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HYDRAULIC PUMPS

the source of hydraulic power

Text Ch #4

Archimedean Screw 3rd C BC

References: W. Peng, Fundamentals of Turbomachinery, Wiley, 2008, CH #4 Esposito, Fluid Power w/ Applications, Printice Hall, 1988. Lindeburg, M.E. Reference Manual, NSPE, 9th ed Volk, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Marcel Dekker, 1996 Logan, Turbomachinery, Marcel Dekker, 1993. Video, History Channel, Modern Marvels: Pumps

HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Two very broad classifications

Positive Displacement Pumps (PDP)


Energy added intermittently to the fluid

Reciprocating action pumps


(pistons, plungers, diaphragms, bellows)

Rotary action pumps


(vanes, screws, gears, lobes)

Kinetic Pumps
Energy added continuously to the fluid

Centrifugal pumps (impeller) Axial pumps (propeller) Jet pumps

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


High Pressure (0-100k+ psi) Low Flow Small, Compact High Viscosity Slurries Two-Phase flows High efficiency = (actual flow) / (theoretical flow) > 90%

PISTON PUMP

GEAR PUMP

LOBE PUMP

SCREW PUMP

VANE PUMP

Kinetic Pumps
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

AXIAL FLOW PUMP

JET PUMP

PUMP TERMINOLOGY: Head Pressure PRESSURE = HEAD x DENSITY

P=

hx

Many different types of head pressures:

hf = friction head = fLeV2 / 2Dgc hv = velocity head = V2 / 2gc

Flow resistance due to pipe friction, fitings, valves, entrances, exits, etc.

ha = atmospheric pressure head = pa / hp = pressure head = P /

(converted to fluid being pumped 1 atm = 33.9 ft of water)

pressure converted to feet of fluid being pumped

fluid vapor pressure converted to feet of fluid being pumped, steam tables can be used for water, figures and tables available for other fluids. Fig L 4.9 vapor pressures of hydrocarbons.

hvp = vapor pressure head = Pvp /

hs = static suction head

vertical distance in feet above the pump centerline to the free level of the fluid source. If free level of fluid is below pump, referred to as the static suction lift.

hsd = static discharge head hts = total static head

vertical distance in feet above the pump centerline to the free level of the discharge.

vertical distance in feet between the free level of the supply and discharge reservoirs.

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hs

STATIC SUCTION HEAD

hs

STATIC SUCTION LIFT

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hsd

STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD

hts

TOTAL STATIC HEAD

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H = Total (dynamic) head = (total discharge head) (total suction head) = Hd Hs = ( hsd + hvd + h
f, dis

) (hs h

f,suction)

Q H

hs

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PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE

(m)

(m3/s)

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PERFORMANCE & SPECIFIC SPEED & PUMP SELECTION

NQ Ns ~ H

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COMPRESSORS

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Centrifugal pump
Axial inlet-radial/mixed outlet

V2

R2

R1

V1

V1

W1

V2

W2

U1
Vu2

U2

E = Vu1U1 Vu2U2 = gH

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EXAMPLE

V2 W2

Centrifugal Oil Pump Impeller Diameter = 30 cm Q = 63 l/s @ 4800 RPM Sp.Gr. oil = 0.81 No tangential component to relative exit velocity FIND:

U2

U2

1. Impeller tip speed U2 (m/s) 2. Energy Transfer (J/kg) 3. Power input (kW)

Position 1= into eye of impeller Position 2 = exit of impeller = (2)/60 (4800) = 502.7 rad/s 1. 2. U2 = R2 = (502.7rad/s)(0.15m) = 75 m/s E = U2Vu2 U1Vu1 = (75.4)(75.4) m2/s2 0 = 5685 J/kg

Q = (63 l/s) = 0.063 m3/s m-dot = Q (density) = (0.63)(810) = 51 kg/s 3. P = (m-dot) E = (51)(5685) = 290 kW

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Radial Flow Hydraulic Turbine (for comparison)


Radial inlet-Axial outlet

W1 V1 R1 U1
Vu1

R2

W2 U2 V1

V2

V2 E = Vu1U1 Vu2U2 = gH

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Variable Speed MOTOR N(rpm)

Q
VALVE

Centrifugal PUMP

bhp NPSHR Q
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Centrifugal Pumps Head Capacity Curves

N (rpm, rad/s) H (ft, m)

Q (gpm, m3)

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EXAMPLE: Sun Valley, Idaho Guest Lodge

Water from a hot springs (T~150 F) is to be pumped uphill to a guest lodge for space heating, swimming pool, atrium and winter waterfall. The pump performance curve is attached. Suction line losses are negligible and delivery line losses are estimated to be ~150 ft-H2O. 9000 ft LODGE

7500 ft PUMP 7493 ft 150 F


o

What is the maximum water flow rate (gpm) that can be delivered to the lodge? What is the power requirement (hp) of the pump? Is cavitation a concern?

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Bernoullis Equation
Conservation of energy, SFEE

Z1 + P1/g + V12/2g HL HT = Z2 + P2/g + V22/2g

Pressure rise across ideal pump impeller H = (P1 P2) /g + (V22 V12) / 2g

Z = elevation head P/g = pressure head V2/2g = velocity head HL = friction loss head HT = turbine head

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Boat Propeller

Saturation pressure (cavitation)

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PUMP

WIND TURBINE

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SATURATION TEMPERATURE AND VAPOR PRESSURE OF PURE WATER

14.7 psia

P 5 psia

32o

Tsat

~150o

212oF

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CAVITATION DAMAGE ON MARINE PROPELLER


J. Crepeau, visit to San Francisco

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