens
is reflected in the phrase ipa ilθcvavti θunis rens tenaθine and so far,
I haven't the foggiest idea what that means either. Sigh.
Ruifri [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Rufriie. In TLE 32 we find Ruvries while in TLE
737 we find Ruifriś, both declined in the genitive case. Since this
name in all likelihood comes from Latin Rufrius which in turn is
based on the Latin word rūfus 'red-haired' (< Oscan rufus 'red' < PIE
*h₁reudʰ-), it seems that Ruifriś may be a mistake made by the
Etruscan artist who made the statuette for actual *Rufriś.
sacúnna 'holy, sanctified, blessed' modify Modified form to scunna, due to changes in rules governing
allowable syllable forms in my listed citation forms.
śaiálχal 'sixty' modify Modified form to śialχ. At this point, I think that the Lemnian
numeral sialχveiś, a declined form of 'sixty', provides conclusive
external evidence to suggest that the underlying roots of all decadic
numerals in the earliest stage of Etruscan bear the simple suffix -alχ
(< *-alχu) and also that -al and -als represent genitive and ablative
case endings respectively. Also, I'm changing phonotactic rules in my
citation forms to allow word-initial consonant clusters in light of
Rhaetic evidence also showing that these clusters precede Proto-
Etruscan.
sleleθ 'stela, cippus' modify Modified meaning and form to slela 'quarry'. The hapax is found in
the phrase sleleθ caru tezan on the Cippus Perusinus (TLE 570) but
I've now determined with a fair degree of certainty that tezan must
mean 'cippus' based on examples from TLE 571 and 626. Thus, sleleθ
refers to something else. While it's difficult to ascertain the meaning
of a word found on only one artifact, it's reasonable to interpret the
word as a locative case form in -e with syncopated inessive postclitic
-θ(i) meaning 'in' and since caru appears to mean 'made', the phrase
could mean 'in a quarry the cippus was made'.
span 'plains' add Attested on line 4 of the Tabula Cortonensis in the locative case with
inessive postclitic and conjunctive attached: span-θi-m. Since it's
placed beside another inessive form, leśie-θi-c (see under lis), we may
presume that its meaning is connected to this word as well. I in turn
interpret these two words as topographical terms since the word
following this pair in this artifact happens to be Rasnal 'of Etruria'.
Spuriaza [male praenomen, modify Modified form to Spurieza. The name is composed of the attested
gentilicium] male praenomen Spurie plus diminutive -za.
Śupilna [gentilicium] add Attested as genitive-declined Śupelnas in TLE 341.
Śuplu [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Śupilu due to its probable relationship with
Śupilna.
Talámunius [mythos] modify Modified form to Tlamunius, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactic rules in my listed citation forms. Interestingly in this case,
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 8

since we know that this name must be borrowed from Greek


Τελαμώνιος, the unexpected word-initial cluster that must have
developed prior to Proto-Etruscan almost seems to suggest that the
word was borrowed from Mycenaean rather than later Greek.
Talápu [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Tlapu, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
Talápuna [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Tlapuna, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
Talénaχa [district name] modify Modified form to Tlenaχa, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
Talésina [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Tlesina, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
táleχa 'war' modify Modified form to tleχa. This is one of my typos again. The stress
accent should have been placed on the second syllable to explain the
resultant cluster tl-. However, I'm also changing phonotactic rules in
my citation forms to allow word-initial consonant clusters in light of
Rhaetic evidence also showing that these clusters precede Proto-
Etruscan.
talúś 'depth' modify Modified form to tluś, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
tamíia 'temple' modify Modified form to tmiia, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms.
tamíiaθu 'temple attendant' modify Modified form to tmiiaθu, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms. The only attested form of this
word is tamiaθuras (TLE 227) and yet surely derives from tmia
'temple', spelled as such twice on the Pyrgi Tablets (see tamíia
above). Presumably then, this word is the result of later epenthesis of
vowel.
taná 'then, so' modify Modified form to etna, due to changes in how I'm representing
phonotactics in my listed citation forms. If word-initial clusters were
already present in Proto-Etruscan, the syncope of unstressed vowels
preceding stress and subsequent prothesis of e- seen in numerals and
enclitics must have also occurred early on.
Tarnai [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Tarna. The terminating -i is the locative ending
found in feminine names. In TLE 321, Tarnes appears to the result of
the directive case in -is rather than the simple genitive -s, thereby
explaining the vowel change (i.e. Tarnes < *Tarna-is 'to Tarna'). The
use of the directive case with passive preterite farθnaχe then makes
semantic sense: An farθnaχe Marces Tarnes Ramθes-c = 'She was
born to Marce Tarna and to Ramtha'.
Tarsiminaś 'Lake Tarsimenna' add Attested on the Tabula Cortonensis (TCort B.iv), found in the phrase
cel-ti neitisś Tarsminaśś which appears to mean 'in the earth of the
lake of Tarsimenna'. The name is reflected in Greek as Ταρσιμεννα
Tarsimenna with an internal -i- between s and m which was no doubt
syncopated in later Etruscan. Therefore I restore this iota in the entry.
Tarχunna 'Tarquinia [city]' modify Modified form to Tarχunal. This cityname is always found with the
genitive-II ending (-al) and the inessive postclitic (-θ(i) 'in') attached.
At first, I thought that maybe the two endings were together
conveying a special case for the noun. Now however, I'm thinking that
the name of this city is in fact Tarχunal. Then Tarχunal-θ 'in
Tarquinia' is simply a locative extended with the aforementioned
postclitic. Surely the name literally means '(City) of Tarchon' but
nobody explains its precise etymology. I think that it must have a
type-II genitive (-al) attached because citynames are always classified
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 9

as type-II nouns, just like the very word for 'city' whose genitive is
likewise spur-al 'of the city'. Tarchon was a legendary figure to the
Etruscans whose genitive form is by contrast Tarχun-us (NRIE 759)
with a type-I case ending.
Tarχunnaie [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Tarχunie. Since I've altered the entry Tarχunna
(see Tarχunna), the idea that this name means 'Tarquinian' is ruled
out and instead must mean '(he/she) of Tarchon' (Tarχun 'Tarchon' +
-ie [gentilicial]).
tatanu 'bird' add In TLE 398, the full inscription is transcribed: fl . supri manince /
vipinaltra ulχnisla / clz . tatanuś. In De Grummond/Simon, The
Religion of the Etruscans (2006), p.90, the phrase clz tatanuś is taken
out of context and dreadfully mistranslated as 'To Grandmother Cel'.
We can be sure that this claim is hogwash since if it were true, we
would have instead expected completely different wordforms. If we
go by the authority of Larissa Bonfante, for example, we expect at the
very least *Cels Tetal because according to her and many others, teta
= 'grandmother' and its genitive can only sensibly be tetal, not
tatanuś! I can't yet confirm but clz may even be a misreading for ciz
'thrice', an adverb coordinated with the verb manince (which I deduce
so far is a mediopassive meaning '(he) had (something) left (to
someone)') preceding it, indicating that the gifts left for the individual
are being referred to by this word, declined in the genitive. Since the
type-I genitive is being used, the word may likely be a grammatically
animate gift, thus an animal. This may not be much more secure than
De Grummond's attempt but it at least has sounder footing.
Tetala [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Titula, a Roman name borrowed from Latin Titulus.
I originally believed that the name might be native and based on the
root teta, just as another gentilicium Tetaie is.
tiiu 'boy' modify Generalized its meaning to 'little one, child'. I now suspect the word
literally means 'small'. In the Lead of Magliano (TLE 359), tuθi tiu
seems to only sensibly read 'small community' with the adjective
following the noun as usual. (Larisa and Giuliano Bonfante afterall
claimed that tuθi meant 'community'.) I'm adding a new entry for this
related adjective.
tiiu 'small, little' add In the Lead of Magliano (TLE 359), tuθi tiu seems to only sensibly
read 'small community' with the adjective following the noun as usual.
It's the same word as the noun, tiiu 'boy'. There isn't a clear boundary
between noun and adjective in Etruscan much like its unrelated Indo-
European neighbour, Latin, where we find that bonus 'good' can also
be used as a noun to refer to a 'good man' or 'good boy' without added
marking. Little other than grammatical context can distinguish the two
usages unfortunately.
tiiuza 'small boy' modify Expanded meaning to 'small child' in relation to the above changes
(see tiiu 'boy').
Trui 'Troy [city]' modify Modified form to Truia and type from 'ni.(I)' to 'ni.(II)'. Since the
name is evidently borrowed from Greek Τρωια, the instance of
Truia in TLE 74 might best be interpreted as its thematic (i.e.
nomino-accusative) form, rather than marked with the case ending -a.
I'm now convinced that the form Truies in TLE 329 is testimony to a
directive case, indicating motion towards. The directive is a distinct
case from the genitive and unlike the genitive case, the directive case
remains the same for both type-I and type-II nouns, marked in -iś even
if the genitive and dative forms are marked in type-II endings with l,
-al and -ale respectively.
Truia 'Troy [city]' modify Modified form to Trui. The form Truia is found in the name
Mamarce Truia where Truia must surely be declined in -a indicating
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 10

the place of origin of the individual. However, this then implies an


undeclined form Trui.
trutunut 'augur, oracle' modify Modified form to trutunuθ due to phonotactic considerations. There
appear to be no real aspiration contrasts in word-final consonants in
Etruscan.
ucanθ [inanimate object] add Attested as ucntm with appended conjunctive -m in TLE 87.
Accounting for syncope, the citation form should be ucanθ but this
appears to be a hapax. There may be an underlying verb root uc (n.b.
ucu in LL 11.xxxii which may be a participle form).
Ucerna [gentilicium] add Attested as the locative form Ucernei on a mirror (NRIE 759).
Ultimne [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Ultimna. In TLE 181, we find Ultnas in the
genitive with the cluster -mn- simplified to simple -n- as well as
word-internal syncope.
Unial 'temple of Uni' add I previously had the data stuffed under the entry for Uni but in truth, it
just makes more sense to cave in and accept it as a seperate entry even
though that it itself is a case form of Uni. The word is probably short
for tmia Unial 'temple of Uni' but the word tmia has been omitted,
making Unial a seperate lexeme on its own. This derivation process
has been called redetermination by Etruscologists.
ur 'to fill' add Attested in the participial form as uru in TLE 366.
urθ 'to give, to offer' modify Modified meaning to 'to fill'. I'm going on a hunch but the verb seems
to be used in reference to vessels especially and there are a string of
verbs in TLE 75: faneri, urθri, and uθari. If fan is 'to consecrate',
perhaps urθ and ut mean 'to fill' and 'to serve' respectively. This then
would sound like a funeral banquet ritual being detailed.
urχ [type of animal offering] modify Modified meaning to 'vessel' and type from 'na.(I)' to 'ni.(II)'. The
word is found in the Liber Linteus (LL 6.ii, 6.iv) and seems to be
built on the verb root ur (see ur above). It's perhaps then a generic
meaning for all types of vessels.
us 'to set (as of the sun)' add Attested as usi in LL 3.xix and 8.xv. I interpret usi now as a
conjunctive verb form (i.e. conveying 'while X-ing'). This form is
found elsewhere as in mulveni written on the Lead of Magliano.
ut 'to serve' modify Modified meaning to 'to serve'. See urθ for explanation of change.
Uχulnie [male praenomen] modify Modified form to Uχulnaie for phonotactic reasons.
Velθurna [gentilicium] add Attested in TLE 352 in the genitive, Velθurnas.
Veratru [gentilicium] add Attested in CIE 1566 and 1567.
Vipienana [gentilicium] add Attested clearly as Vipinanas in the genitive in TLE 182. This would
then explain the curious double -nn- in Vipiiennas in TLE 35 which
I've misidentified as the simpler, related name Vipiena (which also
exists). Etruscan writing doesn't normally use double consonants
unless they are the result of syncope, as in this case, or to convey
intervocalic /j/, as in the case of instances of ii preceding another
vowel. This name no doubt means 'of Vipiena' using the ablative-
pertinentive marker -na. Ironically, its root (Vipiena) in turn means
'of Vipie'.
zal-ém zaθrum 'eighteen' modify Modified form to eslem zaθrum, due to changes in how I'm
representing phonotactics in my listed citation forms. In this case,
despite a clear and reasonable etymology having already been
determined (zal 'two' plus em 'to take away' and zaθrum 'twenty',
hence 'two taken from twenty'), if word-initial clusters were already
present in Proto-Etruscan, the syncope of unstressed vowels preceding
stress and subsequent prothesis of e- seen in numerals and enclitics
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 008 11

must have also occurred early on.


θanaθu 'mourner' add Attested in the animate plural, θanatur, in the Tabula Cortonensis
(TCort A.viii) preceding a list of more than a dozen participants in the
documented rite.
Θanicu [female praenomen] add Attested in CIE 592.
Θestia [female praenomen] modify Modified form to Θestiia based on phonotactic standards.
θulut 'twin' modify Modified form to θuluθ. due to changes made to its etymological
source, luθ, in the database.
θuta 'all, whole, entire' modify Modified meaning to 'every, each'. The sentence in TLE 159 (Avleś
Velus Θansinas ati θuta.) is better explained if this word means
'each', hence “Avile and Vel Thansina's mother each.” In other words,
the deceased of this funerary inscription is the mother of both these
sons. This singulative nuance is also hinted by TLE 488 referring to
θuta θafna which more naturally states that 'every bowl', not 'the
entire bowl', was dedicated.