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OPEUTIONS

ftESEAlICH
OFFICE
Far East Command
UNCLASSI
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,. I\SSIFIE
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,._ ,q- I/'.4. .p6d'" <';F"-.J. .4'_
-";/,t;',,
REPeRT
THE EMPLOYMENT OF
ARMOR
IN KOREA
vOl-LIME
I
"
. W MQe.OONALO
E. D STRONG
W V{I'IROYEN
L J BREEN
C. BiLLINGSLEA
R w. BRITTAIN
E_A, JOHNSON
DClUDttl flO, AIROI.IJr.{
0:1 ""'::'f !
UNCLASSIFIED
'l'\lle dooument cont,ln. in!"ormot1OD
the Natlonol Defense or tb.$
[Jnited withl" tile meanlDg or the
<;sploruoge l,S"'s, Title 18, U,S.C" Sec_
tions 79) snd 794. Tt.. transmission or
the revelatIon of lts oooteota 10 aDY
"'"Dna" to an unsuthorized person i'
prohlhited Oy la...
LIBRARY
; 1 i,u.,,"" 1M .J
I." 'H <>i
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n,. e% 'M ,,! Uk' '''''7"-'C '",'
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3, Th ,Il.< ,d"" '" Hw).",. ,,,,,,kdd
:. ,1,. E '.' C,,"''''....,4. CHI}, FEC hM 'M 1m"
'''''mh,d 'H ... 1M '" INn'
"""" d lb. """"'M''''L
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t 1M:" >{ji;!"il1i:N l>. J-';UKIN'i
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r".,".n,CHd,,!&bff. G)
COP)', ,I
! ::/ "II
hi lIi. .WAI'
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COpy
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UNCLASSIFIED
. XlIi iiiSlWli' ,-
lc Ma,ch 195Z
SUllJEGT, ORO_R_1 (FECI. "The E"'-plo)"mcn' of Arrroo. on Ko,ea"
I. Thoo nO. ",,-ct con-.rr,"nt. (rom
Army Held FOrce;; .nd in,e,-o.ted D<partonent of the Army a8enc,e. on
'he Opera',on. Re,ea.ch Offoce R.po",. OHO_R_l (FEe). 'The Employ_
",en' Q! Armor;n Korea" and oo"..dc .. ,hdt .he .epo", provide.
valuable Teference mat..,a' w,thon Hoc of ,t. A.
poin.ed out '" the note immed,atel)" pucodonB pangnpn on page
of Yo,umo I he 'x oQndu,wns x x ar< d.,.'vea p<i",arily
hem .he leon -.pe'ience KO'ean ""rnpO,W' " -'.
Th;, (act. ". well a. the .hat .h.,. "pauci.y 0'
",focmatwn in f,eld,. should "e .aken ,nto .,,_
count.n orde,- tnc report may be PC"p.,,-.y
2 The commen" wh'ch ;ollo.w '0 the conclu_
sion ."d ..commendatwn. w",<n a.e p.<nto";n nu",be..d p.ra_
on pages l.o 0; !:
UNDER
Fa,aguph 1 _ Whether Qr not convoy and patrol duties
put "une<ononucol" mileage on tank. " depender.t upon the situa_
ban_ If v,e",ed 'n the Hght o( 3 grave .""",,on, ,ncn <"'p'oy_
",ent o( 'anh ",ay o. onumic.;." The comm,nde,- con
te"ned on,'" con"de" 'he (acto," tnvolved at .he ""'_ and "'a". the
n.eary dec '>un.
Pa,as.apn 4 _ The p.. o<nt taOLe a( equipmen' (oc an mian.ry
div,",on L15 med,um tank._ Th" Dumbo< i. con, leered
adequate.
P,,,,g,-aph _ Cu",ont acmo" .,nd infantry which
been p.ove<J sound in comba preoct-;bes the of tho
_ ml",,',-y team doco,dmg'o miMion. ",0. Tn. ,n_
I.n'ry <1ivi"Dn,. .0 'U p".mit 'he cmplopncn' eo",_
"oned_
-'=

.WlIh iNiWtkbhilL
COpy
UNCLASSIFIED
UNClA.SStFtED
COpy
FrP',
MIXhi6iJst1iZ L .
SUBJECT ORO_R_! (FEC), "Th. E"'pLo)'m,nt "lA,,,,,," ,n Korea."
Pd,agraen b HaJ Onenov hea,'y d,m", been empLoye" ,n Korea,
'he M_l. clnd ,h. M4AJ wuuLd havo boon dd,n"cl,. odc'ooscd. The
M.lb and the M_46, w,th the" armM and p.""" SU?""" to th'
of tho M_l4 and M4A', w""l" "ave .'pp""ed,". e<t''',vd, on,,,e
fav,"a"lo I,",,,.
p",_,",,,b 7 The pcio"p,d rca'o". (or exco.',", ond
mainter.anc<" pro"'em' the M_l6 anu M_46 tank. were
the rold"ve moxuencnc, o( personnel. ,"c!f<e"ve 0,,1_
n""ce ,upport, ddccts no' p't con-.ded 'n "" M.4&, .'nd tho ee_
""ded ,oaG '.<t.
I) Th,. e<,"elusion w"h ,be
bnwled"e 'hot the number of KoreQn mme. co,d" not be ac_
ourat<ly de'orm;ncd
17 W,tP, ,"m' "f 'he
and ,,,'c,,,,,y '.m" """ ,\>1" ,p P"',"
eo",:,",. '"unh",m",", comrr''o>c.",O" equlp",.n' w.," on" ,n a pOO'
"dte "f ,ep.,,". ,nd no du,menting "q,"pmen' w., ","cd '" me,,' 'he
peGu],;" terr"ln condit:OM of Kore". The '''''''ion 'mp,uvd
",on and ",,"" '"'" .. " ...'.
,8 _ The t.mk has .In ,mpor'.ant ,ok ,n the c<>ord;_
"n,i_tdnk plan a. ,n paragnph 15 of ,on_
oIu",on" ;, .ff"t;vo ,n '"at '01,. me ;' be., ,u;,.rl
for convoy esc.o", and" ,"n"cio,.d ,""sf.""ry f<>r
,h,. task ,hot, op""..1 ve1>,d" need ,,0' 00 .. th,s
,,,je pu'po".
11 _ YOn"! eV<lw",inn "f 'he cHeel"en o( .,,.ok.
w"h niSh' dcv'ce, be "nt'l devdo?ment
and field te,bng oi .uch ci"v,e," ba, heen """p.ete'
"NDE"
Pangcaph '< _ The 10,,,\,,, H"w,tz", """""ted 0" llw was u'cd
;n Wa' II "nd, "' ., """It 0( 'hat exp"'l<tlCO, ".en
[or CO'. nigh >,cloo,ty WedPOn. Sel'_?ropoiloci MlIllc', ".,"
the capab,hty of the a ..aul< Gun rolo.
Pa,agcaph ,< _The mob"c an",>cc"ft vch;<lcg PO""" the
stated characte"ot;o" a"d "eveloptnont opial vehl. 10.
th; ole i. cQn"der<" ""des".!)I.
UNClA.SS1FlEO
co:py
,npmil 1m 01:&116.1
UNCLASSIFIED
SUBJECT: Oll;Oll;1 (FeCI. "The En;ployn;ent 01 Mmo, '" KD<<a, "
Fuagnph 11 _ Dev.'op=enl at p,,"nl '" two g<n<_
rallinco, Inlrared .. Ioeing con"-d,,ec '0. u,. gun_
" ... and S,",ch hght '0 l"uv;de '''''ct .."
be.ng (," ,n".nation on ,ank 'uno,",
Farag..ph 19 _ Tho following oq'>ip",ent;. p,e ..ntly
v<lopm<nt:
a. Tan" mounted
d, Jet min" c]eM,ng devico,
c, T""k "'"""'cd 'otMy hoc,
Fa<aRraph lb _ The rroam elf"... '" development of rrom", i, towa<d
th.". 'ha' can be atl.med '" noaT 'ub.e, Th"
<!evelopmenl of la=ity 01 non_metallic, .:,.ped ehacge. anti_lanK
mm.. w.th ",Huene< fuseo, ,orne of "h,eh w;U be .ui'abl. for u".
,."Ih a meohameai mme lnfluenco lUBe. emploYlng two 0'
more physical pheno=cna. such as and m .netic [i<ldhow
promi.e 01 capab,Ehe, of ehar8"
""h_lank nunc. Lcng ,ngo developmen' " 'nwa.d 'hose ;'em.. I ...
likely 01 .ttauunen' m 'he n#" futu,e. Auny n.;d Fo<ccs has .ub
=,tled duft oha<act",.t;c. 01 .. , omp'.d anl;_pe"onnel nune.
than can b mplaced oy a'" drop, "andard 'Qcket'. o.
... Activ;,y ," ",. i. ," pre.en, devoted 'Q d.l ..m,n
<ion o(IMoibili!y. A, 'he mQre bd"" problem. are
'olyed. can be pl.cod on wh,,' p,."fit tho
"'",re yisoonary dpproache. 10 'he problem
g",ph lc The folLow;ng equip:nent ,. cu"en!1y under de_
velopme.,.,
MddlLic rrome dckct"r, ANIP"'S_3.
o. MetaL"" non_rnd-allic rroino detector. AN/PRS4.
Tank mounted rroine de'ector and er ..
Other de'ector. on pnnc'pleo are
COpy UNCLASSIFIED
Jilt 'rtmalO'
UNClA.SSIFID
r:opl'
r':]lih IF uWil64
und" "'00< ,\ro dotccto," opeut;"g "n aco",,;o
pr,nc;ples, dna on the '" U,e eac<h" ,r,,'"n<t.c ,,,,Id
by., m,"e.
Re'"a,eh i. unclo< t .. de:ern.ine coe" p<in",v1e, oj mine de
t"on wb'ch can 0< u"d tor mine, bur"d", dep"" beyond :he Cdpa_
b,",,"" 0' pc"."t ,,-.,"< ,;o<oc,,,=,.
, _ Tank, ,'co p'N",ed on the b""" ..f ,,"",rem<nts,
)"1>< ,"(.<ntcy <:1:v",un" all""",",, 1)0 ",.<l,"", (Soo """'mont
on 4 ""der "CONCI..r.;SIONS"I.
P.r.'g,.ph 6 - To""c ,,"" no r.",. C,,"<I ;n th" PMt 'u '"Ppo.t
.. "Cm"m.no"","". The tar.k. ,ba, ""II dQ Ute )"b. ;, ,,'
CO""''. de",""ble_ T<", to ddte indoca'" ,ho' " 'hat
(uHill. liktly welsh m exoOSS of 40 ton.
Pau8raph 7 _ 1, ,. con."kd 'na! tho proouc_"on 01 taoh
oanno! bo dete,nHn.d on an p<o?M'wn"L oa,,", Tanks
mu,' \0, prod ..,,(] dftCr " " oe,<o,","o" '"he Iype "c"Md ""d .p.
prop.. at" ,abl., of ..m?adon ar.d equipm.r.t '0 ""d eq"'p Hnt
ATrr.y have been developed.
il _ Such i. c onJo,t<J the 50cvi
and Mrny Fiel" Forc'" aC" Current!, way' and mean'
it. ;"-,provemer.t
p""",,'ph 12" 4t1 "".""ona] "'''''y fle",,", r"r ,,,',
exton",ve So,v,ee ,o.tong before thc), are acceplcd slanclud eq"'p_
",ent. At an)' h",c tOo"eaft....uch .. aeo _"",hated when it
c""],, e.t>b,,,h<i they a net Ihe <vm1tat wo"ho_
"e.. o( to'e veh,de_
LIBRARY
1,1 REUBEN E, JENKH,S
MAY 7 1952
REUDI':N:,,; J>;NI<!NS
!
MaJ"" GS
A i.la," Cl"d 0' Star,. Cj
-
-
COpy
,
UNCLASSifIED
"EE2lilllJidlGJiIiO
,
UNClASSIFIED
m.'-I
." .. ","

"
Th. A-j"t'nt
'f tlo, Arro,l
2\,
A=IC'., A"ist,r.t CI.i.f of o.-!.
1. Att,"."" h "OP""\ C,", ,bo"o 3UO;00!. by te." C[""cicc
Jl.oe'roh Coffie. (c-;::), 1,,- >aol '00."....".0. ,ou:t :1,) ,;V,""" OO,Le' 0:
the ",prt ",ro tor.orecd to 'f tOo ""Ii '"ithout 0.".
22 July 19,1. Or." "=c.r,," '"0 fift) (150; oopi", of ",t."" rop0,-t '.,ve
""or, 1",,_i.,",0 ;p,ntioo, ... ,.-""" Q!h,c, D"rort",,",t. 0' '" n'C>, b:
tr." Qp."UOfl, 0ffio<, I ,"lao< ic"" ,Jv,noo ilo
fo"""tior. 00",,_, '_vo ,no" sent to te.O Wor Cffico, ,nd (2)
.dv,noo 11'.fo,"o tiQn 00,10, to n Lof"n.e !'.Poprc" E"r", (.Md" 0;'
OW'''''''-'' ..."o'",r. OUico, For c"';.,,,"". ]:0 0,1',,, d,o!r!t"_
tion bo"n cubid, tho f" 50s! COlmll'r.d nor ;, '"l'
2. Thi; ""port h pooH.""d ir. two .01""0' ,nd '0"0"" th, pc,!od
1 ioly 19,0 to 8 A.odl 1951. Thi, 1-tt<" I ,,<\ci Co'l(; s\'ff
!:"oo",n<1"", O".S/W":"I, ", f",,.t :;0. J, "0' ;'led "Po, l.Odic !reor ".",ort"'
(6 .1!'ril _ 10,,..".0 )',',1), .-hE" is to Vo!u.,., t. ,elu,"' IT
i. n'_" iM1ujed iT. ui. r'"",. sino" ,_ont<Dooj '"0" in i,
E..,".U,l")' scp"crc;np, d,'. Vol""" r.
3. 11>1> ,'port b cor..pooo-noi, ,oJ ,,,.. :,.;. of tr.e
o",,;':',Tnt of "'ro" :t "100011 to 0: F",h":,, '0 'p
"ropd'. "hOol,. 'cords, 'no '"0_"0'"' OC'_,,"O',- tt_, '"Hc.,
tcclviiooo 'nJ "CPpo,.t or 'r"",".
4. C0,i" olh""d ,olccJli,,'. co"",."';, 'M ,';ff
.'ctioo' of 'ili, hc'dq"'rtors hAve 0.." f\',ai.hoi! to the Dirocce" O,ar"_
'1"," 'ko',rch F" Eo.t Ootnr..."L
UOClASSIFlED
----
,
UNClASSIFIED
,
,
AG JSl (10 ,l)GC-O, 5utj: Roport tho """'lO)'mcnt of
rc..., C'iO-R_l (ITe)
5. """""nt. th- cor_clu.'-on. ,nd . of
It.' r(]port ". pr"cntd ill Inolo,,,,,"o 1. _rr", ,h-ct to VOl'''''" !
\, ,tt<oo<o ooro,ito .s rn',o,cre <.
4 hol' C. c. H.
;. S?ce,-nO :o=nt. _ ACC
<. Sb " _ 0"0_,_1 (i"'C) Adjut.,.t Oo,.,,,.l
J. ClOCl_'_: (F3:), Vol. I, e 'rr ,1, Cop,' .i'l7J
4clISj.o,-, Roper' '10. ), 2a .'un 51, COl'"
4. C:.")_R_l (F"\C), Vul II, 8 ''''' 51, Cory ilZ)
t
.I: Q..n
UNCLASSIFIED
SPEClFJC _ OiC-1I-1 (FlOC)
Follo"illg ,ro .o-<1fio ,o_nt. by tho Co_nrl",,_in--Chicf, For <:>.t
Qn "c.' cno"luoion, ond ,r ,,"Joot ro:>ort, \',1= I.
,.
p,", 4, P'Il<' 2. pr",ent t,elca Of o"gmi,,'io., for 'n
In[,ntry div",ioo .teeri," 1]5 'fr.i, i. ccn,l1,rco '"""u'to.
::.or. 6, ""go 2. Tho rcl,t.\vdy pcHor""noe ",oed.
or tho """ .od ;"oj, t>n". "ro t< COe f, ,t t),,t l',;istic 'od 1& in_
t,n_no, 'C'PFcrt t.''''' "cr_, bott.. '"ir.'d to h.nol, thc<" typos "r.d co
ploco,,"nt l'rt, .'oro in voc"r cueotiu" cO"",,,i,,,,p. "
toe 11.46 lao typ'.o. Th,;rs A,1IIY h,. h,d r_r wo-tor ""."ric"".'
the' I.IUJ or'" 1<24 thofl with th' 1146 And 1126.
3. P"r .. ?-f!, pogo <. SIn," tc.l.' 10:0.1'0;,,1 f"lure, _r.d
"",ink"'no. probL,,-, t.'''o ""tori_ll.y rodu'cd b] tho ..... h,l M"
equip""nt ,nd b7 tho 'ddit].OIlol .,,. ..ieno. ginod by unit
4. ?,r, 11, P'"" 3. I!o"l' unit. "xpre&w! on opinion thot tee
JH for ro,u).tig r""", C""''V too ,on"rvtiv".
i. eonoidorcd ,hb figor, ot pr,"cnt is do"r to 75%.
5. <'ro 11., P'S' 3. S.v,r.1 u.'lih tho "Hoot].v""o.. of
n'lliIlco I'''Y '.oe,,", ."IlJ\O' arc o\cried <l foct or ilwpor. Th, o.irI"
o>plodor, fIB), i, too c""boroo"," to cpor.\..o on """t of to" 11\
Kore
o. P.,," 17, p,.go). :u..c",,",ec.cnt in oO",,,,.,.>1o.',ioo.,,
no ro,ol.t of b.ttlcti'.ld _oriC""O, ,nd tk '"SI'" 'f 'd#
t\or. l r.din "t. ',hieh of rdioblo o.a,Uan eVe" oxtcnded
.
8. P,", 10, pogo 4. It is 1l."1d.r,tCl t.'\At the <Iove.lep",,"" of
lig;,t "chicle 'mbodying the ootlih<d is ic. prcgo..,
'\hI. v,hiolo b _cn ". the "Still!l!>"" oM tou!" c'libo, W ,",od.ne
gun. ill t"","t cio,ilP,d for in _ m1iflod 141 liVlt t'ok
et."ol.
10. p.,., <'>, p. go 4. of ,,<to by or""" fore,," wl.th
... =-l.r.o. b, ir"pr>otie.t ill. """!" tu..tioo,
of the ,,,d "hyoic.l ho",r<! to :.iono1y troopMuld th,
or, "" 1,tor r"coOUl'icd. ".-cOOl.""od rcoo_roh ,.".; ",p11'1o of
toe p.obl.,. of ro='o loth"l ",.iII.', ""p'.biG of .
itl!Alltll
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(/<o!l<ll"al HU1Q'11t!"t"u
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II", ,: 7 af 2!)C
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n>i. f"I'''''':: h jOH,t <ltt<>yt ",r *""
tJ.3 "''''7 Opil",,.tt01Wl 'tiIiI hI\nO;
1101>1<1", tlnin,..dty pl. 'I. 'to 'f...
lk1<'''' :, J. 'trur,t C E. A,
:ho"or.)j th.. fI...
!iN'j), (II. fI, ....tt.tUn, 3. ;;J. St:.Q'>I!') __
"" t .... p" ......, t.'Ie :.>p'l'.tl"". h...-"nh
Jftl , F.r
11> lr, tit.. ... I
11 o! thil ..
l\, ",,1<_!! 1,;P'"-<'Af:o: [.
1'1>0 loud, ct e!;o> npot Ut lArge11 ,,,
"""",,,", rt!h """'.Of duM.,.g t"", 1'<',.106
1 ,full 1950" to n "-"""""Y l-55J, A<-tl.-H1-=
two.v ?l 195} -!U)d il Ap'U 19" i.
\>t'l.tlr <It ,,.. til t.pp"tlO-U- h, ...,,,""
7 or ApP6ndlx I.
,.toh tc
or tho!t h_lpful .. and ....
'<>7 Wlni"", ll:. ..
US """"'") COl'" ".",M-r. or
Al'M"",d 1Jr\lh op.....t!..ng ltlt11 tho Etg.".th
1) llay
I ,





































l"o..... ord

Summ.ry

..


Faot

Dheuulon



Conel".1on.


R. e""""endat Ions

Problem

F oet..



TaoUod &lploYlWnt of Friondly Ar:oor

Tank units in Kor.e

Taetieal Employment or Armor

UlI Tank Cu"alt1u

Nort"-Korun Tonic


and TerraIn

Tank_rnroontry Te.."worlr C"""unlcatloos

Cold Weat"er Operation

IIdnt.n.noe and Loglatle Suprort
R.eo.....nd.Uon. and Suggutlon. fro",
Conolu.lons
Re cO!IE1ondatl ons

Al'pendl" A: Armor ';I'o.rtore in tt>o Eight" In Korea.

raet.

Diacuulon
Conolu.tcn



APP"ndl" a: Employment or
A"",or in X Corp.


Introduction

Ot-lg1nal C""'l'o.1tlon of Unlh
of Tank&

TrU'!'1oob1l1ty
Tm.k Ce.u.. lt1u

Tank_Infantry Te_ork

O,.,ration of Tank. In ... ather
and Support
Gr...

Annex 1, Unit B.....kdo"" of X Corp. c ..uUtl".


Up to 1 January 1951
Annox 2, spo.re part, for Tanlc. Received by
"
lot Tank Battdion (liarin... ) In Korea
74
Append.l" C: TActic. of 1n
the Thoater

76




































































o 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0

011 -rMk wur.,... ..

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

o
o

o. 0 0 0 0 0 0
tl"l'
Cocuaoo 3:rs te..


Tactic.


Tbo oUtaok
of
C""",,omt
J.ppe<1dix a: CO<mun leatl On.

, ' 0 0 ,
Dloou.. lon , ,.,. ,
.., "',. ,. '0

-
0
Annu I: Tank Co,,.,,,mlHtlon and
.An.... rs . ,

Outline SpeoU'1e
Q
Uo"o Q!' Hdio S.h

Appendi%
..
"
Employment of Land In l\orU
Summa,.,.

Probl.m ,.

Introduction
OS lIiM 0

p,.OpOd Innovations In lIin& Dellv6ry
Conoluolon..
Hoeo_onda Hon,
Anne1 1: Exehonge Rate: Snemy and US
Ca.uo.ltlu.

Ene",y 111M. and 1!1n" DpusH"".
"
Vie.. of Reapon.lble Poroonnel on Lond
lIiM U... !n Ko,..,&
4, ond TrainIng

Supply and hp.nd!t".... or !Ant!
In F'llC

.,
"
Uoe of
'"
E..ph...."'.nt

'"

























-'.nne" 7' SPe..,. Blnplo,...""t or Lo.n<!. Wine. In ....

""
",
App8n<!.h: J, lkIehWtloe1 fIolUbll1ty on<l Combet Zone FUo1
Logl_ttcs of 1JII TWtk.



,eo
!.hllllll"",




",
!'rQbl....
Fseu
'"
Ph."uion

".
'"
C<mc lU8i"".


Appendix L, Ropo<t on hrlod 21 Jon.,....,
'" ",
to S April 1951
lntroductlon
D(,ouu1on
Conclusion.

I',
'!'Ables ""d Plg"rea
T.h1e lA, Eighth
Authorhod strongth

'Jnlto

COrp8 Organ1.atlon and
T ""k Cuua1 tiu
roll owing
.tollcrdng "
"
(ollowlng
Strength
StNongth of
"
'5


"
"


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"
"
"
"
"
US C.,slt1u to 11K Ilineo

"
X Corp. T""k CU,,$ltles Up to
"

'5
;
; Unit cal 1'80:1 Brukdown urn of X
"
1:
1951




""t1.. , "I: utn_ lIit..""i>g.taJ

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lbtl"l'"t.,M., tH:. III b.".,,,

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1 "00 lX Q".". u...ltu# V;
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t, 1 Af4 1t t
1'/5t> ""'" :n 11''' .
Pl !<arU: l';"...."., 'f4 1'''til< to......
'f, 16_ st a"" Ci.,.ahu,$ "
1', U$ _"" (':\:}y"
.... ,., ... , ...... ,
,6,
stg;,n JoNr , x """". ....l
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"=MM<i Jj4 _ Sf 7{, LQ..'U'
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251

2n
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , sil

....... , ........ .
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Y, ,::-, lM.au"" t>ifl'n.nt
:r",,1c. , .
""
-
Table VI. J: Mor.th!:r Co,t D1J'fuenttals on
Shipping T42 Tonks u Com,,,,,.ed with M46's

,"
Ta,lo VI!. Appendix J, Fuel p.r )(onth
1200

Table nIl, Appondix J: Difference in Fuel Con..... d
'"
in Six I!ontl>..

Table n. Appendix J: T8.nk.... R.quired to Supply Fuel
'"
Diff.r.ncBs for Six )(onth, .
'"
TaM. X, AppendI" J, Tank Requi... d to Fuel
o:fr.renC6. for Six .....

Table XI, Appendix J: Truck. to Sup"ly
'"
Dlfto"....... for-'Six ......

1"0)6 XIl, Appendix J: liumber or F_Jo' O!"'lHUd rrom
'"
Fuel Smvingo . ...
Table XIII. Appendix J, EXce !.og!et!eal
'"
Over Six_llonth Fe"!e>d In E,'uropun .
'9'
1, A?pondlx L: Tanx Cu"oltl.. (Kill.) ...
T"ble II, App."dix L: Cau,.. of M.ot. nioOl Fan""" by
'"
Typo .... .
!'hotograph. of UN ond NK ...
8_11
'"
Figure 1, Appondlx A; l'requ6rocy of Occu!'eence
of a Glven Oponlng R""6e ... . . .
2, Appondix A, the
"
will IAu than tOo GIven R<mge
!'Igur<> 1, Appendix It US .nd NK Atmor St!'<On,o:th.
Figure, Appond!.I 1, Annex 2: E"....y )(("e nelda
", "
In .( Corp. A""o

!'igun, Appendix I, AnMX 2: EMnty S1"acl &nd Platoon
'"
J(1nofl.ld Fat"'"n.....
m
I, Ann$" 2: Min.fleld
Uood by NKPA .
,"
Figure, App.ndix 1, Annex 2; &ne",y Bo" Mlne ..
",
FII'Ure, App.ndH I, Annox 2: TVD-O \line ao
Ussd by NKPA , . . . . . . . . . .
Figure, AppandiJI: I, Anne
r
2: North Ko!'.an

,"
Anti?e,..onneJ "1no .... . .
",
F!gure. Appendlx 1, Annu 2: POMZ_2 AP MihB
"S
Appon<ll" 1. 2: Oh'nose [",?N,v(,ed Mlne

'19
1, Append!x I, Annex 6: A&rial
Plan Along MSR . ..
,,"
FIgu..... 2_6, App.ndlx I, 6: E"rth AUBer onct us
Mine EmpHoet1lento ... 271
1, J: Doll .... g Sav.d Per Yonth ':>y Shluplng
T-42's in Pl.c. of )(-46'. v DO)!vo"Y Rato
2, .1: ,';.lght 'l'ons r; ..
Gon.ornpt(on !n ?e" Mll. . . . . . . . . ..
'"
PlI';urs Ap?ondlx J: Holl Tsnk Cor. ""d 2-&.ton
''"
to "00 D:rrol'ence !n Puel Bet"een M1JA)'.
\'-1,6'.; and p.r
\!onth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,,'
vii
FIgure 4. Appendix J, of F-80 ?lillie. CIlII be
On the DHf.renoe In Fuel Bet_eon 114"". _
111-46'.; IlIId and 111-46'. vo. T..... I< l!l1$O h,. l!<>nth
Flgu,.., ,. Ap""ndl1 J: Tanker., Ran C..... and 2.i_Ton
TrUCk. to l!O?& Dltr.r&noe 1" Fuel Boot.... n
N4A". and N-46's; and r-l,z's 4nd 111-46 Tank. Tho
number of F_80 Phno. '"'-10h Can F1""" on
Differ.no.. In Fuo"l. 90. T ..... k IItle. p"" Month
,,111
" ,......
UNCLASSIFIED
PROIIJ""
The p:<'obleOl 10 to eval\UlU the e"'lllo)'lllent of ;,rO)Qr 1n Kore.. ,
to conclu.lon. a"d to logistic action
to iOlprove the of armor.
FACTS
terrain and roadn@t of Korea precluded tile eOlplol'l"ent
ot In the 1IlaIlner ot the aules "hlch operate<l in w.stern
Europe and North
Light 11124 the only arn>Or ava1J.able for com.,1t
ment to combat at the outbreak of the Korean campaign.
Tbe medluOI tank unit ent to reintorce Our arrived
and entered combat in 19;0, equipp"d dth 1141.3
M46 tanks. British Centurion, Churchill, and Cromwell
1126, and

arrived in Tfovember 1950.
DI3CUSSIQH
UNCLASSIFIED
ARMOR IN KOR;lA
S1"ce the of Bt";l.ish tanK" -a. f ... i"
"ith tbe number of u:-, tanl,,! concl""ons aod reco1ll_
IIlond&tiO(l' of this report are Idrgp y on with
US tank5.

Note, TM conclusions rrade hece1n .C der1".-d prirIl8.rlly
fro", lo,.ons and of Korun camva1g". In &
",UHary of a different cr_drdcter, oertain of the.e
""Y not be applicable or to
or <tltHed.
1. havp "sefully and effectively in
the Korean
2. tho )" Koru the mus
...nt of hnks on a ..tde front &0 wa. """",,On In o.nd !.tr1c
,. I'rhUe terrain ha, denied the u.e of armor. "r"'Qr
has .uffic!ently ""rs.. to Berve In ""'ny <llfr6.... nt eapM_
lttu. Som6 of the.... .. conv")' escort and ?otrol ...
ha-.e t'<>""Y and ..l ",110'<':6. on tho
4. On basis of Korean experienoe. 150
he "mptoy@d by each infantry 11,,1<10". @nn in ,"olmt.-.ln
OIlS tHuin.
5. rb.. use a.,d of .hould h rlex1ble
depending on the team mis.ion. The vary from a
pJ.atccn per 1nfantry "hen the ca.pture of a
jectJ.ve against nort:Jdl i. lnvclv"';. to one tank
pany per wnen tho capture of a obJeotlv
against hpavy I. lnvo<vpd.
6. On tho nU1. of th@ir and OU<lal.ty
rate., and advanoed of develop
the M4A3 ann M24 tarLl<, for u 1<1 Ker....
7. Mediu.. (i.e 1!46's aod l!26',), while aclmittedlY
powerfu, and @ff.ctlve a v@ry logl.tl0
and in Korea.
8. failure. all of tanks In Korea
were @xtre1llely high.
9. On tho hasi. of 11rn1 t.d aJ.r attack aeeoUilted.
for 40 peceent or all oaemy tank losses irr Korea, 60 peroent
or ul en..... v tHU o"nBe<! UN ''''''pol!8.
10. On the Oa,is of limited evidence. napa11ll n. the most
dr .eapon thus far to Itorn.
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t<> ""g.>ti&te h<'fili" ""''' tho """ d $"""' '".
t..tnQ ;n j,.,.lm!u.
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t.. :.....,,16....'" d '" tl?> nf
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c. sc.pP',n a rum ",!'<'nJ..J ..rnI
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",,,bn.....
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anHunk am J .. tw., t"t
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lIt..":.t_",,. 1 ..,."' ...... t of Nrrul''Udl<%j(
ol."M'><t
4



StJIIIllMll'
d. HUUl'Ch ""d d&nlo"",,,nt on "". t,pes or all" ""d
ground munition. liquid tiller" auch as napalm, chlo_
rine trifluoride, pNnook, ond G-llgenh.
e. Continuod develoPlllent of speohl """,,unit1OIl, ouoh
.. shaj>!ld_el>&rge and squash_l><>ad .',lllllm1tlon. tog&thor .ith 1,._
proved buoolcao and roco111eu rtrles.
hotic.
,. Develop heUea lind teohnlquu for .tUhtloal hying
or lethal antitank mine
4. Impron tho quality or oe..,,,mleUlon. b.t..-n tanh lind
infant ..y by IMproVe"",nt or "qUI""..nt and traini"g.
L9g1atlco
5. Procure ... dl"", tOUlk. at 0 rat.. that .111 provide about
150 tank. fer each InfOUltry division, 'l'hh anouH be In addition
to tne r<>qulreTllents annored dIvhlon
-S. C_<II! ...<11"" '35 t"" WtI: for ",..,nt US pcoduc' ?Tt, 0_,>'\"
take I." lower log'..t.;I.o .. l .upport ... .nd, eo",;>ared
t.o tn. ito JO perc.a< In ,teel.
e. St""ngthon maintenan". and logl.tle .upport to
AI'l>Io""d unit", po.rtl"ularly on dhhlocal U1d tor"a!'<\ oupport
levool>.
9. If .....Or 1. to be ud In , t.rroln "","-parabl" to Kern.
provld. utrR 10g1>t10 and m.intenance .upport.
10. ro.". wlnte.. clothing that eOUl b. eomfoptablr and cOn_
venIently worn lnsid. 8 tonk.
TrUnine;
11. Stl'OB9 JOInt training at all lavob at botn InUntJ'y and
ftrmor .enool0, ' ..phulz:ng to oAcn i>r""eh tho C"pabllit1u and
limitation. of each member in tho Infantry_Omlor_air ...tllh..,. t".....
(Jene....l
Give oal.id.ratlon to .l1m1nation of all devloe. of
utl1lt, In tonlcs. including:
o.
o.
o.
5

",,- UNCLASS:FlED
...........................................-.....,
'l'bh.4::x>u::t<I!:>t e.::H! J!tb iM","lInti''''
!0'tH'GIOl1t.._ 9f tlW
UnHt1 wHlIln tloit MlU\l!lJl: (>f til">
EfpioDag.; :nth! lA. u.a.;; .. SoiI_
I ti<>11!0 79) 7$... !':p "r
I the <if H .. .. :4 ""Y
1 Wt::affl' to;> 411 >::lIIIlIt!:<;:t:<fl;l. WUM i#
by 1<>...
:
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I
TIlE EllPLOl:MEllT OF ARMOR IN KORI!.A
PROBI-EM
Th@ is to evaluate the of in Kor@a,
to draw conclusions thenfrom, and recollllll@nd logisUC
to the of armor.
FACTS
aoo rDadnet of KOI'"ea precluded the
of tanh in the mann@r of the a"",io-s which opHated io westHn
ancl Qorth Africs.
Light W24 tanks Were the only armor for CO:r.Jll1t
m@nt to combat at the outbreak of the Korean
Th@ m.<l1um tank unnent to reinfo"ce our a!'O<>T arrived
entered eo..bat in AUgu.t 1950, equipped with 1.!4A3 11126, and
M46 tanks. British Centurion, and Cromweli tanks
arrived in 1950.
DISCUSSION
Emp1.oym of Armor
Tho opiI\10.' he'.d by many in Olilitary oircles prior to the
attack the North tnat the of Korea prc1.uded
thp u Qf tanks, ..as COrrect in the in which tn@y were
probably Thp emploY"0nt of armor in great to
destroy and .catter the enemy, in the ,tyle of GerOl&n army
:In USSR, oppo.lng i" Africa or thp Allies
in .. Europe, wa. def1nitely by th@ ierraln and road_
a. the North Korean army tank
Can oe pNf1t.aoly eOli>loyed eVen Wlci.er the onditio[ls 1OlpO,ed oy
t'.e g.ogupny or the country.

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rvl\l'<r; "Y'5'>$'$)
GUN 7&

1-41
'f42
"'PGI< r 25
"tiT;l ,\.. ),JI.' 21 TONS
AR!l'Ch
FI!Ofol
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'I'AC'lIC.4L EIIPLOlllElI'r OP I'lIIEIIDLY AHMOII
the to,.,. ot emaIl t ... k organl ..d around a Unk unit,
ot made long .trik&. Into tho enemy
nus .lth con.tdero.hle (aee AppendLt CJ. The.. opere_
tionA e.xtend..d trom tho hktong River up to the pooHio". tho
Eishth 1....y north ut PyoDgJang, prior to the ot the
ChInne Oooa"nl.t !i'oroeo &h""t24 Iio?e..ber. Till> exhtec"," ot ""Y
oppreciahle armor io the po lmo or tho ended hero.
On tho .t:her Iwld, the X Corp., .1thd.. nlng trom tho InohoD_
Se""l area and londlng at: employod t:heir tank. on
oxt-nol" reoOJlDdaoon......11: ... Intolltry_oupport 1'pon .and
.. dl ..101on&1 ""d 00l"l" ""UrT<II. in tho II' op.ruiona to the north
and northeut ot Wo"un. LltOl. or no ene..y a"",or .... eneO'Uoh,..,d
durin" this pertod Unk unlta ",o...d up to tho Yalu 1\1'08" at
Jlyo"",jln and arOund tho ChO.l" Rounoir loee .l.ppendix B).
the .ltl>d......1 ot
'llloo tub tor
and includ.d tlloo
'M

In.uttiolect eon
( .l.ppoondLt <;).
Thb pilau .u marked by ntromoly aggre .. i,,8 e"...y In.tantry
aoUon. Ther. aro a nUlllber ot in.tanoe. reported ot tntOllt:ry
attAcking tank. at elooe range .hlln found thl>moelvu .out
otr er by our 0." torce.. I.t ,.0 or more
tanb .0.... preunt to provide mutu&l .upport, the.. enemy action
..... ..ldo", ..uo....ru1 and ure very co.tly. Tho ... ctle.
employ.d agatnat thl> t .... k. canod tirat t= 0 hony ooncentratlon
ot omon ...... ti .... on the tank to attompt to knock ""t perhcopea
....dl0 anhnnao, ""d uterna1 ..ut01ll&tic 'eaponA, &nd tllu. blind
thlo &od prennt the., t",., erfeotlvely th.lr .... hlo1.
Clon1" attach ..... tbon ...d. to d"",aso tho tanko dtl> pole or
... t.bOl .hargo. and gronadu. CCF el1mbod on tho Unk """ tried
to toao grenlld", thl'oug tho hotoh.
Th IIttaeke, particularly In tho X aroa or opera_
tions I.e northe..t Jro.... a er. uoually ..&de at night. B8oa".e
ot tho Inetr... tty.no or the CCF ..apea., tho coyer1ng tire
"
DISCU3SIOJI
no.,., t!lll\<8 derutod the en....,. tn nu..l,. all !<no,""
h,.t...,oe. or thh \<lnd. It _,. Illoo be said tlat ..h"" the pra._
enee or ou.. taDb .... 1m""" to the ."""'}' io ad..".o, he gonorall}'
oh.,...,d 0 reluctance to preas on athck. When .... 1ight__
.ltho.. r .."" moo"light, ""011,,. fi ...... or r .... burning ..llhgu-
111"",1noted tho. .""'y, our t""k. deotro}'ed th... In gnU n"",bon.
it sutficl.nt ouppll.. or 11K "",d 'liP ....umltlo" ...... annable.
A. tluo .rt..tt ...." ... ot the n1ght operU!""o ot ou.. to.ob .....
aotl ... ly d.poInd.ot upon 00" eIh..nU light 00""""., It 1. clur
that. nlgbt_.. hlO>l dn1 In \:anko should be provldod ... ooon
aa po.. lblo It tanks aNI to be employed agaln.t an ."""'1 oporat_
IDI .... l}' at nIght.
to .Iploit
, of Tuk
th the
, and the
diot""c" or
tre_
CCF and HK gon"ral
tha .. column0uId attack tho
hlgb.a}'" hltt!ng the onemy alang the ridg" eo<!. In_
tlicting u cUll.HI .... pooolhle. Tho ...
bed in a.ntlolpatton or the ett".tlon we .... ,
1. TF Bartlett. compr1oing tho 64th Tk Bn, 1... Co C; 2nd
BD, 27th rnt, with mOrtar platoon and ane platoon of quad .50'8;
platooD of Co A, 65th Sng Em; M<tdloa1 and Slg""l D&taohMnts,
25th Dlv; ODd organic
-
...
Dn"lng thlo &dlM. t !<>n""il'lll; .. .."
1'> b..."",_ ..,...ttith.. ", 1ft t!>ll "'...."U<hl
t. l..,to:.:."'7 .. ...,... ..ly
a. 1I.. """It "U \<>_1 "all .11 o,",,\*lTl'.
,
tntl<rtlry .,.,.4 ",,"' :?llh...
unit.
,
,
tho IuH, n .... , ."" 4..1'"",......,t ......... d"".. "" _ o:rd...
I
<>f Iflf .."t..,- ,,_...."11' """""_.... klTh<lllgh tb!o tAd. " ...
ut up u an .. r<>l'* ... 111 10'.""rr t:Iil..., 0_
,..nd lb." tmk ""-.tIlH"ll <1\;1 HO bI-.... UNl ..Ihh...
"tl1'w.d ... t 'tfit ...u m I'''.''tid .... th<ld.
I
,. 'l.'hft 'U.(l and ari.n'."r .. _ttl>. tho l'l'
I
;, ""n. tn.. ...,. ll""'"'''' ,*", <I.. ..
th,,""CM\.;t.
I
I
"I. "Pt'nlllg. U1, (J .... <1' <J'<""I .50'.
U1 tho
-
i
DISCUSSIOI
2. Tho two infantry platoons whi.h were to b. tl,..t In U.
......,,It ... re ",c",nted up tront; tbey ,.., taot tactic.lly dh_
poud while riding tho tanl...
When oame ag.in.t tho oolumn, it halt.d immediatel,.
and the Intantry ."0 deplO1ed.
4. In the ..buno. of n .... tho &I"IIIOr re>d. the Infantry ..
far "".. Ibl. Into the po.ltlOt> to b. takon undor aHaok.
5. -A. f.,. w In this Inotan t .. ken to moan
.Ithln .ff ..ll Arm& ,..ogo of .",oh a. might be
Ing tho podtion. H tn.t point the for"" .... dopI01.d. l,.ro_
.poctin of tho aN .Ituation.
6. Tho platoon or quad .50'. "40 split into ho notions Clr
tl'll'u b lauoh; tb.. y woro u.od with the load o"'"'),>"nl.,. 1.... I<>g
non. in NlMrvo.
7. When any .nomy foro. w looatod. It , .ngagod "lth
dl gIln. by tho a,..,o,. Rnd by the quad .50'0 onoo tho lnt""try had
dl .,ount.d and .as ready.
8. Ur .t,.11<.o and Hold ..rUllery 1'1,.0 ...,.0 callod Cor .t;
every opportunity.
9. Tho cQlllblnecl IUtol bllrrago<l. all g,.ouncl that tho lntantry
.....",It l.lne ... p""p.,.lng to Uke "ndor attaok.
h the InC""try 11no .tarted to .....uH a hill, .he vehlcul..,.
fire wa. s.ne,.&ll-y ehifted to tbe ernt and tho .,.tillory tire
lifted to ridgo. ooc.po rout... that point. f1r. coot,.ol
panod Into the n.and. of tho Icfantry c.....""d.r wo ... lOp
with h1. artlll.ry FO; tb. thor8att.r dlrectly oontrollod
tho Cl .... f,."", al'lll"" ao<l quad. until tbe 1'1111 n. Uken.
.",. man In tne load or noh Infantry platoon "ONl rod
p<onel. "" tu. baalr. Tl>1. enablod tho tann to toll"" vlo"ol1y tho
.dvocco of tho In.l'antry, and to .bltt tlNl IJoto tho bu,.t ot .".,.
otrang pOint. onocunterod. The quod .50'a nry
ouppo,.t napon. 1n thlo typo OC opor..tiOt>, but requ1I'<1 modlflea
tlon to them for. dual air_g,.ound rol
Tho ."ce.n ot thio ope,.atIon shew. whot .an b. a.hlond by
.. tully Intogr&tod tankintantry team. Both and Infantry
comm.nclor. attributod Ita to merging or tho two sta.!'f
cau.ing tl>om to a-ot not u tonk8r. ond Intontrym,on but ......n
contronted .lth ...1n81. pro"l....

. of tonk....a
1n Koru. is "II
maintenanoo problem
"
equipped
_.
et'fect1ve,
It to rapidly
tlw .1tUlHI""
TAC1'IC.u. IDiIPLQilIEN'l' OF FRIEllllLY AIliOR

_HIl the ex.eption ot tho 75-_ gill> In the 1124. which lacked
.urtl.!en' power to 09<lroOlO.. the u ..or or tho at .. &I18le_
ot I"pact Or location. the 8un. mounted In oW' tank. In Korea
_re abh to penetrate .tth r.1U1ge ehoO the .r,"-or of tho T}4
..hon HVAP Or APC ..-unIUon ..o uUd. IiYAP aollllunitlon ..... part!c
uhrly efte.Un, o.poolally In t .... 90-1II1II1 gun of tho 1146 or 1126.
II. number or oUn aNI reported or proJeotlln or this type pene
trating .n ..,. """or &I1d ttlen p.... lng out thl'oUgh the othor oldo,
0Unli.,.,. n. generally good'i hit .ere nglotersd usually on tho
tlrot ohOt (080 AppendlI 0, Ope"lllS r""sea .aried trom point
bUnk to 2.000 l .. rd., lIowe....,r. on tho .....rall:. tho op.nlng rang
... 1... tllar, dOO yardo (H. A), (Jun .toblllzor. ond
"
DISCUSSION
cant wor. not u.od tho terraIn condItIon. or
!{orG" and hRV& \>een &llmInated .lnc.. tho.6 devlco. oceupIed
.paoe .nd required eon. T_iuabl. ",stntenanee.
Tank in lore,
Tabln I and II .hOw tm. unlU of tile UN force. In
"cHon 1n Korea. While tho doalgn.tlon, equl?"",nt, and U.ign
_nt of $""'" units, tan\< ha, "o&n
eh""ged fro," ti... to time, it 10 beUeved the.e table, euen_
tlally a. of 1 January 1951. It _ill bo nohd that the
d:.tributlon of tank to the divl.lons cOh.iderably.
Eo.ever, SO of ,hoo first or tho yUr, each US div1&lon wa.
$ t.nk torc. of one Unk batUllOn of thr""
companlu, tbree :roglOl<lntat tank <m6 dlvBion 1'0_
co,"pany. With tho or the
&nd tho tank unit or tho tdqth ReT Airborn.,
authorited M24'., aU tank unit. oxcept tho.e .1th the Morin
Qr. ,uppod to ho eventually with ",,6'.. The J<arinu
will oontinue .Ith )(26 Unb.
HowUer, tho Qr..o .... t.a. hun d on
tho .uppl" of tpaj""d ver,onnol, and, lacUng ouch p.c.otmel,
of companle. hau not bun aotlvated.
the tyveo or tanka ualgnad have or tho limIted
Of the ..."thorizod typo. In the h.t.
III to armored unit hown In the Uble., thl"ee
Un\< unit. of the nth Erltl.h hay. boen in aot1on
tho Brlthh tOllk, til<> 55-ton the
Churchill inrantcy_.upport equipped with flam. thl'ower", nnd
tho Z8-ton reconnal,$.ne& tank.
Attn 00"'. uver1enee .. Uh :he Centurion, It was found th.at
thl. typo of tank n. net particularly the op.ration&l
terraIn conditIcns ,n Korea. it 18 primo-rill'
heavy_gun dulgned to,. the upro purpOM of flp,htlng
hu..,- eno"'Y which by tho tl". tho Centorion Koroa
h.ad bUn largely destroyed. not equipped .ith
s .... ll arm. for ulploymont ... an ir.r"",ry_support ".'pon.
tho road oondltion. of KQN'a, It. weil\ht and length
.ere a aevoce handieap, restrlotlr.g Its oper.tl= to ""'-In
road.. It. limIted rang<>, ap"roxl:no.tely mil , .. U
a further handicap !>eeau.& It too
Ol'l the ma".h.
TAetical of Enemy Armor
ilhon tho North Korean ar"y cro,"6d the ,8th 25
1950, the .p".rhoa<l of tholr advanoe ,,&0 tho Armored DI_
o"".!sting of throe Un. th6 lD7th, lG9tl!, and
TABt.;,; IA
Dlv Tk
8e
39th M:aQ,
A_J CO'A
1
eo ,8
79'"
,
Co I,
"
"
Co' Tk Co'.
,,1th
" "

,
25d,
,, , ,
rC"AI. m
0
,

"0

0
"
"
0

0
i!

0
0
(al ",,:, Mi,6' .
(1)) :.:\.A,".
lo! '_!:,'
G"e ,,"h ,,,j tho cOTl1;,anle. wlth
, ::I.;.} aoe ):,2 "eo !ncluded in unit
"" A, the only co",pany of t',. 79th ","sE,m In "8$ a,.lgr...
te"'eoral'lly to the 25th Inf.ntry Dlvl,iQn.
TACTICAL EIIPLOYMEJIT OF Jo:N]:;}IY AHMQR
JC CORPS QRGILNIZATION ILND
Dlv Tk Rn
ht, A_D Go',
Flam" Plat(h)
ilocon
(1))
'" ,
hch compo:ny 6luippoc with
'"
Equl?pOd with
,,,
Each pbtuon .. Itt.
'"
eOO".pany equlppe<l
'" ,
bach with
'"
&qulpped with
DlvTkBn
"
M26' 0,
0
dozors, "C,
,
.
S

M26'., ; ):1">,, do,ops,
"C, 1
"
a.n1
,
.
DISCUSSION
all equipped >11th the ";I, Ruoehn ",od\"m tank,
dth about 160 tank. in 811. Thi. dlYhlon ."0 later
by the 16th and 11th Ap",ond arJgM&s "Meh .-ero, in poUlty,
._n uoIor6d regiment. or lag. battallon., u thooy rup._
tivoly, 4, 4:) tank. (000 Appendix Fl.
d!vlolon, who>n 't Choehlwon, "pl1t 1nto it,
eo,"penent ... gt ... nt. "hieh thll"".ftH
the Ghogyo, l\urnoh"".Wugwan, ",".d hbu_dong ar.a.. Tho
.6.. 0 moved fro.. Pyongyang .ornsH... an... the c<mtllct bep,an.
Tho 16th appear.d in action for tho tl"", on tho Naktong
front in the tQ'll'aNi Yongsan about 1 Sept,,,"er. Tho 17th
"ppear9<1 .. ':lOut thl> ."me t1"", 1n the area nodheut of
Taegu.
Other armored unlta kIlo"" to hAve b.en prior to
Novo",bor ... r@ thl> 17th I\echaniuoi :th 41 tank.;
tho 41st, 45th, And 46th 10 hnks
and the ;"rd I!ecb..nhod Ro!,:lmont 1, tank.. The original
.tnngth of all thus unIt. na ahout ,20 tanka, and up to
NOV8nlb.r 1950 thoJ' ar" b.lIn.d to have r"o.'v"d ",or,. 250
. replaoe..,,,, t s.
In the .arly atag&! ot the war, Unk. wer., ooldly unt
in dayl1ght the llnn ot advance far in front ot the ",a1n
ood:y, for thl>ir eHeet on tho :norde of til<> N.i.tlng ROK Army
I.eo Appendix DJ. The ROK'8 b.. d l1ttl@, a re.. 57-"'" AT
gun. and lO,-mm r., to combat The 24th Infantry
Div1aion, when It reaohed Mr.Q, ,,'" not aole to help materially
oocau.e !t, ,,"apons .8r8 not .dequato tor the Job. The to...
light hnk...tth Which the dhlaton " .. ""0& .. Irteolly
the only antitank .-sopon, ovall...ole: the bnoon ..a.
only at .hort r""gu ""d oould tbon
only certain .... of the armor !r tho anglo of Il1lpaot n. olos..
to 900. A. the .. lth lu 75-"""
and light a,..,or "s.. OV6CeO"'" by tho !loavior and "10""
p","ertul with Ito 8S-.... Qr""':nent.
Conuquo.ntly, gro'.]", of eno:my tank. ropnt.dly pon._
trated our pO.tHon. In th<> front and n""luI, ourran our troops,
... througb to oomm"nG po.t, ""G artillery po.ltion
Tho tonk attack. "er6 followed qUiokly oy lnr.ntry, In ,0".
... Ith .
With the arrival of ho"bo" anG righter aircrsft, more
.... tiU.. ry, b.ttor ..... and tho j.5-inoh hazooka, tho s
in enemy rA?idly, forcing a chang. In taetlca.
Tank. were movBd only at night find oono.... l.<l. <luring tho day in
gron$, .. d po.ition. dug into hllhld , vIHag.>., and
other locations ..her. could oe talren of tbo
and folia" The nIght of the tank. n. made at .10"
.peed beea"u or til<> oondltion ot tho road. o.nd ll..ited vl.ibillty.
,

'"
p,
B')
, "
,

p,
)
'"
'" ,
121

'"
il
,
,
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'"

'"
'"
'"
"
,
(0 I
I (,:1
,
,
'"
'"
'"
(141 i I'; {) 1) jJ (ll!
1 III
ill I
5 I, ) {)l 7
{" I
i:
9 I
,
'"
a 19)
, ill
'"
-
l (1) ) I} I

,
I.:
TA"1." 'HC
T'lIl\ CU.LTIES .'" LOS""" '" rtf ""nC""TAO" ""
"""""""
-
-
(O )
-
-
r.-.-.--., . ..-:_rC-:or .".:. '."""'n
,.,
..,
,.,
L
..
10) I
'
-

-
- -
,
- - -
I).'! ' 1.6 (0.8)
AT Gun.
-
,..
'"
-
'"
.., (09
-
-
I
-
- -
-
- -
- - -
- - -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
- - - -
-
- -
-
- - - -
- -
-
-
- -
- - -
- -
TABIE III"
",""AUIlI" .., L"'"BS ElY IT..
'" I
;
'"
'"
} {O) 9 (91
,.,
1 ':' (
4 10) a
,
(, :
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1 (1)
<0
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,
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.'ou; '"C
. .
""&3 .. tl'" A. OF ""''''"'' '>",IO'VE:;[)
"

""'0",'"

Mo.tn, :,.cU"
.,." 'AU'"
- ...
.,
'.'
,.;
'"
-

n.21 -
,., ,.,
11.21 U 10.8 I ,.. Il.b)
.'
1< .8)
<5 101
'"
,4 I b.O 1
,.\
I U 0.6) ..,
1"')18
.., (j.5) 0.) J d 12.6)
" (4.1,)
'"
,I, [1.1,) ,
,.
.. I 1.4 11.41
-
'"
-
'"
110) -
-
-
-
I
;
-
-
-

.
-
1-

'lo'd _"".n'""" """" .n


,n..b'. "ok, ....0.... "
'1 ,"u,,, 1.", .to,".
J
Art"'.,.,.
M 1 O.b 1
-
,.. IQ.8)
,.,
(o.jJ
-
.,,1do,,"'
Co."
C.,
I' .j)
-
,.C )
,.,
1 O.j I
,.
c.,"""
."
Lo....

(2). 'I
,.
,.,
119>1
10J
42.6 12).; 1
jU
121.,)
1,.9 )
109 11.6 I
;0
1101
85.7 7
- - -
- - - -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
,"
- ,

7 (7)
; Pi
" i1;
2 ;2 i l Hi 4 (41
1 111 ,n ,-
, OJ f
n) I ).
-
j 1 '01
.. (0 I
1
1 II:
- -
: -
! 111
10
1 {J
90 O?j
-
1 (')
'4' (8,
lb
'"
(e,
7) 141'
-
9 (2 '
I itl
14 :1
I :6\
, In!
4 "
I
<; (61
<; ,")1
-
-
,
I
\ (0)
1" 11 i
- i, Ill)
J (1;

.r q)
'" '"'
-
) IV
-
,
I'h>.e tactic., ch. low nob.
or til<> T;4, pocOlltted enemy tD pIao. hi. tanks In foc-.grd
.ttack on or "lthout the
of fopc.,. Long blll".t, of autom.tlc_"",apon. flr ero '"P
to beon u d by the );o"th Kor n. a me'n. of 00,,_
ooaHng th<> ,oud. of tho! rnov.m.nt of th<>lp hnl[., but
or of f"Orr, t.nk unit, toned to con
n,.", 'hls ,u,oo,ed >tranga", (.a" Arrand!x DJ. ware
'"ed chiefly, with u,e or ,ecandary road, and fa...,
hn... Jeploy=nt off tho po.d. Into r!oe paddles or !ntu tc.o
hllh
In vin of the ll'lpro,'oJ of nu" d@fen.e., tank
.ttaeks Were with e.ution, u.ually at .. llgn' of
day, ,10.61y rollod by the enemy wu rla,ed on
th6 d.fen.iv. aft.r ero"ing of the
he hi' o.nd If_propo1l61 guns In ",ore or
lou flxod anJ in building"
tajn d6f!lOa, 0r rO'd blook.-.Wlth the in'entl"" of $"bo,hlng
oue t""k. and Mtor eolun:ns op thorn und6P flanl!inr fir.
(.M Ap,ondlx FJ. Wh!le tho.e ",ea8ures
prOV!Md tha 816"'''''' af '.h.y ""c" J>6n"""Hy _
rul as lIai,on aIrcraft .. of our advance
qu&ntly d&toot.d thOM O"b,.Mda. too, the bad
gunnery of Ko .. ean Unl< ,"d g'>n c"e." this period,
6nabled Gue tanks ovo OOM th& 616m,nt or .u"prl,.
and th<> f!"" .n.c.holy.
lJy tl"" the h,...an. ."d b6en force; o.ok to the
,""h parallel, tM'" ... unit. h." cea.ed to ex!".
TM 105th ANlmred ClJv!.lnn e.poeted roeon.tltut.d but
Its opo"at10n' have boon l1",lt.d. Lo..as in tnnko
olmo.t lJO poreon . prl.oM" or
[ndlcate. that tho o8sualt\", uon" t.d c"."' n. also ntr .,,81y
hJ!\h (.u .
UlI T""I[ CaoullltiU
Tablo III Is a oondenut!on of easuoltie. 'nd lO.3e3
by US tUld unit,. Th. Infor",atjon
to ,95) 0:1 ....0 "0 a. IMlc....:!.
$001" ad1ltionSl wer. lno\>reed, In not kIlo,"",
'MnR tonk. In tho hand. of orlnanoe 'nd ongiMOc unn,.
Tru. Corp. ca'JOlt, was ba,ect 0<\ fi,..t_ht,nd !nfop_
mation Qbt.!neJ dlpaetly tho unit, ( a Appendix
Bi. The Eighth r.cord .. ba"d "epoct. .nd
by tha Cnerr.,.lve.' -'n int"pm.tlon
-;1.
lsbla ;, .how. the total ,
ood the p.ro.n' o foe all """,or6d unIt. on
,
,
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,
,
,j(;
,
,
2:;
2,
"
"

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.,
"
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7,
7
"
70,11


"
16th iiH{lM
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"
00
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"
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" >,
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InolA s: <'1- C"'-'o,"",-, >nr"MWl' .
DI3C1J3SIOK
1nfo<'lll&t10n 10 available. For prpo this onaly.1B, /..
Corp. !. k.pt Al"IIlY because, In tho por1od
of thlo report, it wu " unit In and
under oondltion. oom6"ha\ dirt.cont fr'om tho 01" th.. EIghth
-,
caus. a oasualty woo
oocurred relatlYe>y
thn tank. to
lmtty .ne..,.. In .uoh cUe" H wa, a
decide .hethor the .as tho result of
torraln, or by our 0"" or en....
foroe . In tbt. it. the poHcy to Use,. the
on the bO.1s <:>f th6 1nltlol rea,on for tl", t&nk
disabled and not on a lat"" 'NUd, " ..vo
gceaur dac.ase Qr de.tr"cti"n.
hom .uppl1.d by the Qffl("n, and
frem Ar"'Y tank st.",. total of 1,2,1 tor.:"
rOwu&nto the of the tanh I" of In hand. of
rl.l ordnance ""l'., for I""e fr<lm <erp.
.torage, .11 10...s fro", 'he of te. cQnflict, ani all
hnk" ov&e".,.d to Or 'h<> Zone of Interior_ Thlo fJgure
doe. not Inc)u,1. tonl" 1n .terot In Japan. It I.
tu olo ly 8, tho
total of tank> I .. u,d for .on:oe at 30rr.e period In H..,
Korun II!:".
In tho between sar)] July and ",id_Ja"uary 1551, 576
tank. M variOu. typa. have beco"e ca,uAltl In 'he Hghth AC",y
and X Corps, On th" basta of tho total of 1,2,1 tank., th:.
a J
1J
percen' c... "a)ty In tho
The tot.l 10..es [n tank. :n th:. Eroup of ca."altie...er. 256
unit., or 44 P&rC$o.t of ,h. ooMl Moo'altIo3. Tho total l.o",
rate 1"1th tho of 'ank. In ."o"leo W80
21 I'our hundt'"J oe 71 of
tho total wees ca,,,.d by tbar.ne".Y
I."., "'ecner.lcal railu"e, terraIn, Or aodd.nt,. Mech.n
100.1 failure for tl<> outk of the nanoattle ca"JaHle"
60 all Of tho
casualt1 , which ,ho re.ult of en$",Y action, 64 tanh, or
n of te. toUl ca,,,altle,, ..ere ct&rr .. 01' de.troyed
by ",lne.; 26, or 4., parcent, Irnooked out by antitank
bazooku (probably cartucedJ In h.. of tho enamy;
22, oc 4 percent, were lOst to attack; "r.O )7, or ,
percent, .. of tonk fiee. ror
rea. on. accounted fOr ?;, or J, peccant. flro
and 16 oa,ualt:es,
br
Table V.
efrlcacy of th<l
168
uO-Hie.
I ho,"" In
TABLE V
CAS"ALTIES CA'1S3D BY ACTION
chargeable
..0 chAn 1ca 1
UN TAJIK CA3!1AIn'rES
,-,


Tho> n"..ber of tank c&sualtl&o cauoed by mlnn Indlc.to. tho
&tr&ctl"onuo of a "ell-planned ..1ne In .. d&fen.lve
Uion. Th<I North Koroana, while thay omployod mlnn hI' ..Ore
effectively tlutn tha UN foren, dl<1 not, far 8.0 tho record
how, uoe the.. 1rI any great concentratlono Or In .ell_planned
flold , tho random di.trlbutlon of their
min.. n, .ufflcl&ntly oU&ctlve to knock out nearly a. ","ny
tank. 164 out of 14, If tactical atandonmont Is excludod) as all
thoir ott.or woaPQn. "","bln.d. our tankA not
equipped dth anr device. for detecting mlnu, In
faot, In sn1l10 wera u3ad to dHect tho
pro.en". of minH, ond exploded them .-1tn re.ultant da"",y> to
the tan gons appear to tho noxt m03t oUocthe
... apon, for 26 ... , An (ntere.Un,:; aopeot 10
thO 11 c... In tnt. ootogory tUt are "epocted 80 cauud
by bUook8.. It ""'-Y "" pr8."",ed thot OTlO.t !f not all of the.e
.UpODO o&ptured against our forcu. It
Is abo Intere.t!ng to note, os Is done !n thl. report,
thet a""",1' tho North tank caoualtles, 13 tank ..-ere
dutl'oyed by hazooku. Th. tanka 10.t to Infantl'Y action are
g"nenlly among a of tank unit. -.!th OM e"
copt ion that to ern9haolze the power of !nfantry to
destroy Thl. exception 10 the 0"'. of Cooper Squadron,
29th BrIttoh Brlgado .hleh lo"t 12 Cl'o",,,olh the tank.
were orappsd night In a narrow <I.fll hlle .ltMI'ulng
U1JongbU (ue Append!.%. E). If "e the .ccore charged to
buooku an<l the Coopor S<!u.dron inCident, .. find the
onemy upon that ..-n. ",o.t effoctlvo against our tank., to
.. 1nu, wu tan\< fire, .hich 17 o.uu&ltlU.
?:,C"JdSl :.lJI
!l:n",1Iing "M t .... "ldM'1! in .,..b!o HI <Ie .. " ...
by tht
..d W/!,'. ri''''' u ..t ..."HIH.1t .ni ..
?llth.,m 1<1\10/\ \"" l#nH u"",r ?",,,hHion "... t.nk
..3 "10> .,,<\ l!Z1} lr.. "iSh
7t .. ..Hu. _""$ lI7:b'. III.;A,' ...s ..,
tu ,,<It .... .."t. 'th<lu t .... k
.... ;;" ....... tm ;lP'S <>.," ...r. tn
parh or It"",,.,, thll!r ""lXI"""'. N ";,,. ft.ld, _"ld 1>+
............. .
d: "u","Ulu tty ("11>60
to , ...... J."QU tht
""'M"".""bfl.1 'I'r h( tl>cl
1... Mgl:lllr...i'<mI'" """ '''pr01'&<l t .... " ...int"" and
y.tu.. <>r tl'A l!L6 u ."",... oQ6 "'-1
M ttoo 1I4';,' 11M >:..AS, "HI! .. 6.1. P<'rO<lflt
,,&.w u",,"11>., .",,14 "'"" !'JI,". tM aut lII<))tHty .... .... n
.." ..,r.bUH" "r ..1: 1.1$ vuod in x:o........ H.
.... t 01 ... ",,1 .... .l&llt 'lid In In tQn\(
""'J ""'.... "",!"t ...d
","ur.h th!< l>.""u,r \11<" J),
:" tho he.....
... "M tf16 t. h .. it!>
iCD p.>"c.", t"4 :.II,!: '''''' rot' tl",
n.
:t ..."",,,,,,"t.6/.1;' any d' "'''6\1i1,,'''''}
by t"" 1\4A3 &nd H," 1!;r4 ..,r",
"
UlI TAliK CASUALTI:>3
of a long period of And modification hence .hould
be oX?8ctod to pHfor.. "lth 50",. meuure of reltBbllity. Tbo K46
... r. Cirst or this type to be built and theIr KO""'n
e"'ployment .-a5 theIr fir.t operational teot. The 1126 Unl<. _ere
a later World II dn&loP1"ent and _re In a poor
.""dition.
In an &ffort to shod light on th<l nat.".e of tho mechan_
10al talluru th&t our tanh to beco"", eeauaHlu, Table
VI ha. be6n lhtin,; the kind. or "",ch&nieQl
Ullure. reported (.80 Appendix J). Thio 110ting i. admittedly
not u eotllpl$te U oo"prehOn>IY$ U be ln vi,..
of the l ..porUnoe of thia ouoahy hotor In our tank &:r:per16noe
in Koru.
""0 .... ""'OhanIc_l .. are reported In hb18 VI than
'!'able III becau.o ere .. number ot c ..... of tank. havIng I>!.d
more thOn on. mechllnical faHure. Of the.e meohanioal hllureo,
107 are counted 80 total 10"$0. Ho.-uor, l02 of thou total
10..... had to be .bor.dQn.d or de.troyed beoau... tho Uct1cal sit
uation pr.. ""ntod thorn tro", being r .. trieu.d or .. d. It i.
p.....um.. d on could havo been "nd to ...r_
vice If ttmo and meQM of r$Oou.py had been nvanable. Many of
thOu tote1- lo.n. Occurred on th<> ... Jthdu...d from )lorth
which tanl<. to mak. long rQad marohes and IncroAoed COn_
alderably the Ino!dence ot "",ohanlcal failure.
Tho great t ${nglo of "".l>anled hUure $um. to ""
U" pow$r plant, with SO failure. r.ported. On a percentag.
h.t., the .ngine. of the 1126 .r.d M24 the lea.t relhble of
type. of tank plants. Tho next mo.t common mechanIcal
!'allure n. the induding ond guring,
with the trQn8",Io.ion the ""o.t truubl... o..... Tr.eka and tlnal
ddv. nu",.rou. in proportion to tho number. of
types _c. .. among all type.. Other rather
oonspiouou. "",chanioal dHfieuHt6' the cooling .",tern. In
the M26, &nd th" lubrioatlng ""_d )ll>eHon bon. in to. lI!46.
Land :nIne. I
the enemy

casual tie. aband OM_.n t,


nearly as
It is
CAUSES OF MECHANICAL FAILURE BY rANK T Y P ~
UN TAl/K CASUALTIES
_re im.,rovloed at; Ohe Uooe ot laying, wtt;h regard to tm terrain,
tho n"",ber of .,Inn annable, and the amount of tim. to do the
Oftea the t1elds .... re not oo........ d by tire. lI""y ... ...,or OIU
u"'Hlu occurred beoauu t"" UN aoee.,t<ld tm rhk of .,IM.
",hlle going ahelld. .... t!>or th"" .uffering tM delay of .low problng
to" tho Ir,..,gul....ly spacod mID80.
The IIlI roron u:ponded a IOuch 18.,.go,. """,bel' or AT mlnu, Us
Ing the cu.....nt dootrl"" of mlne patt.rn. covered by rire. Detail
on ""emy d"'8.g<I Ol1d .ub quont reoov.. "y h lao king. It 1tl_
..ated oho.t enuy Boi:tl.""d an n:chang. rate ot better thAn one
US Unk Oasualtl tor ....ry 11)() A.T ",Ine. laid. n Ie to bo nohd
t""t eM", ",..,0.. !'ad t>oen abnt fl"<>nl the bUtl.rhld dnoe Nov.,,_
IJ50 and w gen.rally In retreat attor enemy
.,.,.or wu tM.u. upoaed to Ie ....I ... ""oard,
The IIlI tor... we .... ho.ndleo.pped by .. lack or troops tra1nad
In mIne. wera otten not laId and de
.e,.tively. The t;roo,.. we'" .knlad of tan ..are Mt
avall.. bla for extensive ",(... -fiold being Pl'e..ed into .ar_
vice as Infantry who>n i;hQ toctjca} ,Jtuatjon"',
Tho au9Ply of AT min n. "dequata In Koraa but
probl-.",. Md arl.o In tra""1>ort!ng tt;o" to tho> troops In Q"ant1ty
in sufflolont tl",. to be u.ad.
Tho .... by UN units of their u.e or .,Inn W8.3 deft
.1ont. 0_2 ot tho ElJSJI.K reported that of
AT minos ,xponded, ... ports ... r. 1I\M. on only 80"'. 13,200. Of
some report> ..eo&i ..... d, fner thA<l rive ..ere tr"", unit! otllor
than "nglne" ... ,
'1'1>8 Korean n... Indloatod tM potontlal .rtect1n_
nes. whlcb could be obtainod by uu or r.moto_laid mine. u.ing
0.1.. , artillery, or rocket Such ",in.. would 'been
upeehlly u:oful for nlgbt interdiction of e""... y 'U9ply lIna.,
demoralization or ropalr ore... , and h8rU$",ont of t ..009 conOen
tration.] thoy oouH furnl,h a c,,"tinuou. dl,,,uptlon to the
"nelOY
Tbe u.a of earth R"<!ar. to simplify tho _pla.o",ent of A'!'
mino. (u propo.ed In QRO_T_I09) ..u to,tod In tbe rteld in
Korea and I"'ovod to b. efflolant and 'I'be,6 field
tuto .. re d,.ned In detail In AppendIX I, An.,ex 7. It wa.
["und that AT ",In eould be .po.dll:r ."'91ac.d .tth aarth "ugers,
and .ould oe dICr10ult to E.. oh ..uger could oompriu an
ind....ndant unit carrying up to 50 mine. on t;ha vehIcle, and
.. ould raqulre onl1" .-.ll e",,_.
lo.:nd.,ino .""luation cloarl:y ,b"".d tho ne.d for ...
lothal IIllna, ..nd the an"IlIY poc!'o"TIl .. pointad out the erfeot!vo_
nus of uolng In unprodlotahla ..d pattern. In depth.
DISCUSSION
atep
10...0
nl.t (oroo. or.
Appendtc.. 9
VII
IlEFO",: AND APrE" 1
In donot$ lo..u)
-
3eforo After
,

,
);0
e:obee
"_echo.nlcal r.')ur. 199 1100 ) li,J 1'7 )
17
In) 0
Tan" fire
infantry ..
"
:191
1 ,
171
,

'0
1?9 ) illl
4
(4 ) )Ho,," 1141
, ,
I
,
Ant:Un"

n (9 )
,

,I
IOJ
Tactloal abamloonmec.t (I)
,
17'
'"
Artillery l 0
l (2 ) Aoddent
4 0.1-1
'"
,
t-.-a OR'
,aU!.,
"
bazookll..
lo.,e, fpo", ,,[1100 Mter 1
no ca""altle, tan;' fire OP artil_
lery, and mlM ca,u.Hi., ,harply. Ca.ualtJ fro",
and flre e,.entblly onchOngoo 'out
c ..ualtlos frQnt lnfantry "nac" inuoa>oJ con.!der."ly. Howev6r,
the of Coop.r $qu&dron "Ca,uH)tlu Ca",.d by
;;upon.') ,Mulj'6 C.OCO mind,
1hs rtto.t "PHt of thlo 1. tho oho"ge
in ratio of oa.uaH!.. to ]0",08. Of th6 "9" tank ca.ualtl63
that oocurred ppjor to 1 75, or 26 percent, bec"<M
'ot"l lo"g. Antong "'6ohanJoal ta'lul'o oa.ualt!e', only
or 5 ,.e"" not .... Or A
or tar.k., ca,unHi., O"""'Y Or ""c"
alHay. o.nd r.'urned '0 Aft.r tb.
oonUot with the 8hin6se ">Jr w:th(lr"w.l oup 6'
tenae; po,ltlon, in our to
<Ia. ,eeiou,ly seter 1
.. 2)1, almost equal to our ca.uaHi , Of t:c".e
291 Ll)., Or 60 p6"Cent, ... re tOta: 10,"6s. Of the
tJIi TANK
199 <Tlochanlcal-_hllure ca,,,,,"ltl plooe 1 Nov.mber,
or ,>0 rerc.nt, :"'como tohl lo... "ore
100 total loe. grtd an inor&&.od proportion of tanks,
damagod by "ctlon, c loot, 1'1>0 bigh pereen_
tage of tD'al 10"" .-as couood by tho lack Qf .par.
great di.tanoe .upport
units, and the opavatlon ,,:.,lch wao taltlng
plac.. Many tank. ca''laBi could have b.en ,,"covered,
ropaired, or evac"U.. d had 'he wrmitted,
Thh .tt"atton I. tllu$trative or the that MU.t be
"hon 10 corrunitt.d tn the MotH. of an
in seathep, and
ov," 'i"ita
logl,'tc Or uPPO"t.

"lPPQrt. n 0$00\5
$ " ... k of thH U"," cluo ar",or
proteetion and I the of the
would bov. 'roved An lda.l Ko"u

"he lnfb&nce OJ" "'!SM ana dl"'"Olon. on thO tank casualty
pate i, not fro"" the tnfocMtion. Th. l1fhter
tanh, br lom:,er
,",chanic.l fa!lure c.-""oore hv"rably with heavlep
tank. In th" ove"_all '.asuRHy TM_, ooupled 'Nith
oonslderably for a .."oh
M.ier logl.ti" for '1,.lr .upport. It certainly rnllo".
that of ,haraetoc:oclc. or tho modiurn r42 and the
nn ll"ht Tl'l ,"culd rulrElod tho roc.,,:rcmont. tu dot&
!n Kor,a provided no or toe n,,""r. cf had boon
encountered.
In Ko... a cbat or
wata"_cool.d, eea",clriv.n one. ",am1ally contrulled t.nk. ',"ve ..
bot.. tank fa.o1ino
!.e., 0.06, per too_",th. The w,o, .tth
a h,oraullc app"sr' to oe le", eN\clen< on "
bas:s 07 ,0 rhls
coupled "lth It. lh con xt"a for tho> high
r,,"l of !,.S per :n Korea, '" co['\
2.,) for tho It 10 eot\",atod
teat ttw "lth .a"", ... Ig"t a, \he but
DISCUSSION
.!th a hydraulic torq\lo _auld have a fuel con,umptton
of ,.; ta'lon. f'Oc ",110. ,t'ldy r.as been ..-de of tl:e r".l [,,_
,,1",0, or tl>o.8 t"nk., anct 1t !. "" tho Oa.l. of
the'e f'ue: C'lnsumption th.t if 10,000 Unks .,c" runnlng
te. equlvolont of 20 ",!l ,'" j,y, a, might be tlw ea,e :\::l
"to" lW,\,tlc . or 10,000 Over
la,GOO '-;,J.,'. over a ,u_",onoh p.dod 1<')uld be tanker., 882
car>, ,nd ,.40 and for the ",+6
the r42 00 5,1 tank oar3, and ,24
Although b. a .",.. 11 proportion of the total tun._
port ava!hblo, ony rod"ctlon !n the nu"oor of vehicle,
lead to a "eduoo!on !n dr-Ivec., mUntonanee p<>r_
,<lCo" anj ,hipping ,;-aoe Alternatlvely,
the .ov!np ,"Quld provid& f".l )00 d.ily FaO sortl 1f r42'.
nre ectploy.d 1<4;;'., and 0,00 daily .odles it M/jA3"
wer6 u.od Ic. '."d of 1.:46' ... ano';OO,. .. t&nt
be the nvlng or 1, tJn, or .teel p"r
to Mlf " ",l11icm tons of .teol 1f Ti,.?"
built In,tud of :.'46'0. I, th.,."fQre eon,ld.red
thot the ';S a medium tank the po..
fop on the Uttlefiold. Since it
I. believed tha, the T!,2 b. or ,uperlor to tho 1'46
on the battlefiold. I, ,ho-'ld at tl.. eul1e.t
po.. ! ble . nt.
,. on di.po.lthn of ca.uOltle. tOhl
).0"" or nao"ated).
6. Any ""ctlMh' t".t havo on
.he
by tllo O""ratl"". a urcl:> 01'1'1"0 and unt to lnop<lot
all tho on0"'1 tank...nd ..If.prcpelhd gun. that eould b. round.
Thou partin located 239 tank.....d 76-_ aelf_
propoll.ed gun. ttoot I;&d 'Mon 1"., 1<> eom1).t or Bb&nd""od ror var_
\ouo rouon. along tM pl'1001pol rontu of tho Fiorean campaign,
extendIng from the pu.an parl,..t... to tbe arB. ot: P:rongy8.Dg. Thou
roprooent "pp"""I",.'011 .. 40 per nt .....pb of the tohl
oum'<>or of T'4'. (uti.... t.d u about (00) thot tho /lorth Korean
hoplu AI'..,. c""",ittod in the porl<>d or thia ... po1't. rile aurvey
part I ro,mad. up for the mo.t part of armor, ordn.. air
foroe, and BrtiUory orrt ro dotaehod from tl>ol,. Wlit. and
attaohed fOr temporary duty to ORO for tho purpoou ot tho Survey
.... n.e......"
(au AppendiX
conditl"" of many
partie,
.urvey. were able to oporate dIrectly beb.Ind tho
vanoing line thorefore 1'0 able to obtain and
evidence.
table 'fIl! .u",.-.arizes tlle uusood aau... or lo.ua to the
2,9 '1')4 tank. wh10h ."rO uo",llIe<l by tho to",,". In ",alllE thl"
tabla, on. oho"14 keop In mln<l tile mt.n,. riou. r.Ul'votlon.
app!1cable to tho finding. ot tho urvey
In ord81' to provl<l. a buh ot ao .. parl.,c',; the louu or
IJlI tanb (Eighth and X Corp. combin.d) and liorth Koreon tank.,
Tabl. IX baa l>I>on prepared. In th10 table, Jlorth Kor.on 10...8
to ..11 t1ll .... of air attack co..blnod.
On the bul. or thlo reoor<!, tho gr.Uo,t oeU$e 01'
lou in II![ would ..... bo UN air attack, ..h10h acc<>unted
for 102 out or 2}9, "I" about percent ot tl>& tot.l loues.
Napalm appHr. to b& tblo mO.t .rrectlve _upon of all, aooounting
60, 01" 25 percent or ,h. t"tal count. J\.bandon",.nts,
in ..oot .In.t.""._ without wov v!,l\,l of e.UaB, accounted
59, oJ.lI.o.t anothotr 25 to ,.!- total oovnt. rank 1'lr.
w.. the tlUrd lars.. t 00'''<. '<r,coklng out '9 tank" Or
16 percent.
"
,
I I
,
,
,
('fi: h,,...
,
,
,
,


1,,-11' "tuek
:.. ' ....,"'H! .. 1 m'"... ,
'Tflll", flN
1
""",,,11 ",. i flI H\l1'''
'f*l'""t"
:th...
,Mot!'>;:",,, Iltln$

:J"rkMry
A"C LffiS>:S
(I'll' f?t>c'c ,tJ
1((
.......L
""",tan
.,
NORTH_KOREAN TANK C.qs;JALTIES
NapLlm ao a "upon \0 cofoat ",,,.t be given
.poclal oon.ideratlor.. It 10 o"ontldly weapon of an aod_
dentsl r.at",. 'IHth tho pOHible oxception of tho> !,81atively
rare of a d!,-eot hit, napa).", dou not of It.sH destroy
Or damase a t""k. it 10 fully capabl. of
shrting a oha!n of .vent. which .,oy t-rine; at-out tho 10.5 or the
vehlcle. A b""t-, If" hit !o regioter.d gU1'fielently
clo.e to the tank.... ill it. burning on tho>
Bocau.e of the firo, tho ern ""'y .uffer burn. or be lnduc6d to
abandon the .""x. Howev.r from tho pr! 'Oner of ,,8,. Inturoga_
tian. it that u.udly hRd suffIcient time to
got ttle had ( ..e Appendix DI.
the aMndonl'lent of the tnnk ultimatoly led to its destructIon,
for the tho fjr.t atrlxu had .uffi_
cient time to iVlHe the rubber on the poad ..!loeb, heat tho ammu_
n.Ltion the polnt d.tona.ion nd set flre to tho fuel. Any
all of the.o broup;ht abo,t the 10 of tho tanx.
I'!lo nU1:lo.r of c . chanlcal failure. roup un1t3. or two
percent of n .. total, oannQt be a. a r6Hab1.
ct has p,.evjou.ly no,orl that hck of .upport In tile
North KOrean APmy forced to eft.ct ,..palrs by ""0'0",,1
of part. fnm tanx. beyond theIr capacity to !'epair.
rr-'lny to cause., .uch,..
air attaok or gpound til'C, _TIny .'lave or1ginally been caused by
'erra!n, or fuel, Or "- hilu,.., diffioult or i1'l_
po.,ible to deled by Ha",inotlon,. It .eems rea.onsble.
to ,h"t ."any i=obilio.d t""ough O\echan_
!eal to"ra<n, Or tue). exhauHion " .... frequently attacked
and dan-.aged by Our ;o-lthOu, krlo.l&dl($ of thai"
state 'or servIceability. The lapee number of also
that do,or .. have ,..,vealod ,hOM motor.
weapon., 3uoh a. bo.ooko, rifle, OJld
mine, lnaff.ot!ve a. by the evidence. Of
the tC.1"ee, th<> bO-<QoU apcear. to b. t'>e best "Y a COn_
.iderable deepee. Inn. 10$0$0 doopite the
.ultnblHty of the tsrrain to the practloa) u of .. ine.
oerhin p<!dod. of tho eampa(gn. The rBpoph fro", tho
of thnt con.Iderable ....ere
in North Kopean arrr.ored unit., out 00 "",ke the ['lO,t
efr.otlve u.e of tho av.!lable "o"",Ht.d Nlpnir" to be
ea.ily effect.d, 3!neo QUI' 10'6 "l.nos 'J001 .:nch ""ly I>le" the
of tt-.. (OS" AppenJlx DJ. In addlt!oc., the rn,thcxh
by O"r In lay,n'c ,,,In not been Mot
.uitablo fop tl".o (.e" n. The lacx
of N[flcle,,' tr.oop, '0 lay ",:"0' '''''Y h.vfi ha1 con.:d_
un rH'",, poor aotitaox_",lno
,n tho eoup.a vf til" the vap,ou, parti5'
the 76-rr..... elf_propelled guns 'ha, wepo X
the ca'J3e. of til" to ,ho.e
)7
----
DISCUSSIm;
TABLE x
76,"""" SP GUI; CASL'ALTES

__ no eo,,"" 1& 22
Napal! J.J
II 15
9 12
eochts I 10

Bazuok. h;;
Un\mown i,?
fir. 3 '.
Mne. 1 1
toTAlS --- 74 100


A, witc_ ,r.;. 'rl4's, tho tc...: at" ..
the hr,,,' cas'J.lty_proJuolnp woopon. Thirty_fhe
,6'., or 47 of the Modit.d to
to ,>e ba.t fer gun3,
0" 13 of the ,,,'a,, The M 76
io lorge, paccer.t cf ,,'" to,"l 10.,03, ;"0,1ll001 ,ho.-, up
well, with 11 Hun oa"caH! .. , of tl.. total. I'ga!n
It 00 cMntd tv: rO'j,'N, U"pa-n,
fuel Ma-" b" h", <"ncen1,d .
xr ho no Gf both ac,rt
7"" ,I
cQrnb!ned 10_>'", .100. olr oO'ivjt,V for
X'
.psolflod cou;e


AIr rocket.
T;n;mown
flazookn.
4J. "",-o,,-t .. .. l. ."""d""...,nt .. 24
"t' tct..l. The ..,
5 r1\'e .. ... tdrJ l""SH;'
u'",,,' )\ th"
nAtur. at tt., "7r."h le_
!"," v' tr.. """,,,,-.,,d or
tc' "}",",, d"":',s",,n\
o. e"p,et.d "orr..".! 1... r!..
..,-.1 paNt.d s""" -, ..
con8Q frO""l Mr'"",.. 2 , r,..t
diLl. J(l fe.t "" In hett;"t
o .long tM to,
1", ,o"do, Itl tM 'tl<>
of ...".:11 bUt:.....11
thO on Uthor 0:10 at tc
rho> ls" .h,p'" o.c.d d'""!",,
or ""lno '''ft th..
of tho .. In tM
rM6. or t,,,avv ,"".t;UO\;lOn oot #01
"""1 "", rMrr. ,,r .. .... ... ..1
o.'" '''''I c'" ... ... lh
""'in11 "f or
M-\dgea nF< .HM" .Ide ""
..""",h roc..,lt too or t"""., Md
In Hutll, ,yr... lns do., U "-
"",,,o,,t &l'Q
'M .hln"" ...
"" 0 Mth t,,,, JIH!.',"-].
tn tho ,"," <>f )(0,., ... tho X
NV"". OM ... ?J <" '\0) M",. ,"",'.,
"".(\ p ...,u,,,od .. . "doil' 11'h,
.,.. M_puJ.
1M loa.. " 411
.. ,n rloo
1tt.h:ng Mf
I".'.d., ... " "".,olng" onc, !n w,rth. !eo 001 M.nr
t"", ... o,,"u\{l Mvo tr
tno h.1td I"'nU,." .r .. ...
P""c <wd
)"eM:e, u"l'VwMnt Mt
","" .. \)&.,,"'\>, .... ny. ...." h ''P"'''',. 10 eJry 0.
'0,."." .. o unj"" 1M
t"',\-.. I ,uH H .. not n",n ""-I
th. .. we", oot nMrod, "hoi
c"",a.<l ... lth.". """,!ng. ,..r"""n: ..
O;SCUSSION
"B", of Bp_'o '''''' tBnk unit. uo,1 0
,ot "'" 'raftlcO'Jili'l' or tr.o f"ddY by
" wolk over t'1. If h. did sln" ovop c.l, 'Joot
top" the prouc_o was-oon,ld.-ed . or.o
paddy .. a. ,0"'016 if tho 01\<0 no!;
",ore than 2 to j feet l'ioc.. co\>sed ce,c
tank to on,1 frog'Jontly to throw it. Thore 10 one
oa>o "ecorJed of an M26, In a o'.iotbing n ,orios
of terraoect do. paddle. )00 .lope. ten;'
2,0(1) foet of thi. "hen it
t"".w both w','le a .100 1.00 5:'.
JPY 0" dH pnd.lles co"n fjeld, rrosentod no
,.dou. ""'.," 0"-').; .,. found
the tank' on to t',. pood. In l"Pnton pad<i1e., Ie
was p""ctice to "-vo:d tcail of otc.ec to pr.vent
the .. truot\oc. of tho 'u"fao
The hill .1o?M octMO, bare, 00 ooveced w1th
10'. In KoeM ar.d heavily wood.d 'n tc..
or tho .IDpe. Or ridp;.s or 11M'
.. not praotlcal evon if po lblo, a. It os,
that inclination tl,e tank ,o,"eU",es ""6vented 1t> gun
... d to On the target. Tank .upPO"t
for infantcy Qoeratinl' on .uoh hill .lopes round to be ""Ore
e[[ectiv. tho tor.k> !r_ t"" valley
Th6 l1ht sno> and lea tr.U3 !n
enHd a .e"iou. rnob!lity lue Apcondlx HI. t'>a
steel tr"ck. u,.d on nearly a'.l tank' llttle tractIon
such oond\tlono and oa'lS_,d a or tec_
rBln 10'''0' "),,on tan", '_'r laterally
whon attemi't1nR to .harp bend, mounta1n
lank unit. found it Moe"';,, 'Jndec .ucc. condition. to
keep OM 'n t'oa daoh to ",a1nta!n oOn'rol. In tho mountaln.
or no:th.aot Koroa, only dr/vIne: and effort,
on the of the .. ol.d the ta"",, to wIth any
de"ree D[ oarety when snow snd ice condltiQns
Th.> e01plol""ent of tan", b oloM of !nrantry "",
'Jean 1150u..ed prevlou.ly. The dlfflcultlo. that nave ocounecl
in oooporat1ve op",ation. ot this type have been oau..d by laok
of expodenco and Joint by InadeQuate co"""lm,oatlon.
.. co-ru.AnJ the unit. !<ene.. nl'.y
oporated, fe'.t It nece ...ry for tank. to be pre.ent In the line
at all tiOl<>' and valued pcotect1on and fI,-e powor. The
attaolunont of US wu eornp8'-'y to one ro"l_
mont or \nf<tntry. Hooev,r. it 0" an
to have Unk' u.ed in plotoon__ oc even sectlon-_Hreogth TOr
putlcul.c -rho or .. cmO" in tni. r<"nne'
",
many poobl ..",," of and. of log!""I" ,uppoot;
to ,otv. \)0""'"54 tn<ro n, thon ,revaleot
In tM eOMlono of foce ... :c. Korea a general 01
upodone. and trolnlns tho u,o of HmOP. The co=and of the
attached tank eOOlpanl&. or plaooo". to the .onior In_
fantry _nO frequently fall.d to tho moot offoet[V9
u.e or te. tank' .,.Igned or to the
reftl<>Ung problem that armored By
tho sa"", tole.." It wo, not unoO:nm">n to U",' tanks at n[ght dth_
out prop.r proVision (nfantry t) .hiold the UQk.
again.t .neak at'.ck" A. tho lov.l of all. the unit.
rio , will ""00"," more efflc[ont.
Th. proportIon of 'an"' 1., one t""k eaoop&ny to
on. reS!1:lOnt Qf to ha'."e
undor thollmHetlon. impo.orl by ,he As
ob.erver. r.. i(ore. i. "ono_tonk '"ront"
country and the ho.k in " c01u"", ,.trie'o:! to th. road.".fl'
to do of
Communleatlon. in betl'loon tank> and Infantry Md
and thel" eoo:.T.and, havo !';On.oan, on;
no Qr tm?,"ov''Ilent over the of cOI"lll",unlcatlon. dur_
ing World Wor II (sea 'f). Th. d!ffieultlo. of tn"k_
infantry oomOlunleat["n. hve l"hloHoj the
rr. nt of .. fuDy ooucdlnated Sc,d ,,,,0othly tonk_1nf$ntPJ
team, bH"".n Un:". ar,d lMa"try tho ilN/V'1C-5
In the tc"" can -.alr.tain ,at:.factory
tad. t'le SGc_jOel .et 'n the 'r.faotr'
h&. not ad.quah to nandlo the and .tlH
!!;tv. ouftlc!ent Infor"",ticn to f"r tap
ldentlfleat!on 0< to ti." ,"n;'" to moneuvoc ,.It)", 'n_
unl" each platoon of
equipped Or. ,C;_,S,l. Te. ',,;,Ioh
rv u a 010 _1" not c-..
offoctlv6 ,inc. In Oq,.. not ,.ith
it or rolvet.r.t 00 t.h"""olvo" to er.e,,)" .'I-.!].$
u.ln., It. Tho cilone on H.e .."ny do.c.ee6. 3, 'n"antry
fslld rothco It I" [to and 0" oonk
rro',:ng ort e\thee ,"eC in,tr,,,ent, BecHu.e
of t'.o find unH., 'J:iF
tan", "Hi have ... en
ce""ln a,," eo,,,unL,,t,,,,,, ,,,' '0 via ttle
Hoi.on w',e" this "e,n'ne:! N,thc. oontrol ,,; to"

tw. boo" "a '0 nor
"'" ,e e.,t.bllsc,eo beCNeen und a tank
be aO"gr:ed to th, tan,.; thl,
vi" en "e', -f' !, o,m, c',':l-: 01,.",,,, t'.o ,"o"e.n.r.t
a".d fire of \c.e ,jU!t "' t,o ....ro.;;s 0,.
t'.d" eo.cod!,. a",".

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',","""0rt a ,,,,t'cdorly
CO,";,,_'.' of :;26 {,HO "Fce,dix ,,). Two. .. a '.1
,,"t, hod "eeo "va!'able t, "., ",-,:t "I' c'' ,?:, 000""0.",
_,".1 (,-,'}6, Do,.,,,,"_t 0" c_" supply Cscolo,,-,
,,, "'0 :.:X tan" 0','-0 1,2 C' 09,"p.te 'c. "',en"I"
cd """ ,_" t',. !<',lo; ,'c,k&I'O of ;.,,.t, to;"
,aJ'-'.1" "In .:" to 100 tOnk,.
,',lk",o IPct " ,ii, 1 0" In sLc;,ce t,," "C;oe of
,_" j,,,,,,' '0,' Ir""""":''''ly r"" to:. 1/26 'II',S !n of
c"rve"s',oJ. 'a"",o1'O 0'," <'n
,'", '0,' ot 0f nv,"::'-" ",'b 10",5 h, Ko,..a ono
l '"; '" W';'[1
0'," "e":L1;" l:'ota. ,,,-,,,, ..,,""; "t,: 1, o,ced'o.gly. 5u?ply
r,','t'"o:- o)-"dlcatea h,' t" fr',' 'f' lontlon of un't"
0'_'0' ro, .. 1t.eo 'r, ;" c,e lcO'es ie of ""toy
'hi", ,_t, ",,-,0 ,''c;. strl,)',jc,," ".0 <x,c"_,,e
,'; ."" J'.,,", ",,,,__, ,,,, '" OOOe,' ,,,.,,,',":'" '", -!L,ol_
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l"vd.
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cho "'--,'0': " poried, dar,lved ,',e 'onk
",iL" oJ' "a,,,'eCH,'CO "'prc.'t, A, t:me< .0'"",'0.
"
'P,
o ,0 fr C\ .'_,p-'c,'t
"" .. ".,'
C
ad t.eo:"ent of
Q"o'_hl ,',el,' '_"""
-,O:ct"Mn,.) "d 0"_.
0D"<'p'",,'t" ,,",' ,, ro])'.".'
c,,-. '"":"'0'"_,_,, _'";"''0"
plct,-"e
",
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,,', --,' '"'<c,",,,\'t , ,:,',o:on
'pto'olr,, k"",.-:oct fr'" c",<:"ont"l
,.. ,,,,';,,,,
"" ,,;y-, ,- ,c.' ''''',le_'e, to "I' h, fu,,] "' trE
,""' 'c_'e or _TI&'.r;O] th(j
e";lo\-,,,',,'\. 0f "C',W te_ c,'Ii- ",,<I Qpin<,,r.s "I' ,,,,'soe_nol
DlSCUSSION
.. '.0 o"""'.nd Or to"., __"" obtalMd. These opinions in_
volve 1de abo"t d."tn
'nd uf the Ide'"
a". elsewher" In this ,..,porl. SQrn" of ">gge,_
tlon, .ppl1cable to tac." of old.r.IT.odeh cava boen adopted 1n
tho of tbe '.'46. for th. reoord, idu,
are collected togolh.r here:
nir.forcoo onape !-.<ton .'.lch
will 1tac. 'ojne Is hit.
'..;eld addit1oM: r",ko to tt. of turret
sponooe.s ..g. of ""." ""c,onal
hoc1c.tlno oi:, "nd utero Intern.. l .to'",,;. would be de.lrable,
if po.. lb1., ,1r.oe .",on_Or"," this
e,"lptnent. for s"",ll a"",. inrantpv 8"e
al,o
hH.d apound the for infantpy tu hOld

Place deck uv.,. tito louver> of
Ie tl-...... n from .hon lofantry onO to
v."t dlrt fr',m t!-.. ont'lne
In"oll on a drJve ,haft ? .. through
tc. to al:ow enp,1e. to "oto"d a
t"e" jo..,-,h!ll .lope
ome of tho N,46 "hen it 1. und6P
it". 'he no'
c]o.hp hlltohM f .. "m .. of tho
tan", tho crew to
v.s1gn tho "."t for
1. out toned u) ">tended ".nod
P.. ovide b '0 p,..,,,ont
fco",
Road ..heel hubr<> fr$o by ....all_""""
Jt" 100' of h',b.
hoa"" ", ro,ht cal .,;r- fico.
bop)e, of doLe'" out at On ..lve
,ecau,e In,d ",,"cee'r""nn. ,'edo,lgn tho An
d.,,',"o fCr dour al.Q 08 u,erul.
,","rove tr"ct'cn with 2_lncl\ po,nt6d Ol" l_lnch
,h.v<on_ty?<, on t .. ao'"
a to,', ,,,In., ru'"vv....',,,,,nt.J
to 'he ur.k onor.
'of ci .. turut tQ .poco
(nt,<nally.
.n<l 3l",:,lHy ,,"poc. ion '0 :nIM
and to Mj ,,'Ore rep"ips.
l"era.,. tho al.ope of .11 .u,._
" ., C.e"VV a. ,:" ratlo
.. te voctic"l .H. ,late> .
a OQ, .'}o ,'un !n front tho tanl<
hat-eil and ftva tc.e r"o. eleoH[on.
Provide a oal .50 "Un .,,_ to-_ 'Of the ,hot ::>1" ,60
0
!o b,U'f .ahout r.,lu1rlng tho
. r '0 of the t"cceC expo,. ,,\m.elf.
Study the or ",,, ht.rnal amrlunltion rack. with
th.> objoc' or !mpr<>ving t"" of shell, for tho
a y.tM.ith a
"ad!o.
hint the tank_infantry eho"." on t"" tao_k a distinctive
'0 tho, It !o oleulr vh(b,e to the le,fap-try.
LOO8te the In 0 po.ition on tho
wher6 it can euch6d bv a ct"" a n&&rl.r prono po.Jo!on.
In tank. ""comfortahle. b Mrphone
that b more ocmfortable and wou1-1 .till. permit t!>o h.lmet
to be wOpn I, ie,hed. Deolgn a one_earplac. phOn. to pormit n ..
to h.ac extecnal .ound
ProvIde for pypotsohnic. fN'" tonk.
PV,C& $-..ltoh In front
of OM turret
nltches of a ,toe and shOpe tJw.t tc.,t be
at "It" .,.. ... nd
lIT.prove tha pBl'fQP",.ncft of corn:nunloation "_ulpnent.
'ho ViW and c"",bine tdnk_Infahtry tank
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?, t#l":I'dn in .... 11.. ttdl ..
uf .144 ..._ 1n .
}. fhlb te,....'I" w.. <I.nlfd at
hA.. I>wb. ."rtiolr..U.,. ..........Ut.. u,."" 1" "'-'1 <llff."""t ...,..
tU.",. s_"r "holM, .w uoo"t ""d
..."'" p"l !o'>4..., "",J ",n.__ "" t".
4, Dn t"" 411061$ ..n l,O Un,," oan
"" by no" <llvhlon, 9,,"M tn ",oUl)ta!n_
"".
'I. '1'... " ... A"'XI "",.t>." "t .... bO fhx!ble
AAf"'Mj"t "" tM h ..... tM """''''r ...." r,.Gm a tank
"",. tnr$nt"1 "'-"*1""'1 ",,,,n tn. .. or ob_
j .. th.. "Yilt".. m'''''''. "lW".,;tt"", \'wo;"".;, toO ...,,"
;""rrs P" a ... a "bj.ctl...,

"" Or. d,. .... h t!wi" <lu,,-..H ....
utu. On1 tn..j,. "1wn,,.1 3t";,, or ,.... .... le": rl6.o1_
o:-nt, thl> 11M; Ii.n1 IMI, u ,d .... 8 1'1 Ko"' .....
7, 114,,-,", ;,110' .. ' .... ...
urJ .... UN> & lo;d.t\c
"0.<1 r,.l<1t;,".<I" I"
il. f .. """''' M
n,,,,,,,,,,11 Mgh.
9, \In tt;. "t ",)",fte,; air ..c" ..
fol' 40 "r in J(""",", .... ow ;:'0
"r ut .".IIY tank 1 ...... " M .... M b;' UN __;..
to. tho _" ,:><1U" ... l<l$,,"", ",H the """
rr
11. NI' p"""'nt M 11$
<11not .''''"'1 I'Bw.,t thoH "",.., t<>u1
of U,. ).60' 1"'0.... 1 "r 1M ... ;""
H. NK .....,. 15!t In,-o ?";t..
"'-""'T .. n.04 of ",o"d, ..
n .. NK ua... race ... ...r, ""-"
toe \OD "nttt""k D!n..
14.
r .."H 8qulpped nal,. OJ' .. - <>r
tGok ..1<1"
.-ouU have ..
t'M1Ml:o. co.",,"'I...
COIiCL\Js,OIiS
POW InCc....tl"" IDdicato. t!lAt kill. were generally obtained on
tl>o firat rognd, &nd th!tt tD<>re .e1'<l fu ourv!.or.....CD!! o"".y
t&nlc. P"""trat.d by 1JS tank n!"e.
16. On tho b<..1a of tluo ","oord. only "- roUthely 801&11
Dumbor of tan"'. ... d troy.d by bazooKa
11. Communloation. \:Iet ..... n tank. and Infantry. and tank.
and battalloD ""adQuart.ro. ba \:Ieen untIMfoctory through
lack of training. "Qul"...nt. and t.lTaln.
18. '1'1>0 uoo of tonkll ....ore or 10 .. tlud Infontry ontltanl<
...pon. or as CODVOY uoort. I. m e",pen.ln practlco. Choaper
and mON> oultablo aponnould be ....Hable tor thh purpou.
20. Tho gae of luuo .Intor olothlng by tank or..a
10 l,.praotlcsl.
21. Tho loghtlc and ",a\ntononoo aupport or Unu boon
""ry lnad.quate.
22. Llgbt aIrcrart operating .1th tank battalIon. h.... boon
Invaluable tor ,..,connaI...nc...cd ",.Intalnlng "","",unlo.tlona ol"m
tho c"">panho !lAve b.en oprud ovo,. .lde ! ..""h.
Z,. On the bula of tho burning of tho rubber on tank 1'0"<\
olth napalm. In tho of tho tank,
tAnk. vulnorabl. to 40-KT atomIc ..apon. attack up to
diot"no. of 2.500 yard. on a oloar d"y. ""d 2,000 yard' on a ruuy
d.y...
1. Support a .Igoroua and oxhnd..,j r ......reh dn.. lopotOnt
progr= to Impro... tonk dulS". ulph&olo on:
a. Improvement "t .Irr.pllelty and relUblllty
of tanka Itn _poelal "ttontlon to of parts
and ..... ot ...
b. lI..duotion of fuel oonsumptlon. "" kptn", .. IgM to
the mInt"'''''' e"".ht.. nt .ah protectIon r<>qu!rel'l<lnto. and by
.. ""... froctlve utilhatlon of pOIrOr
!lo.. ORO_R_2 J.pp."da tor d!so".ston.
48
aECOI!!IENDATIOIiS
4. Itop"".... the qIlal1ty of ""","""I tiona b.t.....n tanks and
Int"" t,.,. by ''''provo",.nt or .qul!>""'nt ami training.
L"8lotlc3
5. Pro.u.... ,.."-1"", tonk>!. at a .... "" tMt .111 provldo
150 tanks for each lnf""''''' d1v1alon. TlIh .I>ould be !n addition
to th. l"eq\>b..monh for umored d!v101,,,,,,_
S. Cno..., a ..,c11"" 35 t'm ta-ok for "",...nt u:;; in ordec to
tok of it. :owor logi,tica" support "'quu-e>teot. an';, ,,.
t<> )146, it." JO ,""ce".t In o<oel.
7. Prod..,. 1"01 and 143 t ...... at rotio of .I;.out ""._tenth .aoh or
..,.e<ft"", tIInlr. pl"'OdaetiOh.
8. St.... ngtrum nornal "'.!nten""c. and logistic npport to
armoreQ uolt., portlcularly On dlvi.lonal and forward oupp,,!'t
1.....1
9. If "",or is to be u... d in a t.rI'dn o","parabl. to Kor... ,
provldo extra loglstle OIld "'Binten""c. oupp"rt.
10. rn"...Inter clothing that eon 1>. eOlllforUbly and .<>n_
nl..nt1y .0,"" 8
'l'rUnlng
U. St,..,u Jolut trUning ,,\ 011 bvela at bOth lnf""try
""d .".or "Ohool>, to neh br""ell tho ca.pabllitiao
o.nd 11.1111UtlOtl. of noh ...boo .. In tho Intantry_anoo.. _a1.._artll_
hr1 tum.
GanerU
Gin oonalderatioD to elimination of "n da?lou of
In In<lll(\lng'
... Gyro_.tablihArs.
b. Range flnde....
o. Cant oorr.ctor
"
c. Tl>e uaf! ot ... inf... trJ .. .. , gaol ...ob .. ,. 105
_ 1><>111 tJo... 1n one .....1"" ot , ...<11.. t ...lI:.
<I. C<>IlUn...d ""'..-.11 1_.......n' ot U.,bl11',. _
aglIit,. of 111' -t..,g, moluding !.apr""'_t ot t .....1I: dI",
1, 11gl>tl,. .....o .... ll1Sl>lJ .oMI. _I>lot.
.itl> ..ult1plut.,..Uo nap"". ot Dot l.II .. \:l>OI......1 .50 &Il4 no1:
10.0.... than 40 _. o.pabll ot "dool1nrlnr; ,60
0
nO. .galnlt both Ill'
.0<1 g.. OIIn tAl'glh. 01>0\1111 be deYlOlo... ..... "COl" fOll' aot.,..
C"" .".I.
f. ProYi.t"" ot nlght I.t"" dI .. wblol> will .".bl.
tanll:. to ""gMt"h te.....la .nd 01>olrn the """eOleDh ot .""..,. 1.._
t ... t..,. Or Unl.-- in dl..latou.
g. PI'O'l'lllon of oqulp!llent tar souDtlng on h"lI:1
nuded fo.. the cl....lng ."d d..tl'UoHon cf ..m. tlel<l.
b. r:>e .... lo_nt of 0"" .rr.ott.... -t1P" ot l""@_...,,ge
...<Iio te.. tanlul operating In blU,. t ......in.
2. Suppo..t. vlgorou. and .xpand.d ........01> ODd 4o .... 10paeat
to ..ld. a balanced tamll,. of antitank .eap"'" wltbout.
bOllover, .ithor O"''''',"PI>t.IUIng 0" IIOgllotiD@ 'biO roll of 00..,.
gun tanll:uoh .. to US Til'. Tl>1. prog...... to lnclud ..,pl>t..11
00'
Po.... lol'Hnt or ..... tr.ott .... lOllg-rmp ...,UUllk ....
tor ,,"e try the lat....'...,-. Tl>1. gun II>Gold be .apabl. ot t.lI>S
..O'O.d o .... r rough and ull1'nOl'u,le terrain, p""r....b11 I .. a light..
Il1ghly"obUo v.hicle.
b. o.vIlopDont of of lethal, lutlU..... _tu<I.
anUt.ank mlno.. , with ote.. illZlng IUld ...,.lng d.yl.....uttable tC'l'
reminlng 1>1 rootetl, .rtlll ..,.. and air.
o. d....10_nt of cor.....p""dlng IIlne_
doteoHon end devlou.
d. Ru..rch Ind de..,lo_nt on new trPo. ot air aD..
ground munition. utilizing liquid tillera. luel> .1
chlorlno crltluorldo. prono.k. and G_asont
Contlnuod d.... lOJllllent of lpeolal ....""IUoa, I"ob
.... d aquaah_lIe.<I ....""Itl.." topthor .ab l.._
p..O...d and reeolll rltb
Tt1u
,. O.... lop t.otle .....d technique. tor .tUlotl.al lo:ying of
hthU mItitank mine
UPDDIX A.
ARilOR lI'llPAR!! IH 'I'IIE
!!HllnH WARIlY III ltOR&i
PROBLSM
1. '1'1>0 proble", I. to formulate tbe IlRportant operation._
..... ureh ele..,,,to of 'l"IIIond rran &I It h&. heen conduct..,d In
th. lto,",",,,, camp"'gn by US rorceo tr"'" 25 Jun. to 1 Oetoher 1950.
!"ACTS
2. A .Ilrny of thlt experience of Unl< ba.t.a.llona tbet hIln
fought In ltO,..a ... conduoted under tbe lud..,nhlp or Col""..,l
Wllll.m P. IIltho,.., A_or Oftleer, Eight!) Army. Or. Rllb A.
Jolln.on, DI .... etor or tho Oporatlon. Ruoarch Ortlc" and Colon. 1
Joph Colby. Deputy UoaMnd""t ot tho Detroit Araen.l, "coo"'_
panl.d Colon.l !lither., Tl"I1. trip r.qul""d approxlmatel,. 1,500
",neo or tra.... l by Jeep during .. thl'eok period AAd permitted
a tlr.t_h.ond .... l"Ulon ot Urr.ln. In Ann..: A ar. lI.ted tl>O
oftlo.ro Int.. r.I....d during t1>o .""...y.
;. In T.bl. I 10 '''''''''''''- of til<> utl,..t.. of opening
range ot OS Unh aMUn.t ""rlou. targot. durlnM th.., Kor.an eam_
paige and an ut1<I1&to of tho expectod rango In tern Europe.."
co..bat. hble II porn.nto a partial .u.",,,r,. or 115 tonI< cuualtl...
A ._,.,- of US o.."dtlu to Horth Konan lIIinoo 10 gIven \.n
'!'abl. I II.
4. Tho... wu goneral agr..ment among tho ar..or
Intonl."",<1 ...ith rupeet to opinion. hold on tM follodng point.:
a. '!'anI<, InCant.,.,., artlll.,.,- on<l taetical all' to.....
haV& "".n much .. efr",cti t'-n t\loy would 008 bean op.ratlnM
,.p8.l'atoly. 11.11 aN agrud that eaoh "",..her or tho tea.. I. effec_
tIve ag.ln.t particular kind. or targe.. that aro difficult for
otll<>r ... or tht. teOl:l to kill.
1>. Inf.."t,.,- 10 In.hUnt that tanle. aoe"""pan,. infantry
In all major
c, AI')Il"" 18 1n.18t.nt that inf""try aoconlpany tank. In
all armored aBt1011.


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6.11 '1'k llIl
5
00
_
1000

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...
72 .... 'i'l< ..
,00.1ilOO
,
looQ.1500
.l.....,s R.
-
.
...
991;:' 1'1< l!!1
..
lOOll-l500
8JtJ>. ?l< lli>

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0-100
... ...
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.
.."
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,

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100-UOO
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O_lYXl
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FACTS
fAll'UAL SIOOIAIfi US TAU C.l.SIlA.L"rmS
ITO 1
TASLE Ttl
US T.l.NK CAStrAL"rI8S TO IK
(Til. 1 Ootll.ber 1950)
22_1b
Il1neo Eo' Time
,.,
Mo. T""k.
lIin.. Ifo. 111"". 0,
<Ul1nH'"
,
,- 0- D. 6th Tit 5
,
, "
,- 0- S, 6th Tlo: I'r> "
,
0- 4. 6th Tl< I'r>
,
,
,
pluo
pluo
,
,. CII. C, 6th 'flo: Bn
,
,
n 89th Tk Btl
,
20 pl... 1: 1}d Tk I'r>
15
, "
k111o<l
A Co, 7}d Tlo:
"
2 plu. t 70th Tlo: I'r>
"
-
.. 1, 5, j'
,.,
,
p1uo and 7 8
'"
eo 40 .._ ....1 ..1n.. wer.. .i.... d te tho r,
Al'l'EIIDIX A
o. The uo. ot a" air obr .... r 1....."Hal to Unk "0
tlen.. Ther. he.. b" too t 11010"" ..ire..ft .Tail.bll &nd aa
a ... auH US tanka. tor :laok or ....""nU..anoe. boo_ tal1.." into
."...,. tr.p.. Al.o. 110.10"" piloto he.... b..n " .......<>1'lood IlD<I dr_
outt .,..,. ""t. 1I0t 1... tl>o." tlu<.. l,.-5 droran oh<n>ld be
ottocbod to .aeh tank battall"".
r. ""...iOuo ormy and d,. toroo nogbot ot lolnt lntant,.,._
tonk_air training boo had on ."oopU"".ll,. ad... r ... ro"t ul"'" tbe
ofnoi.ney ot te_ uH"" III i!:..,....
g. COOOIIWl1cUIOD *'IO"S the ..oln __bera "t tho intantr:r
tonk_artillory_alr boo be.n _..,. aDd
tbo bek ot odoQ.uoto .000000=100tlon aot. .... tho principal ","'on.
Thl. d.tl.10noy ...uld hove boo" remedlod b1 Joint t ..lnlng.
b. Mo.t armor ottl.or. t.lt 'hot thoy hod boo" 81.... "
Inodequote oupport bJ hetll. Intont..,. ond e"ginuro...pin ohiotl,.
beo .,o. of lAok of training.
1. To.nlre Oro 08l"'>ol.11y TIltr.....bl. at night to 1IlUnt..,.
ott.ok b.o.u ot their li..lt.d .. i.ion.
j. Tonk 0.......pod"-ll,. dhllite ond t " night ..U"".
boo"-u.. ot the d1aad..""tage IIopOlod on tho. by rld"d ...111.....
k. ThO ot ground .otlon II .uob that .1" 1,,,11<1.
oh""ld b. pro..ldod within Ibr to fin 1II1nutoo .n........11.
1. Ro"-yY i. "" I_porton' p.yobolOGloal .d.anta80
In rto181n8 the ..oral.. or tank to .. polnt wb&ro they .111
more w1111ngly da"8"rouOIIIl>o.t.
m. Sn.",y ",1".. l;on be." yo,.,. .tr..ti.... Tbe on .,.
M.n laId th.lr ",1"1'hout any obr ..... blo p.tto,.,,; .o.... U ....
tMr. ho.... bun only .. r ... mino. In a Ueld0lO.H.... _nYl ._
tl.ld. hO... boon prot.otod by gunflro, nay. n<>t.
". Tonk ....... upeoblly dlol1l<e IIlnu b.oauboro t.
no _y to tight l>O..k.
o. Anr..go OOOll>O.t opeodo he... lIeon 5-10 .. n .. por
hoW'.
p. Tho US tonk., eopeool.lly tbo ar. oQ.uo.l or supor
lor In mobility and probably oqual In agility to tbe
q. US modlum t .. nko that f .. In Jore. have beon
o"porlor to tl'.o T,I,.
FACTS
... Tank maintenance In ""r,n hu booen handioap""d
.overall by tbo laok of reoovo..,. V<>hlolea $nd heo$u.G ordoanOG
had no oPpo.. t""tty to adequat.ly stockpIle op6ro
s. It I pee1ally dlffioult to mo.lntaln "anK' "bon
tboJ ..,.., .1d.ly dhtributod in ..,all group. in of til<>
Inl'antry.
u. S.,.., kills or us tGnk. h$ve ,..."Hed fro", lnd Iree;
n"". o&uud by .uch Roo1dent. ao 0180trlc,,} .hort ci..cuit Tho
f'\"". in tm". haa uplod..d &1Ilnunlt1on or t".l.
Fuel tor t.nk. havor.ged .pprox_
but.ly three gallon. p.r mil
_. Cal .5(. 1>uut. "."ally !lv.r.g.. 10,)5 ro""do. p.. in_
olpalll boo8.u tho gunner nnt. to .....t l.ut t." t ....o.....
Bur.to of ho or ihre. round. "oulO "'e u..d, with 8. oonuquont
.... Ing or ......unHlon tron.pD.-tatton, If every round r ...
" .... cor.
:It. It.ao uti0t8.t..d that rRtio of .. 08OlY dead to our
owtl dud .... I'uult M Intont,.,-hnk-al .. - tea" n. b&_
t.e.n 10 and 50 to 1.
Tho .... 13 oom.. indication that US tonk> do not bUl'll
...... ily (fr"'" lnd1r&ct firuJ as the rhl. oe pO.rtlJ
duo to b&tter ammunition Gtor.g. tp US hnk
,. Several felt tru. .... jo.. c ..u .... of lIS ..."dU..
to hav. boon tho follow1ng'
T..nk cro.. R<lHlng out of .. .hllo under ..,,,n
arm. tin.
b. 1I tlng on01l1:Y tllrlk. at .u1oidlllly ...ngo whore
oupo.. lor taotiu are irnpolble. Thh orten 11... ruulhd rr"",
Inad_q""t. lnt.nt..y oupport Or lU1.0Il oupport aircraft.
,
c. EltUno!ve on""J u.. or ",Ins. during thol ... 1tW.-"wa)..
6. S. .....l "rille.. offle.....tat8d tMlr oanoorn .1th
....p .. ot to ."'''' action ... .tnfant..,. &tto.ok
at nIght I
pocl.ll, toar.d.
.u';l'Emm: A
1. "\J$ """"'" Wllta",> "". "PI"''''' _1:Ita1" q.t....Ho
.taUaU""l lttth nc- ra".... ' dat ..
t.. <ibl.dn,.d <m "lIo*' ,>hj<lo\. "'4 PlO,,:h.<o eao
uo.U1u 111' .. , f,::.,j r.plO.1" ,,_
nr ,,: tboo ...,,>b HUt
fte.. bOt.".., cohipa=t.
Dl3CrrsSIOJ
ll. Tl>e uS"""'ot thl;t noY
the'" Ytl!Ml'"n.. : "''''..,.... M'" Htt1<o .... u
.."u ,"UpM h .-4 t"" __b" ..M:Un;':r
Qut OQt rot
a .. ... s a: tn. ...pon
t" dn tl....
11. Tn. h pf'*otl:t tho 1.... ...."lw" t4 ..
Unk> Mn t...", ,",ud .. " ....".t ......'1'
o.ottou, end
in tII1 fI..d f<.>:l' tellir.." .... n M <til" llIN',,-d. rem,
...t"" "",H .""'" .....,., In
".... flw un or "I\J ."ulepr"l! HIH
......... ,,( t4<o Iw.le tun I1f: ank
n. T P111"" h t""", ""'. 1" tow..- :. \.!w ... tn' .... r... _
1)1""1 -r,t of a etwm ;>mi"t ...Ogll 1. vhtt.o-d ':"w"
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F1g>.>re 2 that th8 op.ning ro.ngo .Ill b. 1... til.... the giY&" :<''''''8<1. >
"
DISCUSSIOII
IOlId the li:urop..n thoahr. 1'1"0lIl til. I'lgu.... 2. ohiol> gina
tho I>r" .... that tbo Oponlos ....,ge 0111 .... 1... tba.!:> tbe
KI .." rans-, bu boen 'I'ho ahapo or tlw.. CUl"nl 10 p .... _
I_d trOlll the orr_eta or t.r,.o.1n, 1"...1 oovo.. , and t'rindl,. omd
e"."" toetl,,", '1'100 "",uI,,ol _I> In the I["ru eurV& or 1'1.&\1" 1
.....-<1. Pl"1nolpoll,. on tho "r to,.,..1l'I.
14. Prom FlguN1 2. 50 po,..,."t of opacing ..a.,goa H. bel_
650 ,..,.d. 10 1[0..... aod 1,050 ,.&rd. In ETO. It. 2 porcont lGOI
10 po&olb1. ktllo 10 .optable. then tlw "''1u1r_d guo ,.ans- a_
goi"ot onomy In gor 11 2.000 1*,.d., but 10 E'l'0 guo r.ngo
ot ".'1ul,..d. ,._rd. oould bo
ox"",lnation
tuto ot
""';;",ouro...
10 not
ooul<1
oould
"'1'0,
17 Tho
oon.1d..... d
.ntlurer;:'i':j":";'::OUO In I!:or.....,.. to bt.n
Thor. to b. 1... &IOU.. tor
of oare and In meu.,.... both In bhoua.
'M
COIICLU310N3
'I'ho tollo.lng hntatlvo .oneiu01on. or. dorl ..od r""," tlw
oplnt"". of tM banolion co,"pan, oo... of US tank and
in KOr'
APPElIDlI A
1. Tbo tlam boa been ..ry
.rr-ou.., in tbo 1:0... &11 ....mpo.1sn 1.:1 apih of tho ....,. dUricu1t
\erraln.
2. !bi. 1V"""d_air ta... lou been .uob Ie .. erfectl.. tbo.n
it ehould ha_ b..n b.o.uu of U .. gro.. ".gleot of jolnt traIn_
ing In both Inte,._ and intra-unlo. tr.lnlng durin, po.c.ti.....
Bacau.. of U.t. aeSleet tba ..,.o""d .".,.nder n.. bun tor oed to
tight Ind t .... tn oOD.,.,r,..ntly. Thi. ha. ""d."ly handicapped. tile
ground. <osmondlr.
3. Impbotlc In .tatillg thol,.
"ood. tor pa,.t of their team..
4. Tbe OOmauDlcatlogl tor toam tion. n..
bel" 1!:>adlq.lah.
5. Tbo a_be,. or .Ir_ob..,...,r aircraft hu bOon itlade'lu.te
o_.... d to tho nnd.
6. Losi.tle IUppC,.t and ,,"poi,. tor ....",. unita, upocllll,.
1n lpo'" putl and utrl.e_ro. boa beon bighl,. Inadequate.
7. "'-or =iU aro moot vuln.rabll to lIlt."tr,. attuk .t
ntght ""t... glun ....,. atr"", lnt....try protoctlon _1U1o In nlsnt
biYouac. Vuln.rabillty .an be greatl,. reduced by providing ntght
vl.lon or night Illumination.
8. .orth I!o""an ua. or tone eo o"""ul.d a,.tlllo..,. has
beon .Iry poor Itnce it h... not "ood tho bule mobHlty 0.1' a,.,.or
and baa _do tb& tanka ..peola11,. .."lnor.blo to al,. attacll:.
1. l"w.,ohl tr.. lnIng or Inrantry_tv.nk_alr te.mB ohoulcl \>0
l.rIaUtutod tho ZI b.lledlatoly U polrt ot g>'.,.,nd training.
2. Tb& US &hould, on high priority, devolop tb& u.o
ot .. lIlu laid In ohtl.tl"al patto,..,. and capablo of k!lllng tank
rho SlgnU Cory" .lIould, on high priO,.ity. dev.lop
lOunioatlons oquipment .uihble fo,. grOund_ai,. tu", eOllllllunicatioM.
4. Conold.uti",.. .nould bo ghon to hhl1ohing 0 Joint
RF,:C 0)1( JrnDATtONS
O.ntor atd I" ground_Air ."",bolt..
5. A .hthtlcal c""trol proco"ure- .houl<l boo to
Pl'0yldo ad.qu.t. ... eord. ot .""'01' co",t>at. Thi ould be .... tn_
t.tn.d by pera"""d al,..M1 a.,Igt>.d to tank bt.ttallon
6. us hnk tactic. ohouM ."'pbt..tu mov.....nt and ohould uu
."",or dhlo1ona ... ",,11 ao .... 11 tank groupo 10ca1l1 .. olgtlOd to
Infant,.,..
7. Intrared .hlon or night Illumination for tanka ohoul<1
be gl " high priority In d.velopm.nt.
B. US Intont,.,. ahould do"lop taetlc. tor night attack on
.n...,. tank. oIoco th.h h porlod when tanka are ",o.t ""lne".. .
9. Pa.slv. d.t.n air attack ohould be m&lntalnod
&& a trainI,,! ......u.......n during porlod, of low "Iok. A:l armor
Intend ot 00 yard, In bivouac and ,0 yard, on tho ..arch h
.ugg....d.
10. A prog,._ to ...duc. ""lMrablllt1 ot (13 tanks to tiro
trom attaok by nape.'lm "". rlller. In napdCIIt,.pII b"",bo .llouM
be given high priority.
11. Three or mOre L-5 aircroft .Ith per.onnel and maintenan
""Qulr.",onta ahould be aulgnod to .ach tonk bottall<>ll.
,
APPEliDU B
or AWoIOIl IN X CORPS
Int,.Oductlon
B<>tn.n 19 Decernb<lr and Jonuary on X Gorp' Ur.lQl' unit
... re vl31ted by IIr. H. W. and Oapt. R. D. Strong of ORO.
'I'ho unit. oOMl3ted of, ht ht Dhlo!on,
at lIasan; Regimental antitank platoQns of 5th, and 7th
)(arln. Regl",.nto, at lIluan; Tank BUUl1on, 7th Ph-Jolon, ..t
"".an; llot lind ;2n<l RegImental Tank Complirll oo , 7th DIvI.Ion, st
Puoan; 64th Tank Battalion, D'vlolon, at Ul.an; Cornp..... y,
17th Infantry R'glment, 7th Dlvl.ion, at Slnnyong;
unce 7th Division, near Ingo_dong; Reeonnals.anc6
Company, Division, at Hadong."l; Company, 7th InfantrY
ill v 1010n, near GOl"'p"ny, 65th
InfAntry Roglment, 3Nl Dlvlolon, near yongJQng_nl. In addltlQn,
tho Hoadq""rter. of tru. ;rd and 7th Infantry Dlvl.[on., and of
X Corp>, .ere vl.ltod. 'I'huo .. located at lladone_ni, Yang_
chon, and KyongJu """...
In thl unoy. batta,Ion """''''&hd\ng offleer. and ",,,,Ir
platoon, and In mo,t ea , tan" commander<, a.
woll as malntoMnoe, anj per",lnnel WOr6
!nhrvle_d. n, oxc"nent at _1\ lU61s. 1h.ls '\II"_
.... 1 COVer' Oldnly tho portod from l .. at InehQn 0" 15
S&ptomb<lI" to the doparture of tho Dlvlo:on from IIaOlhung on
24 but lncludes abo th<> pl.V!OU...ottv!t1es of
Company A, lot M..rlne Tank Batt.l!on, "hloh lQnded with tl",
?rovl.1ona\ at In early and the
7;rd h"-k Battalion, -..hlch landed on 7 A"gu.t.
IJrISlul Conpo,ltlon of Unit,
117 I1Z6'o, I dc,""s.
Md l {-)
..
10Z$'" and
ORI(HNAL COMPOS-:TION OF l-:lIT3
)'46's (22 !446'., , "4Al <lo.er., and
22 and 1 Mj2 In e&oh.
Employment of Tank.
Although tank. nre employed in tr.. inhntry_.upport
role in lJOtlt ot tile X Corp. oporatloM (foHodng
Inohon an<l Wonsan landIngs), tho t.o op"ution. <llHo..ed
n.l .... beCAuse or the W"'pOM and Uotlo
'tIy the in ueh case. and the taotical dlopo.ltlon
of tho 111, foree.. Dr tr.. :l8th our annOr .u oppod
"oy er.ny tank>, .alt_propelled and towed gun., o.nd
ly uten.lve whereu in northeaot Kor&& "","or
wa. ab.ent, &nd only a row antttank gun.
"4"0 Our armor no, however, oppo.ed by
Inf"ntry ..M a lorE. volum4 of ",."l1_ar",. flr4, ""orta.. o,
eaptur<>d buook..,. and .atchel oharg... Tank unit, .0'0 "idely
<lhperud OVH a tarraln. often rar
rro," ou.po"ting malntenance ar.d unit.. They _ere u.ed
for .poarheodins infantry attock., oonvcy esecd. "ood
.anoe, guardtng Cf' and ror covertng the reargvacd
during .lthdru&l. rho to.nk, cQve,ed long dIstances road
marche" and the of lo! 8u,faoe" and
.ever. gradient. aeeounted tor "ony tonk oaaualtlo;'. Ion", "e""
abandono<l "hloh could hay. bean sal-vaged had and
roC\Htle, !><len
TM tank ''''It> wHo_ the lst ':ar!r.. and "(th iJtvloIono
canded at Inohon and took part in the fOr Seoul. PrevIou,
to thl" A of the MarIn. tank b.ttallon had been in oc_
tion 00 the Maoar_ and fronto, an<l the Tank
Battalion, hed been in rooorvo, had boen n.ploy.d tn
antlguerrtlla and !'SR Co,"pany C 0[ tho Tlrd
was attached to the RCT in tho Tabu_do"g are-.
The.e llnlts -"0"& thee.hloped by sea to tho oa.' ooa.t. ond
1at4r jolnad by tho )rd l'he 6,',th ll8.tt&llon
landed at "onoan on 19 Noverr.ber, an:! Won.,,",
Til<> 75rd 70nk llattal10n " in the
ac.a. Comranie. 8 ar.d D Of tt:. 1st OOttalior: and
TanK Comp'my, jl.t Inrantry ".ro vIo1nlt, (Of the Cho.lr.
Hooervolr. 'tho 7th COmpany and Gompor.y, 17th
lnfantry nnt Hyar.Jln on ,he Yalu A
sr.d C ?t tho> lot Tank "ttalion and Tan" ,"ncl Infantry
In the violnitv of The compo"le.
tho lrd _M. "'"ploy.d 10 20
or ;,oman, .nd Oco_pl, " l-l noptroaot
",ostly "Itltln mIlo. t);e coast. '1hose tank. tn
tho< Cho.ln ervoIr and Hy.ear_Jtn ... r..avlly [n
the .. ..al to a..mhung. Ail ,ank by ,ea
.c.J landed at and TJl.H.
UPIiIID!l: B
'I'ratfioabllity
Movement or tankaa generally contlned to the rO&d
road. are of rough but hea., oonotructlon and have crulbed .tan.
b..... aoad., excopt In mountain are built from; to 20
faot Rbo... .o:round 1'>'81 and han 45 to 00 degreo ohouldor _
hI:! rOldre narro. U1d dndl:!g,.lth many Ib&rp our... and
.tup gndu, and hUe no guard rUle Or hnoo. of a"y kind. I:rt
many In.tanoo. bridge. of In.uffiolent .trength bad to be bypad
.. hioh wu generally not difficult in tbo .outh. l'ut
ofton pro.ented fo,..,ldabl. prob16.." tn tbe nort"...Ii<>.... rulnoo .nd
an'; gorge. of eondderabb depth hAd to b. cro..ed. 1lllfroz.n
rice pOddlu OOl'ld be croed tbero .... ti.... bottom a
fOQt or 80 belQ. tho oludge, provldod that tanu ...... not
.herod In tho p&dd1.. , but prior reoonnAl ...ne. on foot w.. neo
uury to dote,...,ln. the depth of tho l&)1k. eould go fro",
on. paddy to anothor if the int.rv.nIng dlk re not ""'.... than
2 to :I root hIgh; hig""r than thl" the hnk. "OUld dig In, 'oe
00". mlrod, and othn tho!r trod, Tho rloe paddle. oould
b. trAVerud .hon froun provIded tho t>.nko did ... t foUow In uoh
tracks, .hlch mIght .au tho .olld ourfa to glv. .w.y.
ln an attack demo".trat!on, OM 1126 ".."sgod to .l!;mb " 2,OOO_toot,
,O_degr.e slope eonotottng or torr"o.d rio. bUt
tho tank thr both traek..... ktng a 81". turn nur tho top.
light .no"
;lueh traotion '_. e';"<;;;;;';;:'
pr..... ". an oeeuOl_
$proek.t, .hleh
Tank Cu"altlu
Tablo I ahcr.. tho t.."k oaoua1tlea auotal""d by X CorPI up to
1 J&)1uu'l' 1951. (Su Annex 1 fOr. unit_by_unlt b,..,akdown or X
Corp$ .aoualtIoO.) A ru of thHo " ..."altto....ro .".hi,.d by
CompElny l, 1st nnk UttAllon borore It 1>6co",e ... part ot X Corp
Tllo greater port of tho caoudtles oCOUl'r&d In m)rth.ut Ito"".. ,
the cu'""ltieo of thoo X Corps prior to tho landIng at 1I'0n."" be_
Ing 67, ot which 7 "" total 10u&O; were o..uo.1t1&. In
tM porlod. thio landing, of .hioh SO ... ,.. totlll lone..
'!:AIU; t
X GOOra ~ l I X C&1>uu:uas
1'rf ?C t JlMli.lI'( lS'51
t'H_.. tn _tbnn "':'tn'" t""..l !.<n..... )
I
APPENDIX B
or tDo ,"c.t rr.quent campI. Into or hnk cQI!I."II&nder .,..
'bat tholnhntry. wben .toppOd by flr" to ton
tho Uno, althor cn n.dlc or tank t<llophoruo, .-tl&,... it .... cO<lllng
fram. I1l .uch oircum,Unen tRnks often faUod to ou Or 1>0 ....
t ......opono .topplng tl>o Infantry. Anothe,. cou of dUficulty
.... th&.t, art.,. ".ing tanka all day, at night the mhntry .ould
plo.co tanl<o In blocking po,ltI"". to ooye,. lik.ly .n.",y opprQacl>o.
In.tead M undleg tho.. back to an ....."b11 uo& f",. r.r....
and .,Unt.nanO Iobntry hU.d to appr.oUh that
uf1J8l1ng, ,...utDl"g' platoon 0-1<... oonold.,.o.bl. tl_,
ul.rly undu bbckout conditlon...t tho front, &rid without d.lly
p,...."ntl... ",dnton'noo tank. "o.d In 'Ulto.!n.d o,.. .. Ulon. will
000" rUl .... ho.nle&lly. Tank..... r o..oti.... u d at night
out lnf"ntry oup?ort to oover gap. In th.. l1n and many tank
CI'<IWS tho nud tor a night ..h1OIl dovlco,
Durlnll tho "lthdra",,-l ,0 the infantry'''' numh... of
ooco..lon. IndepODdantly r.ll b.ol< at night coordinating
w1th the t""" unlt_, and tho "".ult ... thl>.t to.nk"1'. BubJ"ctod
to att k by enemy infantry. Tho moan. cf attack
1n .ucll e......... to pour. 1.,.11" ..01."... of ... fIre on tho.
tanka, knocking out perl.cop , .nt.nn. baaes, and .xt."nal [lx_
tu"".. S.,...,tl"",. b... ook.....nd antltonK rifle. ",r" ",sed In
t1on. The Inr...ntry would thon atter>pt to Overrun tho ...nko and
knock tho", out by pboing ..toml .nd polo ollar..... Bnd
In tho. traok. and engino CO)Op",.t"onh. Tanka had to ghach
66

-.
'''pp''I'U'IS
,.90...1 Geo loao

pl'o"",,.lr
op..... U"". and to
a ....
IM'!UU.
to tbo
2. a...... ool"noida r ........ ... I>ad to "" IUtn<l.'"lrod.
6,
U'PElfDIX B
11.. .milia..,. p ......,OP..... 41ttl...U '0 .t&l1.
5. S.U...1.. 41&0"''',,111. _ ... rapUl:r ,_ "",,,.1.
,. o..aa talle4 to .,,_.t "bet! t1l'hll the 1'1.., '''0 '0
,_.._a.
7. 1:1&_11111.,.""" '1'&.....111.1 _0..,1.. __ oun _
41tfloult to opo...'"
8. ".011 _oWI_ ... do. 111 ..' ...... hI'
.. tir,' too. 1"_
10. "'-I poapl tl"ou t........ at ..ate.. '" tloool.
11. llad.i.t...... P41l"alt"4 1... at ooola",t.
12. XUt .....", 11Ft "*t".. 1oo. talle4.
1,. .10..opboDo 41.pbl"aS-- &lid bu'tOBO tl"o,o
..." ot ,be Naobanloal 41ttioult!0, pr&?loualJ 110t04 ....
,u..4 ill part by tbe la.k ot .. lubrl .....ta. It
.... 'ppn,..' 111. tMo 1lI'fUt1JO.tlOD tll<l tomP41l"Uur. do
0......4. tll<l _ilIte".......<l.ull'o....h ot tbro t .... l<o 11"111>,.4h
tho ,0_ tt-. ,be p ..Oble, ot p .. .. _I.nW"......... ilIo......ed
gr.a'lJ becau 01' ,be ot .. orkinl .. lth .old _t.l POI""
1la1llh........!>d L.d,H, Supp.... ,
'l'bo , ... t III>1t. ot tboo X C .... p' ...... lor"l,. deptllOd...., uJlOll
IlAIIITS!IAJlCB .\lID LOGISTIC SUPPOll'r
'bol.. own ....ow,e.. tar tbo .....k _tn.......c.. Orda........
...... ...,Ht 41'1101otl. 1.".1 .... h1i:ber _ ... "....bl<o to 81". tbe
required suppo..t t .... tbr......<G
1. t.o.ok ot opa... paFto.
2. ot quallfl.d tank .. bOrt....
4011I1 to Oc:..pOll,. 1.".1.
rho dl.tan t Or<b>an... ""H. we ... too fo:r to thol
...... to ...nd.r p..oper 0I'daan ......1.. .
Tho f1l'.t U ....at of tbe "nlto ....I_d .dOqu.tuppo,.t
flo.,. ordD........"",ponies wo. whtle poullOg tJuoougb Pu..... oCt.,. tiM
..... u.tt"" r...,. ..... tnroll. It ... n17 o'l1do"" tbot 1n tbh Opo,.o_
Hoa tho "-blol.,,,.l 01"<1_ c"'P""Y ... _b1. to IIi". .."otl
...iTt.... .,. to dtbor tho dhUlOIO Unl< tatt..llO" 01" tho "81
ae"t.l t ....k oaopo.iOl... Tb. tonI< ..ebanind tbe tool...Dd .quip_
...nt p .... dd.d to _ ...g1ltonU.l ......1000 .,,",poII, frw .UPPOl"tiD8 tba
U.nk O"'"POlI, haYO iHlolO ."'Pl",.04 priDnlpal1y t .... 80,,0,.01 ..ot .... ..0_
hiel. .lthiD tbe .... lIimeDt ........nult. tbe ... gimenUl.
UDk OOlllp... lol. wabout tbe ..... k1Dg of batt.lIen OI"ganl ....tlen
.nd ttl _1nt.n.nc. tu1l.1U ucperloncod V ..t dltfloulU.. 1n
lmopIng tbel,. tonk. In opeuttoa.
n:.. OPO'" pO.. t lupply .ltuation for tbe .... ond 1126 tank._.
partlcul.rl., ... and tlon hod to be ....arted to
rathotr g."'rlll,.. Unit. dhto!on did Dot ....
OD"J'tMng " .... th.t .. tull booll. 10.4 lPO'" po..rh. '1"1>.11 .itUI_
tlon 199J'.YOted be..u.. "'"'''' ot tho tonk. brought !rar
hod .88D .It....lve 1.,..1.. el.oober. ar dot.,.lo,..ted
In .to....,.. 0... battolion ..Uti 1126 tlllka d......."'d tho til! .1ttl
..11 but 10 to U te"ka In unnthroeto..,. oper.Ung oondltt_.
Thol. hnk,. 110 oporaHon ,Inc. 1946 In t ..ooP t .... InIn8...... In
oer!ou, ....ed ot " ...pl.to ove..baul.. ". In .I....ple or tbe .pa...
pertttnotlon. 2 prel."t 11at of P"rtl ...... t ..4 by
on. tanl< 1>I.ttUIon t .."", tho t1o. or tbetr d.opo.,.t"... tr<J., tbe 1)3
1" early J.ugU.t to 24 De"...1)er 1950
... m"". p.,..,.tu1 .....o_ry,_hld. tbon thO 1132 II " ...40d to
dod .tth dl ..blod 1126 ""d JI4t> t""ko. 'rbe 1I}9 .1th It. t,.alle,.
b... Dot boon oetbt.ctOl"J' &0 _late"""o. Yehieb 1" 11:0......
tt bolta lufflol... t .t""'nd do... not po,..,1t tbe ... Inh"an.,.
..lobo.nlcl to .....k In U.. _bleb und.... or.t night. A
Dumbor ot tank nulta be_ .Ip......d protor.Deo tor. 6I6 .n.,..l
P"'"P". t...,ck thot oould be OtIttltt.d .... _1nten.nco and oPO'"
po..t ....hiole. ot tool. n ... .t.tlo:lo"t 1n .c.t ""It
nd .,on, or tbe toob .... n.ble. portioul.r1:!' tho It-In and
I5/16-In .ceo, ....noho we... Dot .. obuet enougb to... tboo hoIo.".,.
dut,. requl,.._nt, ot tonk ..Int.nono
With ,..@ti'<l to thol logloU. quelt!"". no crltl l .ha,.t
"
or _o;ml tl"" -.." .; ""Il">'"J-N ..""I> ....
ti>ll '''II. Jk...... "al:\ tlH! thol "4n\
vnltl bAd 1n ..htn6
ul..... IIlth r",,1 .oM _Ht;n:, it! ... 7h.o 1$<; r..If<
1." piyialon r&>fid at it.
c.-ttL_a .oH_ """,","t.. ";I""",t_\1I>, 140 t"'" or
t_1 .",,- __ ...,..,1._ d.'l1 4 tho ...,..r_
"U",,", tM 'lIl;rtJ"''''''f' ?i-t"" trW<R "utSllf<l nr.
t101,,,,t _ ..."".. alr;lIUt"'Q"" ."" 1t ..." 4Cnd4.,,,,1 n",.. 61)
be hal
""" bun tho !olebe<' !\><II " ... lI46
.,... ;dl<!) :Inti''''''""'' ... $"",,1.1 loghti< ,,1"Q\:lem III
"",it. ""u1pped d.-til. thU Unli:.
/lu-en! "'..,., <,<>gllllllmUl. .. dt<l nat 2ft Il,.opor
tJ't.<o tbto -reg!""",fnol "0!lI\>&>"'" lor tlul lG t ..
to tho tb% of tho
hk ,,_,- ...:. u...,d f"t' Ul+l' JWt'.- ':'h8 1l1( ..... '",. ""s:im.nUl
"t.rr d1d ,,<It ....f't.d.u th8 ...1gbt """ ....:",.,. <>t ."I'pHu neon_
"*>1' It....:t ,. h"''' i,., "I>l'""tl<ll>.
l'l'ul"w ....,.,'''1''''' 1>4. .. "",&0 of tlMl t.ttt ........ thU h.t>""
pN",.m IA." in flit nMI _"",,"W1." !.iI (0""., 1Io>"... .,UtiY,,,.
tli<l :-<In""",. ZO.".. ""... +l"nAy ""w,, ".ett .nll ,f!<, ..eCIlM'+
t ...1 "'tr.. 1,., tn. M$Uf"/ tho
1oMh r .. .... ta,.,k ..,.eIl.:.. "".....kud:r w."
11> .to. ...... 1!<>ft>*f, " tit..."",, of .......ab
.... !!U'rl U",k dt>&iiC> And !>t_"t "",d. t>:r
..r ""g.: thou ......._h:r lit _t"" IllliI
nt N1_ 9r """'11_"-1'11\+ n"", ....fl1
bu". "., ....."".,4", '''''''' .....pln.t ."",U
.,...,. tl,... ""uu....,..
2. _,,1 lrublo lui._ tn.".,mt:,. bo.n hH h)t 8!I:iA1l_h"I08
n .......ttl> .. "".."ltant 10"'" <:>r til" :",t..t""nt. A
t" rUbt _n.... ""'. fh<$ l$ ...r1,
J. 011 8n4 tho
wtd<le C>f ......1< h&.... bo"" <i<I.tNl1od by .,..n_ ...... n""
oc.:d ..l H<>ragoo .",,1<1 be :1... 1".. ,,1 .. ,
eM.., "",,11 A .5(} S"'", .ttd Qe
to. Q\Z> .11",,14 "",.,. .. qtp!",t, .,.,<;1 gr<I .. tor "unH"n an!
t ........ "'....
CREW
,. To Avoid upO.i"l> or.. _mber., .... thOd ot olo.ing
bt. to,,", tr01ll tl>o 1ntertor of the Un\( !. de.ired.
6. Hand rUl. ahOuld b<I nlded to tho """.... t tor tl>ll " ..
ot riding on the tank.
7. I. Hght faloe d$ck ...r 'th. onSine 10"...... on tl>o 1146
i. reo","""'nded to protect infant1'7 trOlD tho hut .hlle bohlg
eU'ried ""d to p.....ent dirt entering tho eIlgine c","pOort...nt.
8. To" ...bleo, hook., .nd pintle. 0"0 too light.
9. 3peG1U cloth1ng for Unl< c ..... 1a nee......,.. Tb/o
p ....ont 1nr_ntry_tl'pe .inter olothlng h too and is ...11),
.... d on the or tho hnk. A to OOlO.fl rO!'OI or
the .uit .o"ld b
10. T""k do.er0.1' ou\ tr<."nt rap1d1y to t""
concentr.Uon ot 1I#>t at tho front. J. ,..,du1g1> of tho. .U'P""
.ion 10
11. Tho br... dloc-tJpe 011 t11tor ho. boen ...t1afut<>I"J
whore u.ed, &nd 1IIOah_typ& troc t-ton truok. h been
oubstituted ntloractorl1y.
Tank eo_ndero .hould b. prooldad .ith a almpl1f1ed
form or onglneer oard onabh to ....ke r .... "".bl.
eatlm.t cr bridge capoeitia
1'5. Soma .... thod ohou1d 0. pr<>ddad tar '''oring tho 1146 ....n
It 10 being dth tho ong1no not running.
1lI. Thoro n. general di...tlofaotion with tl>o p,.., ..nt tW.
of urphonu. A phone to dui",d t""-t ha. 100,.., c""rorhbl<l ,,_
pIe... , fito elooe to the head, .rld .tIll po,..,1h _.r\ng or the
hol_t. A ono_ur']>hone haadpioao n..o Uoo boon ougge.tod to
enable tho. .e&rer to hoar exta,.,,&l oound
1,. ElI:ternal """,,unit Ion r.ok. ohould bo pro.. fOr u by
tho oupportIIlg int&>lt,..,..
16. F.,.. S"oater prot.ctlon ot poriaoopoo .galnot ..... ll-al'llUl
tiro, & mota1 pl..to bo.oklng should bo
17. Inopectlon platu bo fluoh .. !t!> n .. OUl'r.co or
tho tonk boUy.
18. The lock of a hatch on tho Il,?'o turret h... caused
oUualt1u among maintenonco peroonnol.
19. On the 1l26, fume. fro", tho tank gun .oo"",,,lo.t1ng 110 tho
fi@l>ting c""'p&rt"",nt ."us.d cro... and In ...u.tUned
.ott"" e..uaod " .. u .... and hinting. I'boo tanl<l aqu1pp.od dth
.w..e u a t e ~ . did Dot oxporlsnoa "earl, ..o muoh trouble, bu\ further
Lnpro... ".nt could bo mado.
APPENDIX B, ANNEX 1
UNIT BREAKDOWN OF X CORPS CASUALTIES UP TO 1 JANUARY 1951
(Figures in parentheses indicate total losses)
unit
Mech
Failure
Tk
Fire
Ter-
rain Mines
AT
Guns
MOF-
tars
Tat
Aban-
,onmenl
Svac-
aated
Re-
,lacec
w Hq let Tk Bn
g Co "A,"lst Tk Bn
Co "B "1st Tk Bn
@ Co "C:"lst Tk Bn
3 co * D,"lst Tk Bn
2 Tk plat,lst Mar
z Tk plat, 5th Mar
e Tk plat, 7th Mar
i Flame plat,lst Ma:
5 co
Hq 12;" Tk Bn
0 Co IIB"
k Co "C"
d Tk Co,3lst Inf
d Tk Co,j2d Inf
r Tk Co,li'th Inf
7th Recon Co
Hq 64th Tk Bn
2 Co "A"
Q Co "B"
r_ co "C"
fi Tk Co, 7th Inf
Tk Co, 15th Inf
Tk Co, 65th Inf
rd Rscon Co
t {it
_ _
a
_ _
_ _
i (0
_ _
6 (i
_ _
1 (1
_ _
_ _
2 (2
1 (1
_ _
5 (5
1 (1
1 (1
mTir
is
2 tai
e) Brj
d tan1
tr
Total lessee from
2 ioj
3
(a) Believed to be 2.36-1~ +ooka; (b) 1 lost to bazo' 3 evacuated
ge failure;
20 be
to ordnance and destroyed; (d) Evacuated tanks to be returned;
(f) Parking brake failure, rolled off ahip~to dock; (g) Evacuate
(h) Bazooka through engine compartment; (h) Evacuated tanks to be replaced.
_ -
_
_ -
returned;
j'.uns ro,," If!
tST TAlI!\: (IlM!Il!ES) TX
Ii"","""

m
1'l\l4-l

31114_16-6:o::,z

:Ji....

myr
w
71'5ffll


m:w:n4JjOO
"
n2Jp,U---.

AY}}14}
C ;79
'!!I'"
!I?'; H}
1]B?9(i
1{153971
1I<!!i\1C}
!!l>!l

."
ctIltAAt@. ".hdl.<o:!' (lll:.
,
"'"Hi "''''',,''
lJi&NN'(l. 4ft, ,. ...1'
.. l (tTl'" pJFwill_

4
.!.,.)
,
Cl.l!lItam0l'l. ('II<I",HI:
".,.",,:;"rsj

In........ """1 F""'P
OWl'.
OCVRKOF., &,.,

VlU.!>Btt .&0,.) )..ft,
,
"ur .\411706
iOO<:>. .. ":rlL-.d.. ..I

"'jo..a<I "'''1, 1.411707
,,"
,
........,
,
,
,
,
A/{/iEX 2
SPARE l'AH'I'S FOR T.t.NICS RllC'BlVED BY
1ST URK BATTALIOJI (IIARl!reS) 111' 11:OllK& (contlcued)
Stock

=6-7021505
Cn04_1Sln818
0104-1847815
0104_181n816
0170-0139946
Ord. 110.
7
02
1505
A296647G
A296647A
A2966478
"2966458
707103
li."..,ncUture
Il8NgRATOH. _/"'lfUlat01" COOIP
au),
CABLE, 19n1\lon, nigh t.c
.1on. '5-1/2" 10t1g,cyl1ndor
Do.lhtt
2
2
CABU:, 11>"itloD, high ten_
olOtl, 41" 10t1g,
nc, 2 lert 1
CASLS. 19n1Uon, I1Igh ten
.Ion 46" 10t1@.cylinder
nO. 3 lett 2
CAIlLE, Ignltton high tOIl_
.lon long,cy_
lInder nco 4 lett and
rIght
TalCR. ('I'80K1) (ud
_/oprook&t
(option&! TE!4#l) 40
DISCUSSION
DISCUSSIOIf
tiS Doten.in Oporationo
In tbo retrograde ..ov...."t of the IlS for.... durlDg .Jul.,. and
oarly Auguet 1950, tho aDemy rope.todly
and nlhuuuted atuclt.. It ... thair pr.otlco to ...01<0 "" ID_
IU.l fr<>ntal Utaek .,tth tll:rJ\ta and Intont...,. to pin d""" O\I!'
toreu, .hereupon "" oDv<>lo,..eDt .,u made ot ona or both nanl<.
or troops on inrlltrated to the rul' thI'ough g8p8 in 11ne.
In this r hion. unitrtill ...,. bottorio eaa.and
poet., ond poInt01'0 roptadll ond ovorrun.
In tho cu. or tho Z4tl>. DhhlOtl alOllO, ot tll1. ndu...
occurrod at Ooon. Cbonan. KyonsJu, ""d '''Jon .1th T ...,. gra..
10.... ot ..On and equipaHlnt {... n.to...noeo 1 and 21. 'I'&onover
OUr po.ltlano .ore peaotratOd to tho front or ... or, tho .n.my
.ould endeavor to puoh amUI ....o... d unit. to tho ,..ar to ..areb
""t end dutr"l' our cl" ....poD. ond ...or. In 0""'"
e...... tanka ... re OOlployed to ,..ka tl>O 1lIitlal tl>.nut to ... fol_
lowed an lnunal of 10 to 40 ,.llIut 1>,- int.... try {
R.t.ronoo 31. Oee1on.llyben .urrl.leDt we......11_
abl ttacko re ...dIthout artillery prepor.tlOD or tank
.upport In an effort to overobellll 0 .... poat \1on. by .h..r _lght
of number..
,
,
It ... thor.tore "" ..... ory to .volvo tactic. th.t .,,,,,1<1
provide .ome ..U.Il.... "f ertootlV<l detoDu, uploit to the ..ul
.um the hey lnt .... tlr. po... r .hleh oould bo
hll""red by OIlr untt., and uold .",po.lng the unit. to de.
tructiOD In detail by eD... lop"'ont or Intiltration.
77
-.-.",. .. ,.... ..
" ........ ..
'"
:'fA" S:li

2"'.4 .,,_
...... "i ..
ai'2'U,;'i
....... "
..",....,.
ti......

:.; ........
!i"

',lji':n
" "I" '"
"",
..... ..!
t" .. "=':
.... .... l
;'1" is
d" $irt:::.
1([; "" ,- '"
"' ........ !:

;!. ..;: l' 1;: Kl>

'" .. ",. .....


.. ,,j:;'fO,4
.. .....
!V,.

1!1t"!
"" 1; .. "
r:r ",.. ...


..
..
',"'''''
"
.. .. ::r .. '"
.....
lh
"" ......
... ,,, ="'" .....
..
" ,. i>'''

, ' "
1>:-" u.


"'
.
""' ..
"
1:
! i,
;',
;<. '" -" ...........
...
'" "" "
.'
<>

..
I"
;j
z
.. .. " " '"
a:g ):1
., "

DISC1:SSICN
of the attack ..oily hat .... aotually
aee""'pl1sllod .a. nQt tQ push tllo enemy to hl. r<>u tQ tdgb
ground on both flank. Qr l1n& or Tb.l. 11"" of
bo u.o of the and the inability Qf OUP And .heel.d
to operote oro _eounhy, al.mo.t lnnrlably
of in a valley. Tb.u. tho en.",y oould and dld
.nor the oupply 11n. to our atUckIng toroe. In ''''''G oUe. thi.
nooos.1Uteda dthdn.al th<> obj.etivo and 0 f1g!:lt book to
the 11no ot departure. an actiQn productlv. of oerlou.
o.."alth. t<> pH.<>nnol and OP",nr I ... 5).
Thor.fo.......hen th& genenl offenoI ... bogan, tho t.rroln
and liMltod mobIlity of veh'ol oh&mlel.d the lin. or ad_
.""c& to thH had b.... n Ollned tho eno",y, d.",aged 1'1
a1r >'Illd o""r brld,;u, th.t luod, ex_
ceptlon, !'rOOl or All had to bo
r&p01red ao the forward progresd. Tile enemy had
.n exoollont to employ hi. Qf Infiltrating
to tho to ."t supply line. or to h&ran Or do.troy 001""",.
up behInd l element
Tho US tactio. or ln oolwnn of rosl"onh, b.t',ol_
&<ld o,,",p>'lll1....hloh had b&en .orked out .\>110 our forcu
.ere on the detan.he n. th...... tore corrl.d over to the ofren.iv
Here the to_
the ene",y .80, ,trcns1y entrenched and 3ho.ed no inolin_
ation to .lthor roll baok or 110". out of hl. to the
",
The uoond, agoin employing unit. ln 001=, called ror a
contInuous wIth the lood unit carrying tho athok for ..
p.olod or houra, at tho 6nd of .,,101\ period the unit to tha
roar .ouid "'0" up. pu. thro'>gh. and continuo tho 8cti<m. Thlo
UUok1ng in tur'n bo suoc.oded by thIrd unit.
'I'm. ortlll6ry and a,""or oupportlng til:. part10u15r typ& of hot!o
uouQlly .ould In po.1t1on to I1th oael\ oueou.he
lnfAntry Huon'. Thu. the onOlllY novel' ... afforded on oppor_
tunity to re.t or rooI'g",,1...
lbttM Mt ,.,...1" t.'>e ,,,,"l,,,,,d d ill thl<o
"";xo"t =$t l,. qusUH"d by in" IO.b. trt'Uugat!,;",
It ""7 "'" t""t,
l. A by
_q","" .. ll'of'tll
Kru-un" "....,., U'.., en"",.. ,,""
.2. 'l'....h>ins A be ""
" tl'W> "l'l'N'ehU<m ct <.2>." "'p"hl:aH' u.d l.btUHj"". JM",,
4'1. ,..".,,;,. "<'.4 ,."til:"",,. .. ., tMt 1.1><0..., ..h<>n .<lpl"",1
_$ .. "M. ,,.,,, I><
3. 'l'.,,\<a!<l or & !,,,,",,rr,,l
"",nJ... fuUr fiB' _ :lni'o:=t:-y.
4. t"",h tl".., ""aUt, t:-;e 1'4 My. !\'lfclhd
t1><> <>t "" ahl 3' t""l< [". the K.".""" cp_
.....U""". :" too thH .... "'.Cl'fI
po-7r,," t'fI "'<>'1"1,,,,<1 In
7' '1'''1111, tM'i "",,14 ... : .. :::!' OI-ON t[", n.a4. n<>gG
tUte t"" ilfn""lt H ... "','" .... .. of great

6. kc tiM "pint"" ""h t.. .....
u_.. "r "" ..lL"" """k. 1&11 p""""ntly "",l.lI".d tb<!
"'<lit battllHqr, ..u 1"''''Q..OI;>:y tr,.. ",.d.."" n"""'or o<>;>H b<I
..n".":",,,lr ..<I. t ..rnl" . (rt
CONCLUSIONS
nOhd tor the period oove""d thl> study, tho
tank ccmpanle. of the 21,.tn Division were fOr the ".o,t
p&t't not equipped,)
7. 111.0.... Hfeetlvo oommunloation equipment .""U c. dul..
80 contact bot.een ReT's end tuk fore and
h."dquarters .ouId not h<I d.pond.nt, so It .os 00 ..any ocoUlone,
on llaioon In It ""9" oUE!$uted that a
c"""",,d lnhlHynM cent ... (eIe) oe up Integral
of &n InUntry dlYlolon to ooordinate tho opeutlon. of vorl"".
6le",onto.
a. While Unk. and tru. ;.;_incn ..ool<a p.rfo,....,d adoqugto1l
.. 1""8- .."d .h.,rtrllIlgo ""tltank n.pons, mtltmk artl11el"1
I",aglnatlvely omployod ""d oklll!'\llly conooalad mIght h....e boen
a uoeful "".pOrI In the Inf8ntl')', partleularl,. In a dofen.lve
operation.
9. Our Infrrntroy :In p.rtlO'Ulor w$O burdened with to<> much
heavy equlpmont that wu not u.entlU more light autOOl.atle
weapon. ""d ...... As of l5 24th
Dlvlalon .'" .hort fifty aiton truck. and a much
larger n=her ot i_ton truck.. regImental """""andOrB, how_
enr, eonsldored thh .ttuatlon a help In.toad of a hlndranee
as it "oauoed the ",on to walk .Hh the\r 1tup<mo I" tl>olr hand.
firing at tho .".",y In.tud of rldtng And h<llng t\""d upon."
RBC OI'_YElmA T I CN 5
1. Thl tudy .hould bo e,ntlnuod, If o.nd when tho taeHoal
Oltuatl"" In lIoru par"'lh, to tho detane, presently
heklng, of _ taetlc. or ","",or_artillery_Infantry. by dl.eu._
.Ion with experlenoed unit and by study of the
over whtoh "otlo". took plac
2. An ohou1d "" mad. hy the Dep&>,t... nt ot the ""'"y
to vohlel .. , \>Otb. armorod o.nd tran.port, that .111 not
force the unit. to oontlne their oporatlon. to road.,
t.e., ....l>.1ole. oapahle of ero.$countrl' ",obillty over
ternin .\loh a. hu be.n encountered In
3. .b.oul.d be given to tho r.lntrod\lotlon of
..,tlt..,,\< artillery.
l,.. A review ohouJd be ",,,d. ot tho dlvl.I""..l T!OOE OquIP
"'.'" >f1th tho pur-poae or eliminating all noneuontia' Item.,
1. War DIary and reoord.,
31
C
Q. ls" and ,rd En'., 34th In! Bogt, 6-7 July
195<.1 ond 10_11 July 1950.
b. 21st In! 17 July 1950.
2 Var ond r.cordo:
63rd FA Bn, lli July 1950.
b. 24th Dh Arty, 16 July 19,)0.
;. lIor"at've Su"",ary, 24th Inf :)1v, J"ly 1950.
4. 1M Au"" ).950.
24th Dlv D1ory, Task ,'Ore. Hill, 2 AuguH 1950.
,)2
l!. If.
!;. /), ,tnmt
-
UllLE I
lA'TlSS OF Ol'flC?RS IJl'rL1ROOATI!D
"0.
lJuttn OtJ'1een
'h!>l< 9
Arr::i-1"',M
31:

,heh
1
1
2
6
Jhlfr>h'


"
d. The level of lntalll,ance with ODe Or two
tiona, e.a not high and it appeared thai a 0&a1l technical
an4 the ability to r.ad and write were surrlelaot
qualifications to become an otticer 10 the North Korean
Force.. The moat .eolor otflcers Interrogated cap
talaa no field rrade effieers of tank unit. were avaIlable.
2. VoluntarY 3urr'pd.ra 'po Capture.,
Of the taeot1-toor officerl lot.rreg.ted, fourteen
clal.ed to have surrendered voluntarilY and teo admitted to
be148 captured. or the tourh",> wb<> surrendered, tOIl" elailled
to have w1th thee .ome of the Den from their unit
adaitted that their dec1510n to surrender ... influenced by
r d1ng l ..flat. dropp&d by JVrc... All the prisoner. Loter
r<>gated .... re captured between 3 Sept.sou aDd 30 October 19?O.
a. On the eanse. of tank looses the actual figure.
were mo.t conflicting and for the moot part baoed 00 hearsay.
The figure. giTen by the prieoner' for tank strengths and 10 ,
in tbe IO?th Armored Division appear to be very
Ho.ever, Some indication ot the rel.ttye ettectivew
ne ot varioueapon. employed by OW Forces in attacking
vehicles can be obt.ined.
b. It 1, apparent that the major1ty of the lo"w
es sutfered by the North Korean .ore due to air attack.. It
1. apparent aloo that napalm was the effective weapon used
in air attack., although .ix prisoner' attributed rather high
loase. to rocket
c. Insofar .. ground was concerned the prisoneu
.ere un&ble to distinguiSh Clearly between tank ana artillery
tire. Very few nre a .... re of the existence of tile bawoka.
The that t. availabl.. , hOnver poiut. to tank fire u
being extremely affective, penetrating the target tank on the
abot and inveriably it on fire. Only one
prisoner olaimed tnat UN tanks failed to hit moving
ot ru.l, tor .plr. and
tor .0.. 10.... but the.e
_re !loOt luS
S. one reported aQF ca ot .elf
".\ractioG ot t.nk
4. Cn, "mili..,
a. Crew caaualtiaere verI hleh .nen the tank ar=or
... ,...trated. air attack. often Kave the tank ere
..trioi.nt t1.o to abandon tank betore it II' enveloped in
Tbe of aircratt in the vicinitl trequentll
..rna4 tb@ en. in tIe. to abandon, b.tore the attack II. carried
o-t. Conlaen.ntlYI th_ c_.nolti froe U&palm attack. app.ar to
ba.. botA ll&ht. Qne prl,oner .tated that -any of those woUQded
e'QC tank er... lire hit by air Itraring .hil. abandoning th.ir
att.r air attack .tarted.
S. !''BR1tion Carri!4 Ip .-34'
8,
AJ'fEllDIX D
In addition th& tanks _ere with .bout 2000 roundo of
1II1G ......lt1on .,.01 25 hand grenadu.
6. ft. of Tlnk KAShIA' Gun"
Th. prlsunerer. practically un... lmou. with
to the noe of the tank _chin. gun.. The CUllS were tor
attaoking near_by .ne.y lntantrr. Very fe. knew of any use of
the turret gun to dellgnate a t.rg.t. S.veral stated that the
I\1D. tn tb. forward .lope _ lJ10. U58d.
Wh.n tb, Worth Kor .... Ar., cros.ed the 38th
Parall.l, th.ir confidence 14 the atrlklng_power .,.01 .tran!tb of
th.lr tank. 'al 10 high that they ..de no ettort to eon"" tank
tn to lOme prilouer. interrogated
tIM,. deUber..tel,. .xpooed the tanks to th, .. 1 ot th" '"""" to
lour his IIOrea. t'he1r tanko preceded the intantry 1n 101M
c b,. a eonalderable d1.t ...e.. In otber c lquad or mora
ot 1nt...try c.rried On the deck. of the tanks. O.lng to the
ealll.ltle. suttered lnrantry, th15 pract1ce,
ho....r, s larg.ly atter the tall of Seaul,
.lthough whell the ...a .ere 1n retr,.t, tankere u.ed
to c ...,. 1nr.ntrr b.e.u.e ot the lack of othu tran.port.
b. l1leroin, .1r attQCk8 attar the l.t ot JUly 300ll
th to ..... only at night and to take rather elaborate'
dUrin, tne day. Th@ terraIn or Korea re
th.1r op.rotion. largel,. to tbe main rOld. and they only
Ule4 cond.r,. rold....01 Crosl_country route. to by_pes.
U ..... or to ek a hiToUlc. Rice po.<idtu nre generally avoided.
e. Ib'n in bi.ouac duriDg the a,h...ce to the
th. Worth (or.", tore.. on17 .1r .ttack and con.eqoent!r
th.1r .ecurlt,. ...sur.o when 1n bivou.c were not particularly
r1,16. Tankerl conc 1n villages, orchards and at the
toct ot bills; 'o.ett.ea, the tank dug In to the .ide ot the
hlll and cov.red with pIll. The conc.alment of tanks in
eill.g,o .al dOnI by driving the tanka directly Into a building,
or clo., .long 01011 and ..nanding th.. roo:!" 1iDe over the
,....
I. AS prniou.ly .tated, tacits trequelltly ran hr
ahlad oC the 1n!antry, 111 .ttocks "d. ill the early .tages ot
"
th" ....pa!!.... 11.11 Quo 1I4WatlM IMr<!
t....a. ..n Upt """ HN. to th" fMllt Ht);!1\
pr10r l 30"" of p::-i!"""f" krt"... of $"7
......"u. t ........ to '''''1111 t.Ilh.. wilt" 'lKnnt ..V t" tM

r. tn 4IUIflT to tll1" ......t1.." (1",,1( %00
lou br lllfw;ltll'T ("'I' i'C"1'''1I 6,,"'*411 hnk. :\" M'>!at,
"0 I'Ne.I<''',IU ..... "Y til<'! .I't'!!:1.... u, Jo.
tioQ with tha rtti"l tn,.... ta ..t,_tb4
t4&t glj'll'11ll .r ,,1)1;1". llUlJl" Nt AY au ._t 1#0 ",.t"n
tint fir.t at 400
C, ... pf tbl' .. t
of th' tanks Wi' Vkry tb.. ... .. l
rU1Ul1 ...tt .""6 6M tho
'1""""" Oth"r dltHeultln fln tUctk,l b"l Ned "ntd
a"'[Mt" in th", ...
rn. in the al;o .ftn"' "'. thoy
1'''<1''1",,(1 <>vetMu1
1
...ith. n<>
"th*t tu...., <rt<d "''ltd obtai"." t""", 1....b1;,d; hnk
r"" of ""n in. 'OM
9U:l Ari,d tho> 12lJj, 1');& totm@r IIU tM OC".'m
of tha tatttr inttndti in
lu .. l ottocer or oette,.
than that .. ..[fsctive
ttl 10 Itlldm>lt@r. aod duubl., ao<i reliaole. ma"Y
<:>f the tbk "."lie """,,,,,,,o.1C!ltiM,',
""t or tn the u,e of tile set"", the p .. ,t
ot tho for the ratber than the ""t itself. The
tonk 1llterc"," "l'.h.. "ppeu, t ORM unHo,.,.ly ,atlsfaet,,,.. y
but ."""" to a sl',t.",
cOmmAnd
Tlw fUll oa""dty, including
of 1-34, 610 From tho lnterrvgatton, tne
CY':<U,"ptbll of O!l. the appear. to o. ;"oout 2
Ilia,
a. hier to tn. ho.tHltiU, a ..as
L<7
wa. ..ut .-uut ,,11 prilQ4.r, \bAt
tnt .at tith61 ..l1,ttut or rr
to k tht in
b./or. tn.
to art_ __ lad
tr.1nln ..r
ID. RUCUAA tp un IInJ/9fl.l;'
... 11 Ihh nth
.l to .nieh ...
f'er&d Q08t thh
.. than The .... J.-uri
'I'U01I can .n".." 1<'1 , .. ;11
1>. It .111 h noted tMt w..ij' <l<I. c-t W :a I'rf""\"6
..-1tllout 1lJ1)' fN>Ol ""'''' (Qn. at ..,n...;.,. It fIl:I.n1l14
-
- -
-
,
-
-
-
-
-
- -

- -

- - -
T.I.llLK III
....
Ifapalm 4
Rochts 2
3tratlnr 3
Un.pee. Air J.ttaek ~
Buool<a ~
~ &l fire 1
Gn".de 1
Ho Opinion ....2_
""""'_--'---'''''-..J
APPEh'IlIX D
he .. d that IMny of tM prlsoners ."rp no,..,ally in support
..."d henc" ""uId lIOn likely e:<per1ence more attack> fro..
aircraft than trom any other weapon. Thl. may tPna to g1vp undue
@llpha.1. to a1r attack. However/ It i. plain thBt air attack.
!fere a CollllllOn "rperi&nce 21 out ot 24) ana that these
attack. w@re teer@a o.er all other weepon.. It i. intere.ting
to [lote that 10 ODe lIh&re air .tuck ana naval gunUre .U
hy .,an, oaval gunfire WaS cons1dered-""r.". The
.ingle lIhere a i' mentioned i5 the only CaSe
Wher@ this weapon to have any among the
prlsoner. interrogated.
1. w:o...,. wb-i-oh Y,,"U '" pd"""....
of ..."rl
2. ..... l">!U' kM
J. It' _'Ii _" IUU"
i1'''r g\J.Hu:."" c1 ..tcl'l
.,

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(1,.: ICdlller)
lid"",?
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7.,p""t:""t
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lIdl."ni:>.t. "t ta<lit
I),

j, A';"ru\ mmtt"'\
"'"914>lu':
Y;
,,,
2.A.
"
APPBIWIX D
k. Self-destruction? What mean"
1. Lo of contact wIth rriendly fore and Tolunt.rr
.hndo.....nt?
4. 'IIIui t .... the O1tllation of ronr tank at tbe tiOle' On road?
DnS in.? Statioaarl"/ Allcueeade? Wh1'l
5. How manr tIme. wa. your tank hit cefore it bec.me di.aCled?
c. Where did it get hit?
d. Did you destroy rour tank arter it was d1._bled? Wbat
-'.n8 dId roU U8e?
6. Did the tank Orew .ntUr anr euualUu -.hen the wa.
dlnb!ed?
a. How many killed? Bow manr wounded? How many eaptured?
b...ere any Iaeurred wbel> dl.moWitlag trolll tan.lt?
7. Were ron eTer a erew OIelllber of a previous tank or loot
in combat? (It '0, repeat
e. In normally wh.t WQS tne range -.hen your tank
opened tire?
9. What kind. of ammunItion did your tank use and agdn.t what
kind. or targets? How much of each kind w.s carried in the

10. Por what purpose did you uee the gun In your tank?
(Interrogator)
a. Target desIgnation?
b. Clooe_1n protection?
c. Attack on infontry and other
target.?
QUEST lONNAIR8
11. Dtd infantry 'K with flank protectiQn
in combat?
12. used to transport tntantry OP d14
infantry 1t. Own tranoport1
13. Be!ore an were the tank to their
e1thout beint oboerYed by UN
(Inhrrosator)
a. 'ight ..nt'
Cro countrY, .te?
How d1d 8 11K tank UIlit 1>, __11y II&U
oecurlty were
Did you 11ke the perforaanee
as a tighting
16. It not, wny Qot?
17. D1d you with radio
tan4s7 SetweeD tanks and intantry? If 10, .nat ... ltt
1S. Did you han trouble with eo ........ .y.te.. within
the tank? If '0, what w.s it?
19. What .erY1e..s d1d ron reedn to ..!qUill your tank !q gOOd
operatJQg cond1t1oQ?
a. Per10die maintenance?
b. by taDk crew?
c. by unit tank meohanle,?
d. W&intenanee by rear nnits?
20. Did rou an ample .upp1y or spare parts?
21. How IllUctl. tud d1d the eon,"""", 11:1 comba.U 0.. the
_:reh?
22. Dld ee:rtein ..chan1eal fe.tures of freqneDt17 ta.il
or give trouble? Ir .0, wha.t were they?
23. How Were fuel, :r4tloQ', spar- parts and other
equipment supplied to ttl.e tanks?
"
APPBl!DIX II
24. w supply .lw.y. reliable?
25. UR did you .e@ Or @%perlenee prior to yoar
a (lIt .... u ethH of a\r at.ta.,k)
". IIb.o. t?
b. lIher@?
e. lIh@n?
d. R@aetlon to @."h1
26. lIhat UR did you "e".lder best aD.d fur t)lo! "",.t?
if PW .aw a lot of aetlon).
27. lIhat aD.tltank weapon er procedure did you fear the
liIOot1
28. !lid yOU have trouble wlt" antlt.nk .lne.1
;I'l'l{RVnW JrolIl!!!! 1
RUllqQlJI.UiiS
BIClB'tll l.IlH'I'm 8U'r1lS IIJ'l(Y MRU {WSa)
O"tIl.U<)Il. orne,"
no 301
l:1:>o :Ou' !lraD.
In Lt

)0 :re.".
OWl htt.. Uon, 6tll. lut Ol.v
..nOI\I (j(UOH
L, at
Nt".,. to' t?.,.. 1I\uuI"I1, l:IUf .chin)", t-o elothl.'l flIvp)r
!:M hA..1:,,:u.M&N .. t Chitlju. On hit .....l1>..elr to lluM"n bt
U-$,.hM $0 tim up t6 iIJ.It,)(:rt>rtg but La
he R1! b .. hbd it 5/1
i1d &nO. tht at batta1100 other than or
II.Tt\'l&r7.
2. 14 '>I!.t M 16 un .!'In. h. ",,"s dtll httdl.Q::..
3. 14 .att hr attatk but
Ac 'a_ fUn' ufter
.ttack aLd tho1 .1th
1/2 _ in
(. h1116
..ttt.w1 I>d 1-:;u ut 1'w<I.. M"I ."'''1 gtt...:h ,.,.<le. IIU
a Ferio4 of a
tiw H ... :w",t i". f.l.t><!,
,. Su 1.
6. \n".. air
4tt4QK' tot ttg gjcut 50 and 1n
il! 150, ."',v 1j aM
enU,il""" .e.M !;,to t""*"'.t Iw ... tH'H u .. a"c,,'
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II
INTERVlEll' lfCIMBER 1
we.... ""ppoaen gn ""ppl1e. .. t dlVHlon b.udquarters.
on ruel, clothing and r .. tions, they largely depended
on eoear oupp11e.. laft behind. .... brougbt up by truck.
se ' any portera uo84.
24. Supply was poor bee .. use tbey eere torced to only .t
nigbt and becanse ro..d. were badly da.&g84 by air raids.
25. Expertenced artillery and air attack, but te..red most
which took place almo.t every day for nearly & month.
26. He .... only dutroyed UIf tanka, one burn84 and te<> abandon"'"
and lat.r attacked by UIf plane They were big tanks ..nd were
loeated in the CblnJu area.
27. Se. 2;.
28. No experience eith .in.s.
Prison.r had grasmar school education but hi. statemeuts
are not too reliable as he .. ppeared to V8r-r little sen..
ot responSibility. Weio ea. to pl....e. Worked ... a
..iter and errand bor for Japanese. In the Army sicee December
1947.
IIfTERROG..u'OH, H M.. HUBAl
TlIAIISLI.'I'OH. KJlehoon Kt_, guBAK

'.ilItm :rrUW KlIIO: KCIIU ('"BAS)
O:!'fl ...
AN 301
Dyck H.
!lank, :lI/Sgt
!il1mb".. ,
linn, W,th T_
IS ",an
'!"
" Ut",.,
\}cc..
Cllt&! 111 tAIl\<
(1')
L Mt .. " .. dat.. ()f ..pt..u. T1>l.nlth"'"t ;,(!
... near T",ld to t'" but wh@A h4
)"<!.. 1011 4 tanka .He bOllObe<:l and d..stNf"'l J",L!,d
lntantn and .."c""d to Taejon, ther. fQr Ghoomt_. Ul<
troop .... re tnere ." to K!lIiJu, t!lQ
1oto civil!"" and
to UII ther@.
? $o,be4.
4. 0""
5. .PP"$r"d, oot dlt Qat _ll<PO:
Qany Qn and (1,.. &nd
C'<)..
>, '0,
ll.;..
" ,,. ,
; at 1.9
"


:t,:>,. "",,",,' 51 liE ,buildings,
"
,9
IIfTERVlE'll JroIIBE:R 2.
20; ,peroonnol) 30.
10. KG _as fired at .ame run to lor morel
lthou,cb th.,. were a.re reu,ce ... too ,rut. t1suall,. fired _t
infantr,. when attaeked. 10 tar,et de.ignation.
11. 10 flanto cov.rod by infantry.
l2. l5 - tn!antry carr1K at U... OIl. \ant.
13. light mov_ant _ r@CoIll> troop. in to,nk battalion u ..... illed
road &lid ground for .illea, ob.tacl.s, .tc. la1n road. ua.d
eot eros. country oee.Slonall"l found no dltf1enlty .itb
dltehes, moot dlfftcultv .1th r ee paddl0
14. IdeBI 10oation about 10-20 meters ott road, takIng advan_
tag. of bills, ote., or eaaoutlag.d by digging-in
tank and using pin. bouSh.. Th& auto.. 1n batt_lIon
lOOIIld Kurd arU about one kllometer fro. the battalion Ci.
TankO w&re lined in two lina. with pointing in dir&ction
of en_,..
15. it is very ,ood tllflk. Hu .een a ..... 11 tank (10 ton)
SlI.IIIoutb. witb. .. 75_ gun (.elf_propelled sun SP/76).
16. So. l5.
11. Seldom uQ rad10 becau.e of poor equlp,,",llt &lid not """'Y
tank. operating together _ hoW&vor used radio to.nk_to_lntantry.
SIgnal pi.to1 u.ad in oombat for to infantry.
J8. Verr .sthfactorr.
to Sa.,n by tra1n. Atter
'",' the .... ehlillllcal condition
20. Verr poor and hard to get _ left Pyongyang without .pare.
21. One 55-gal dru.. lfOuld permit tanl< to go 20_25 .. 11eo.
22. Tr.ck hreakage .od steering controls.
23. Used hone carts comlllllrtdeered fro", tn""r Truck; bNUght
supplies to dump in rear, then cart> were employed. No porters
u.ed.
24. Very poor, due to tun.porhtion ditf1cuHy and n1ght
OIOnment
IIITEilvre;w IIlJ101BER 3
99
25. Expertenced only air attaok - bombing and strafing (all
tour tanks io. his UQIIP dut"'y"d by rccketo by tcu.. l"t o.1r
craft). Previous experi",,-c" in bombing and .trafing
.ith cre. hidin$ tn zountatns - no ea.ualtte. among tank
1nf.ntry WI!, KI!.
26. os. UlI' t&nk cl.os" - except c"e big tanl< .ith short
gun, d.....ged and turned Over.
2? Rocket bombing _ air _ oa. tao.ko de.troyed by ".palm.
28. lever or IfK tao.k de.tro.yed by UN mine. 'as to. Id UN
min.. not strong oDOngh to damage anything except l1ght to.nl<.
Prisoner 'l"ao and cooper.ti....
UiTEIIROG/lTOR,
TR.I.IfSL/lTOR,
IlITERVIEW IIIJMBER ,
HlU.DQUA!lTEilS
l1li1= SlATES UUll KORIU (EI,lSAK)
Op@ratlon8 Rese8rcb orflce
APO 301
12 Pec""bel' 1950
Armor
,-, Lee E11 800
...., 2nd lot
lIumber. 73508
21 year.
Ullit 3rd Br1gade or 346th Un1t coo.i.ting of 1 battalion
1 battalion intantry and 1 batt&llon automatie
weapOn
lIil1tary Occupation. leader of two tanka.
1. Captured at Hi. unit moved down to UijontbU area 00
Sept 19 but he follo.... d two daya later. ltheo he came dolrll. to
Uljoogbu, he could not rind hi, unit and village _a" under
artillery fire 00 he retreated to the north aDd _sa captUl'ed by
Security Police 011 19 Oet. ai. unit w.a 1n re.erve around
Pyongyang without taok. and wero ordered as infantry to
'fo actual training with tank. o.o.d no combat _,..,orle""
2. thru 7. 1I0t appHcable.
8. Say. maxi"I range 2
9. 3 kinda' BE 20; Frag. 30.
10. Told u.e infantry.
11. In training, he Was told that infantry would be with tanks
00 tlanl<s and rear - 1 tank to 1 platoon lnrantry (45 troopa).
12. 110.
13. Prisoner .... trained that meo danger ot discovery w..
i .... inent, be should hlde the tank Until the _as
Ee Waa instructed to U.e the shapes of build1o&_ to coooeal the
tank when 1n a village and when 10 the open to UOe foliage.
D
14. Trained to seleet a .ite, post guards, and send out patrols.
15. He was told In "less that T-34 .as not a reliable tank In
of Armr as 1t was to
Were hard to detect.
16. Engine troubles.
I? Told radio .era etreotin up to 10_12 kilometers In
motion aDd 18-20 dlometn. wilen tank is sht1onary. The U.36
volt tube .u very d"licate and .hould oe e:<pechd to give
trouble.
18. Claim. tank. suppo.ed to u.e a telegraph Ouzz system,
as the nois@ and vlbution _r@ too IlIucll for a .yoteOl.
19. He told th&t aft@r driving 3 they ."re to
stop for 30 minutes to check fuel, oil, and
6-7 kilometers a one_hour check .hould be If there
1. any trouble, the repair it if they can, otherwise
Teehnlcal Co gets help from battalion.
20. part. were to b. carried in the tank and if they
not hav@ the proper put then they w"re to radlo to rear for
to repair
21. Full tanks 580 liters suffioient to last 250 hours
( qIle,tionab 1e)
22. See 16.
23. S\1pposed to be .uppl1ed by trucK'.
24. Not appHcabl.e.
25. an aircraft attack on a village by F-5l, firing
rooket.. House the one waS In WaS destroyed and his
badly daOl!lg@d. Ona rocKet to e::q>1ode, whiCh they bur1ea.
26. Saw none.
27. Not applicable.
28. On a south thp 38th Paullel., one truck In
convoy @xpl.oded a mine but he 00., not know whose mine it wa
Tile Ollne ...... a as only th hek of the truCK
were damaged.
not very 3 years schooL In Army
.ince i!arcll 1949. In a ne "fore then.
lVTERROGATOfl, )]. W.
Kllehoon Kim, 0"0, F.1TSAK
102
INTHRVIgw NUMBER
Interview Number 4
HEADQUARTERS
EIGln"ri UNITED ARWY KOREA (mrSAK)
Re.earch Office
APO 301
SUBJECT,
""me, 1fun Hong K1
Rank, 2nd Lt
ffumberr 63/1l1:_2453
Age, 23 years
Unit , 17th Tank Oh
II111tary Ocoupat1on' Tank Platoon
1. Surrounded near Taegu 00 3 with hi. Crew. Their tonk;
.b1pped from Pyongyang to Pyongo 1n Ch1nchungpukto Province by
.ail - pyongo to Taegu over road. Mis.ion to support 8th
D1vision in attack on Taegu. 17 tank$ in unIt, 4 croooed river
round them.elves surrounded by HOR troops. 3 were de.troyd
when they refu.ed to .urrender. He .urrendered hi. tank and
crew.
2. Tank in good
3. See 2. (Other three tankere deatroyed by combinatlon or
air and ground fire; air rock.t u.pected).
4. On road.
5. lIever under fire before.
6. no eaaualti
7. 110.
8. Effective 3 - nev.r fired in
9. ,iP; 20 Bg! 30 Frag.
10. Both MIG U.8d against infantry - turret MIG u.ed to direct
tank artillery tire.
APPRlmIX 0
11. In training ye8 - 1n oombat after eroa.ing r1ver 00
intantry .ere available and tbey found thn. elves alo"".
12. Would tran'port aboot 12 troop. bot prloone. had no pereon
al ":rperlence.
13. Alw.ys moved at night bOt found that un air woold attaok
gr1lves 8Jld orcMrd. eve)!, though taM. could not he ."ell 10
prOfiting from e:rperlence or oth@r., they put tank. in buiidingl
or villlg". where they could be ea.ily camoatLogod.
fent oros. country often beceu.e of de.troyed bridges, road
The angle .are for tank .id@.i.e .a. 35 degr8e. and 45
degrees lengthwi.e. Stayed out of rloe padaie Road .hcul<l".
traversable it not In uc.. u or 25-30 degrees.
14. Afraid of air attack. Had no infantry .ith them .0
concealed In bulld1ng
15. Reported th..t the T-Y tiler us"d .....",....ioe i,. 2nd world
.ar eosines and gun. and otMr part. were repleced &rid they
_ere tn good ijeerd that T-34 wa good a. UN
heavy Never 5._ UN tank.
16. See
17. No difticulty .ith rad10 between tanks. In
training h. was told to u.e flag. when radio failed. No
experience with .1gnal pi.tol but under.tood that he
was tQ U'e it 10 with
18. Inter cGmmwnleatiGn 'Y3tem not very good .0 used touch
.ystem.
19. Ma1ntenaoce crew 1. responsible for cleaning tank.
MeChanical trouble ore- ....."'bers .OrKed under .uper.... i.ion ot
technical company commander (thi. is chief m@chanic; l.t Lt
who 15 part of a tank company). Major repairs were carried out
at battalion under supervision of battalion technical commander.
20. spare part
21. Capaoity fuel 810 liters but doe. not know how far tank
would go On that QIllount. Teonnical company co ...... nder was
for refueling.
22. Steering handle. and motor heavy friction, and breaking
of part.. In many tank. damaged becau.& of poor
.t.. ering.
23. Co",ing from Pyongyang, they .ere told all ,uppl1es .ould
b@ at front. When ther ruched front found no supplies.
tll7J:t!l1;nt SU1i<mn ;.
""'1 _1:"@ m:..Pl"'ud w b@ ttNllih. II), truck. lHd Mt t.hin\<
"",'CUM ...,/) ""'t. Hlrlr 'to II.. e,,'ded br cart,
24. SI'e ;U.
We ar ft"... Hl
w:, hi'" thd h. <lI'<td <loth1ng
JonU:c.-"'1 <\o,,>.t\ "'<I't d".UM u.nl<$;
))<1 ,.,0\ hllaN Qt
lacrd of .rt1 1m in t:-o.1llilll.
27. At: .tT&;t,
No he
lhkt(l.Jl,t POlllrde, MPort,d \III
,. til"?' oat)' hr<>k<l tnl'k "","1<1 IJ.. ",!>,",1M!!
:1$ gllM >fflN lu...".lly lK>Y
....... , "'r tlL"u.
lrmy 1746, t!:,t tntant:y.
Se;\ 1949 tr.lI,t_rrftd to t_nkl. .
l'll'I!!R!1OGkTOIII IIAcl;>"".1Il )0 SUZll
r1&, jftO, C1SAK
APPll:IlDlX D
Inte...lew 'hlllhr 5
BEIdIl<{JlJlnIIS
IIGllTI! lIlfI'r1!D STATJ:8 AJIl[Y KORb. (WSAXl
Operations Researcb Office
tl'O )01
13 Decellber 1950
SOBJ!CTI Int@rrogation Armor Project
Name. Ri.. Nak Wen
Rank. Sen Capt
NUllber. 6311"1-13011
Age. ?
Unit. 105th ArlO!!
IIUitaryOccupation. Supply Offioer
1. Captured 21 Sept 1950 at .J.n""og wnen or<!ered to move to
Su""n. Unit minlon to destroy U1f troops cOlllog dOlln towar<!
Su""n from Inchon _ in Naktong district before When at
r:t.onan UN troops unex:p""t8\lly moved into that to..,. At t1roe of
capture was transporting truck fuel for the tank. of the
2. 4() tank. d...troyed or da.. aged 1n regil1"nt. SOllle repaired
and returned.
bOllb. Some
camouflage. SOlie
none
of fue -
4. Not known.
5. Istim-te. 6 or 7 tanks destroyed on firot hit when engine
canlht fire. Other penetrations may not di.able.
6. Crew - wounded lint not KIA u rule. Napalm gives tMm
little time to abandon.
7. Question'
S. Not rsmfliar.
'"'
---
9. Not famlliar.
10. Not familiar.
11. In yes, but in actual lead.
12. OnlY in speo1al Cases _ river orossings or ,.ide plains
RGT had nO
13. Up to Hring 1111& they ICOVe at night and shy until day
break to attack. Use as Brule.
14. B@hind ..... 11 wooded hills Qr in orehard.. If @Ila",y infantry
attacked would 3end out defending Inhntry to hold the line
until tank. ean escape. If aJr_detected th"y"",ved to other
position. They .o"ld .end out" tank patrol (on.. tank) to @ach
fl..nk 1 to 2 Ulometer., and one to front rear with infantry.
They .. not able mO"t tiM" to establish a pio.kH lina.
17. ComOlUnioatlon. bad bHau5e of poor radio system tr.I
ll.tened in frequently so did not u.e radlo mueh.
lB. Not much difficulty.
19. After croosing 38th they .topped one _eel< at Seoul Cor a
eomplete check. they arrIved again after
driving 5eoul. Cr@w did maintenance on tank for minor
repair.. If crew eould not fix it Wa5 generally
to repair unit 5 or 6 kilom.ters in (M8.1ntoanC@ MeChanics
No inspection by maintenance respon.ibility
for condition of tank up to creW.
20. Very poor .upply of part. wt.ich forced to C&nIllbalhe
good tank
21. 28 lHon per hour on :.arch. In combat the Sao,,'.
22. Not famU-iar.
23. Whon tank. are In oombat reServe tankS are main_
tained fully equipped and fuei@d. Th@.e hnk. relieve the tanks
.hen ammo and fuel are exhau.ted. Company .upply train of
trucks brings up to tanks from supply point
7 to 8 in rear. Porters not u.ed in hi. unit but
heard of other unit. for tran'port.
24. Not very ...11. b.cau,. to.ey had to transport only at night
du@ to air attaok
API'E!DIX D
25. Bombing .traflDg at Naktoog river early 10
26. All he .aw eere armored ear. and light tank. and heoee did
fear them, as r34 eould cope 91th them.
27. Attack by
28. Apparently encounterd a lot of light mine hien .eld,,",
...gd t!i1\k
Pri.oner in army
North Korea.
Apparently a reliable
38tn. Taught by RU8.ian.
training than T- 34.
IlfTERROGATOR. H. "11'. 'llaoDonald1 ORO. EUSAK
fRANSLATOB, Kl1enoon Kia, ORO. EVSAK
JlITERVIEW I!1Jl!IlE1l 6
Il&ADQUARTE1IS
EIGHTH UNITED STATES ARIlY, KOREA. (EITSAK)
Operat1ons Research Office
APO 301
12 Deoember 1950
SUBJECT. Interrogation Armor ProJ@ct
lIa .. e, HOI 8yung Joon
Rank' Sen Capt
NUUlber, 63926
Age, 23 Yean
Unit, Regt (Ind) 1n pyongyang under the Pyongyang ..rea
defense co"' .... n<l..
loIilitary Occupat10n, Reconnaissance Staff Officer 00
a motorcycle.
1. Voluntar1ly surrendered on 17 Octooer 1950 at with
tnree of ni. men. He had bPen told by n1. Regt CO to carry out
a patrol .. t night and during the patrol he US troops
and .urnndered. Thl. patrol .... s on foot. J>rioOller cld"" to
be a and interpreted hi. for the patrol to
be .uioid"l "nd heoce he surrendered .. t fint opportunity.
2. Regt had 20 tanks, 5 per company. or this number 5 were
destroyed on 17 October, all by air attack by bOUlbiogj probablY
liE bomb.. One tank caught r!r@.
3. See 2 above. rank. WHe .cattered 100_200 ""teu apart.
Jet plane. carried out the 4 to a wava, wIth 3 recon
oai ance planeith them. 8 by 4 plane
groups .ere lIl&de.
4. See 3 acove. Located at the toot ot a ..ountaln about 100
meter. off the road in a .tationary firing posi.ion on ..
defense 11ne.
'"
APPEIIDIX D
da_ged conditinn at scene 0.1
6. 110. cuualti.... becaus@ crns abandoned tankS .Mn aircraft
Mcra1e was 10. aa the positiQn .as very advanced and
lien tbnught situatinn "a' hope1e,
7. 110 experience "ith Recnnnaissance trQoP' had
no
B. Does nnt !mo
9. Thinks t"Q kind. nf """"" nsed (not .nr,,).
a. AI' 5
b. HE 75-80 (?)
10. nsed MIG in tanks but they .bre uSed again,t
enemy infantry.
11. In h15 training he .-as told that .ince tanh re rutH
than iD.rantry, they .il1 depending cn situation, go. ahead o.r
infantry to occupy certaIn QbJectiv@. nr .tay behind and fn11n
{See 12)
12. They 8Q"OleU..u <>auied the auto.... Uc rifle 'quad (1 per
tank) no. tb.. tank to. prQtect the tank egal..n.t ene"y l.nfantry
.nen infantry were encountered, the .quad snppo.od
to. dismoun" 'pread Qut. ""'" to. & .quad &rllled nth
tommy gun
13. Right ...,ve... nt by main 1'<Iads. GeQgraphy Qf KQre& dne. nnt
much use of secondary rnad. or cro -coantry
H. They naually ..101 t8.Qks in a "illage, c&IOonflaged to
.'ou'eo or or up 1n the hU1s under the tre"
".
antn_rUle squad 8mployed to. gIlaN the front and
with the uea"i".t cnncentration at the front.
15. He think' 1-34 a gQOd ."nk. h... soen any nthH tanlr.
16. Su 15.
17. H. repQrt. uUc htween tanks, a.nd bet""en hi. motorcycle
,nd tanlrS _a' good.
i8. Telepnone in tank ns
19. Cnmpany hchniclll o.fficer, theQry, "U ,uppn.ed to .pead
at least hour c!lecl<1ng tank after 3 _ bour. QP@ration.
However they uoually kept the tank in operatiQn until. '0""
part falled. MlDor repairs are effected by cr if they Can.
If they cannnt, the technical off;cer will If it i.
the capacity nf COmp&n1, help is nbtained from battaliQn.
no
llITERVIEW IlUMIlEIl 6
20. Bp&re parts .Oarce, tank. were brought
Rusda, they .... "'" equipped ..-ith .to.ndar<! ... t of spares but these
.ere quickly conoumed or lost after arrival at Prongyang.
21. Doe. not know.
22. Think_ 7-)4 good e..... but electrical syotem gave moot
trouble.
23. Supply platoon 1n e.oh battalion was responsible for ammo,
r ... fuel, etc. It, truck. brought up supplieS from Regt
Hdq., uoing commandeered cart. when truck. were not available.
BO porter. employed.
24. Supply very poor because of lack ot .upplies at original
,ouree, plus air attacks and transportation facilitie
25. OnlY ...pon experienced was straCing 1n Pyongyang every
day from AUgu"t on. Not damage or c .... ualtle,.
26. S... tbr.... Just prior to OIlr1'eud.er _ ....diu", tanks about
8ize a. 7-34 firing on hts tanks and No hits ob"ened.
27. Aircraft if tank is hit On the top. A hit beside the tank
1s not conSidered
28. No experience.
Prisoner appeus quite reliable with fa1r1r high IQ.
Gr......r "chool graduate, In 4""y 4 years. FaI'lller befon
"nteri", AI'IIIY.
I1frERROG4TOR. H .... 1I.&<>Donald, __ lIDSAK
TIWfSl.ATOR. lilohoon Kim, ORO,
m
L
D
bw:"?!".. _r 7
lWDQ!JUltt.'lS
ETGIlDl UNI'tED SIA'rl:3 AI!In (!!WAlt)
Operations
111'0 3('1
Jr,..,,,. KiD ;! Soon
..,..
2,r.d Lt
..251,6
.... y,;-"H
1,l",.H, -"
W5th r.:.lt W?ti:> 11"1'
lUlltuy fretll,.UOIH 't'1I.lIlt ,bt""",
l doT. 1947
u'IH duct 1(";',> _,,9 .,,:tll" .... t.
Apr'" 1950,
t. $1.n<M 2 St'pUllwr, tl>U IiU .:.\ m. *M
1" 1., 2? IiKa t" at Yoag
h>. :l".. t" QN !OfeU fro," Inc""" .. t 1I1i:>fmnll <ill 23 Sej;t
b<!!'ctd UJo<lhtnll
2. Yn,
3. 7 S pf i:>!3 unit ..ere terrain
1!ff14nltt8S. In 3 to clne., to
3 July the :IItter '81ng penetrated 8D4 sat fire. 1n
'!oelru> ,,,,,a, 5 .;;. "",,1<5 thro\lgh air rock"h "rtinny.
!let """.. of "un <>f l>uoolt& penetr"Uot>. t:UlI ..
a"&& 9 raCkets and
4ny .,,,,,,,t,,,, too",). l'ra.. 1>i"JCI!-Ki",ch<>n M NOcl!;<>n, :1-.at tla;
8'1'1h..:.."t of IConI;; If"U ;$(\8
ue !t<t:" "'""... or .... n"t
tr"lect""7 .... (tcJ< ibM tll"1 ......n
th91r if of ordsr they left tbO _itb
fox b.tta1_on to and It
tank .,.,..,1\>.1h.,/l. A t01r 1h"l>1#
",101""", tut fiN! ""'" put in N,..b,.t. 1I0.t ot
destt7Yad n? da4god in 8otiQn. th',. l<Opped
_i,* ;Jv; t",III;Uftll!' 11'$." lO that th9)' aonJA Mt n"" tl:o.
tll"";'",l,," 'toMtt ittc.a 'UM)" 1)(1. KWI'
.Atintrr trY. dGtng aO
t

l"n Utlm,,' *'*P<'l'L
111'
INTEJ1VIE\II NUIoIOOR 7
4. Wben wound04, ne Ya. not 1n a but .a. bit &n
air strafing. Was wtth technical unit at the time.
5. Wben were UK tanks ldom hit them 81th
first shot; generally requlr&d 3 or 4 snot. to hit. When bit
on gun mantlet penetration", only occasional, but hull wa.
ea.l1y penetrated, Alyo started tira when penetrated.
thou
7. )fo.
8. K&X1mum etfective ranje ... 1300 meters .nen tiring flat
trajectory AP, range 1,,800 meters tiring liB.
9. Should carry 55 round. (AP 5; HE 20; 30).
According to hi5 experie,,"e they !lad to take lIhat they oO\l.ld
get.
10. Hull caehLoe gun seldom used. Turret eo-a.sal maChine
u."d "gaLoat 1nt'antTl'.
11. In combat
l
1t tank could break through derense without
infantry clear og the YBY, they would go in 81th infantry on
their deck.. If not, they woulcl gIve supportIng tire to the
infantry athek.
12. tank can ot 20 Infantrymen. Ther
whec under tIre. In infantry dIyl.lou there were a tew
tor and other suppli8A, but infantry alway" walk.
Truck., however, haul artillery and carry the gunn@r
14. At night, tank. were d1.persed. Two tank. were po.ted up
the road a. a picket. and rear protectIon Were oot
practI.ed. In regIment there 1. a infantry battalion,
which 1. not used however tor looal .eeurlty. At night, coi.e
of tank englne" carries 3 kilometer
15. T-34 had tran.mi lon tailure.. Engine we. not du.tprcof,
and got clogged up. Trouble with road-llheel bearing_ rrequent.
u,
APPENDIX D
16. He conslder8 T-34 interIor to UN tanks.
18. Tank lnter-pnon@ .y.te", worked
19. (a) Thorough overhlo.ul t ..ice a year; .utnmer and .inter
overhaul. On the art"r driVing one hour .top and
cheek track, road-.neel After 2 _ 3 hours they .top
and al10. engine to cool. 011 1. changed 1n .int@r.
Under peace_
eMcked the
It "'inor

20. Practically no 'pare part...ere received, and thus cannibal
ization ..s. re.orted to to keep tank. goins. Betore the Korean
..ar atarted, this shortage en.ted, and. 2 tank. dioebled 1n
manoeuvere.e used tor providing spare part. tor the re.t.
21. 25 gallon111 last trom Seoul_TaelOn.
22. Teeth On main gear_.hitt broke trequently.
"4
,
25. ... "XJlfIc18l1ef1d &il ..ttac.k """ .. UN>. J'u
rocl:.oted, 1><>.,1>&<1 and bl<t M.ly .." .Mr--lio tw.. 1l
26. 11_26 a::." 11-46.
Z7. U .. &vJ ....tHlny "".,"iMd fum by 1'in<lot', .....,.,"'htl
l.y I;!.r ..U, ......n Ilttan);8d, ""O....!l'hn 1:(I.. ,u toll>
el'U'S t<> :".. 1;;lltlU.
::s. =.4 !Itt<o/O" hi! l"INOrtUJ.y nor t.m w"'* t,,-t
Ulltht t1n fro.. UW:I ll<) <lth<ll' ''''"' oro: cloUR
by 11:1 ...
'lfu ..l<
!II ...
!pew&< ;(
NUPt.l *
.,,'"
we JOertg Jit>
In Lt
4.93"$
yean
lOSth ANd Diy, l0'7tli Regt.
Oettup.tlon, Cffleer. .toh UQ1t
abet ..
2. Jh>ver .. "ecl>ef "r t,."k CM. in
J-lA, Ret
15. "fur 1\W'i hut .......... fio,d """'''' "I'll '1th"r
If,. $ .... F.
1], between tank
!nt&ntTY exc6pt &t 1"?81.
that 9tS , .. t
WI.......
lIi. 'tbU "r1te1 1Iell, 'IIU cl....r.
19. In 'lei.
.. In .fI't.... of et"'l'tl<!.;;, " ......cti> ..
othnr 81th b&ttory. Depfrttded eQ
5brlu, 1mt tin"'" got l'WI d"""l ot""'" h .. 1 lh H"H
tsnk hy .. 1 e .. ttb4ble tn
!4terlnr u!!d, snd
m
I
INnRVIEIi 1lUN88H 8
20. .... parts. 3ut rece1ved Ulore part. a:ftu
war started tban pre-war day.. After of combat they
went to assembly po1nts to re-equ1p, but outs1de these area.
they could not get any .pan p.. rt ehter 'hortag" wu h .. tter1....
Out of 10 tanks, only 2 might have good Pri.oner
wa. the only electrical technical officer in regiment and re
mained at
21_22. Kot applicable.
23. Used to carry bags of rice in tank. and amm:> ..... re
suppond tc come up by t .... ck, but supply was unsatisfactory.
".
25. Experienced air not at clo.e quarters.
26_28.
Mucated at technical college at Hungnam. worked in ponr
statton before joining army. Was in army 2 year.. Not very
intelligent.
III'rERROGATOR. H. W. EUSAK
TIU'ISLILTOR' Kllchoon K1lIl, ORO, "uSAlt
6USJECT,
hme,
lIank.
Humber.
Agel
Unit.
1I1litary
A?PElIDJX D
9
HEADWA!lTERS
EIGHTI! U1fITED suns ABIIY KOREA (EUSU)
Operation3 Office
APO 301
13 Deoember 19,0
Int@rrogation Project
Ewo. Byung
lot Lt
42,28
22 yean
16th rank Brigade (lnd)
Occupation, Signal Staf! O!flCH
3. 2.
4. At of air attack WhiCh pri.oner experienoed hl.
wa' on the mareh about 11 PM at night moving torward.
,. See 2.
6. No ca$ualties 1n atr att.Ck He was not SUre ot
the number of C.'",a".leo .urfered among the ere of the , tank.
u8
!millER '1
to dr Ill:' th.oot ""-,,!\WIl!l:I1 <l4ulA not l".n
....n tllQ .. 2:.
7.
Ii. ,[h1lI.l<.....,"',.. ""-"Ie 13 l!:ll<>lllltflu. "",d "tt"cttu
?-Ii
W. 1D ro......1'11 "". ",,,11Ist 1nr""try.
Turret)((l wu 11",,1 t"l"tll<>" n.b. ..... in /:.... apu..t ".."ao=sl
d:1y.n by
11. Ko, .t t ... of the
01> .. rUle _nil tltl* "rum.
12. Il"PGnd11l! nl'()1j ttHI _pk>yO<I the two ltU'/mtn
wh eh, ,,1tll tLtk up th!
bl'4de,UJe <on tM t.t.nl:. <w tt$h\'e\s "d".
tn.lI;. ., MM<r\l,
13. UnYl' Mgnt 1IIOuNnt t1r atta!\<. <>Ii, ,uin rw"a
"fil)',
14, '.'''lNNlf ;r.. C,..... lit<! '!.t;Gl< I>:t
lUi4er 0: hi " !l.!:!Uow p:"' c;O .. 1'itR naWHl
one or of a..
to "'.....d t!U1k. t. ti>"I'H1 Ul'iU\t'wnt .,u "';;a .htn tNl
!lIlit ""Pect<>d "" st". 1.!:t ""'" I;). fnt- t(\-'IiIM' tha4 OM- "ltht.
15. 1)0".. not klw_ 'l'-Joj. 1, ""4 tant<: 'fitl: 'O'h1<* liS 1, t .... llia".
He ufa t...u 1, "" f'tl' U'" 14b;.tt., Is
ina he wu toW tb.!/.t .4$ 'l'Uleu,,\>).s to 4f !!l:lf;t ... ,."... Qt
his c"""-"tdes tol<! hi .. that rTCtt tIldT I'<IIIl<t ""1>sr1",111'<1 "11K
true.
17. R@PQl't. that .. .itr.1n riU\te
ot 10 littLe eVeh though
Wa' to nea.y .1bratl4n. The 3,tn ...
tM t ..oJ< Qt !<1W1I'1Nt,;;. hi th& I<tffi "f ttl.. set by :l:e
h" t"pt .rouAd among
th. ",""u t ...."b!.Jl til..... !'Ye """.. 19 <>r .fl;3 ""re 1n
'itS ....d 12f1)lt. \iLS .lH tiw lI<>l''' _II an! ) .. the 12LD.II
.. ..., or1CiMlly1"t .. 11"" &U;>,.
ie. R&4iQ .ttt1n ..s TQ.Y nut
Qt the ,yntea wa, poor !n
19. lot t.r U Ii' irnnfi. htt ... 'Ury 11\
n,
D
the tank. In operating condition. The gunner 1_
reapon91ble for tne gun and drlnr for the engine, tracks,
etc, tne tank commander for the _lgnal eqUipment. Very !&W
tank were qualified to repair the signal apparatus
however. Mo regular 1nspection was made of the .ignal
lIlent after oro.sios the }11th Parallel; howuer he did cheek
lOheMver he had the Repair. were performed by .ignal
technicians in the Signal company of the brigade.
20. Spare parts ,upply insufficient. Cannibalized a }Ittle;
"Ignal .upplie. were in greater quantity than other
About 20 liters per hour On the march.
"22. Electrlo wiring and 011 l\lhrteat1ng sy.tem hUed at U"",s.
Supply _a. Of truCk although lank about enough
".
and a...unlt1on to w..eks. No porten or carto u.ed. food
".
Supply sy.tem rather poor 0/ limited .upplies,
laCk of tran'portatlon and a1r attaCk.
25. Air attaok which he experienced _ did Mt se.. oU,er forms
of ..t.
Saw only destroyed IJN tank. of" type ."",ller than T-34.
27. See 25.
28. No IIll.nes.
In the army since 1946, hefore that he Wa" a far"",r.
era...sr school graduate. Pr1.oner not particularly responsive;
probaoly intelligent but appeared bored.
INTElIlIO&UOa, H. W. KacOonald,
TRANSLATOR, K11choon KLm,
Interview Number 10
IlEADWAATERS
EIGH:rH STATES ARIIY KOREA (EUSAK)
Operations ReseRroh Otfiee
APO 301
SUBJECT, Intenogation Armor Pr<>J@ct
,-, KllIl Ki Chun
1st Lt
''''''',
NUlllber,
?3523
Age, :rear.
46th Tank Regt (lndl 10 tanh.
Ocoupation, Sattalion Adjutant General. !lith ""it
<lays; 23 Sept Oct 14. (Prior to
Sept ..HII 19th Int Div).
1. Surrendered Oct at Kok8&n when unit was from
river. Prisoner we. by mortar fire. Prior to
capture, he Was lead1ng three tanks to Korangpo to that
town an infantry battalion that was supposed to be there.
Enroute, one tank WaS strafed &nd disabled and other two
proceed to destination. Finding no infantry at he
retreated and was wounded in generQl v;clnity or 10s1ng
a second tank in the
2. T..o tanks di8al:lled ana lost.
3. Ona tan/< wu hit on fuel tank, and caugllt !ire, from air
strafine from righter plane. 2na tank WaS fired on hy artillery
which pierced the armor on the rront slope at an estimated range
of 500 m. Prisoner had seen 4 UN tanks 1n vicinity at time of
loss or the 2nd tank. rhe 3rd tank he unable to account tor.
4. Both tank. on road in daylight When lost. 2nd was
int to tUrn when UN forces Were sighted.
,. 2nd tank waS penetrated on rirst .hot but fire was maintained
several other penetrations were believed to have been made.
It caught fire from these attack
6. Crew or rir.t tank were unburt. All of crew or
2nd KIA inside.
API'EllDIX D
7. )Jo.
8. Doe. not know a. he had neVer been in combat before in a
tank.
9. tank. only antI-personnel ammo. (freg) In hh
tanks (30 round.). He waS not able to obtain AP or
".
10. To be u.ed agaln.t infantry.
11. In p>'1nclple ye. - In practlc@ 1I0t at all tl..... aependlng
UpOII aomlllOJl(!.er. plan
12. Does not thlnt tanks were used to transport inrantry;
previous exper1ellce 1n infantry did not indicate this or
tran.port. Inrantry .. had only 3-4 trucks and mo.t
trucks in NK army u.@d to haul artillery.
13. Night movement by main road Rice padd1@. av01ded.
No taken to conceal nol.e or tank
14. Thoy would .elect a .ite near the highway at the foot of
a hIll, with the natural foliage available. He wae
told to in .inter by .. ing with a .heet. Tank
crn guel'd&d t!lllk. rifle battalion ...... suppod to help
In guardlng the bivouac but did 80 .... the Rest ...S
usually sepereted from the tank
Doe. not know much about tank' but wa. told T-34 was
".
t.."k. good
16. See 15.
17. Radio .at. in hl. three tank. did not work and er@w were
..nt....11iar in their u.e. Coo:munioetion bet .... en tanks was
verbal.
18. Were supposed to u.e the sy.tem 1n
tallk., hut did not need it.
19. Did not perform any The technician. in the
eo=pany and battalion were untrained.
20. !fo spare pub.
n. Do,," not know.
22. Do not know but believes track. gave oonsiderable trouble.
23. Rear echelon was supPO$ed to follow tankS witb fuel
ration', ..=mo, but in hi' brief no ammo or rations
were received and onlY a ....... n a"",unt of ruel. RaUon..... re
INTERVIEW 9UX8ER 10
earrlod by cart but tuel and were carried by
truck. No porter. were used.
24. See 23.
25. Air attack - Btratlng. Tank Cire or l05mm artillery at
Believe. air attack SOre etfective end tearful.
26. Doe. not know.
27. See 25.
2B. experience.
On& year college but does oat appear to be p&rtleularly
intelligent. Went into Army in July 1950.
INTERROGATOR' H. W. WaeDoneld1 EUSAK
Kilehoon Kim, OKO, HUSAK
.5"l'SlIt>P; P
11
IHi.lIIrn 3!ATF.8 KGREJt (!1X'3AK)

l{IIUM!I OU:lu
U{l 301
N4111e' J$. iflll """'"
Z.Ild ;:t


UIIU, 1W1 llI>tf>uyd.e 1(006" 6<:3
lIiUtu\-" i)';wP&tie'" Chb? IlP-hlm!c l.a.hr l'latoon
jfi-tA WItt .,....u ;me )tur.
1:-5. '{<It appl1<d1bb.
t. Segt-.at at
!':oN"" ilkyul>$....
'{<It
n. "" rli4t.,.
'ot
.m, ._.
Zl. .ot
;2. brok. of fntiR6
; ,t,.,,;t fwOl ,...r, tI .. po"""'" QA '_rhl:N>d '"111 &Irl
..m.t tI,., wuli 9>,,/""'''' tl'Q" un1"-$. S.UmiJ ...tII tlltt.'11";
th.
24. See 23.
25. Reoeived several eir attacks, strating oy jet plane. and
naval gunfire (air our.t and ineendiary projectiles). Naval
gunfire cau.ed the greateot easualtin and tlley teared it greatly.
Tbey tailed to lIeed the presence ot reconnal ance plane. whioh
directed the naval tire. Big .hip. were firing on
26. Be 5aW 3 tanks which brought his unit under fire whicll
c .. ",oed a retreat to the hUh 11'1 tb no c .. """tUn.
27. Rot ...
28. Ro
The function ot the regiment we. to maintein 11al.on
bet.een front and rear, to encircle enemy pOSitions, to
retreeting aad engege in .treet flghtig.
school gradUate, cooperative but
In the .. 3 year.. Student
Ill'TERROOATOR, H. If. .. ld, KOSAK
TRAIISL.l.TOR, Kilchoon Kim, SUSAK
"5
lI'p" JC::lO!;n :M f<.>l
/lUll' hI'<
144$2
21y...n
1)!l1\, In;;r4 Rllt't.
_t1lta!'1
1. hrr...4"""'" with *2 or lit' <rm Un On ltjrd 0" tr..
"ato"E_ C1ll1,.6 til ru.'A ,... ,t:. t"'*' by rivll1g tlw:o
1"t<> tile 1Itl1'''' hoi _. th"y 0",,11 Mt c...... , t ... &t
S"",," by "141.... "..lih, tkf** ..t U:oomen
at b, ,-nd1"t rlvar.
ta bAv.. JoSl9$ to, "rt*r ..
r..-volt "" 'IX, =l _1 to ,flit ""J n .... /lh reputd1""
"". "by J<>1ft1n& th6- '"...,., (:1.111_ M n,.o. "_1' ...uu hU
.. t .... l.d ",r ='''''_rtl.a.1 r"r 1:111..,. .U
\Ul..e by 11:'>: t"""'........"t MeJo!.l."" ....:< $ lot (Ill
ot vill h1,
INTZRVIIlW NlllIllER 12
knccked cut in tne by air The prisoner .tate.
that of One shipment cf 30 _as per.enally bringing by
road from Suwon to Taejon, he lost 25 on the way, of which 10
were salvaged about 10 days later. IIOot of these were mired by
coming off road, and were later hit by a1r attaCk. He reckon.
that about 80 tanks wer .. loot in thh way bet.... en Suwen ""d
TaeJon. Sometime. the route u.ed Wa. a secondary road via
A.u.oug wt.lch was mOre rree frOlC air ettack, he reckons lo-H
tanks wero lo.t on that route. Qr the 500
which pri'oner claim. ftX'. 3UO were lost to air
He that more were lost to land mine.
than to artillery, but they .ere repairahle. person
.. 111 supe,...1sed repair. ot about ten tank. dam..g..d by l .. nd minea
In hi. regiment. He oonsider. that were About 100 damaged
by!!inu in tho! 105th Armor@d Division. The .... in cause of
de.truction of tank. by air .as the napalm bomb, with about 70
rocket loe.. Only a tew tanks were abandoned tor lack of
tuel (e.tlmated 15), but more were abandoned on acoount of weak
batteries 30). There no ....es of oelf-dutruc
tion known to the pri.oner.
4. Not appl1eaole.
5. 'rank. oaught fire very n.ily on penetration Or Wh"" hit
by napalm. Prisoner know. of 4 tanks lo.t on 'raejan,
all penetrated by fir.t .hot and Say. it .... artillery,
out prisoner neVer M ouaoka.
7. Not applicable.
8. kaI1mum effe.tive range about 1400 meter., but generally
opened up about Boo meter.. HVAP arTowhean i aid
to penetrate at the bigher figure of 1400 yard
9. Carried 55 round., 5 AP, 30 <0 liE. Later
they bad an atr Dur.t anti-personnal wi h a pr@_.@t no...
fuse. Few tank. knew how to use it.
10. Both maohlne gun. u.ed
H. When they had a planned advanc@ tank. preceded SP gun. br
""hr', ..ltb infantry a turthH 200 ""ters behbd. Infantry
'" not give flaQk protection.
'"
12. Intantry .ere carried on tanks, up to 30.
13. A.lway. night movement, along main road. Tank@r_ unable
15. they !leTe '''''1'<11. lin., wllJ: tbllt tt..
T-34 & any Or tank. Hs
IlQ ill. "(Itt"" W l',,!uu 0 .. "",illHl
16. Not
17. lI<>t gOM. an ..1!!l>t out "Penti""
th"J' Il..,! ...".,d. ..............,. p<><>rlr
.
18. 'WII:-l. Cud U'" l'U{(, $In, ,,$ Nt" tfL'1.k \:- t.a.nIc
Go.... w:t1etti">l1, lmt t".,\d nHtllo it <>]\ tt> the hter_;>I\""e
20. >I..1,..,.;>UiI paTh. Tholl' lld tt; eM\tlillaUI$\I <l/lhell<!
te k&ep tn. "th".... tn.l' dtd <lot h...
1a PrenH"ft \la!"..., t\<<r _ ..t.!d.
21.
2.". t&nS , .. tr<l;;.';'<1, tM), OIHIr \lj.. t"
.. "'''>H. _" t""jo:3: .....l or"" in " ..
","usbt _1,,,, hi:".... , crut"" t...,,,tl.. <lu.. In tItil
dT-iv1t:g.
INTERVIEII' NUllBKR 12
24. As above.
25. Expertenced a1r attack, tank attack, artillery attack and
Air attack 5-6 times a day, Tank met
freQU8ntly, especially in .aktong area. most afraid of
air attack, especially napalm.
26. 8 al'lllOred cars 11_24 __ , and blgger hOlt. 1Iith nre-power
which penetrated his tanks.
2? As ..cove, air attaok, especially napalm.
28. See el.e.nere.
Very intelligent.
before entering army.
though hi. figures are
tank 103.es.
INTERROGATORS,
TIUNSLATOII,
H llacDonald, and Capt E. D.
Strong, (UK). ORO, ""SU
Kllonoon Kim,
I
I
L
'"
A1>RElt!),t?; I)
13
_w"'"""
&':;.)I1'R S'UJ11$ "lUlr. KOOU (!roSM.;)

Ai'tlSOl
:u 1::""'1. 11.1n
tt
4'>40.;
;:j Y4aU
to;th Artd btv,
in charge of
';nth \Wit 2 "Mr. l-?

nut lpplieable,
J. <>t "IlPUn"tt.. i'r;l"".H Mt ..,0 J.nfO,."...tiOfi !m\
lib UglHUt 65 ,,,,,,'o'.t nri&inally Iilld, at be U"", "f
th<; rat...""t frl)Ol 'WI>NI"illllthly 3(' ..t, S
NI'U"'-''lt t...vw.. '4)?Nxiru.ttly J{!, prfl'fided
to ht,
""",... 1#Itn.:", .. .. enol arHlhrry 1:j,..,.
J>TI""'pbl nt 1" lit. $&.. ilI"'lY
.....100 "Ht> <tu..t<W tncx" ane! \>urn1t<'l F_
l<lf\l<" had _'trl!,H<XI'"
4-$, Not .WU"4l>l'h
6. R>!1_tn 50 ,,! KIA.
7-1].
17. Heerd that radio between tanks wa. not good
because of lack ef u:per1ence of the tank ern
18. )fot appl1cabh.
19. )fo maintenance .ark dene at front. The regimental techni
cal company effected Snme repairs with occasinnal help from
divisinn. The principal trouble wao engine
20-21. Not applicable.
22. IInst fre'l"6nt trouble was with anllineo and fan which was
frequently de.... ged by stones and other fo .... 1go. ....tter entering
eo.gine compartment when engine covers were epen in hot weather.
Wheal bearing, al.e burned out often. One. not think batteries
.ere defective as tbe life nf the battery Was about one mnnth
and then they nre relllOved for repairs. An ample supply of
part. wa. availAble for thi. purpose. The sulphuric acid
supply wu U"Hed, out no. toni< wa. ever Qe8.<l11n"d tllrOugt>
battery tronble as out tanks provided enough batteries
to others in operation. Battery c ,leaked atter about
one service. Some troubles with the bstteries due to
exces.ive use by crew. in otarting engine
23.24. !fnt appl1cable.
,,
only strafing and personally oaw 3 KIA in his
unit by strafing.
26. Saw one destroyed UN tank 10 Yongdong.
27. lint applicable.
28. Sa. oo.e damaged by the frnnt part. of the
traCkere u."a11y broken.
ochool graduate I worked in fertilizer
tactory as a batt..ry ....n. He beel!.llle a soldier 1n June 1950,
previously working witt> the army as a civilian. Prisoner not
very intelligent or
INTERROGATORS. H. II. lIacDonald, and Capt R. D.
Strong (DK) ORO EVSAA
TIWfSLATOR. Kilehoon Kl=, oao, EliSAK
D
Interview 14
HE.W(.jllAlITERS
EJ:GIt'l.'"d UNrl'\1l STA'I'E5 AJU[Y, KOREA (EUSAK)
Operations Research Office
APO 301
14 Decemoer 19,0
SUBJECT: Interrogation Armor Project
hlle, Jun Sang Hyeon
,_.
M"
NUllber. 14496
Age '_ }O yun
Untt. 2nd Dlvi.lon
K1lit a ry Occupation' Division Technical Sattalion Officer.
In unit since June 1949 when ne joined
ar"-.
1. Surrendered)O Sept at Chongju. His unit .... retreating
from ChOnju and he .as i.olated with three of h1s men On a hill,
aad .urreadered. No actual Combat experience .ith
gun., as he waS repe1rine 1n the r&Gr.
2. Rot applicable.
}. 16 gun. SIP in division - 11 ...-ere lo.t on n_y d<>wn froll
North Korea and remained ...-ith division On the
The 11 lo.t and totally destJ;'Oyed by fire enroute ."re lost
thrn air attack _ rocket ith MIG tire. Rockets penetrated
arOlOr. F .. unkno,"" of tive gun. along Raktong.
4. The 11 gunare hidden and eo.lIIOutlaged, otf the road ...
far eo. terraln would permit, and concealed with foliage.
,. See 3.
6. From 25 June _ 30 Sept the technical battalion ..utfered 70
KIA, 19 WIA thrn eir attack
7. Rot applicable.
8. Mo.x1= r!Ulge 5 mile., or concrete pillbOX
iva range .a. 200 meter Abo?e this range they not have
a flat tr..
'"
INTERVIEW IIlJMllER 14
9. Only carried one kind or in hi. unit, 60 round5
1.
10. maohine gun.
11. applioable.
12. carried troops, maximum 30, up to line of attack.
13. at ntght along main roads.
14. off tM road placed 2 sentries with automatic
weapon. 50 meters to the front and rear. The battery 5Uppliod
neces.ary .entrie
15. The Sam BP/76 i good weapon e.timation of
and tirepower good.
16. See 15.
17. Radio communication good.
18. Good - .imiliar to system.
19. very pOOr insuffici@nt tool. to accompli5h
maintenance and no spare part.. tn addition air attack., .nich
were very any maintenance that they
accompli.h. Thl. condition applied thru all eohelons.
20. S8" 19.
21. The SP/76 con5u&ed about ,5 gallon. a
22. The engine wu improperly tt.e crew to halt
vehicle to eool the engine. 15 mitu drivjrIg eauoed ""diator
to U5e an _ater.
23. Supply truck. followed artin..ry. In colll.1nl do... from
corder, nO difticulty in supply w&s experienced until the unit
eam. under air attaok and lo"t 811 its truck.. truck.
_ere lost had to depend on the fe. truek. remaining in division
headquarters, .nich at time. 1ll1l11Obtl1ze<l the unit tor two to
three days.
24. Fuel was very difficult to obtain at &11 The oth....
items became ditficult to obtain because of air attack.
and lo.s of transportation.
25. Air attack---cont1nuous along route advance artillery
ChongJu middle AUgu.t S. A. tire Chongju Sept. Strating ...
mo.t effective and fearful. S. A. tire permitted some movement
of troop, but artillery and air athck forced them to ........ in.
'"
"tthlf'>t. ''''''''''.!It.
Sa" no tank,.
:rl. applicable.
20. 11<> oxper1<l"".
(in""",,, gndu$.h "",<lh1n..st. t.ir-ly
and ooopt ..
I>lII!I\!\OOA:r-o/l$ ,
lru.!fSt.ATClR I
Interview
HE.>J)qIJAlITEflS
OIIltED STATES!RIIY KORI.! (I!IJSAK)
otfi"e
APO 301
14 D"""mtJer
"".....
Rank.
I(1m By""ll.g aak
2d Lt
l'U!Dber. 19'.>2'.>
'gel
Unit.
22 ,..ars
l05th A.rmd lilv, l07th Regt
1l1Ut!lry oeoupati<>n. Began a. rgeant; from April
27, 1950 .a. platoon la.der.
2. Hi. over ollng to driver making mi.take., at
Hi. tank waa abandoned, naving fallen up.ld" down Into
ride paddy. Th1. waO on 25 JUne, fir.t day of campaign. Doesn't
know of any other tank 10..... at the time,
Mot applicable; prisoner $SI no action after thts.
8, 1000 meteu.
9. 55 round.; '.> API 20 HE; 30 Anti_per.onnel.
10. Only again.t enasy infantry.
11. Ro.
according
went over
cooP"""tion.
12. Prl10ner haS carried 5-6 infantry on tank, mo.t or whom
oere killed by enemy fire. Tank -ould "c"upy objective, infantrr
would be u.ed to 1t. In Dlvl.1oD was a
",
L
APPENDIX D
,"cb&niud lntlllltry which hMl truck" to carry them, but
other infantry had to walk.
13. 110 eXPOrlenee of trying this. Consider. tanl<. were too
nolay to keep their movement secret.
14. They were taught to prcrvid@ .. s with "ll-round pro
tection, to stay away from road, and tnat one crew of
.."ch tank should stay on guard.
15. T-34 good fighting weapon, fast with good fire power\ ,",
maximum efficiency w,," not obta1ned owing to the unsuitab e
terrain conditions 1n Korea.
not very good. Reception was
him.elf was not well trained
17. This worked well, no trouble.
18. Tank crew maintenanc.. weo not don .. in war. If anything
went wrong, tMre ns a long delay of, oay, a fortnight, !OI'
spare parts to arrive even in peacetime. 8fik. remaineu where
they down, guarded by cr@. until unIt mechanIc. came to
them. They had a 00:0: of tools in tank fOr mInor repaIrs.
19. Doesn't know "",oh about it except as in question 18.
20. Cocsumed about 2 gallon. mile on the march.
21. Transmis.ion !ailure when In low gear. For in.tance, pull_
ing anotber tank or cro.sing rice paddy.
22. No eXpenenee of bein! supplied. \then they cro.s@d the
border they day. supply wIth them.
23. lIot applicable.
24. Saw very little action. Under artIllery fire one gun
OnCe.
25-27. Not app1icahle.
>e.
rinbhed first year at high school. Joined army as infan
tryman in Novelllber 1948. Joined lO,tb Aro:d Div in lOay 1949.
Prior to Joining arilly laoor_r in " ""'gna.He mine. Fatr),y
intenigent, but of very l11llited experience. Hb crew fired
only two round. tn training before going into action.
Capt E. D.
INTERROGATORS ,
H. W. MacDonald, ORO
I
'"'"'
(UK), ORO EllS K
TRANSLATOR, Kl1choon Kim, ORC, euSAK
",
INTERVIE.W 16
Interview 16
IfEAOQUARTERS
EIGHTH UNITED STATF..s ARIlY, KOREA (BUBAK)
Op0rationB Researcn Office
APO )01
15 DeceOlber 1950
SUBJECT, Interrogation Armor FroJect
Name, Lee In J)n
Rank!
Number, 201328
.I.ge, 26 year
Unit, I05th Armel Div, 10?th Regt. W1th unit since 1949.
101111 hry Occupation' First tan$ commander May 1949 _ Aug 19,0
and later platoon had@r Aug, _ Oct 2
1950.
1. Pri.oner was having 2 tanks repaired at Sangju when UN
forc@" ocoupled the town. Re ran away to Rongchon. While r@st_
ing in a hou.e outside Hongchon, troops appeared Bnd arre3t
@d him on 2 Oct 1950. Rt. unH was 1n retreat and .cattHed.
2. Yes, on two different occasion' witb different tank
3. Hi. fir.t di.abled tank was on patrol with on. othar .ome
where between Suwon and O.an. When tank Was passing over
top of a pas. with the other tank far US
utHlery opened tire (lO,mm) WP hHting tank 3 times without
and without The driver beeam@
holleve,. lost control !ltld tM t""k went Off the road ..nd
fell in!o a rice paddy and b@came mired. Date 10 July 1950.
4. See 3.
5. See 3. tank becoming mired was "'andoned by Ih
crew who left the hatches open. The US artillery continued to
fire and One round entered th.. tank through th@ drivo", hatch,
s@tting the tank on fire and de.troying it.
6. Th@ d"!v@r" and assistant driver after a!)&.ndoning the t""k,
sought shelter under tl;@ tank and wete later by S/A
fire. TI:", ,.est of the crew escaped.
7 3*tft.... c.",,,.... ,,:;d <It :<Wr, Cb.",...t
h '''' to tOlk* 'I'b ...... f"I-t;t'ol 1M,," ".1'1' .'lIt 'lith
in leid "n rQi4. fhi p$S$t4
the v! put ..h@n .. ,hit
?<'tll't U$ 9p=e<l Un nth h&l1ll .. ,
the U ... t hllk was hit by ruot'Jd-t .... n&<I... rr...t""'lIh "r
l'h1eh tank,fru"",,,bly tbru .on "'''11 ba.tvll, Idl'llN; _
_ lIIb,,,' "t the the ",.1.... ,. I>doame "Xl'lted ""d _
tahk 'It rtghl angles to the line or
Othe-r ere......mbe" ,U""",unwd &W '""M UHed "'Y
..!th the exception of tt.e Ya,
entered the it.
The tan\< 'I'll' .0;1." hit .... UU.,,!'y n..., H05...: Hr.,
anct The
its front by ftr*
OIl til.. 'H (In 0'1'<'. 111.. "nD w: 1),>\4 411k. M-V)
don.d, K::' 0:0 <) inA 111 h!itl<l g:HrdilM.
nate u:1d<11" of
11, ""te,"" 'II.U",,,,,,, 'I'''''!'' dl"""'HU.
9. X-34's 5 hod for
"itton be t"" Qf 1'f'=ttU"t
to careled. 5 liE- ;"; 62
75fXl ""UlI<:h.)[jG "..,.,.nd Y, Irhi$ is & b:H

lO.
u.
1"
,,,
lI=u.
12. Uutil \11
n'
llMr.-lad en the t..::;k. ?rMo '""",1 ''''. tli1$ "... 5ti>we4
'" tn& the tho
"tee.
13. h eOl"h JihR""" ;>t "'Ir, l .. .. he Md" <>nw.l
<)f <In; "e.. ! .. Ut.. .. tQ ... N
lo.. of ti* .. ntlht
..ere to. nigbt
S t""k. lost in t.'le dJ.:.. tli"" all:- Mtt;:.,,.,. !ail>
"'...",
15. thi"k. it it. a WOty bhk. lie u., lI"uhn t .. t.o.nk
he iUA t"nk was
"".... ltnMl<m' !md the), t.ad i'<) ot t1>"",.
1&. lIQ"f;
\7, ;" tNl&int. tw'HQ """,""1t.ication not"".. " u:....... !coi!,
hut tf it Wd<
.-!l'HltWH>t 4:A ,btl'. iIltut.r0Me.
Hi, Cnn it<! n4t uH syste",.

troc

21. ..: 5X: "'I"ct.a no," to
=
22, td",N vu v,, t..." 1101>1':,
llle btmbh h.! tPfi u.!""tH HeilClnCq
oUer'>ll l.n .lltHiar rnrd", u$nsU, tiNk.. ga"n (thh
!tight >l'l'.teh, t""a"l.l.
<'}. .. 00.,1", ;;..,,,1 11rH1:"4lty ....$ ltut
"r .. ""'t.ft" "'-'''I "..d",,,, am
and ea .. '" t .. vl ;5-&41
lon oans), tation$, etc.
24. 110.
A.rt1l1",.y, air Attack, Sf! and I>artd hnJ<
Air att,."k-n"p.. lm,.,.s .ron" ,,-":hh he
wa.
?o. On11 wntGt
to T-34'"
27. ""lib..
"" tffimi:h 1'", "". 5s""'ral d""",-!:"d
'11t11ch h !;f,oQIIlt .... '1O',...-<>a"",&I.
(}fa_" J"""l vaJ>:U, "'M' 194':',
lHf '0'$$ ,hU"r. h'uta,,,;-!; $M
t"'lrnMGa":M.
TIU.lffiLAZm!,
:tun x... 800 St..
lat lot
hdlul
"'" ,..1"
1'lA1h 1 'til u..!. Di"'. l1\il ..,t.
_ill".".O"cup&tl"", lIatl00 !kIp!>l),
... ritb wdt nn,;IiI 5 .1'II.rt. 1\15.
I\lIft in .... with lfUl. 'f"""..,t ttl. n ....t
:w",tb "'I'MJ 1941: ". tint .. :rhofl, 14t"" ...
........"..,.". mt41rlni
1. Capture;!
1h& -.tt.. hi.
'!Iber. Sent.
l..tt Iln4 ...
6. .... 2.
'/. 'a,
a. 't<Il<! 10 ..! ..j!),( thIot .,V.,,, MfMth. "aut" \(I ",!>au fi"
... tll.ilM WIIj! 1J(>
""
!l'l'E.llD_ll..!!
9. 55 l'<)UIllIs. (5 v, 2O:HR; 3 2COO 10'.u./llr
lII.Ii I:Iarnl ...
10. J.aain.t 1M'""t..,..
11 .... tol.! 111. that thq strocl<l 11<> "'>, but in
tllj:jlul 1"" 1>7 th....."'b..
lao Curt"" -.. n_t1n;l-, as 1nf""t..,.
had DC trucks of theIr DYIl.
13. \fi,ht ",v''''et, c>r 011 :N.itIY 4n4 tOUT II.,...
14. U training 1 .... ",<14 th.... bwb "t :u...-r .,.......
n,. i>ru.a, no- s..tm"uy ......."'*. bolI--tm. fltbi.a __ .,.n11......
t&nU au 4hJ:aU'M ct.rt.d hut...........s.. p).tM. :tt. tol'il4rd.
Uh$. t.luu;s IOU red:r t.:; .....t <ran HIIIIlin "Il. b",..t'<l. k:r
""'T ,,"" .......... "" If.Io<mtlftt:"'" tu!::t &n<i hl4 t""" ."
1""t nr hilh. In ..tJ>t .. r h, ..... ....t'c t<> ....... Idllw libM!t,
1.,. n.l!!.ke 1t 11 ".I"t good, llfi hu _ I othtl1' tfll:\k. Lim
it ,,,,c.uso KIln IOoOllUrat.:\- .wI has da'tQ.u ht1;tUj: I">"r. l!Aa
t!r.d twic. iu trairtiu(.
16. __
1'1'. -'u .;tUct!n &t In,l=nlQ ot c.'"iP'Iip. ",.,t NOUII 1 ....
ttt1!l!tlfll, htI tl>.1M;, M 'QQOU4t :J "PI'rat<;,r .. that
..nt'.
1$. b .. tt.r thAn btt.e41l 'or ..
_".r ",,"" t_t b.. .... ,he. ..1_1 to ftI>
tQ (ll'h..r M:I.O db. bt1,;w Mil.
19'. &I :my, tllAt __ or t ..... kf d_,,,,, 10 nU<l ",.........;rln.cl
.r aa(l t.'bal".l r.1e..,.
20. a..:f* that Md Il1Tid"""l n.n
"r PUt., bjot d1<lD.'t lmow "",eN tt:" .. tI,.... Tbti:t'
.. .... 1If.... .... by "onotant alr U1"S 1!Mat _t t _
_ d m:lht.
21. o.:... 8l<'t tQn". 3.,.. tbtl up.o..:1ty .... 14<> l1t.u.
22. o.:.....,'t kilo", tn>t ncr. "Hh"'!.:.l I.nllr... _,.. r....qoOO'Qt.
&13e t ..
Th'TJ;;HVIEW NUMBER 17
25. They 8%perlenced e1r attack, beth otrating and rocket Ie
I1.pallo.
26. DldIl't lee an1.
lot applicable.
28. 10
Jelned ars, Jane 1948. II biBb .chIlol gradu.t-,
in engineering. !ppear. rather dull, eottS1dered .alIlabIe in tbe
or supply, but didn't kne aboat other question"
I1I'T8!UlOGUORS , H. 1J. lI&eDondd, ORO ma.u:
Capt D. Strong (UK)l ORO,
!tileboon n_, ORO, HDS.u
SUBJEC'l'.
,_.
,_.
IflUlber.
4ge.
Unit.
nUta..,.
APPElIDIX D
18
I!EADQU.ut'l'ImS
EIGIITII U1fIT!1.D sums.uurt mRU (1IJ3410
Operatlolls orne..
U'O )01
15 Deee.,.. r
Intarrog.tiOll 4.-or Project
An lifo'" Sup

'''''' 24 p"or'
17th I:ad 'h.nk ...de
Oceupation, Te"hnical Company Officer speei...lizing ill
"peir of gaM. With IIa1t .inc.. 25 hpt
50, prior to that .tth 208th frahill, R.gt
...t !fo combat experience.
2. 10 tank ...
3. Pri.onn reporte<l unit w.. or,lUllzed ...t CboI18Ju ...bout 25
Sept out of ..".... l1'ors of the 17th Tank Rest (DiT'll ""lcb hed beell
ill 8. The n_ brig...de .... e".o1pped with 10 t ...l!.s &!Iieb
were all de.trored bet.....11 Cbongju and Snnchoo br air attack
rocket.. and napaI.. Six-se1'all ...r .. tDocked out by napaI.
.".tlJ ... t Ink....n. Three ... t 8\1nc!>on.
4. He It.. not ... t s ....ne but believed "",.t tanl<Jt _ere ...ttacked
and dutr01fld ...round KwalI: .... RR .htlon 1I!l11e being unloaded and
eamou!t.ged. Three at aa.ebon Iter.. in po.ition ott the road 0_
outl&ged on hill
5. Olle direct hit wa. ou!tlci...t to ...t fire to t.nk.
6. Do... not know.
7. lI'ot eppUcable.
IH'I'ERVIBW II\llfB.ER 18
8-9. Doe. Det kDcw.
10. uti-Wantry weapon.
11-12. Dou I>Ot know.
Wot appl1eab1
15. lotTer tired the PIlS 1n. tanks 1n. trai.D.tng, Irno.s IIOtll1l1il
about tile pertorBRllee or cuo
16_16. Wot
20. "0 part. 00 baIld.
21. Wot applleoble.
22. Rzper1eoeed trouble with rr1etioo 10 the ...rl
or the tr&Ter8108 BOd aleTetiog meehaBi... He 00
ing the operatton at gear.. !be7 ueed po.er 00 the turret traT_
el'Sa Tery spar1n.gly to eon.erTe battary power.
lot applicable.
25 .ltr ..thc:li: ..t P700gang wheo 1n trdn10g ao<l at Cbonj" bolll>_
Lng (H.I.) and .tr..tLos building. and bridge
26-21. Wot .p]>l1"",bl
28. Wone
47e&U gra_r r .. betore ,oin1<>&" 0"7. Coop..
er.tiTe but rather It"p1<1.
H "'cDo08.ld, ORO !!DSll
Ca]>t. I. D. 8tro<>&" (ax), ORO, !OS.!J(
TR.!.NSL.l.TOR, 111chooo Ita, ORO, !OSll
!lGlffil
Kim Uti Yong

,
"
25th lnt

AS.t.t.nt enaran;
fOaIIn&tod eto.. lIIlHt4r7 tQl:WQ} pH"),, .'" .!<>l..::WI;: wt,
Unlt ... '''VlX'Md to bO nth ..t bw1 "" 2Z Swt
tut 115 tl'IWVI hNI dtudT at hclM>u .tAd II, huM tlHIt tJ>t.
1: detHnt4 ter tho \lIlJ,t ...... ..tl' dtl'",,.
b)f ud;*u. <>r ......r. ,t ttiJ<lf1lbll lfIhae <oa tboo 1'<"14 k lh."",1.
1. hpt d hoal
t,o....... ,,,Ub,,,,, Sot
Nfl! dtu ...wit,.. ! .. tdl.t t .... ttirl, S......." IX>nla.t
tn... on SAcul.
il'. II"",, "" tomkl.
r-'. S<lll tQI"Qr(i:,
6-].
6. a<>t 1<>'-,,_.
NUMBER 20
HEADQOB7E!15
UNITED STATES ARMY, KOREA (EUSAK)
OperatIon' Oftlce
APO 301
SuaJECT, Interrogation Armor
Name, Lee !Cuen '1'ak
lot Lt


27 yea.,
Unit,
46th Iod Regt
lUll tary CUlture Offloer. Wa5 .Ith thl. unit !ro..
tt. or&anlzatlon to hi. capture (2 ",onth.);
prniou,ly ..ith 3rd In! Div.
1. Captured at PyonRyang on 29 Oct. Wu retr"atlng fro,"
hi. comrade. who re fro," that province, desertu4, but he ar_
riv&d in Pyongyang alone .earing CIvilian clothe., where he we.
by Korean Security Police.
3.-24. Prl.oner does not knew anything ebout at .. 11 snd
.a. unable to aner any questions on tank .ar!are. His function
wa_ to give pOlit1cal and l@"tur... to ]fCO", -.he .er..
to pao. It on to tho troops. H.. was respon.tble for g&therlng
infonation as to politic.. l trend. or hlo 0_ lI1en, to correct
undesirable tendencies, report ca.... where corr..ctlon waS
hpoulble to superior offleeu.
25. ae experienced only One air attack, napel'" being used against
personnel when they were havLnt lunch in .. two ... re
klll@d, the other. _.re able to dlsp..rse w1thout injury.
school graduate. Communl,t party ..ber. Intelli
gent. Satisfled with c .... p CondItions, but would 11ke mOre !bod
J\PPEmlIX D
8n4 oigarettes.
H. W. Oa0i-EUSAK
C&pt. B. D. Strong ORO,
TRANSLA'I'O'h Kilchoon Kim, ORO,
IUGHT!!
2. Ill. ""It ..... ",,'0'1,. '""" M<t .. _ .. ......,dntd 4"1
...... nothing lOb_t h.nk.; II" ."... 1n All.
.,tool at lI...jI> .. to lOr..,. it. ...",,&1. Aft"" 1$
tralntag lH! .... ..,<J. 1'<'t 1u ri>l>t'I" ..t ""'lIl\ly 1.. tll1.
""it. n,,, unit .... stJ.ll ill 1'1'<>"" <>1 Ul'PI'<1JM -mo..
nnt W n .....
3 tn <I. If"t ..bi<>.
1J) """ ):l:, 1Ier1. *p?!t!"liu.
nll'M<t trldl:. U _uoo..a .1H>" 11w"'" ttl", ..
-
APPENDIX D
had an artll1erT aupplT sectlon ..a. to look atter 9 ditfer_
B trucka aa already ..ntioned. tbe artillery aupply section ...
ent
,.

,
o.
,
,.
,.

,
,
,
l:>..
!bey were to hay. on. l:>rigade transportation company but had only
respon.ible tor the planning, and th8 tran'portation compaQy
hauled th8 '"pplla.. this tical "a. not tilled betore they
mQyed, theT actuall, had onl11
a. 800 infantry.
b. 90 maChine JUns (heavy).
e. 40 maehine gnns (light).
d. 2 heavy mortars.
e. 11 76>aio guns.
t. B tru.cl<a.
25. &Eperlenced air attaok, artillery and B.A. tire; go.tly air
He liked n.pal. bomb lea.t or all.
26 to 28. 11'0 knowledge.
JII"l'KRROG.tTOR I Capt. B. D. Strong ORO, EUSAK
TRA'II'SLA'rOR, K11cllool> Kill, ORO, ElJSAJl
HUMBER 22
HIWlQUA.lI'rIRS
SIGIITil Ull'UI!ll 3TATBS AlIKY [ORB&. (EUSAIO
Operat1ons Re.e.reh Office
JJlO 301
SUBJ!CT. Interrogat1on Project
If...... Ll. I.yong Soo
Ra.tlk. let Lt
If..mer, 49282
.,., 24 year.
Un1t. 10$th Dlv., Dlv. Teeh. Bo., Jolned unlt Kay 1949
Military Occupat1on' !echnlc.l Officer
3. Cover1ng only tile lO7tb and 109tb The prisoner
per.onall, bandLod 32 Qombat disabled and wable to
.tore to serv1ce 15. Twelve were burned b7 .....palm 15 by al"
( .. 11 npdr..b1e), 2 by .rt111er, in tile IflLktong. h.teen
tional .ere .light1, damaged (repa1rable) by strafing.
!fot .pplicable.
APPEh"r):O; D
that from .tart ot _ar to
there were 800 KIA, 3500 WIA, 3000
7. !fot applicable.
8. About 4 kllolleUrs.
9. I.P and incendiary 30 and 25.
10-11. !fot appllcabla.
12. a combat team on tanks up to SUwon but thfty
suffered auch heavy ea"ualtie! that the practice waS stopped.
c..oalti....... rs putieularl)' heav)' at 'l.'ongdcngpo.
Patrols Mnt out on toot to reconnoiter the position
the tanks, and the tanks moved at oight atter the po.ition
been declared .eeure.
14. .I. sHe 1. selected tor e .... ourlaging tanks and DOe guard 18
posted On each tank.
15. Compared to De..... model. or Rus.ian tanks was obsolete
bQt it peptormed ...11 in torean YQr. He was 1n Ros.ia trom 1945_
1949 at VWivostoll, Harbsll:, Petrovai: flnd then returoed to
VlAdivostok bel"ll traln<!d SS a tractor and tank mechanic. He saw
two new tanks, 8_32 and 8_64. The first, the 8-32 is about the
sa... she .. the r-34 but futer and .ned with an 85_ JU",
... _lth 121mm gun. The on tront of wa.
15 em and turret sideo 10 co.. Front alope ot hull 7-8 CID, weight
64 tons, HP, 60 I<ta/hr speed.
16. Jll'ot applicable.
17. Radio sets did not 1001'11: very IDIlch noise and vlOra
tion, in'ured pert8.
18. COll'lOlUDicatiOll with1.o. t&nk not good. Sa"" .. 17.
19. liaintenance or parts good with ot
batteries whieh were tank
20. See 19; pr1$on
p
r adID1ttod they many di.abled
tank
21. Rot applicabl@.
22. Most common tai1ure was the starting meohan18m.
23. Supply wao by all' attacks, and cart. and porters
were employed.
'5'
I/UlII"BER 22
24_28. lfot appUeabl...
Gra.mar school rraduate. He bad bettD .. eaoual labor.. r b .. _
fore being Bent to Ru9.1.. lfDt ..Uabl" aad ''''pite bi. apparent
backgrOUDd wa. nDt .ell tnrormed DC tamk
III'Tl!:RllOGATOR.
'I'flI.!I'SLA!OIl.
'"
APPENDIX D
Interview IIulllber 23
16 Dece.,ller 1950
auBJECT, Project
!fue,
Han}"
!fulliber.
".,
Unit.
11111tat?'
1. Surrendered 30 Sept et Hongchon wltb 12 wounded. lfh.." first
.ent do.n Pyongrang, no transport ... so be mArcbed
the dl.tance trom P70ngyang to Chongha near Pohang in 20 daYI with
150 replacement.. Be read .any leaflet. on the and waS in a
"",04 to surrender tI,. th" he reaelled h18 de.tl,..ttcn when
opportun1t,. oftere(!. From PyonUang to S<tOUl, II.. on lIuuian
hArd bre&d. Fro. S.cul to tile tront. Peopl
food.
2-5. Wot applin.tll
6. In this ocmp"",. .lene 30 ItU cut ot 36 aUigmed. Comp""y ...
used a. a replacement eompany. Moat cualtie. due to arttller,.
Un.
7, Ifot appl1c.tlle.
8. Doe. not !<no", .. he had n<>Ter Ured. the gun nor !lad he been
trained In its uae, The nnit had 120 rJUnda but apparentl,. rtred
onl,. 2 round. ot AP at infantry, then abandoned the guns and
retpeated.
9. AP onl,..
10-16, Ifot applinatlle.
,"
Dl'l'BRVIEIf IIUloIBER 23
11. AnU.tanl< eo.-pall)' had OIIe rall.1o oet tor .. t1011 .tth
battalion headquarter.. It .ort@d .atlaractarl1y.
18.19. I(ot appUcable.
20. 1I0o.e.
.ot appl1cable.
23. Unit IIad t.o truck. tor towl..D& lWla 0J>iI theae t .... ct...re
....oil at night to 10 to b.tt.U"" tor .uppl1... ,
24. Supply Dot reliable. polot '1'48 25 1011u 101and fro.
Chunlha which ia on the cna.t. .aYa1 yeBsel. ott Short
..u .....t or 1;:.....,t8 by day 0J>iI hulpere<l. Il1ght ..,.........nt, U be.d
llghta oon1<l not be ..eed oyer the d1tUcult IIOllRt&1no...
25. Air 0J>iI nau1 gun rtre 1J!>11e at Chungha. Air att..et
...at all' atta.,tere experlenced on march
down tro& Pyongyang. !he tlret in .....trating. Fnrther
"Ollth bolll>1I:oC (50 q lIE) .,.d Ita1"14c ..Uacte ...... made. All
atta.,'...de at daybreak. M&rcb WaB o"ly at ..lght. 'OnlY 2
'II! 1 .. All 3 attack.. riret attack .... _de by 1 1ftt in lorth
L>...a, 2ruI .ttaok by -4. plan.. (B.26'.), 3rd. .tta.ck by 3 jeta.
26. layer saw a UlI' tank.
(11'..-1' 'ehool,ra4nate. Worked. .... ain..r for 5 Y'la"" and
4 rears .. a .tnedore. Prisoner .... not reUable, and .... 111
1otormed "n 10111tary questiona. ae had no tr.1olo, On antitank
sua.. ae recelYed one .ontt or training in infantry tactles only.
lk'I'ERROGATOli. H. 'f. EUSAX
TIWfSUTQIt, "Hel>o"" COl, I\UlIJ.!I;
APPEh"DU D
I..""....1e... "upel' 24
IIE4DQUU\f\!;IIB
JIlIGII'l'II UIIITED StiTES eJIY ItOIlEl (!VSll)
Oparatlon8 Ottiee
!PO 301
.on I(u):: .....
l.ot Lt
201506
2? ,. ......
T...k Battalion, 27th lot 19th Div.
Ocoupation. COBP"'! eo.......d .. l' ... witb unit
A\lII un 11 ht. eaptul'a on 18 \let.
1. Ceptured at Euaebo.. on 13 (let. Unit ...itbdre. tro. n .... v1a
Imn....'-lra..onc. Whn. troop. lot tc ["",ohcn the,. _ra ourl'onode<!..
About 30 Hr" e&ptured in Kuaebcn, inaludint: prhoner.
can....
'). Three ti... hit. Su 2.
6. The driver cf hi. tank had _ slight tr_lme..t .onnd received
when dl'iviDI with the hatch opeD. Thi ..... wben the barrel .a. hit.
",
INTERVIE'II NtmBER 24
1. 10.
8. lot "'re, llOO ,.eten _a .,,1..... o_ing
9. 3 kinds of !Dition. U....U,. carrln 55, could c .. rrr 4
rlve jp, 20 E.B., and 30 anti-personnel WaS normal load.
la. Lower .... gun agd./l.'It ....""'1 infantry at close
TUrret ..chiDe gUn uoed against personnel at ran'''' shorter
..... in ar.....ent.
11. led infant,.,.; their 0.1,. wa. to occupy Objectives as
a. polble, if they could do it unaided, a I the better.
12. Prisoner '0.'" hi. tanks dId not transport info.ntr,., arter
earl,. atage. when Infantry on had heaTT ca...altle
13. attempted to conceal their movement. by day and
re.ted at night. (TII1..... in urI,. pha.e of war.)
14. U.ed 1I111_1d". along the rood. or oooa.ionell,. avenueS of
tree.. Infaotrr tankS at nlght.
15. 'rhlnks it i ... good weapon, but 1. ...re as he ha. 8"8n
no ether 10 d by the
11. In tank there wa. a eignal officer Who
.... ..,11 trained woo was able to ....lntain eOlllllUD.lcattoD with
other noapanies, battalion', etcetera. Ie other
were len enced, and u t .... radio perfo""",,,ce .U not 'u
good,radto ... u."" sparingly.
18, Ee s .. ys that there wa. a lot of noise in the earphones, so
tne,. otten ,ned. touch .,..te'" and shoutl<>g. Commander
6
gunne r_driv@t
relay b,. ..&0. of foot signals.
21. Doe.n't know. Sa,.s tank 810 litres including reserve
,_.
22. St.ering levers so .. p-tlmes beeame hard to move. track.
dso ""lIIlIon.
On _y to S .. oul tank was refUeled by truck. once; didn't need
.upplle$ as they .artied .ufficient.
24. Rad very 11011ted experlence, .0 cannot say.
25. Ead very little except a. mentioned 10 question 2.
Al'IVIRIX.?
n... "'.... d., 1M &"lfI'I:"I<lllllf 'I'U' ",!><rot '" &""'7
in the __ ",..-.
;6, DlI tl\r,u.
So ft# &1'N.t1l qt 1I..1a4t Il'llbUd """ .ttu:la.$ "" Int.....tq
'rtth lJiti>/! 1':Mi!"""". "tr.. t6H.
28, 'lo <if ..1"",. IH'n_11$, btl1i .,." ten!
>tit!:. b...,iI .... tr",""., IOl>d lIl,ttw.{a .. !>.a.whu. Lo;Uu til1ud

APPENDll E
TANK CASUALTIES
Introduction
DurIng Jan"",.,. 1951 9101t. were pold to tonk battaliono
op<lrUlng with I and IX Corps; tho> only unit not oontact&<! w"
the 89th Bo.t;taHon, _lUoh 11'8, then t&klng po.rt !n Tuk Foroo
"olthound, Co,"ploh .,ualty ......... r .. obtained from tho
unit. (oee Tabl. III of the moln report) us of loe.
dnee the Chtno.e orfen,lve _re dluoud in detail. Tn. use
or .""'or dur!ng tho period July.Ootobor 195D 10 eooered In
Appendleu F .nd K; tl>..& <1&"1 tM r .. ttruont to the poo""
p&rlm&ter, til<> hOlding aetlon tMee, and tho oubsequ"nt breakout
and adv&no", During thls porlod lJII force8 ..rs eng8gIng North
1(0,..,&11 troops, .ho _,.. oUpp"rhd by tank 8".<1 and
who uoeel mine. haplut"",,,,dly but with good terrain &PFreehtlon.
Caoualties Prior to Cel' Att .. ok
Tho t.."k M.ualtlu ouotal""d by I and IX Corp. to 1
N.,nmber 19;0 -.en .. all""" 1n Tohle I.
UBLE I
I AND IX COHPS CASUAL'I'IES
til' '1'0 1 1950
(Flgurea in p8renthe"". Indle&te totd losses)
Cause Number Per.eDt
toeUeo.l oau...
AFPENDIJ[ E
1".Oha"lcal failure _d 11I1nu oauood tile ,,;roatut p,.oportlOl1
ot caaualtl 'but approxl....toly 70 p&ro.ot or thou woN> N>co_erod
.."d upal.... d. Tho ..oot tr<>qU5nt s1ngle O&u"" ot 10.... yu ter_
rUn. toll.... d bjf ml".. tank fi.... and "",.hanled trouM
Tho CCP Attaek
BJ' tho ""glml1ng of 110"""""r praotically dl t"" e",,,,,y.
a.... or and antitank gun. 'bad de.troyed. and durIng tho month
ot Oatob.r our tank lo..u lIad 'been rolatl".ely l1l!ht. How&Vor.
on Z ..'ber tho 8th Canby R.. gl...nt YU o".. r<>und.ct at Unun
1rJf Cblno88 troop"d 10 tanka ro knocked out or ab8.ndonoct
during the ."aoudlng action. FrOM tllh date up to 21 JMURry
1951 tho I o.nd IJ[ Corps lo.t lZ5 t&"k..... oho..-" In Table II.
TABLE II
I AllP IX CORPS CASUALTIES
Re!'flEI>II 1 NOVllMBIl:il 1950 llND 21 JANUARY 1951
(PIgurU In pa.,..ntlluo. Indicate totallones)
Cau""
I

I
tail.,..e
ranI< n,.e
Infantry ..tuel<
Tern.ln
Unu
An t 1hnI<

lIt>Rndoned' taotlcal c ...u....
A,.tlllory
Aoc1d.nh
TOrAL
NUlOl>or
145 (74)
0
16 (16)
12 (12)
al.
,
CO,
'"
(10 )
8
(25)
'I'

-
hrcent

(59.2)
n.9
( 0.0 0.8
(12.3 0.0
( 9.6) 6.8
L5 (
4.8 <4.
( 0.0 8.5
,
8.8 ;.0
0.0 ( 0.0
8.0
tcrH)1
, .0
10D.0

rncludu ,Ix netr.. t!on
T"''b1. II .he.,., Q very high rate ot mo<l,anlcal failure,
a I"" reoovory r.t. of dl08b1ed tanks ('j percent). rbe 125
total 10.... in 'hi. period oon.tltuted 2.8 poroent of tho eu
u&ltI&s. Til<> thr&6 OIl"" ...h'ch had to b8.
abandoned to the ''''''.Y ocoupylng the ..ru 'before re"overy
.ould be ..It ted. ThI "",11 """,Dec of cu""ltlu "on ho
_ccounted for by tbo Uat that our torce3 ... ..0 in .Ithdc.....l
d",.lng or perIod. Ca.,."ltl from tank .nd
fiN! nota'bly a'b.ent, and mo.t of tho r......notr..t1on. or
"'r",or we"" by buook:a IOltlch are h1hvod to have Man
captured trom UN torces.
C".ualtle.
'1'100 cau.. o of ,.oebr.nl.o1 faU",... ..,0Il! tanka in Korn 1
"'l"'ed 1" i.p.,-.,d1:< J; tbt. ah"n tw. pere..nUge of tOODk. "nh
"".hanlo8.1 t.n",.. to 1>0: IIW<;, 20 per.ent; 1124. }4 pereent;
1126, 40 percont; ond M46, UU pereen
Tt.. por nhge or the t"tal ouualUu .a",oed by ,.o.h*<llool
tl'O"l>l. h.. bun about 60 pe....nt. Th!. .On be Utrtbutod to
........100",... '
1. II-nJ or tbtl tonk. .ont to Kor.a .oro .ell."om, having
.u" ."hn.ln unllsnho.....
2. Tho ......,. rougb t.r,.oln, o""'l>l""d "lth tho I>lgl> .. n ...go
OO_"od by ""1 ",l1to, put. gtut .train on all .... botol 1
... lI.lel...
;, Thill''' ..... ,horU!" or ,klllod Unk me.bAnl .. ot .. n
l ....t..
4. or<\n"" ""Ito o.t dhlslo"al 10nl an'" higbor
were ""obl0 to gin adoquate .upport to tho Unk bAtUl1on
'I'M, ...."IUd f ..OID tho dlotan"" paratlng CO)ll"., ond .uppor.
units, a hetor that _ ggr....ted 'oJ tho poor ,..,..do, "",,- the
li.k or _po,.. puu in tl10 ban<l. ot rhlcl .... Ictanano. ""ito. Tho>
Ilea.". nqul...... nu ot the ....". In ""'.p"ot t<> ..atlon., POL, and
..aun1tl0D. oDupbd .ttll the :i.ngth of .uPp11 l1nu, r olhd In
tbe .,..oholO11 of Cl... II a:\d IV luppl1u OYOr oon.iderable per
IOd. and preYenhd a .took of apa,.e part. boOing bunt up
11-10,. to 1 .... ho."lod ....""Itl
loot, but
APPSHDIX E
...... Tho totu road durlr.1; tho .1th<l.ra.u per_
Iod (28 IIcn1llber_IO January) ... 1>00 and 500 m11....
Ilo.ttle C..uBlt1u
ooourred 1n olon_
of tho
Imited
Sixteen tank:o .ere Nlport.d lo,t to InUntry ..ttaek, .,,,t
12 of the ... tanko, BrlU.h CrOMO".ll., were lo.t In 8Ingle
aotlon n'''r TbO tank.o, aupportlng .l&.... nh of tho
HrlBan., ro lo,t .hon at along a narrow
tnok bote... n hIgh groond, The le"d tank 1><10.,... dl ... bl.d and
blookM tho !ho eolumn was thon .nackd and overoome by
CCF Infantry. and onl)"" 00$ tank UMp.d.
Enemy InUntry did .. lot of minor da"'ge to by knock
Ing out porloeopu, ..ntonn. buu, and otho>r tixturn
by .-.11_&,.,.. fire. h,.tleularly ot night, the .ne<oy would
attempt to Ol"rUIl tank. thorn !)y plaelng
and pole and gr.nado. In the track. and engin. e""p...t
Whor& tanko ns.d lldo'lu&to Infantry .upport or ... re able
to oo""r &lleh other !)y flT'" 'hue .. _rborth.; but
oocause of tholr limltod vt.ton, tanks ".r& very at
The noed ror Qrtlflclo1 111umlnotlon Qf tho
t>o.ttloft.ld Or .""'. rOm of night v!$lon dUlce n. Io>lnlJ folt
Oy to,," .. ,.opeoUlly fIghting an .n"",y ."0 preflrred
BAT'l'U CASUJ\L'l'mS
to at night. a... oolra. on" antlt_1c rUl<I .an uu<l on a
few siX or th_ olght armOr p.netratlon8 oomlng from
3.5-illch ba:ookaa.
or casualty
Ar..or Ofticu. Eignth baa ""ported tbat .IDce tho data
o! thh raport (21 1951) ordnonoe unita !ollow_
Ing UN troop. have recovered bets .. 20 ond ;0 tanka
to..... rly carried U abap<lon8<1. lInr!:r an o! theu tonk....re
or 1Io:noblllud b:r oW' 0." t-roopa Or tho .n.aI]'. ht Ii t.
po lble that can be and r.1uod. If tho UW .<IDoe
<o"Un"" 00". .111 to "" OIo.ao In on.
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I.Dd dll.\IY. 1"hII 1'",,4 flhn"W... t...'ft lUI '''''''''1* 45 t", {;O
<1.9." N"", <hi> mn-U""tU. _,,",lIla ....,. ..""""",nt
""bjel... tfuo NIl", .Uh<>"g, hII __" abl<o to
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AP?ENDlX F
Till> following points of Inhrut .mer!!" hOD. th1a
1. Air o.ocount..d fer 102 of the 175 Unk. o.ctutllly knocked
out.
aceounhd
conal
"
"
;. It: ".. poinhd out th&t ""in@ to a1l11o.t oomp1ete
lock ot opposition, alrer..tt ...,"" ab1. to attoek: trOll! a ... ry 10.
10,...1 having to taka ."ulvo .ot1oe .lbe a higher pro_
portion of .. ireraft pe.. unit or f ..ont hu boon ..... Ihbl. than
could bo expooted 10 any .... jor ..ar.
4. Tho largo numbor or ..bondoned tank. appears to r ult
rro" tbJoee .... In '.U ' meohonloal t .. llUN o.sgra"atod by ..
ol1ort..g<> or .pa... part., or rual, and hrrdn dHfleultleo.
Fu,rth<lr, .. ntmlber tak<ln by .urprho by tho .poed the till
adVaD"" .fter tho> br... kout tro", ttJ. lIaktong lIiver line.
;. Tho> lAok or an .. te US ..lne progr... in to....dn .ell
.ulhd to thi ......pon 10 applll'8nt. TI>Io ... partly cauoed by
I>ortage of peuonnel to 10.y ",I"" and portly by A lAck
of booause or .poed of tho 11K advane8.
6. us 76."", ..nd hnk guns (AFl; ",uul.8 ... locity.
2,800 rut ""'" ueond; HVAP, ;.400 ""r aecond) .ore ablo to
p<>netrato tho T,4 at OIO.t angles to 800 yard Tho lack ot
opportunity to ftr8 &t rang......k4O it difficult to ob
tain turther Information.
7. :rtl addltl<;>n. tho survey. Recounted for 74 UK 76-""" .ol!_
propelled guns U follow",
II
76.... Sf' om; CASUALTIES
ICo
GapAl",
I:: I
'"
These gune .e"" oJ>On at th<l top and rear, ond tmlr thin
.Id. armor wao pen.trable by e8, .5D
UnUl ...r11 Auguot tho only f .. hndl;r tOl1k torou In KOru
... re tour co",p...,1.. ot 1(24 light tank.. lI/lv1ng
n.ltll<>r armor prot.etion nor .. gun eomp.nblo to that or th!>
T}4. thou .urforod hen1 10..... In the f1r.t .... k 1n Auguot
tho hnk batt.. lion0"" landed. One contained 72 1146'.
(Patton.); tho "thor four oh had 69 tank', M4A}'.
mnd 1126'. lP.r.nlnp) :In "ppr""l"",t.ly .q.... l nu",beu. In addi_
tion. tlU'u organlo tll.llk .o",pani", nch con.totlng ot 22 w4'.
Wutth tho 2n<l and 7th OtY1alona, and On......tth tho 5th
Tho lIarl" al.o hod tank battalion oon.i.ting or four
or M26'. and throe rogt""'ntal antaank platoun.. T"". n .. numher
of lIS tank""""itt.d in Korn by tho ond of Sept.mber ....
700, plua &t le&et 7 K24' Ith .aoh dlv!alon for ... oonnal ano.
purpoou.
ExtrROto fro", roport. from US armorod ""it., covering IH
hnk ouu.Hie. t ..0111 July through Cotob.... , .ho. tho follO'Wing
oauo of oa.uolti
TA3LE III
t&otloOi causu

AFPENDIX F
The In Tablo III .bow. that 44 poreent of tho.
n.ulhd fr"", '''u''. otber t\\fln ""d
t",achl>roulop cauud mo.t of thl> terrain cROu.. ltl .....nil.
",,,etl. mechanic.' oo.,ld ... o.ttrnmt.d to thl>
... of tile country. "'M ,,"ok 01 po"" .. n. a
C8U of """chan1ca! trouble "tth the 47-ton (500 hpj; thl> 49
ton M46 .. tth an (110 hp al,._cooled engine p.rfor... d utr.""'ly ... n
considering that thta ..u It. rlr r .... l tnt.
Although tho NK forc u.ed m1"". haph.u.ardly and fNlquently
[ailed to co ....r '''''Ir mine rldd...Hh flr their mIn.. accounted
for a high proport1on or u5 t.nk ca.ualt!o.. Tbo!r _ood.n mine',
tho tv"," "'o. t enoount... pound. or
01' amatol, normally one and .nd hroke tbe
oupportlng brack.to. In 000>8 thoy bl ... in, or .t l&ast
hucklod, ro....... ed e.oape hlLtoh. Our t.o.nk ....utfnod flo..
InJurloa frolll the min... Oth.r min.. that have b<>8n Imco.orod
con.1ot of oruciely ra.hlonod holt_",1noo, both woodon and "",tal,
oont81nlng ..tohol SOIIl. of thoae 1111"". o.,.,taln 50
of ."plo,iv , that nav& hit the", ho.vo c..en
10.....
'J'hore .-ore eight tl,..,. oau d by petrol
f1r6 .o.nd t ..o .m.'1Iun1t1"" fir... Tho "",all incidence or o"",un!tl"n
Hro. h attr1buted to oonf1n.d .torage of """"unit Ion and tv
tho projectlle 10.lng ",o.t of It. sMrgy 1n psnetN'tlon.
Enemy U.o of Tank.
The tactloal U08 or tanh by 11K force .... ohanged ",,",pht.ly
tho "'palm'. In the .tage. the ."r, enemy .....or
boldly adv"",cod 00'"" n .. ... In rood... lth nO athmpt at conceol",ent.
3"",11 group.o of tonk. peMtrated our to the and
flank. and thru': quickly to th6 rUr, on peMt ..atlng
to cooc'''''.nd pooh and artillery" po.<'_ion.. Infantry rOl_
low&d in 10 to Ollnut03. accompanIed by mo,.e tank$. Our
ant1tank d&fen.&., malnl, the 2.}6_lnoh rockot launcher. and the
75-"'w. of th re ag&!n.t the T34.
our air and srtillory attaok. In the
oonrtnod mOn....nt of to nightt:"" and COD_
ouled hi. hnk. In vlll&g<>" rall ..ay tun,'eh. and tho 11k., dur_
Ing tho day. 'r.""laI up to attack poolt1<lns..t "Ight.
gonorally at .low op".d .. Ith the of tholr engine
ddlt1onQlly camouflagod OJ long bur ot aoto=atle
Attock.. we .... ",..de at firot lIght, clo 1y hy
Infantry. With inf8r.try 1n po.se .. 1M of ,he rooket.
one",y .- ..... 08'Jtlou.11.
:ho UN fore.. took tho oUendvo, ene",y tanh and AT
gUn. generally encOunt.r.d In dug_in c...,,,,,tl8g$d po.ltlon.
located 1n deflb1t1l the Inhnslon of cut cur
f'r"'" tho flank 0,. or ,Hod to fir. on Our tank, ...
thoy rounded curV09 on tb ,.<>&d. In thi. r"p.et, Itght
flying at tho of our col""",," ."ro of InuU.... ble valuo, glv6
lng the 1&.0.0 Unkll prior ..rIling of .n,,"'Y locations, road block
blown and oth.r Infor..Uloll. Al.o thor we,.. ofton able
to d.uet fruhly IUd min. f101de. 1'ho ono", ,+5- an<l 57-"""
gUll. oncoUllh""d .." .... only.hlo to p.n.trato our medium t"nko at
CIOM range In the sides or rear. but tho 1'14 B5-mm ..r .. ""head
round.u ..hl0 to do.o at '.out up to 800 y..rd All ..r,.<>rod
units ha"" cO,""",nted on tn. Inaccuracy of on.,.y tank and 1L't fire.
which otton ba. boon off the t&rget ev.n .t the .ho,t ran",," uMd
In Ko...... Sinco the on...y .lgMlng oqulprn&nt 10 orfloiont, tho
f"-ult mu.t H .ith tho gunner., who ....y
Un or Tank.
I:S d1"I.lono dlvl.lon81 heavy
ha.tallon and a of .uppor. tank... Ith eaoh of thO throe
'" only one dlvl$j<>n .. Uh ]to co.._
... the 8vallabh tank battalion. _"a u."d "" regi
mental tank companlu for tho othsr dl,,1310n IT.o,t of tho
t1m. the ta.1k. o!"'rAting in c10'0 oj" tn. Infantry,
tM lnhn.ry ... nt&l tho 1,. 10glotleal
.u tJuoougn. 0"" ""ttalion cbaMol.. A. tho.. Infantry
t.n....... cOlllmlttod to actIon "roy
Ity to train ",,,,,1111"-'11 .ffeotiveM" .... not
ohhlMd. Points tho.t olOOrge tho .tudy or.:
1. 'rho proportion of ar..",. to Infantry, on. tank
po.- Infaotry regl"",nt, h&s prov.d ."cc.uful In oVOI'coto1ng Nil
rul$hnce. In general, Unh ,"ov.d alOflB the ."neya,
.upport to InfMtry the .u,rounding hlllo. illtb
Armor confined to A ..... ll n"",ber of road ",0,.. tank. would MV8
h"n a hlndranco and tholr ...ould nO\ hue boon utll<1.d.
2. Tank_infantry oommunlcatlono have not b<oen ..
boeau of radio f .. and tl'.. infantry hao In.urficiont
...nt. EaCh t&nk "", an .ot, a vehicular of
the Infantry but baa only On8 3CR_300 p.r
c"'"pany. 1'0 " lot tonI<. In cnt'com!ng t""iT violb!!!ty,
ono per Infantry platoon would Improvo tn.. dHIgn&tlon
of tank urgot.. It t. r.lt t)",t cou:d boon
mad. of ... ltem$t1v. ",.an. of cOlMlunlcatlon such SO tho ex_
t ....nal telophoM and pyrot.ehnlc.. OIolng to t11& mountainous
terrain, VliF eo",,"unleatioM betweon Inf.ntry rogl",.nt ...nd dlv1_
alon, and tOrlk oornponl .. "nd t>aUeUon, have lntermHtent.
and ..oge. have often had to h. relRyed the light
aireraft ovorhead.
,. 'Nl>on aCMOIpanl.d by infantry haw not to
make full u of olthor their battalion he&vy "apona .""'pany Or
the ""rtar eomFany. Although PO",",,,,ol c&n h.
Arn:::::p::x ,
,nIl1'S"" "ah rlN Hi! ...,d
.iO ttu I"".... ULk., -.l><>,... p<MHbl.. """,u.-... """
tlnt h& mad8 /)f _ap"",. af U"l.hd
0' umunltl<>n tho t ..nk "an ""-rq.
4. tho h$d1"-,,. i"'....t.., ""
!.ult8 in ,hI. p..c'lo_, of of training.....
"'.n",,,c.ding to tm "r <>! thlo hil
u,..,-, ,U...ount and 'O,",n _do<- !'ir.. , and t ..n".... to
"h"n tile tanks aulr"" to .,,'-....
6. n... pf tQ h""$lrt""""IIh-, in
tn. l':<,eNl .... I ... , .Of nhat ..., .: '1>:1 tile \Ia... tlt> ....1'>. ;.t T".k
Lynd, fN!ll ':.'UjU tQ 3u.."" \" 46 t$ lL", "1' "Ith tM
1th ChhlM ..".-1"", t ..... tI,. !noh""
...."t .. ..... ""=t"",,d. n ..
"""'1 .M "'" br .. ... ""-<I V" "I' l!htl..
r .. A. 0"""",,10 1;l1\ "'j .... or t ... l< ll;;lvU'l
rr_ Chin)" Tn ....n. Qt ..Uu, t-ot__ 2"1 .mi
3..pt"..b<>,.. tor.".. oo".lohd II'! I".,,<rlud tnrYot'7
..-1< 6r.gt".... .n4 l!O0>7 "'''rhr ,,"" _"" "c""",
1'","j"o. bJ air <n"".,l ..,ty t;> ;,nl in .. !,. ..nom
n.. 1'1>0 11mltln" !'... of thue ..,. 'OM S1JI'Ply or
h1ch had to be ft.:... In
",4 have u.ed 2 3 .,n... "",J 114' .. ,
I, , !,,1l6i'i$ this
In or
!"RIXIIDLY US!! (P TAIaS
S. Tbot .'Z NCen,.., ....blcle. bunt 0", tl>o 1111 cbo.... hal
bo." 11'1 groeo.t d.,."od and. ha. dOD:tc.H.nt .ork. but 1t bll.8 11'1_
po..r to roeo.... r 1126'. .a..6" .I. vehlcllth.
bol.t and 60_ton "Ioob 1. needed to... thl. Job.
II. Tho 57- ond 75...... recollle.. gun bO.YO not proud .trooth,
In ODgaging ."".,. ....0... a.nel. 'pa..t frOB the clon_I'Il"!" beaoon.,
tl>o 1>0.. bo.o t)le =1; Irhctive ground o."tlt...,1< .... pon. In
thie ..ole. It hal boo.. Ioopt .. It I> tho tOl'W&rd Inhnt,..,. by day and
nl!;l>t ...,d .. ld.l,. dlaporood. TI11. hal ... Iud tha mo .... le ot t)le In
to.Dt..,.. but hao pl'Ond unpopular .. ith tank unit eo... ""d.... bocau..
U..,. ltn to kny tilt!,. tanb tor y"l'yon <;>f c9l1'rol an(l
""'''1.1 ,upport &rld 1>0.0.".' t.ek. hUe pro....,eS. ",,:tn,...bh tc do.. _
quart... I.'taok It nl!;l>t. Conoido .. ation 10 being given to tbo value
or .lor gun. Uk<> tho :s.-1thh 17_po=d.r to take eo. .. antit""k clefen..
m.o U,. int-.llt,.,. h in a o"'Uo .U....tlOID.
10. Boeaun Unk .upport .........llabh. !;ot""try hn. tondod
\0 niP 010 tc rcad0 not to apl1t tho
t.... Thuo tboo abo..tlr and .. rout.. CWOI' till blllo...l11eb can
bOo "'ploU.d tor OUl'p"l...rr.ct. WOr...1<1"", " ..d. Infantr,.
.!>GuleS. aot all.,... tanh tc ....triet thoir Crud"", er ,"ov.",.nt. and
1>0 pNpu.d to IORVO tboo. 1>ohlnd .hon Meun..),.
COl'CLUSI0II3
1. Thlo "_pail>" baboom thot 'rmO,. e.n be ofteeth. In
d1ttleoa " ..ro.in......n thou,h handleappad by It. inabl1lt.,. to
or"" _ and l>igh g..o""d.
2. "ltbough tho pooulll.. elrc"",.Uneu .hiel> r ult.cI in an
apprec1al>l. "umb... of airoraft belD!,: u d OIl a oar..O'O front _Itl'>_
ollt oppo.alon ......,. not be ... poU.cI _booboo,.o, tho potential To.J.ue
of tl10 UI' toro. U tAnk dutro.,..,., u01n!,: nopal"" 1
..It....id.nt. It to beHeved thlt Cu.. tlll .. eon.idecauon b.
ghon to the u in iceendlarl in an .ntl .... tarl.' and antlpo... onnel
,,010, bcth ground_ and &lr_lo.",el>od, and tho.< oon01d.,..tlon .hould
d.o be gin" to the p"<>b)o,,. of dohn.. ago.!n.t .uel> attack.
" Tho .ucc... of tho cOIIp....tiv.l)' crucla NK .. ino ho...
tl>o.t .. qUlclr. ...an. ot d.tootlng ""cl/or ..o",ovlng ,"",Ul and
111"". 1& .n u..S"nt p..Qble...
APPEIIIlJX G
ARIJOR AlfD INFARl'RY
OPERATION PUNCH 10 one or tho b4ttor or and
Infontry oOrattng as 8. eo"pl.. intograhd ton during Korean
oporaUono,and 10 thororo", of Int."".t as s .tudy em_
oqually tho .ftlchnoy of oOOlbtnod taetloo ""d the 0,,",_
",and oy..o.. or .. hleh H C8.<n$.
In early Pebruary 1951, I Corp ."d 25th InC Dlv, thlln both
hlIadquartond at S".on, nee o"'fronted by en"",y forou "r ur.i<>lown
.Iu hold!ng thoo ground oot ..""n tho for.ar<i "lem6nt. ot
2Sth and Inf Lliv and thl> lln. of tho Hon H1ver, .hioh
b.tween 22 ond 25 mil to 'hI> nortl'l>tard via tho>
25th "iv, .!th 35th Inr Regt le.dIng tho had
recently 00"", to Su.-on. Ito demont., inehding tho Tut"khh
Srlg&d&, thon attached, had on through to gO.ln control
of the 10..or rldgoe north.ard of thO dty. Tho eun hold
tho d"<Olno.nt BI'Ound beh'een Suwon ""d th& __ ea,t_... ,t run_
ning hill mau 10 .. 1100 of the eHy. HUh And
431 .. of thlo "",ooif ..hie;' .. a, charactort..d by .heer
dlff :acln8' and ,"ao.lv.. along ou...!t.
FrOIll those l>olghto, one could north"ard "crOS, tho .erle. of
rldgo. tho Anch'.lllchon Hlvor In ito run 01_
mo,t due north to tho Hon.
Out or ther" ... ,.... two maIn roa6. loaMng
Un tho no tho MSR of I Corpa, r'.mnlng via Anyangnl to tho
Han t"onoo to s..oul, n.lo w.o.s hard_ourfaMd, uphalt
for the !':Pester part, oncl in rea,,,,,a;ly BOO';l condition exoept for
tho frequent by_l"'uea ..hore bridges ..ere out. Tho other coad
to the we,turd ran almo.t parallel to the llSR no about
6,000 yard. f .. O<Jl It. H "olffid thrQugh tho 10.....lope. Qr hill
oountry, fair dirt roaj In pao.abl. condit:on.
The genera] COYlo<>pt ..... thet .. !th tt.> .. Qf hill ,.,...,
frOVI tile eM"'Y by direot a,.ault,'there oouid 00
InitiMod "a otrong into ene"'y fhnk &nd r ....r
cii.organl.. and inrllot upon Mm."
In brief, tM o.. 0: tho :on.if .ould tho enemy
in th<> ...;w tll* n .. ..n .hoI , to
II..". &r".... .......... '" g ..... H'l.l _ltlttlrU lIT GC!".ud n,
t:OO ....,.. """.4. HtMk .. aJ,ol>g U..
"""hhl"l1 OM drot n"llWl"lt t'W(!:III, ",,6 d"l.ng
tho:! p",uH'l.. t.",,\ t? M. 1'\11> t_Jlatf q\\f,.
HWi n.o ->,1",- thO' ,....,; ...J'>* .0 .. til "" 1l\IU;tol\lil!
h\U"t to n ... n."y #,,( "",xt..,,,,, "'1" t; tho
, __ tn'''I_ '" "tth til.> .till tao.'; the
tnl< Qf dafh''''1wl 1 thH "" l:.l4 ''''1tb ef tho SIm.
In tho "a.1ty M t .... ,,?JIffi .....f Hu H"",
in n.. o"",.,.n"". Al1 it wu "",<I.
b] th<> 'M IIHlo 4<lQ. ornd ..... j!nd
B::. lnt, '4l4 <:0 L, ntn IZ-f' "'e;'!', "tth unu,,,,,l
l&"t...." 1M.. '" ti .... l O);I"'U"" "' t<l
.. " t:M l.",,}. n. h Qt """.,,"1 1lq!<>rto"
... ion _1> .. '>I ;,1>10 ."""'I't1o"o.l ""\""'" I1f
by tru. "'"pM!::";!; "'''-9'''''' .....,d tru. .,,:1.
"r t! t""t tho 'l'w-kt.:<! ""1!'l"4
in t!>t ..ill.t "'ge.,,*t t ... ",",uH. tbol .."'" , ....
:r,..,<l...."nl in 0"" pNlU "U", jJ;UH6r h&h
...... thar. _rle= to"" <I<1blla o( nght
not $ust.&l" ""1 s,,",h Gm9&r!.on. .... !91' par-t <>f ... 4,ttH
<>l tho .t..>od"' .... ot ""'r"le ,",_I<;oeu '"
th<l aLl "de" 3"Pl'OU<l to tank,
_t n.j1... In tt<> Hill 440 atUck Is .<>n&1<1
u".d I!"='""'" to tbl.a st".;,r, S"rfi06 t" .al that .bo <R&JIdt n.
d&!_ ..etbn .nd on tho
""'''_ t "" t;1'llAdlt1f iW: t!,
..+.1<0."-",, t'" cU'l'y i COl'j>a rr"", s""""
to 1M IH..,.",_
1'>> """",,64 uel< (""".. """ ... "'''go.nlUd !.o ."Uolpan""
<;r .Hun!""" ':'boy .... N u tollo :
1'1' lnd'l<lt"$'
44th tar.k Ao, Co C
:!l,<i ll!'!. 21th Inf, mortar ."" eM rat
.,"'#
n ..t 01' Co A. r,,! !lrI
::"t. ,a1'
"'#,".!" 't ..
'tP
&)fh '!'A... " li!tI, C'" A. C
;;> t-. t_k 1M
h-t l\tI, -<7th h:f, dt.4 .. pht 0""
an
3t! Cot,
uep of: 21H, lnf k$;\t
HI
TP mond tho Idt Oa.nk roQd t .. otII
to Sourl. the j""otul'e point On tho Inohon_Yongdungpo hlg,-ay.
T!" Dolvln mo... d vi. thol 1I3R ,..,...,lng .. Su.ton to Yongdunspo.
Concurrently "it" this rousl'lJ plnch!ng ..O.... by tho &"",or,
tile tInal ... nuB n. road.e t>r. tho troopa in line to breal< th&
&no",y hold on HiB lIu. 431-440, thus shl1klng tho enemy 10eu from
tho dQ!llin&nt middle ground .hn. tho ......ored ..... bog"'" !t. on_
veloplng run along tho ._0 flanka. On, Pobruory, TP'. Bartlett
and Dolvln "'o.... d to ml>:tr areu, both in tho SUWQD neighbor_
hood. On 4 OrE:RArIOIi fUHCH .... hold up hmporar1ly
whll.e .... It!ng tho d..... lop..ent of mou ta..",...t>le .1tuatlon on
tM right thnk. In l<,d Int !>1.. ' ....tor. On 5 F.t>, at 074;. 'l'F
Bo.rtl.U c"ou.d Its LD and Htaeked north. Ih obJoctl... tor
day us the rIdge .t 105-400, and 1>1 1525. it had boon .on.
TF Dohln orO<l d the LI> at 0700. By 1250. It h&<l it.
"bJactl ... for dol'. tho high ground the IISR Il11m8dlataly
aut or Anyang<ll; 0100. It lad ele.,..d t1>o ...tarn odv ot tboo
t""" Ihalr.
Both TF' ........ thon .Ithdn.,..,. TI' 00..... Mok to tho
liLa I>J .. ld_IrUrnocn and ... ptlt Into. b1001l:Ing pOlitton .HlUn
t.ho IILR. Tl' OOhin ..0,..<\ bacll: prior to d...lme .. to blooking
pOlltlon .1thln to. liLa co... rlns 25tb Olv' ...Igbt fl.nk.
Botb '1'1". !>ad Ingllg<>d .no...,. tl'ouSho..ot the d.y, ."d bad .on
t""l,. loed tlgbh """dU,.. hOh 8"-1".<1 to ....d ground
and. .. as ..n e",.""W to tl>o!lln. E..." .e, till ..... tbu, b::-ougbt
under control ..... rollnqulobod. 'I'bo frlo"dly .olumnl .. UMM.
to bu. and the 0.,..., tl'&otl=o oontln""d thol.. hopel....ttempt
to .... bulld along the n""kl .ho two lUgh_,.
'l'hb ... to bee""'" tho p.ttorn ot OPER.I.TIOJl fUllCIl tMo"g""ut
tho Du;t lOural <Ia,. though In tho ti... t Illata"e. d"oldoc bo.d
not beon taleen .l>o.t tM .rme.. lould b& e ..ployed In ",,,-o'l, .lUI
....,.. Tho t.nk.....d tholr I"tont..,. ...r ..iI. by tho 1,.
monnor ot .tUoK to Int1el tile .n....,. Into the t ... p ...thor then to
on........11 " ....be... by ....n. ot ....pM but lnc""'plet.. onY.lop
... nt. So doing. tllelr ."c.... 1>000.... aLmost """""Ut1"d.
00 6 F.b"u"'j' TF DolYln I>1t .gal" .t 0745 and b...d rolOhod
Hill (171-420 I>J 1400; tllt. ... tho obJooU.. r.",. tho d.r_
IIf 1420 on. or Doh1,,'. pltrolo bad gott.n ;0 150-4}O .,d had be_
e""", quit. b....n.,. ""gaged. TF l\O.,.thtt, UtAok1ng .t 0720, bad
I>J 1205 h".......t.bllilled It. t ..."", in tho foro-.rd. at
098-412 .. 0<1 108_418. IIoth had lOOt rolatty.lf ...1.t_
anee I>J CCI' and E. Par.lohnt .no...,. ...ining ot ;1Ie two roada.
proving I "'Jor anno,an.o. In I"'" 1"."<18.', tho phalt had
boo.n tillmd.d under to tbo c.nter ot thot p........ ,,;. The t .. 1l1:1!"r
... cb.onla.. 01' tile .. I"" .0 pla""d obtrudod not "",ra t",,", one-ball'
lMh Abov. tho! .U.. 1ft grt I\Ullhl .... III" Or t.o .. in
t.,.po. had b..n l&1d along tile ..".d 81 .. morta...hon.
ho.d .... n hound togetlle.. In bloel.. of rin .0'1<1 tItted .Hb ft
'74
tb1. 1.proyltlon, we.. blook"
.r plod.... The w01"k tho ,.o.t had bun <lOll0 ho.at!ly,
hownr, tl>o.t tM or 11.1.......... ....<1 by on1,. a
'hb ot !l:l<c.pt tor 0". <I&,.whon a t.U ot ."ow
oon.-.<I thlo Hthor crud. t18l<1 .ork, ". _t.rhl d_p .... <lona
to the 001\10111. Ilut ..... ,.J ... ming tho ... wore t ...1l .. In.. to be
.....d __,. road ureto!>...hhh had been treo ot t!Bm tho
<II,. boto.... OCl" oOO_d. ......rbd. F .. r-r."c. tor tho minIng ot tl
...,or <I.tn.. , an<l It not unco,.."" to tind. 50 or 60 .. ino. 1n
anuell .....11 area.
A8.1n 011 6 P.bruary both Tr'o pul1.<1 back to .Ithln tho MLR
by 1600, c""'pl.ting tbe mcrY..mant b,. n1gb'tall. tbo The,. r umed
.tt.ok on 7 r.bruRrJ at 0700 houri. By 14}0 TF Ool.1n 1>0.<1 ..." ...<1
11111 178 in tho .i.1n1ty 14S-t.2S. 1I1....nto tbo }Sth IDt
(2n<l. !b) thon rel1....<1 TP Dol ..in in that po.lHen ."'" o""aol1<1atad
tl>o. gain. tor tbo d.,., the 7P ... turning to It.......bI,. ar.... TP
Bartl.. tt'. Id..." al""g tbe ,.oad to tbe .eot.ard it ror_
I'<! to apl'oxiIUU1,. tM .u.. U.t.ut 11".. IlJ 1500 Tl' Bartl.tt
ba<l 'bun ,..,u.....<1 b,. the 7u"khl> .l ..... d 1l0000e. C.......,d, and th.. TP
,..turn.6 to an .......bI,. arU b<ohind tho IILR.
On 8 F.l>ru.ry, Tl' Dolvln, r.traolns it. ground ot tho da,. bo
tor.. bad bJ mldatt.. rnoon .. d .n a<ldltIon&1 2,000 y.,.do to
vIcInity ot 1484}4 ago.1not ,"odnah-to_!-..a:'1 r ... tatanee. At
1550 houro, It aga1n .hrted to It."B tum
.......hil.. adnnco<l .n a<I<lItlonal 1,000 yard. aoro.. country. That
brought it to Hill 284 (l61Wi9) Whe"" It boc"', bonny
by eel' and .tOpped tor the da1. TI' IIOtrtl.tt, ....king .. trcah 0.<1_
VJLne. ot apprm:itD8.tel,. ,,000 1"rd., halted to perlllH the Turkloh
foroo to 0""" fOl'"O'lI.rd .ml e"".olld.ato tho ground. TJ.' BarU.tt
thon .lth<lr.. to an a .....b1J .rOll bohln<l tl>& MLR, cIoalng at 1,00.
CroIng tho LD at 0800 9 Pebr"."y T1' Oolvin had advanc.d to
vtelnlty ot b,. 1500 hOurs. had boon .. Cruh ad.vanco
for the <la,. ot 1,,00 1"1"<1. and carrI.. d TF Dolvin to a poInt d .. r.
Ito gw:oo could tIl''' Into Yong<lo"l'po. Tho TP then r.turn.d to tho
a mbl,. "<'08. TF IIOtrtlott .. at 081" "dvand:ns against
light ruhtanee. ar 1;10 hour., It. 1..<1 "lemont. wore at 106_
488__a t01" tbe day or ,.000 yar<l It thon agaln
dr.. baok.
Tbo TF'. "o"e di ..ol .... d that n!gl\t; In ..... TF
Allen. operatIng <ll,..ot1y un<ler I Corp.. It. mlAAlon contin_
uatIon ot the gene,..l "".k ot ....xlmum hurt to tho
8nom,. a.uth of tho IIan. It .a. to proceed. troO! an LD alons tho
Y""Sdungpo_Inel>.on h1sh_y, .Wel>. r.o had to be by 1200 of
tho follo.inS <lay, thl. latter tao. r..Uing to tho 24th ;5tb
lnt aogt. and tho Tu..l<18h A ..... d Force
f'UlICM .,..us<l .ith tb.. diuo1utlon of tho t.o rr'A.
'75
APPDlDIX G
Tho> orao" .hich t It In motion had not spocifi.d tho Uo_
tioo and m.thod of ooop.ration.
Tho u to .hother tho t.o ....."r4d column. wouM
_toy rorurd 0" .ould be .HMrnn _ .....d. each day at about 1200
by tho 25th Dh oo.... To tht. uhnt, tho> I'l"n and tho .,..."d
taotlchloh of It .ore .trlotly empirical.
C""",and :lI_tem
Tho follO'lllng I'rlnelpl of coopuatlcm In taotlo
ere odopted wahln T)' Uolvln .."d are I" ....."00 tho f"nd"',enUlo
.. hloh ""ought tho or tho Infantry "'",Ored ol.e... nta
1n both T1"" .1th reou1taIlt h.O,....,ony and officl.no, 10 tho
opor.tlona,
1. and .,..,orod .torr...uo .odded.
2. Eaeh tonk n. t .. with &J\ Infantry comp""y.
J:ntantry .nd Unk pbtoon rMo togetl>i'lr
by _ide on tho UIrIO tonk.
Tho h.olt. fir. ... ,... dono on tho, ord.r
tho e""'p&.ny tho 0""$'- fr"'" h18""r authorHy
did not ro,,<1 th.o.t way; thB TF ... oot up e.s o.n fore_. ,.._
lntorood IN lnr.",try, but tbo two bUUl10n "gNI.d tho.t
tbi...... tho Pl'&ottc.l. _thod.
5. Tho TAr. and artlno"Y f'O'. rode .tth Dol""., tho hnk
cOlnl'landor.
6. the .... ,,"unU<I up. th. cO..,.Wlluttons
.y.tem .... u.ed throUl<hout.
7. Upon en8age...nt oponing. the tiro of tho .50" ....
ccmtroll.ed by Doh1n through n'>'"m.l oho.nnel.o.

1. T"" u'",or not fir. whHo infAntry .... 5
2. Tho ho Infantry p18toon. _htoh ...... to bo flr.t in the
....ult ... "" mountod up front; tho, 1'0 lr. or'ect toctically dls_
po.ed _h11e riding on thO tAnlts.
When cam. again.! th& column. It h..lud 1",,"odlatoly
.nd the infantry .as deployed.
u. Tn the "bneO of tho t!", ao
tar aa po lble Into tho p091t1on to M under
AIIIIOR AllD
,. "A.A tar u ?ouible" ..... In tnb 1.outaneo oOrto1dered to
mun witbln "",all .rm. range" of ouch .Mmy U
bo holding tho pOlitlon. A.t that point, eM O'RA deplo,ed
tho rl>'e .1tudJ.".,.
6. Tho platoon or qu.d .50' .....plH Into t.o uot1a:ts
of throe track.. uchl were u.ed w1th th& t.o 160<1 Co,"panI
lening for tho reserH.
7. an, force was loc.t.d, it w ongagod wIth
..n gun. by the .""Or ond by tho quad .';0'. O. oOon oa thO Inf.t.n_
try hOd d1.mQunted .nd wa. r.ad,.
B. Air .trik and field rlr" ..... eal1&d fo" ..t
every
9. Tho eao.b1ned metal barragod all ground whie:, tho Info... try
lin. wa. preparing t.k$ under attaok,
Tho .l.tUck
yieldo,; ope.. otton t. .U'll'
pltrl.. d by looking "-t one part of . oporat!on as
TF Dolvln Jumped_off, '5th He'!' was 'In.dy !n po,"""l""
rull 427 wblch Ia Ju.t ohOrt of Anyen",,1 H.d "?prml""'t.ly 2,500
1"r<1o duo ."uth of it. tOWD had no, be6n ".k.c, but fro", tm
helghh of 427 on.. eould look Into it. Ea.t of 1,27 artd next to
tho villago or M,onShi.lrtcmg, along the there 10 a :ower ridge,
Hill 109. From tM. v .. n. two cOotmand.r. (U Col
lIelhorn G. and Lt Col Gn".ri J. Check) th.le ourr..
"",.. .tfordod .. vi.w of tho open'ng prOhlem.
Dlrootl, to the no:t'th or An,angni, and on tho other slcte of
tho MSR, ..u onoth&r uriea or rldSo ...U"" culmInated
in Illll ;00. hkoon. It .h.ke tho enemy .,,,t or An,angnl
hh hOlct on tho aubord!nat. rtdgos tho
for onenl ,.11.80 to thO n01"tlnlard, 1ho que.t1on wu .. r tho
umor could be op).1t th:t'u ....y. to go aE(liIMt tha hill ".a.s fcorn
tho oouth in ."ch .,ay .. put flpo on tl>o thc.e mo!n cr...... It
wll.5 intend6d tho ohOuld advanco up the ;.SR without
tirIng, tMn peel oft, .ith tlHo c1dlnr hnk. clgnt
to thO b... & of the hIll if po..lbl... rore",..-ound wU a
rivOr bod, .. rlaced w1th dl1<o" and occulon.l paddie VIed
frmll Bill 109 two d_y. tho attack, It looked fo
the r.oonnIl1onne. did not end tho"&. The day Mforo ...
attaok, dl 1nCant:t'y and tank omnpan, co"""an<!ors nra flo,.,., out
of S"won In l-S' 'rhe plan got down to ,00_600 fut
of tha obJ&ot1"o and tho """""and." d.t.srm1n.d v1.ual
tlon wlthtn .. limit. tr..y oould oper&t&.
In the attack on the tlr,t da7, tho pl.an ogrMd upon ..,
followod In det.il. At tho it.
APPKNDIX G
<I.pl"YJO&nt. 13 tonk. """ing d!rootly north In eolU/lll'l untl1 tMY
10It 'n8 r08d. thon advancing In platoon column u thoy oro.oed
leo p.to"'" tord tho h11l. A. thoy thoy 01'<'".<1 flre.
Theond eompany hioh W85 to corne In On tho left. mov.d
.. lltt18 hrthor northw.rd o.l:>ng the MSR, ond d"" Dorth
o.goln.t tho hHl mus. Each hnk opon.d fi,... .ith it. cal .50 as
the ground tho ObjHt into clu.. vi... TMY c...... into
lIne gndually along tho h .... of the hill, untH all }O "" ....
y; then an ,0 opened fir...Uh their artillery pi. c
176'.) again,t tho hetghta. P".p.ra'ory fH' by 'he " .. tlllory,
"hleh anticipote<! t!to Infantry .....uH, luted for ,0,.lnuto
The quod .50" po.1tloned th<>",.ohe. about 100 y.rd. "bohlnd
Unks and distributed the",soln. U'nly thh t!n$ (there
r. tour quad. "lth each tank company). ?Ire ar.... along tbe
hlU had b.n ..signed to co",po.ny .nd the .uppo,.tlns <\uedo.
Tho.o .eN> further brokon dOlm into platoon fire area.,
Tbe tnf.ntl'l' coonpo.nte. had di.mounted &3 the to.nh peeled
off in moktng the Rpprooch to tho hill, UntH 'hon, thor. ho.<!
heon no riP' frum .1th.r .ld.. .hon In. Inf&ntry dQ"On.
..tely .",Ui Or",. and Qutomatlc fir6 brOko out fr"'" Hill
WOo In >qu.d eolumn, the infontry comp",,10' Mv""c.d to tho
hill hose. through tho lin. of armor.
The infantry 11no nod thoro ror ,0 mln"tu .h110 the hill
.u tak..n "ndo,. ft"" by All a".nohlo forc __Qrmor, tho quad.,
the ft.l1 artillery, tho 4.2 md 31 """ mortaro, tho latter rl ..o
frO<!l high ground to oouth,urd or the rro.sn "I...,..
A. the Infantl'l' line st.rt.d It. climb uphill, vehicular
u h!f'ted to the o"".t, and "rtillery .0. lifted to tho ridg..
and 9BCapo rout .. beyoof HIll- 300. that ootnt fir. ...
into tho hQnd. of Infantry eompony e"""".nder .ho .u
"'''vine "P hi> artlll.ry FO, ma the fo"",,r henceforth dl .... etly
eontrol1ed fires !1'001 ""'01' and q""ds unt1l the hill .... t.ako,.
ane man in le.d of .ach infAntry platoon .a ..&ring
a red pond on hi. Thlo .""bled tho hnlu to fellow ..11_
ually the <>dv"",oe or the lnr""tl'l' 11ne. In support 0, th. Inrontr']"
c""ponent. meeting ony red ronS polnt re.lotanc., 11.11 g.neral
f1r ..... ohlfted to tho hoart of It.
By 1;100 lIUl ?OO had. beon t ..nn ... no co.t in lit. '0
,r.o U3. An OM"'Y forc9 H",ahd In HOeo. of 200 ho.<! killed
Or Mf. 27th Hoet'. ,NI Brr "".al"od atop lInl }OO for ny_
era] hours. From there they .ar. in po.ltlon to !'ire Into Arlyangn1.
The "",.rVO tank and lnfmtry th.n ",end In'o tho to,""
..... 'ng nO re.istanc Th. lead pht"nn or tonk. nnt through with
no ahoard. Ps"lng un.cathed, it ... by tho o\h.r
plotoon. "lth 'nfontry .b""..d. Thia"$ a proteetlon le.. agetntt
,.."all OI'lOO fr"" tho than sg$inst CIIinlng of ro&<I
AIlIIQH AIID IIIFAlIrHY
.on tho hill and tho to"". TF Dolvin ,.4tu,.n..d
the", to tho ene"'1 In late .tternoOD. Tho hill ... o.tUokod again
tho foll"..1ng day; ..gale thore.u Msbhne., but it.u
1lghhr and tho 4rol r ult .... tho ....... IIo.vlng n&d A.cyangni,
th4 en0"'1 ,..,turned at night only to opera_
tl=& and the" S"'t aut before rlrot light.
RuuHo or O","utton
ThOug!l th8 tohl eoot or OPERATION POliCH, o.od the att&.ok
tlll'uugh tho m1ddl" g,.ound wh\oh it poa.lhl not heen
eonput8d in terma Qr de.d, wOunded and mI.slng on both .ide
the u.tlo of OnB"'Y 104& to ouuo.ltiea in the attaekIng .ide h
.uggeotod b1 the round r'guru.
CCF had :l1ttlo heart for .. &etlng tho eOlllbinod a"",or_int"-llt,.,
a,nelt dong Ih nanka. n. n .... w erntle from the boglnning
.... do,. fo11o_d d01. thoM .... ouadll,. leo. eohe.lon in 'M
r ..lohno
TN> hltterut fighting hO<l attended the coP,ure ot 11111"
IWO o.nd 'o}l. 1'''" .... ,he ene"1 hod The total or
.l..merJoan inC"""..,. oUUf,1tle., KIA ond MIA.... 10.. than lOO .t
'hat pOint, oj' .hl.ch 21 _ero lCIA. The two a"",ored col\llllllo had
oporat<ld .lOh ""18t1",, for tho 8Mater part ot ....It.
Dolvln' .....ored battalion had only thrOB ",.n "v,: Cheek'. Int..,,
tr,. battalion'(lst Bn, 27th InC) had trifling 10.88 On llo.rt_
l.!ott' id. oj' tho the .tory 00.& tho ...... , th4
aMomp""11ng Inrantry aotlon wUnused tho most 8rreatl... bayon.t
eharge b,. U8 infantry aince the Olvn liar.
Yet _hon the Muntryoide ... 01..,. of ene.,y a. far north_
.a,.d u tho .outh bank or tho Rinr, tho b<XIlu of 4,251 d.ed
CCF NX .Oldier. w&re coue,.d on thi. g.ound. or thlo
appr""lmately one-hntb had died d.r.ndlng W.ll. !il'O o.nd 'o}1.
The gNahr P&l"t of tho Iloughhr had been oocompllobotd b-y tho
o"",orod ....p. of OPERATION PUNCH.
C"""",nt
Lt Col Del.-In' "Tho oomplote .uoco or tho oporetlon _.
due to tho c","plot. integration oC the two .t..er.. ...
ond oeted not e. tonkaI'. and bu, a ...en eon.
tronUd ..lth oingle and I'll add that tbe quad
.50'. a"" all ,,"t,.,._1y 4tf.eHn ...pon in thl.. typo of Oporation.
The.,-'ro a great !n ttwo att.,,1t .gainat Hill }OO,
tho ol""'e C!:red 80,oou rowod But a .., aoe_p"-ftying
...a1><>n, rather than 1l\ on .u role, tbo1 a"... chO...h; tbl
quad Ihould be mounted OIl tr.clt."
Lt Col Cbtelt, "Ji'rao thO. ."'....nt whon .. doeided to .... rl!'l
.tart the O'J)lratl"" w.....do."
APPENDIX H
TAIiX BI.'l'TALIOIi CIlIJ,IUJ;ICATJOlIS

In lio...,.b&,. tank """"""",toUt""....r. ,Ulo"...d ..nil
otttOI,., ot t ..o ot tbe tank bott.l!on.. 40. ,.ult
or tho diee".. l""., I QUOlt1otlIlalre ..... p... p....d ..hieh, u_..11
In Jlo,o.",b&.. , ... p......nted to orriCO,.. or tho .... ""'loing thl"ee
Unk bothUonl. Tho dloe".. ton. on<l quutlonl naturUlr .... fl.et
U;pe,.lano. to tl1!tt dot., and oplnton...ay ...11 Ia.... been chang.d
.Ioca tbOon.
Tho Q,,".t1onn&1.-. ...nd tile an....... (not _ .. bUht) "aelhod
rro",- ",,.loul oftl""r. 0,.. "'eludld .... Annex 1. Tho e""oludon.,
trom tilarl1 dl.o"lonl .lth tb. orfic.... ot tl1!t two battalion.,
.... 1nol "d.d In Anno:< 1 10 tho torm of ""..u.. '1'110 Inhryt...d
.oro, H.r e_ndlng off too... , OIl. "".eutt". offloer, fou,. eo .. _
lIlunloaHon ottte."., u .... n .","pony oOllllD.ndo.... o.nd tOllr phto<>n
lead.....
.....nu 2. ghu An podlttton of tb...... Iou. radio
oah ...nttoced tn tbt. 'I'ho "".... ro to thoo '1utloon.i ...
are 8umm... lz.d and dl.cud bolo._
.. IOD
1. C""",unl.atton. h.t....n battaHon .... and
bighe.. oob.lon..... utilr.otory.
2. C""",,,,,I t1on. b.t....n bathl!on ho&dquart.,.. ond co"'pany
bsodqu...tera are not utl.toctor)'. Thoo set! 506/528. aHllough not
.trteU1 VIII' .. t __20 to 28 uc/o, .ber.u tl1e VHF h.n<l Itnt. at
Ko/a __wn1 not glv. !Oucb mor. than "11ne of .lgM" oo,"-10""ioo_
tiono, a.nd .111 nertUc1y not provide eommunio&tlon. 0"" dhU.,-,c
of tb. o .. dor or 60 011103, .bioh It nu boen expeoted to do.
A .olution '.0 tbl. problem, already in.tituted in on.
b&ttollon, I. to u>e Hl'rodlo. The con.en.us of optnion i.
thB.t thi. .hould b. oarried in the compony
Jeep In addition to tho s08, ."leb 1Il0,t of tr..rn no. haV$, and
tho.t CW co...untoattOtl I. ouffloient, pro.ldad tN'\ned oper.to,..
,80
D ISCUSSrOlf
&:1'. anon.H The SCR 506 h a .ulhb1e .et; it hape.Hlod
range ot 75 ,.11eo on 011 acd 25 mll.. on 001 who" .Ut1<>nary. or
50 ""d 1; ,.n......pe.t1.vely wilen ,"ovlng. Inotllll1J>g thll aqulp
..."t 1n j ..P. In addition to tho SOR ;08. wUl Impo... va..,.
heoTJ drotn on tho hatteri.s, and epaolal charging ta.llitle. and
.a",rul _Intonan will bo r0Q.ulrod.
4. toot cO'"P""y to platoon and
fro. tent tQ tank aro .ott.faotory.
5. Bru.kd"",, of tboo _In r.d10 oqul_nt boo" ... tt....
canoed tho Interoommunlcatlon. t llltl to tOil, and whon thl.
oCCu'" a t""t 10 Pl'&ctlcllll,. l>elpl&... In tboo put. BrHiah
Unto ban boo" tltt.d with ulergenoy ."Ulld_po-.erod lntore""""""i
cotion hcllltles. TW. m.toll..tl"" e""olatod of oouod_powered
.. Icwophono tor thb ...andn, cltlMchd Into tht nor.. 1ll h<lodutt
of tbo otl>oor .rew .....bon. Tl>oo lattar cOlmlot Ult to the c_lltIder.
hyt .I!I<>al "" nally l>o erunged by "hlch they .a....knO"ledge
ord..... 'll>oo .. U.ro.tI.... 1. to design tho 1rltueOlllllltmieatlon ",.oh"
paretoly from tho "",In ....dJo. It would than \00 "",re ,..,
ltabt. than U pro.."t, thoro would too no u.uunee thU it "ould
not buak do.".
6. Tl>oo """,lJou.. D",,\>era ot .hannols "oed At va.. lo". 10.... 10
on .. tNlt ut .1'0'
SOR ;08, Bt.ttallon headquarter.
OOOlpany eoomandor
1
Platoon lUde r
,
1
;28,
"""..or, mo.t poopl. would b. co"tent to have four channeh. "it
.-ould appear tbat tho pront rodio uta MVO llIore ehann.l. than
are nee....ry. A t ..nI< radio .et 1. U"Y raroly .wltehod to a
dltto....t ohonnel during an ongago""'tlt, thuo a ut "ItI'> r!ve
ahouln cov.r pre.ont " do, !ally If tho,. could bo
ut up qulokl,. by the tank co...o.nd"r or oIr&le operotor. so th.t
It thoro ... ,.., lost_minute ehongo of tanh from one platoon or
compony to ""othor the new frequency could be set In on \he .pot.
7. Tho AH/VRC } 10 to.bnloaH,. a uth!&.etory radio ror
tent_Infantry .""""llIIle.tiona. A p","or unit h needed
",,<1 .hould .....d. ouftlet.ntl,. robust to wlth.tand tho gun blaat.
Tbe AH/VRc 3 doea not, ho....... , provld. the tull ra.IUtloa re
qylr.d In tho.t It doea ngt provide oomrr.tmleat1on. betwn tl>oo
Unk and lnfantry platoon.. Pc iblolutlo... uo to In.hll a
oeparah radio in tho tanl< f"" thh purpo,,; to d lgn audio
tor tho tonk tbOot l!ill provldo the hell1tl.. plUS tho
utrlO required; or to r.d.. lgn the Infantry platoon 0.' ,0 thot
It hoO a fr.quon.y overlap "Ith the
8. ThlI tank tolophon. !a aatlotaetory, but bethr uoe could
APPE!IIlIX H
nan boon ....de of It by tho Thl. 10 con.ldered to be
... l.n1l" .. quo.t1on ot It ba. b06n .ugge.ted tbat
til. t.lephonbou1d b<> IIlount<Jd a.-or on hnk .0 tbat l"r""t,.,._
",.n eRn r ob It ..ithout .tandleg up.
9. A tank .01".." ne&d. direct eemmnl.a:!onI<h tho T6
(lI.e_quite) airoutt tho of 010"" _,riD'.
It .....T b<> tbat thlo ..ill b atl.hetorHy provided no. tbat tho
T6' .... equipped .-Hh an SCI! rtldl0. The uu,."atlvo 10 to
.qull! .. tanir, tor' tho u.e of a (o!"Ward alr dth tho
tlddltlonal r0410 roquired for communication The
lot lI.arlno DI'fhlo" org...,le uhtlon ""It. do .uoh a tanl<,
tho "Poreupl"e", .-!tl> a for tho uU or tho O:lr <I.....,. F;UD,

10. Thoo preunt .y.t&.. of ..'Itl\l''g to 10 "ot ..t_
hr tory. Tho to a.. "rranged 00 th"" oOlb .an
opor...d .. lth OD8 hand, tho eommondor 000 hand .. lth .. hloh
to hold on.
n. TIlII oho.nnel bUttOn" of tllll SeR 'i08/52a 0"0 p""""nt
muoh too 1noiblo.
Ro o""",.ndatl on.
12. To ",.Intaln b.ttallon_eornpo.ny oormnunloatlono, a1dlt!onal
SCI! 506 radio be togethool" ..tth operat_
lng ar<l ,...JnUn"neo por.onnel. Tt.o radIo bo ",ountod
In a=lllary
'til!! Into,.oommunloatlon .lIould b. made ",ore
... lh.h1. .ither hy dutgnjng .. un1t from tr.. ",.In r.dIo
Or by provldln8 an omergoucy
",. For Infantry_t""k op.zostl""., o"",,,,,,,,lo..tlon. from thl>
tank to tl infant,.,. platoon .hould b$ 1,1 ono of thoo
.... hods opedn.d in po.""g,"ph 7 preoedlng.
The to)"phone .hould b... 10.el" on tl
inhntrymon oan reach it .. Ithout .tar<llng up.
16. It tho rooont .ddttlon of SeR ,00 to tile oquipment ot
the T6 centrol alroraft doe. not ?rO'flde oatloraotory elo11"
Bupport c","",untoatl""., hnk, .. Ith d""",y gun, ohQuld 1,0 fIttod
dth 0. I'IIP radio for the control of 010 air oupoort otortko
17. T .... t ..o ._Hellee nqulred for rad:o ehouU
b<> ",Qunt.d, po.. lbly en tile IlIlcropbOo6 h""dle " that botb e""
bo oporatod _tth on. h&nd.
lB. Tho ehl>.nno1 ul.eter puoh button. "" ...dlo t
bo OIouDtod ao tbat th!!1 uo 4uny 00"u.lb10 to tho tank oo""".ndor.
,",
APPElIDIX II, .1.10181 1
'I'UlK C(I!UNICA'I'IOlI AHD AlIS'lEliS
,-unt... tl"". bun ..UaCo..tory b.t.... " your
MIt ro.....t1on?
but ther. 1. a groat obort.ge ot .kl11.d
ft: Yo..
co, Y...
bo." ...tiara.tory bot..."
."",panl..,
Eo, "ot .Itl> the sea 509 though He 292 and 296
he... boo" "ud. ''''''Panl.- b&vo ....."oli .. 60
,.11.. rrom 'bOottalion I>ooclq\ll,rhr.. 'I'm liahcm plano hU
I>oon " ..cI ... a _rhol ",lay .tation .bon it has 1>00" 01,,_
bonna, but rbol 1'010,. 1. n...r roall,. tisro.tor,..
lie. tho SCli 506 dou Dot hov.. thl> range requt:rad
p......nt typ<> or .""ntlono In KeN.n torrdn.
18 .11 rIght. Tho _,,1.. do l.u
hoadq".rtero, but tho,. .1'0 oontroll.d
an,. uh.
co: 110. the sell 506 10 not good onougb. tor bothllon_....po.l>Y
e-cmmunieatlonB In tbe p .... aont t,.pe ot operation. I normall,.
ny In tho lidoen pla"o or 01.. thlo 0. .. a .... l..o.,. .to_
tion. but other co..,.""I tiono are .... q"Illrod
.. Ib\>NlvU.tlc"a und hero Ore' Ccmm 0, .c_""leaHOD o!'n..... ;
CO, eommand1ng o!'tte.r; Co compan,. Plot Ldr,
pUtoon lo..der; Md h 0, offl.er.
'"
CO, lio,., do u.. U.. plane ao but
0ii1a 10 Dot completely .at18f"otory.
T", cOOlpll.llh. nave be'n w!thin of
tu.a.dqu."."r
Co CDIItd, !h<I SCR 508 10 not .. I have "" SCR
506 iD my .s .. 11 as the SCH 508.
11<1 do los. touoh with ho.ttallon headqu.rter., but
by tho 1nfantry anyway
.' 'l:u. HF oqu1PDOnt 1. required, but th.. T/O&E mu.t bo
.....nd.d to Includ" and ",.'nUnanc. p.r.onnel. At
tM p...... nt H ..... ha.., SCR 506 "",,,,,ted in tho o""'pany
co....nd.r.' j po In addition to th<l seR 50S. Thh "."....
a nrr hoa..,. bl.thry drain ond good .. o1nt,,,ane, 1.....nHal.
CW I ufrIol,nt Ir ope,..tot"$ aro uallable.
CO, Yu. III' ut 1& It ohould b<I In
ilio O\",:1lia..,. .... ),101... OW 10 ouff1cl$nt but .0106 00"""",,_
Icatlona are !>otter.
00_ 0; Yu, an Ill' .et to 'I'M "q'llip,,"ct ohould
GO carrl.d In tho a""Uta,., vohlolu. ... mu.t have ...10_
hnanoe .cd oporatlonal porlonnel tor It,
Yo.. w. lla.ve SCR 506 radIo. In """'pacy
jupa. C. I. outtloiont .Ith good --r but
.010$
Han cOIIIIIIUDloaU"". 1>e6D .Ulofaetory w1tl\ln the
10:
a) Company to platoon:
b) hck to tank: and the
0) Tank "T,tlm.
Co COI'd and 2 C"""" 0'.: aJ Y.. , very gOOd.
b) 'l:.. , vory gOOd.
0) Y...
c-. 0 and 2 Co Comll.: 0) Very good.
b) Vlry good.
c) 300 nut quo.tIon.
! t!&.. r..a",.. "" l;hIi $R ,all/5;::S .. J fbi!
.,.$t.o", "" t.U .." .....,. U ... ,
'l'l:liOr. 1>0... n ..:r ntU" ...b}6.
p> lor. tl>1. ...... l)" ..U<m...
Y... "" no"" ... bo" ... l'_dl" ... t
.TId """" u Or r""lt jn tbf t..
SUPTHlII /" _..."" ara needood "" tank !',,,Ue
c.,.., C,
U rl>ur,
r. \. )
Ilh"""U
,
l" ehil.nnel
!Io-I; I ""
'"
'd
I

'"
,.
I"
.,
l')
,
un 506
'0)
)
m J
" ,
,.
hJ a,...... "d
,
""
,,,,
<OJ i
hI
,
tin
4,
,., ,
'"
(II )

) sey
,
1
7t",l<
IdJ
'"
kd. .",; pluo<m Wlnl 0; h... J\tf..
111'1,,,,tu, en. I)&thH"" .. ".n h fw .!l"
1ns..... ...tl"", an" t/;; '1' .... N
""",,,117 l" tn., HUo"" r:>m>, 10 h 30,. r"".11
Un'" t" .. <.... "",tun",, """",,,,,,1. ..... :. .. the
h:. tbotr Y1e1...
0, ... lmun 18 tlva:
:a) Batu.l1on
!I Iboc""".lu... net
;e) .\
(d) 1\ Q"..
C oomp""'T
, .. 1... by
lot: .1>1" lin"'" on
.Uh QtllipAl\t !'lOt,
'"
APfg1)U H
co, I would b8 porhotly eont.. nt with two rellabl. ohannelo.
\'r'hr. co rl1u In ttoe l1ohon plane, an:l 1. prU\lIl\oblr b ing
his on the chllnne1 5CR 510 in
Her. ... nJ ohann.l.. or (.) the seR 508 and (b) tho
nor,...lly Uud In one aotlon:
COUi/r. Q: la) Not than t"""$,
(b) On<q 6aoo plo.toon h.... difforont fre<;uoDcy
t up on th& ohannel.
Q: 10) Throe.
(h) T_o (battalion QnQ pl.toon).
Co COOld:
,. ,
Co",p""y o"",",,,,,d .. ,..,, u.e (one por platoon
(4), on. "","POl'lY. _r.d one bUtallon).
NOl'lllally one. hut _hen the 11.1&on pl.",," h
airborn. th& b.tt.l1oo ohannel 0100 1. Nlqulred.
'"'
'"
Co C<>m<l:
,. ,
'['wo (battalion and COOl!>"ny), but it 10 d ir
able to be .ble to uoe tbo platoon
wllich ... k a total of
On. but the tonk. 01.0 requ:re on.
to monitor tho battUion not _bon the 11a1oon
pl""e flie. over.
Co Comd: (a) Thru, o""'pany, at><! one .pare.
(b) Ons.
, Plat Ldr.: (Q) Throe, platoon., company, and battalion.
One plue Ol'lotboo" for tboo 1:e1.0" plano.
you over tr!.d to chango the ehonnol or of
" ,
an enIl"Ee""'nt?
_"""
Once, but no""ol1y it 10 yuy d!tfleult. 0n<I
channel ...,u cluttned up by Anoth.r tank battallon.
oble put tboo platoo" on to tho """'pony ohann"l,
tho otho>r platoon. of thlit oompany ..t.ly ocmo
"Y off.
2 C""",, 0'8, 2 Co Comdo, ond 2 Plat Ldro, No.
"Uo::>TiON 1, 110.. hn8 don it t"K. to aot up a chlinnol1
A good moehanl0 t .. 5 ",lnut.. ; an avonge
",l"utes
technIcally ror tank_
COmm 0: Very good. lIa l'>a,,,,, not had .urflolont unit.
all tM uu and hav. to u,. '0"'" Thlo
a not a, the .et hu to be po"",anenHy .,.ltoh.ed
on and tM de not lut lQcg.
2 Com ("" Yeo, very gOOd.
Q.UESTlON 11: you doh the po.or unit.1
CQm 0: Tho only troubls we hus ."porleneed I"" wr..n
PO_H unlta 1>9.-,. 1>0." put on to tho 2t.-.olt supply.
I think po.or unit h def1nHloly the .","er,
0: If the po.or oupply eabh 13 not properly
and it has not In .""" tank., tho u tt
h1h the cable and breaK. it.
: Tho vlrbrator. an no\ .uffio1onlly rooust.
Co Co.od: trouble at an.
COOl"". 0, with the :nfantry aro
1 am quallf16d to b"t I do th8.t tM
t.1ore SCR ,OQ go
Jnfantry to direct the t!lnit3.
co: Yu, we d&rlnltoly need .lth tM In_
antry ple.toon.
we work.d with the BrItish, ..ho.& platoon ut
""",,"on f"'qu&no1u .ah tho Thu.
to work to tho platoon., .. h1ch n. s great
We do not, In gen&ral, to talk to tho Inhntr1
'I'M tank. anould bo "ont,.olUd by tne

COIM".UIl!cgtlons -.-Ite. ths Inf.ntry platoon ue orton
l havo Qn _ up an SGR
the 1nfatltry fOr this Durpo.e.
!lot '" a. :t could bs, but tl:lo Is malr.ly
of .joint traln'ng.
C""" 0: Not much.
1-17
APPEKDIX H
Co CoOld: PUctlcally tho only hove been'
(a ) on approach .... \lHI> 0'.
'"
tho or 'ho lotaot ..""an 10 gt".n tho
t.lephone to hold .0 he can 'alk to tho 'ank
com:nand&r .1thQut tho latter ht. head orr.
Wh4n Infantry Rro .81ld"g 010'. behind tho tank,
of them 10 givon
Exec D: Kot rnuc/1 U 1t .hould bo. The telophon8 should
be IlIount.d lo.u .0 that lnfantp'i do not hs.v. to .Und
up to u.& It.
CC; Very 3.1dOlll, but th!. i. a qU&,t1on of trainIng.
"UESTIQlI IIp Wh8t 10 oplnior. of tho air support cOImr.unlcotlQn.'
CO, A tank column, .ir ,uprort ",u<t
witt. tho eolullUl, W& h<>V6 fitted one tonk witl>
& VHF ra1lo for <he u of forward aIr controller. I
.hould aho like a '1m' In tho lid.on aIrcraft .(nee
this pl"". oft&n fiod. tal'g<>t .
It.loon ain"dt h&O" a VlIF radIo for
cMion ... 1th ,he lIO.quito 5trl", alroraft.
should o. in an &rmored lth
, ele",ents.
you ""1 oth&,.. on tho oommunieotlon.

ro tran.mIt .Ith
;,'r ;,;;; to pru. two awHe!.
hltnd.; I. difficult to held
on... U In OHt .hU. rlolng tM. on the mono
(b) The channel button. ore "",oh too inaecuolbly piaMd
at l'reoent.
ANII"...x 2
506
SCR 508
sea 528
SCR 510
SCR ,00
AN/VRC}
H, AN5EX 2
SPECIVICATION3 MDro 36:13
Paetll tie.: CW Or voIce
SlgnU, AM
90 ..
nang.: CW, 75 mil.o; volee. 25 ",110'
(b) lIovlng: COl. 50 mile.; vole 15 IOn
Ch.o.nnelA: Contlnuou8 tuntng
Fnquoncy: 2-4.; me
Wolgnt: 2;1, pound.
hc1l1tlo.: voice
Signal: FM
Powor O'Jtput: 25.
Channol., I tran9lotttor and Z roo.lver. having 10
p"".ot chlmnola
P .... qu.noy: 20.28 me
ill command tb<lt 10, battalion $nd c","pAny
and platoon IG&d8ro
8.8 2GR 508 but with only on. " d In all
ue.pt o"",,"and h1lk.
Pa.111tlo.,
Signal, FM
Powor output: 1.) w
Channol., 2 prout
Fr.quoncy: 20.28 100
Uu: in lIdoon and ortginall,. In .>""pan,.
c"",",andGr.' vehlel ",o.t Qf tho
latter now by the seR 508
P.cllitlu:
S1gnal: PI!
Ponr 0.5
ChllnMls, 40
.. i,048 Ole
Infantry oo","""d Mt
A vohicubr In.hHatlon of tho SGR u.1ng a power
pack In.tud of b8.t'.erlo,
ILJ'PENDIX I
EMPLOYIIEIIT OF LAND JUNES III KOREA
by
Irvin J. Breen
PROBLKII
1. Tho proM.,," 1. to tho emplo')'m&nt or lmtd m1ne.
In the Korean e8l!lpdg:o the p.rlod J'une 1950 to January 1951.
FACTS
2. The oupply of AT "Inn in FEe .ao Adequat:e, but Ill'
euppl:r ne ror doman4.
,. Production or Sclru mlnu In Japm wa
Undorhken.
4. Th<o turn<rVer of troops In FEe prior th<o war oaused a
short.g. or land_min. In.tI'Uotor ;>er80nn.l.
5. tho RO/:A.a. not train8d In lOnd .. In. uSAge .arly 1n
the ....,..
6. Tho unoortainty of the tactical .i tuation w""
to tho of .line
7. Enemy min.. had O'<l.id.&rablo A8dn .. 11S o,.."or;
enemy u or ''''plaee"",nts caus.d delar ""d many

B. field, .. r. often poorly e:nplaced, lacki"8
fhg. and. oon""alment.
DISCUSSION
9. It i. olear 1'r"", tho mlM damoge InfHct.d by hoth 8ide.
the AT >nInes In UM dIn not hOv. a l.thal
Tho UN .. In" .rrert: n. affected lhck of troops in
min" usage. Thb laok C8" ho to lO>'ge or
troops in FEe which thAt trMpS ... rotu=ing to
til<! US .hIle ."1'0 .rrivlng In the thoahr. This
turnover ... u""olol1,. urlou. In thAt It kept tho .upp1y or
,oao""od In.truotor at a low lOV<lI. TI><I tr.lnlng do_
flohnclu .... re a factor In tho lndJ,orlOilnate la1'lng of mIM.,
nonrop=tlng of mine., tho non..ooplng of mlno. omlch cou.ed
to 01.>1' own .,.",01'. TI>..o \!lI mine effort was afreote:i orton
b-y tr"".port l1111ltatlons "hleh .,8do It dlfflo"lt to proou.... quan_
or IIIlnU fOr the troopo "I thin the tl.,e noee.oary to oup_
port. taetloBI oltuotlon.
10. 'l'hlIu .. may be Nrduc.d to a Jorge degeo In
the futuro b1' the u.. of remote .,lne-la1'lng "ethoo.o '''oh as air,
.rtlller],. or roelo>t ddlve'"1', It sppe8r. that ,0 ".ed
pl01' on I"'portant 1'01. In the Interdiction or enem1' roll
and rood noh. !lIning and "lth .el{-.t.rlllzlne ,,,In.>
should be e!'feetiv.. An In>re.tlgHlon of the obtained
b1' tho all' rore. with b""," t.
that a Ilke u.. of llll'ld ",In.s .",,1'; be equall1' suocful. The
prololom or rut_changing toctlcal .1tuatlons, a
hOrd to on.'. own troops, 1. on$",erec by tho
"'Ine hotur. glvlnf, usee contr"l ovee the nerloe. dur\",. whl<h
tho mlrte remain, getlv
CONCLUSJONS
n. Trolning In or l&nd b1' cornMt a=. o"told.
the engln..r. Is An in.uffldent n...!>ec or "",r.onnel
train.d to mine .-ere ovdlalolo.
12. Current AT minos in use are not lotMl.
1;. Tho r.portlne or UN wo, ero,"l1'

14. Earth auger. b<! u,.d erflel.ntl,
In tho of Ion:! mine
U"".g' of e.rth .. r5, and or """,oto-la1'
tIllrt& methods would b8 effective, 6xtecdlng the role of Mineo h._
J'On<! thot of a 0."" deh'!'. ..... apon tu a d
demoralizing ..,,,?on.
16. The corrent US "I"" doetrl". .hould lJ. In
the light of 6n6"", operation, In thl9 co"palgn with 0 vIew to
Irtc1udlng >uoooul'ul enuy holol1lquu for ,0.8Ilo1e tutm. ",e.
17. In view 0[ the er.o",1' the reco:w.endatlon,
of the report )lave boer. cor.flrmed.
18. The wood.n b"" AT mine u,
delay and damago.
'"
F', n " ,It . ' oomhot r . rsonc,e1
be
.;-.c. Ie. ,"-" ""."h.w",".t. ,;".ted!on, onJ ,",cogn!t!cn of
"'. ""' ha.'-.,'-",""-lC "'"
;", ',,,,,,_'._.1,' -hbC o[",""'lor' bv01V'n,o
'.c,"' ," ; . rL"_. '.""' 01""'" " Ho'''"" HS1".oc
T __r .. " .'" "[,la to on
,,' 'h'" .." ,,' """"he...',,,,"', \0 rO' ... to tho
,t,"
:1. '"p v.n,,;.1\<0
'''' "," ";' ;1" . ...,q"", '0 tc... M
:-,,11"..0 ..
,,,! ,
TI"" ' ..... N.
['Or .. .
-en. .,e_" ,:.1 "" '-", ....,.. "
'. .. ..
h ".,'l. ",,<;;,.. t,
Th. uroU,.", h t" n6hH.. !k., =;:lo""",nt 1,,,; 11<
In the Jun<'< l"P;J "<0
;" (Ht"Nl1M tM 'Or ,eeO.. "" ""hl,,,..d 1h tM
>06 .,jM" : ,tAn th" of
hd,Ah u", .ft",.s
It "" tt,-,t 1",. "ot b.. n
.In;" 1);'4, >Wl t W,' 111
"Hog :",.1'"",. """ ". >_c__, ,-', to :'11
hH, k>$''"t, -_'jj ;:,(
"'" $kd.", h"-,,,<Hul,y,1 ,," ]00).. cd
J4;;, ""01,,, H Ann,,,}; t> "f
.. "",,1 In ..."lUH.,,,,",!;, \<" ;;: "",,"Hio) nnd too
tn. eCtl'1. !\ll"tnor",..-,v.,
"" 1'\ "t", 'l'... of ,,:no.
h.,,",,, .. ..-.-1 .... ... Nt .... ,
th<. "ltt> ""porta for t4h rrOJHt
.n<" ..t n '''',.. ',q _I tn ,,,,,J '" t1
<'<",;l'.'.:'%".
"r "",""tHMS on1 h-Hl
:n "it, iH of oM ""
eS,,",oh:ly .. ""'"
<>MtMlio t" ""d
1'-'" ..... <.;'" b."",. A
M1. to t"" ",' fM
bAH h5;-t .."""" """ ,Ide, .oryl,,& r .. "", ..
t6 ''''rnty "'''''"'' [<i"" Th. ,Mdnera reer ..102<
rl""... d ,:' d"/.... :" only' rolatie,v ..
",lk! 1ru.l __ '", M
;'>'''':4\ t_-,e P"'_-t "r "-"" .. naarlj' ",1
.. r<>&ds 8", ;;;$"
.... "'><I 1>...." ,oe>ty"silrr",." Th. 1'<>'-0 lou",
NMt...,,1 of ;t'lt>d.
APPSllDtx t
Tt\& to.t. conduoted in j(Ol"U .ith urth .ug<lro .how..d that
the auger con ",oke tho hole. for ''''plac....nt .",,_dily wHh a
.",on cr and that the e"phcuont con 'be "",de ,...lathely "nde_
teetabl.. Each .user c"" operate ao on !ndo""ndont unit carry
ing up to 50 liT .,lneo on tho oug.r ... hle1.. On. minut. added to
tho digging cyel. would co."r the additlonal tl"'" ""qull'Od for
.tnpUclns an.. combination s .... at.r than on. Olin
!'Ox.hans. Ratu
Enemy Ex.hanS' Rat.
"

chango
ratppeau to
The oxton.!n u,o or rondo," .. Ina nelde n. prof!hhJ.o to
tho eno",y. Tho ,,",ploYl'>'nt or lotMl OItnu would ",ako the land.
.,Ine a 0\0"" deadly ,..8pOn.
A r"n of the US land-tnl"" .ffort would requIre
daU Oil the utent of dAmage Inflioted the 'M"'Y. Such data
have not been obtain.bl tn tho c.."Alty .urvey only one
""."alty of 239 " ottrib"ted tQ l""d ,.\no Honvu,
.(nee the US l.nd min did not hAve a l&tMl chars<>, the ""tont
or eno",y ca.ualt!.. r,presenting hit ropaired 1. not
known. Th.re Is One repoot tMt c1tu
25 rocoverlu.
Agoln, sn .,1o" of tho ,uceoao ot' \JlI land_mine .ffort
In tems of or "It 10 In that
t"oce ..eco only 600 to 70li @nB1I\Y ovallabh at the Qutset
the eon!'llct, this .harply decllnod "<>nth by month
a ps.ult ot UlI air Rl'lj vorlou. weapon..
many ",lned areas ..60e not by tho $neOlY ",hiel...
A groph of ene1l\Y ar.d rs $PPlor st,..,ngthO 10 gi",n in Figure 1.
i
400
~
m


'00
~
Z
200
,
'0 ,
,
I
,
,
,
,
___-+_.+__.+__
-! 100---1/-_-+__ _____
I
1
st. OCT NOV DEC AOO
1950
flpn L __lIll """ !IX ~ .. 9t.... r : . g ~ . , . . ,
J,l.o. tor muoh of' tru. p,dod 1. Ju1y 21 the
1]11 fo..... W&'" on tho and <lId not 610910y land ",tneo.
'rho number ot US mine. is.\1.d bv ordnsno& for the porlod.
27 JUM to }O lIoY."'''''r .u 12}.2'jO. Data on _Mr. by .boot
of tho.e ",1M, were u.ed nOt ootelnable of the
railu.. or UII foro.s to ..epo"t !Dln&
Xb >:1o>w or taot that data nre unobtalnabh, \>he n1l!llber
OC Urget. limihd, ""d tl'le 1]11 held tbb orr.n.ive at the tillie, ..,
oue!> .,go ,...te UN Olio. effort (ou..ber of nor hit)
oanMt 06 gl.... ", ond would not Meusarlly be n 10
'boUu$d, that tho HI( &"ploY"6 th<>lr ",1M' '"0"..
orUotlvUy than did UN forces, and tho UII forcu d16
not Uk. full .. of tbe .ultabillty of tt.. Kor.an t&rrUn
Cor .ntlhnk mln8 &mployn>ont.
8uee.. u of Enemy Operations
Tboo chUr roUQns for tru. ravorable .nB,"' exohange rU$ "OM
1>1. " 0' """dOlll field. hulng no ..8111 pane"". II.l)(l
U.'I r.n""", tg <lehet or clear ml,... Ahead or t!lnlu. The cholC&
Wonen .10.. at tho pace ot men probing try!""
teet t ... dHHoult ...ooden hox Md f ... movement at tho
upenn of <\a..age ...u often ",818 favor or the latter.
I'or ..e purpose., not. '" Uken hen or World
n and othor "8,.,,
1n Korn, thlo note :. intended to do more then point up the
tad th.ot In the .""'po1gn !lnd In World War H land
mlnn Il.o.ve .rreetlV61J employed by tho eno",y
.tn ..n ...g$ ot One out of ov$ry five t ..nk ouualUu
n. duo to ",Ins>. att.ek
po.ltton$, In deoeet and hhnd tho toll
,..ached two ",1ned t.e.nk. out or evory flve tank ..
b .. tn /to,."a, tho land ",Inn "$"" not htll.o.l, only one
out of evory tour Or flve tank. mined b.ing un""pdrabl$. The
average for tho Brltl,ll. at e1 (1942) and the U
'\'orgul P..umd (1944) .... , one Br!thh or Sovht tank 1,,_
Olobllhod f.or e .. l.900-2,}OO AU& TM US In tbo He1'len_
&h .... ller opout1on. (1944) lo.t on. tank for eveI'Y 220 eM"',
mines originally la\d.
tot0.1 I\U"lto of Et\e"'1 Mine
Th<> Q$tollM bl'8ol<down Df fir.. O,. to ",Ine" for
Eighth A"",y and X Coro. fro", 1 July 1950 to 21 J""u.I'Y 19';1 1.
In TaHe. ! '1 of Anne" ". min.. for
,"
TOTAL RES'JLTS OF :>NE!H EF'l"GRT
D.l percent tho total armor OUuftlti (tanks d""'&g<odl rroOl
&11 cau.eo O!ld 7 percent of the total 10..... Tl<$ ratio
of 105505 to ca.ualti 10 out of 64 tan"., onl:r 28 per nt.
.hO'OiDg tho l.thality of mines In ".e.
Tobl. I or thi5 .ection 0;'0.. that land min were in 0geond
a.o a fore but t ... lled 1" r1fth puoo
ao a [9rce.
TABL- I
E1GIlTH ARMY X. CORPS CAScALTIES
(1 July 1950_21 J ... 1951)
Totn I Tot&.l
porcent
WI".. ll.l
j'O
.6 a't gun 4.5
,.,
tAnk fIre 4.,
Artillery
'.0 '-4
)(ortar
'.4
ot
,.
Infontry Htaok

., 18.0 'terrain
Abandoned 9.
0
4.0
MeOhanical failure 60.2 La
It 10 important to not. that ",1M, produo@d .. largor poreob_
hge of total cuual!.1e. (1l.1 porcent) tllB.n artln.,.,-. mortar,
antitank. and [lre eOOlbin&d (10.3 p"reent) .1.100 enn till>
mine. In v total loues tlton fire
Or any other slngl. wupon sueh u AT I>\lno. mo,.ts... or arHl1er,..
'till> l\lll dl.eu ion ot ouudtlu ..d by e ...."y ....pern.
may be round In the ",aln report. 'Jh. n\llllber ot SUM euualt1U
eau.$d by ",In... 64 out of A tot"l or 168, \ndioatu tho> eff80_
of thO mine doctrln.. -.l>lch gue ",In.. an imporhn\
plaoe In op.ratlons .o.nd directed "he u.. or unprodle'_
able pO.ttorna in depth. mine field. _re not neeos.arll,.
by fir
Eno"y ... _$0 aehie..ed wl-th A ... latl .... l,. ."'0.11 ... tlt,.
of .,lne
It 10 tram tho.e data tMt to Nortb
regarding antitank warfare ..ore Ju.tified. Tho
in.truotion. $hhd tho.t "."lnu are the .tronge.t ."pOM .galnst
enelllY unk5. Bur,. "'Inn unde,. ....'d dirt "hen you ue enelll'J
I APPEHDIX
tankpproo."ll1ng UODg .. roo.<l.. ..
Tabl. II .how. thU tb.e l ....l:\tI.t nlllllb.er or UJ>k ..._Hl".
to land "roe. oe.ur.... hefor. tho Chi......ntered th. war, or
prior to 1 HO.....llbor 1950.
TABLS II
LOSSES TO MINES BEFORE AND AFTER CCF WAR
(Eighth Army and X Corp.)
flora,.. CCP Sin.. CCP Er>tl"l'
(1 lI"v Jan ;1)
Mlno euualtl...
Min. 10....
Tho ...all nu:llbor or .. lne euudU ...1nc. tho Chin...
enterod tho war Bpp"8r. to aupport tlla .tate_nt of a CCF ""pUln
..ho uld tl"lat "no land m1n , AT or .I.P ao ouch, .e"" brought by
tl CCF troop. to Koru, hut those ltamere 10 ."I-Ply in th.ir
homUo.od. Tho mines that are holng ud ars I",provl.ed rrom
aundonod Uli artillory .hono, .ood.n hoxes, and oardhoo.rd _rtil
lory .hell oontainer Tho uploo1voard.<l by thO CCP Ill'''
..1te blOCk. find TNT In <_l'foUJ.llne torm."_
Eaoh CC'P .. In. co..pe.ny 1>0.. tn.- AT "gpoup Elleh group
co""l.t. of foup men earPT 20 of ery_taUln. TNT
0.0 car,..,. IlIIproviaed mines. Tho mine. lmprovlud t .."",
pende<l artillery .hen. oontain lQ POUlldA or nplO.I...._, and tho
_do ot cardb<lllrd can; oonhin eight poundB ot uplo.iv., Doto_
nator. RnI attaohod to .ult tho oce... lon fOr ""e __ pull typo.
p .... uu,.., typo, and time fuu. ape ".,ployed. In Ilddlt1oQ, each
o",",pOnT ke&p' throe Irnpro?l.od wood8n bo% min (u.ually tllsh_
loned 1'p"," ammunition 'bono) on hand at an ttme
The CCF battle uporienee "" .rltten in .. eplltured
atat that thay had no eft.eth. wupon again.t heavy tanks but
otated a chargo of 'tNT .ould dlaAblo tbo t .... sd or belly.
Tho holly no cited ao tha _uk "pot on a tank. It "80 oUted
that an antitank or 08n, two earry1ng TNT
Alliod .. and Int6rp""t"r Section (ATrS) laauo 110.
10, 24 August 1950,
.. Heport lIunber 6, Engine"r Tochnlc.l
Inhllisenee 'toalll (Ruureh), 12 Janual'f 1951.
Doeurnont taken by l.t HOK Division and reprinted by EUSAK
Otfiee or tho A.. ietant Chl&t or suer, a-2, 29 .. 19,0.
Thlo 1. & tUn.Utlon of & CCF p...phlot on tM '9t:h A....,.'. Uuan
bat tIe O%P"" Ion es.
paoKage. tl>o oc"... t.o c,,""ylng ;_pound paokl\gM, .hould ""
..bl. to immobiliZe tank
of US Caoualtlea
TI>o US armor e8ou8ltiu "y ",in totaled 64 fr"m 1 July 1950
to 21 1951. p"roont ,,1' the 168 us "rmor
o,.."altlo. ol\UUd by the .u".. lU.$ u_
from hetioal .. the Oline casualtle $1'$ 64
out of .. total of 145, or nearly U TOMly a. fro", all othor enemy
_ ..pons .,,"bln.d. ... co by far tho l>ut _upon
US tank 1'lleu dato. aro sho1m in full in .. ble
III.
,
ACTION
Duo. on }7 US tanks lirlllloblllMd by enemy .,lnea or un""portod
US minos again .ho. tho no.d for a l.eth.&l 1111".... In 010$' In
.hneu tho damage ... contin.d to tho traok., shock all_orber>,
road wh<>o1-o, oproelteU,o.nd braekets. '1'1>0 re;>&lr. u.uan,. ..ouid
toke rrOtO 20 to houu"1n tho "nit or bettalion. In tho f ...
euh<>re tho oxploalve ohargee _ro letha), tho d....age and
10ao8& _re aori",,'. In "'0 0....horo the load tank hit four
d.",olltlon cl:l.O.rg." noor of tho Unk .... ruptured,
Ion u'ld t-.o or tho or n .... killod and tlV.o .o",,"e".
In anoth.r e......Mre dynamlt. boo. tel' .....ddod, tho track
n. dutro,.od, Mttom buoklod, tor.l<>n bar. dtr""ed, .n eloc_
trieal eon,,"etiono d.._S.. d, and tOrn 10<>'0. TI>O hnk
had to be .ont to FUOaD for ."to".I.., r.pUr.
In .""'. OROU tho da,.,.oe .tlH oau tho
t!l.llk to he abondoD.d to 06 a ".et_up" for other $".my .... apon .
In OM cU. tho dI,"bied to"" ['ni.'>ed off bJ .. th.,.,.lte
.. lSi. br. n, K, of thlo uport.
gun.
abandonment
80tion
Tn... or ""'880 1;0 US A....or
I AHZtll)!X
grenade; in another eau tile !.mnOblll..d load t ..nk .... burned
Iry the one"'1; and In a third ea 8. t&nk with only track
had to be abandonod. From tho oau.od by tho fe_ latnal
min. charg recorded, It I. apparent thO.t t ... of the ;? tank.
_QuId havo ucapod urlouo had a lothal ",Ino hoen p,..sont
In eTery can. In addition, th. toll of crew ouualtlu "ould
hA..., had a d.flnite denwrnlhlng effoet on tank ere1l
Tb8 additional data provide furtha .. evldenc. of tl favor_
able raU poulhlo for ",In... to.nk.. Whllo the
tankn be repaired after mo,t encounter., it re..Uno tru. tbo.t
non 8. OeIll?OU,.,. or 00 I .. portant a ..eapon ao a hnk lltIly con_
otltute nrlou. Impdrment of .tr.ngth during a parled of
aotlon.
For Instance, on. battle action .... stat 4,000
yaros beyond Chlnju, Q lesd tank, an M26, .8.8 '.."obl1luo "t1y on
Momy mine. A. "!M detector Oq'llad of the 65th Engineer C"",b .. t
Battalion r ...OTed 11 mlne. fr-<>m tho road. On.thounnd yard.
north, anot!"tor m!no fteld '"u encount.red which r ulted
In tM l",",ob1l1utlon of an M4A3. Three Olin...... re removed fr"",
tho road. Thu$" ",ore 16 ",lnos had put O<lt of two hnkB
oven tl'\ol>gh only t""'porarlly.
TM orrecttve"..s of tho .nomy oy.t<)lOI of undo," laying,
..Moh :r:ployed in this o .... e, fo,.cod the d.toctor teem to
March ov.r 1.S mil"" of rood to unOQver ,,11 tho mines. Thh n.
eo.tly In tl.," .."d oa.ual-tl
Another battlo_action report atateo that in tne of
a lo..d tank a mlno. reconnai ....
teo,,,,, working under fire, ...."'oved 19 ",In.. and
looated I><>t.oen 100 o.nd 200 box_type .,In.s the rood.ide.
"Armor In the Infant,.,. r<>port to the Oporation.
Il.....reh Office ",ade by loIaJor Robert T. Shay.r, BattaHon
the of tho 70th Tank &tt&l1on, .tato. th<Lt an e""lIIY mine field
n. onoountepod we.loh .... covered $ffeotively by .mall arm. and
artillery tir.. A. total of 18 tank. w.,.., ? of whloh
we'" not ,..palrabl
RneOlJ Field. In X-Corp' A,....
lntor",atton enemy o!>'raUon. I .. tM X.Corps ArU bear.
oot .ht..",onts tMt the ene",y achieved del.. y with hia rand"" ",Ine
hying eyeo the .,lnu often were p",orly omplaood. They
re usod In limitod quantltie. tho porled eon.lder
tlon In this roport. 1m "'so In tM !nehon_Sooul o.roa
.Mr. ,.In....ere ud in doron.o of rOAd block. ond b.o.rr:csdu,
ond dong tho Han Hh.r. TI u.ually _sro ha?haz.rdly
pl."od In haat. orton not .. r.d by fire. 1.;
)lAnno Divla10n .tatad, ho vor, that gro"" delaying effect ..u
In ,\m,"" do'al1o of ths ",lne opecation Om'
8. ",lnB_t'\old o"uln Ar C'." Inohoc._$Mul srba,
Enemy Operations
mine field, oliu,od and casu"HI.. ,
The US preot:c. ",,. be"" to t"" [,rot 10'5 I n a '!line tJe,d
not preot 1y 1-oooteJ, ''len ,"00" the of the flel".
'Ihe woOden ',>sed tt-,e o!'ten dlffl<ult dotect
ond often we", 100"0" ',y "root cora was ,""c.uired to
plck "p witt. ,iet.<tors. O.,oclloo ha:l to
be h6ld c)coe to 'he . .The cn:y .afe is ;;NO.,,,
A .. Ine 's needec w"'ch '.111 locate ncnmap'etlo
7h. >,co.enoe or a ",te" 1oto"at'", vehicl& such ns a nail
"o"lc\ o&"e a 1,010. '!In..
OnC"cnterec ;n t,,, v'cln!ty 0:- b1o_c. ond, artH til<> Ihl_
'ta). r"',m oovc"d bv fire.
,'j". "e"e by ,\T dltd-", "", acro.. tho roado
tn oeflles.
a of Colonel
A"",or Offtee>', ,o',cc",
Mine. were e',Dl.cod route, of \'II
They uoually [o"n" "j(,"-" tho M ,'000'. Thoy Mm._
"lu on. tracK, .procK.t, brOKe tM
bTOCKOt.. In 'Or. t)oy ,n, or at 1e.ot buckled
!n, one 0.. 6.cap" hato"03, a".k only a
fu mInor inJurie. fro" claimed the majority
"' Unk lie, ,au.ed bv action.
obse"v.tinn. but ..d' that
",Ine. "oro often 9nopiaO.J, conoHleci, and 'H,
det.ctod.
W!".Ilo ene",)," ael::1eved h[, greatest oucce.. wI th nndorn
c,l. foe pat",,,".".
11le 1. given in Annox '. 1'ho po.ttecn. for
.quad AT olatoon ',T
:he from PO;.
Tho pat'ecn, wi:lch :a an use 'Jy
,,'a' ned
AT pntt.",,, ,hooh.d and by eha Engineer
I Corps 0;. The or
a In C, AT dntaoked
Ie indica, .nen)' a'tempt to dU\wr a blnt.
<> TechnIcal Infoc",otlon N"",bor 2,
Sap.e:noor
---- - -- - --- --
- ------
'I'h& eM"'Y lack or abo 1..... portod In S]><>chl Report
Numb.r 2 of tho 557th EngIneer TechnIcal Int&lHganee Detaeh.... nt
(tor text, ""0 Annex 2). de,.h .-1'" .. fieJ.d fQund
nOAI' hun_nl .-"Ich .a. to h8.,., nQ pattern. Also. it
wao ie,prop.ply placed and ea.lly nen.
Report Numbe" 20 of tho 5"rd EnsIneer TechnIcal IntelligeDce
ha_" (Ruuroh), 14 hbruary 1951, r.nect. and
opinIon. of Caph!n Col. Qf the S56th E'tID Ie) and also In gen.r
al the opinion. of 5_2, I COnl_". 5'itll Royal
Engina6r Intelligenc.; 65th Enginee" COlIlbo.t 3_2; and
infantry batta,Ion 5-2'
Thlo R.M,.t sta\e. \Mt [po", .,ine neH. Investigated
I>y Captain and froO! peru.ol or fll.. or 3_2. I Corps
EngiMer Section, th,e"O Is no typical pattern indIcated.
TM $>:t"nt mine_fIeld ap"oar. to be, as applied to
rood bJ.oOk., c6ptain that mino. be in thQ.e .pot.
"h,er& heavy traffle Is lndICUed (ruts, tl .... traok., @tMt.ra)
and on the the road; that they b@ In A$ depth
a, pM.lbb, and b $0 that a vehIcle cannot ".ave it.
without dHoitattng &t l.ut one I1Ilno; that they l>o
plaoed I" a pUce in road .uch. a, a cut. or rill. or
by_pa.. : th8t tly b. at l.aot covorod by rlfl. fIre. and Once 0
nlIne flsH on the road has b.en r.OlO..,d. try to r.phce it uc,..,t
ly tho very by U3. of guerrillas."
It 10 thu the po.tte"". 8,.., 1Inprov'.ad ,t ths
tI"e of hying .-ith rel"ar<l to the t.rrain. the amount of ",JM;
On arld the amount of ti ..6 to do the ,01>.
'the Report thB picture of eno",y cQmouflage. "wo.t of
the.s fldd. acoo,"pll.n 0"'" of thol" purpoou v.ey .-ell, that 10,
to tani< caL"mn. "o.-n O-nd l"""Ol>nhe the'" tomporarlly.
Tsnh &NI uldorn Injured by m:ina., h01/ev.p, a. tho ",iM' 8re ve'l"f
poorly rn tho casu obsePved !n this area, no
att.. ",pt. at ..glng had been made ucept to t ..o
!nch!!a of ).oo.e cUrt ths ",lne. causIng. hump in tho r<>ad
at that pOInt and ther6by to It.
!'lad been dug. and tete dIrt .lthOut a ooIn6." ThIs "OS
r.ported to l>o confu.ing.
11.. to fire covar, tho flald. round in the area had not been
oovsred by 4T "''''' pre.Mlt In tho
mined a""a. evidenUy to v.event hand removal. on the
they have been 1norfeetlve.
'tne Report concludu that In I1>r-..&rd aU"3 Infiltrators .-111
often ,neak back the night foLowlng remov8l- of th@ m1""8 and
plRce nn mlnu I" t11<> .... holu.
practice or unOom s"place""'nt dtb ,,0 .at
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0m",u<l<' d..... p" 5'-A !"Jm'y t. ".,;tk,",J,
t>y .. Wi "';"" r:.11 .
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1,,,, elf tb> ..1 <tfl",AI,,;i rat ... t'Mn
.'YlH tfoo .. I!'NAr. .. i"""nf tl'l'lIl
...'''' ht-i d'",,( tM 1,_""" .bHl. b .. <t \I"'h
",,"-,oN tq;!ltb'r \" bl"c)!v aU, !:n.d ,olk JIIH"du: "..
J<l.. thh hlpNVrutlo",
f<lr the 11M bHC.4&H MotHy, h""""".. ,
thi! "u"'... 'MU..,. \i;' A
"r '>tea d.7 .!.>" d
"""rt tht. .-n.."t,,: <I""' .,.. "-H <I_,n.
to tM .Utj' ... r,. .. .. jnu 1;00
H."rn1 AUy ,.,,1Id ... ,. .. h&1 jf tM"-
eet .i""...d .. ""rnd t&,. t\;,o d
th d"rtt. It .8. Mt find "OJ = n:-
In .,,"" ."",U _"""

ENrnY
..1nn loy the one",y hoon In ATIS pulollea_
tion. and aro gIven 1n AnnH 2.
A lut of 1nfo"".t1on on )Il!nu fUZM was cOOl?iled
fr"'" R.,e&pch Supplement Numoop 94 and englneor rnfor
matlon on tho &>d <ypea of ",iM' by tile enomy
In .evon ...... ,"cured from ATIS r.port.
In Ibt fo"",. 'rh<!u ll.t. p..... "nhd AnMx 2 dong ,,:th
vlo... of tho oneOlY !Dine, .. improvlo.d AP mlne, POlI_Z_2 AP
min., ,"od1fied TIID_B, and an CGE'mine.
'rho miD r.ported to b. effecUv.ly u.ed loy the ono"'Y In
oluded, tho NK AT ",:ne containing 15.7 pound. of TIlT plu.
g booote,.; a modlriOHlon of tho DlD_9 Sovlot otine; the
.hrapnel min.; the US)(6 .. 1",,; and t"provlo.d min
Ene",! Improviaed Land Min
Imp,.ovl.ed enomy land ",ina., on the purp0'"' u,u.lly
aN> c..... d In tin can" gasoline or kerosene
hollO'lled rock 0,. 'IIoodon M .... '-:arthon.. are and holloct .tones
aro by US ..ngineor. to 1>. "ffectlve agalnH peroonnol.
Four of tn. ",o.t a,.., trip typo; t"ead {or
pressur.) typo; "-,-,tOr.latiC_l'.loa type; And Shell type.
Tho ty;><> " vi,.tually tinoQ bOOlh and, al_
dlfflcult to 1n.Ull, oe oxploded at
tl",. by a :nechanlUl, or coerll!cal igniter. 1M ad_
of till, typo of rilinG I. It 1< aBlly d.teoted
and ."-ll be bur!6d The m1nu 1:nprovlHd by 'ho ene:ny
from .he:l., wc.lcc. to be extrsmoly off.etlvo, u.ed artil
lery, r,o_1tze,., 01' Meta"
c,,-pal>1Et!e, of tho
Tlle oneny already ha. Soviet-type IT.l"". Or :nodHtoationo
theNlof. Should land_rr.lno of to... be placed at
tho dl.pou: of tho enemy, h .. <o"ld ..oatly ..oa,. hI>
oa"abll!tt&. fOr land_:n!n...orforo.
Tlle I. ".on.iderohly aheod or the US and C7re8t Britain
ln the of type. of land and fuoo, and :n their do".,l_
opment ao.d produotlon. In No,.ld :I .. n, the USSR ".ed appr=l",ately
2) AT and 20 AP rr.od.h plus ir.lprovls.d mlno
It is belioved th"-t they no.... fou,' st01ldard AT typ6" the
101-41 land the I'1o!-44 , a 'M
mine, tlN> rr D_n ..-ood.o. box ",1M, and tn. .ooden
IT.ine. The _,tandard AP typo, are te_" rm'z_? ,ru-apnel, ,n. Dm_6
and 7 .. and te." 01-.;' bounoine ga. ",ie_e. Tnl. h.t mine,
20,
.lthough not 1.n US", i. boli.,oci to b. he]." :n "toel<. The Oe""an
AT and tIE AP b"ondln,: are
to be in prodoo\lon.
... \'SSR Ms the mecnBJ1:"": t"PO, V,V ann Vf';' pull fuze.
the prenurs [',",e. c0ntHt [ne. tnclC"da tho
LfII hz. aM tl'e F_1C ["zo.
Current 'CSSR do""lo",-ent. "PO c ,.lth nonmetallic
Cr,,;',", 2) The nMd
for hthal, 1." ,n3 beon e'pr.ssed el,.
-.-hore In thls of in
,r''':ec ,0 \;3 than
beee. exps"ienoed 00
The u 01" ", c",noll.od d9to_
nated by wo"lc li,o):, CQ
cap.. It .bould oe l'dh cr tho.e t;'06' or ",one
u.age ac. stpo"oo In Soviet etfec_
thene .. of "<tton IT"-" a, a" a'ci to l'S op.c-at!on' is
..ed u"oOr cn ':'ine ;",}Jveey."
Result. of l;S ,an" Err,,""
An QRO au,'vey of H ._TI)' "',"0'- lOHe$ "eport.d that of n,
and SP gun, '1'rv.yed _'r.]y 2 (0.( 1Q,,0. oaused
b,.mln". Aho"",, Ar.n'H 2 o[ th',
7 )0".'.
CONplete ... on o,_ouaHl .. h of oour.e not
It I, pel!.voJ Ih"t of tanks
"" US min.. "eee p.paired ,'et"cne1 action.
Som. dats or, 0"".00 bv 1'5 w., ,ecure1 fro,"
eno..y poc.Qnnel. A teeh"loa) ,t ;oD,rJ l05th
Ar",o",d Dlvto!on, P<'c30nBll: '1'I.e,',,!o'.<1 Co
ag.d by mines ln hl, ""I'hont ",,<I ,'1":]010"_ tochnlMl o!'f1cer
",?orted 15 'anl<. 'n t"-- E7th "'''rl lD9th
They ld tho 00".[',_ to the tr.oks "ne
wos 8a>11y ,n ,:"t.d
that "n AT "tno J tr0" .0", ,.hen p", woo
theo" tan;'. off the if c".d 't!o,_, " .... !,Nod, 'h"
tank at 'he "' _'." 'n "epalped track,.
\,11 alc wa. tr.e csn,e of to
NK CuuaB!u ", .0,. nu-bH.J 10" out of
or _bout :)j """oc,,t of t'. total i_06 Table :V).
Nooalm appears to the ,-"t woopon or
20
OF US iN<:
for 60 or ooout 25 parcent of the total count. In tl>e
ovor.t that the \:3 J.acked or exper1oneod
of unfuorable ..... tc.e of offort _ould M
thro.."
l",po"tant
on ground weapon"
part.
a,"on; land ",In could phy an
TABLE IV
COMlllNED T,4 AND SF ,6 LOSSES
(239 T34" and 74 SF ,6'.)
Abandoned
N"polon

"
"
4'
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Unlmo.n
"

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6001"S
"
Air not "n
M.chan1cal-
4
,
Mines
,., ,
I

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,
5
!
;
L5
0.'
o.,
,.
A>. If allowance 10 made for tlo.o a"",or
but, tho total a,.",or ... to ",1neo
1. higher than In tho survey.
miM_fiol;l elu""nce could co.t tM en$OIY delay If not
ca.ual tie. 1. seen from 8 roport on On oroomy ongb,er battalion
oleaPing a <n1ned ar.a on the Yongdol<_'{ohghae hl!,:lo."a1. 'l:t", mine"
..u locat,d '?orMl'Mhly eight north of Yongdok.
A!tec .. orklng aH iay, only half the ar68 ,ns e).earod. The bat_
Ulion lert tho Job half ond prooo6dod tow.. ,-d Yor.gdok.
Thor. ',oce o",ualth. cludnS the oporatlon.*
Extent of lUna
Prom 27 Jun. jO Novemooo 1950 12,,250 AT
..nd 61,5GO AP mine. _po 1.,,,,,d to UN troop. In tre Army.
TheM do not the ha.le lo.. d or unit
beought "Ith It; this would 001 the p .... about
ton
Ho,""vor, re,.orts ","de to engine8"" aoeounhd
0- ATJ:S ro.". No. 6, No. 1192, p. 215.
Onlj oj' the T"" A"'-7 hod ''''''e
2\9 f,.om It. ""ita "nd 6n spot !r"'" I'l<AG
I":. p.,.iD<l The n"",,,o" of ... f= l:r tn..e
"\.9,529 Ar and 1?,2l.8 AT "'\1>53. T1'.. u (011" .,
,oF '.i.'.l."!
'07 Eighth_AI""'Y
by "OK repoct.
)f lhe ,"",port" tu,r thru! fly, tr..,,,, ",,1u
"han ongto.."
Tlw. iiJK gonually ,a not
f:c1ontly truo,.""t1 .. ". "orr u'Bful. rho ftOK f"'''' i!:')
J"". to 25 .. 1o.1d Bnd hU" ",",ocl <;h... n""'''''r. c.t
."ie.. ,
('.1S n.... A)
7.81S
),.01,0

lOO,Q()>) AT tllld 40,000 AP .. 1M3 ... ,.., ...
"tid 11M ec'oIbot &!'M' oth.r
... ,.., ..... .. chlef ort,,".O<>N, ?r.t. ),0. """tor
"l th. 2is;hth_A=y ..ho th<>
;M5 :>f jn hnd ,,1M' It 1. nQt
m:lk.::;o tM n .... ot "':"". non tnon
1ndlc&tM, """.. """0 .""Poor_
l<>g ",11. u or "". .. tlm, fbI. <"lII'u,,""
.." -"., f=d _11 ".,,"''''\ t""lnlng in land ,HM. !h-en
tI", m1 tMlr
"', U" ,t.105 10 lfl
IT.., .. ",poot"" 1" tu.
..." R1uO'd L. ;Jrd RIt(i".. Ie) B<lttoHM,
N on" tn. P<'rlM, by tbh
1...-.1 ,,",In.. .. ... til
7", f,;'"f:\A ,Old fhld4 H' tM ana ho
.n1 nM ot lInd",n, '1illl!.tn \bu.
""",. .,,,,,:r. ...Inod .'> ..tHlr tn.t plHl"R Ih... on
&;- u. .. l, <>f tN ",t1'llld
4r",", 'W O! Fngtnnr Hu1q\Ja"t ..
""'''" ,,t ... """n,
h. ,.,dM 11. l::e J.. $""'_
Sr ,.."" n.::'-J> ;;,ZOO At
"c.d 50J AT mines laid by Th<I
ue. it neces3a,., to socur. data on .. ",In", rrom
likely .ouree. A tnbuhtlon of the 57 rc?orts 10 r\v.,n
Annox,. Tho u of soh" mi""" and !.pro,,:.ed p,renad. miMa ':>y
3rd ;:nglnear ComUt Battalion i. notable. f!eld8 ..ere
lai" the Imjln and Hoc. olver" and In <he acea, a_
bout YQnchon, Pochon, Tukto, G""e.fhowon_n1, ar.<\
"OM phced ab",'ut the Inlj!n, P"khon, Choy"n5,
an; SQyang R!ye",. A .eeond .ada. oj' ovo"lay, tile3e
,,"ea. wa. by Engineora, EUSAl.
The of p.>.".onnol "" li:e u,a of "lno,
I ... Kor$a were ,ec"",1 or th! t"d1 (ou Annu
They cOrlpri o.n pa," of the record the con_
viot!On. or k"y '""v. a bearing '>n about
"lOIn. So"", of ,tate,."ta ,how .trong
"Jpport for tho ,,1.00 dodrlno, U?,clHlly
that "tno, ",u.t bo by firo. The training ",p_
.OM.l, poor Qt fleld3, and Inadoquate .upply of ",irto.
to the front are montioned r.poatodly. t. a widely ox_
pr""e1 tnat tho .MnlY'. "'In. "89 Mor. Sug_
to the of mlna, by ]nolllde the
fluId state of tho tact!cal and til& po !blllty of
kflllng civll!an, Our own tcoop
UN Per.onnel 'l'raln!ng
the ;m force uffared frO<1l a lock of trA1ned per,onnol dur_
Ing thl. P'clocl (Me Iulrtu 4). Tili. llmitod the "ttajnrnent of
snr high degr<l& of 3klll In .",?hce",ent.
By-p.... U alteco.atlve often "e"" left
nt&)]J case., tt.. mlno e"e "ot armed. EeH, hid ,,!
'"
th
out In ony ,..ay reoodlnl! location.; often ther6 no
p"o1;oing an:! ofon.my
'j';., EIghth Am.y prior to t'l...ar "M Inn:!jo"PMd bl' a looK
M '::aO$ tor .... n.uyH., by Ani by rohtlon
or troop Tho &ny trainln",
curtallod tho supply of ln4tructor per,onnel, &nd mad. It dtrf!_
euH to build up units of "'en trnlned in land_mine
_ho "orked tQg.thee as c,,"".oat team.. Tho hatn!np ?rOI\Mm
I APpgrmn::
w.. turthor by & hek of equI"".nt. Off1Mro
U well .0 enU.ted lOOn weI" bt.ndlc&ppod by the leek of tro.lnlng.
The ROKA aho n.ed.d tro.lnlng In land.",lno warfar.. It ""8
not until 29 1950 tM;t any 011:". t .... f<>r the ROKA ..a.
hogun. lrl and Augu.t. the erHieal ,"onth only '0"'. ,00
..en hlld. any f ... .. !til 1$<><1 mlno Do.pit. thlo l.o.ek of
tratnlng. tl\e HOKA d.nloped aklll aM ,"pl.""d minoa with oucc...
tho periDo.Ur dofen.. of tho Punn a .. n.
SUPP1I
Tnere .... , an "-doquato .upply or AT .. 1"". In the FEe. Th.
aupply of ItP .. in.". however. '"50 In.offlel.nt but was .upplelll.nt.d
by production of .ehu min in Japan. For 8. table of min avail_
able In FEe, ,M Tabl. I. Annu 5. The .upply goln., to
wu .""'.u,..,. by tran.port lL'Illtat1on The rUlr<lad.
w.r. not oqolppod to hond1a with .""ad ..nd aUtolaMY the strain
plaO&d upon the",. T"" IISR. andar pre.. ure fro", t"" ",ova&ent
of other logl.t1 from tr<lOP Th4 ,"ovement of
land mlnea rrOOI dopot to ooold b. corriad out by ..sIgnlns
high priority to the mIne T"" OI"""""'nt nom to the front
.... of eoorsa von more dtrflcult. Table H. Annex 5 ahow. tho
ASF .took Inola for I"Irlo<l 10 December. D.hlled
dGta 8"" locking on .upply ex""ndHure prier to 10 Soptembor.
Tile low lenl. of mine. In ASP'. i. particularly notlc...ble.
Whlle tho Hoek. or OIl"". we"" rJgher, thay dwIndled In
Cl'1tleol Non..ber.!lec"",ber ""rlod without ony slaable nplenloh
",ont. fr"", IItr3/lK depots. From 26 November to ,1 Decem""'r til'> ASP
.toch of Io.T OIl,... nre never above ton pel'cent of the available
d8pot otocks. Artor 7 Dec.mber tho ASP etQck. of AP mlno. w.ro a
urge part of tho tot&! .took. In Korea.
The EUSAK depot hod .auble .tock. or &T m'n8. on l>ond ror
the entire periOd (.M Table III. Annox 51.
The X-Col'pa AT d4pot .toek. f<lI' ....ella 1 lIov"",bal'-14
o..o.mber ....... nogllglble for "oat of tho periOd and ron to 1...
thllfl 4,000 In the h.t .... k of tl>e period. The AT atoek. ware
atead1 fro...bout ,,500 to 6.500 J" 1I0,.... ""d ron .to&d.lly
fl'olll about 4.000 to .ppro:dlllllt.ly w...,OOO In the 1"11'.t two ....ok,
of D.c...b",. (.eo TAble IV, Annex 5); The X Corp. ASP _took. from
2, liovetober to 7 Dembor wal" llIIg1l81blo for AP mlnn and tho AT
.took. Wer.. stoOdy at about 8,000. Tho .toek. _r8 not dl'awn On
to ""y during thl> critical period (n. Tabl. V, Annu ,I.
Sxpend.ltu",. of land min.. war. obtGln6d for 10_<\$y podod.
Cr"'" 26 June20 Dec.",b.r ( .... Taol. VI, Annex 5). Th. perlo<l 26
JOM_10 Sopt4mb.r lack. detoll. Tho heovloot .xpendlture. were
during tho ",treat phe.n. L.u than halt the tot.l !If ml"". In
Korea .. during till> (n. Tabl. VII. Armex 5).
'"
'1'1>0 .. ... "lid td .... ''''' ,...."H.
t>h.u. 26 'o.. "lnber_1S tho ph"" or m" to.,,1o.. ,
.!tuation ao taot:' tM "." of .. !,,.u ...."th",oo I"
or tht. vU, 'j),
Dur1"ll thlo U1I .on"",". ...n !Yo>'<
inoPHud ",... in !;!><> ..
VII 1, .v.nn 5).
A.. p!<I't or """ &"pply, tho ."Im ...."
lD Jap"". Late '.n Jul., .... ",;,I "",..:y in "'''lW4t
tb<ly beg:> b ...nt to ,\t "" ,r
100,Qoo ..1... ....... ""de " .. ..,. , .... }1,
us ,lillie Il"US"
r"" M'''"n "";;d;v> """ ...."d r",,, .,1"" 1 ..h
d:-t""Hiy" >'wd..l' t"h"" d&:al<o;l"g "bUHI' In oddiUM<, It
IIpp.....I'. t-"" Q:f 1.",,-d """U '''_h... \'1' "-1'-. -..
fJ1' ,.""".. t. "-s !n ?Rv_T_1V), "",uH Nov<> 1><0""
.. otl%. t..,.,d ""'u ,.:lth t", ..nIU_
U<m. ..<><I =",u: be ""l1nnd '" U..
=<I t.b. 41,. .. er t!>dr ""..... 1
1'1:1....."14 NO W tho> prcl>la", p ....
"'Y til. "r ...... """.. : tN.:.""d to la!>d .. 1b.
l'"..t 1""" ..c ........ .. _ ,.:1_5 ..ould ttl""
1'... f<'woA.I'd '" tM fr<mt in "",,,.tt\!'4'1
"tIM';, -rMn &l!!<> ",1<1 1.... rid' M lIT
tl", ""."Y .... "'( 'lhb
"- lM""'-.It U'Mh H o!'prt""Hy Mil !'lU"<dsb
, .. tudl",n"" d d .. Htl =d d".dn; ,,"",..
",[ d""_n.
An u_l.. of _ .-ot.o .,l,,1r;g b M
th6 J4th D!Vllon Ju:j, 'Tho
th$.t r..u>:.<!17 ad dma no 'sht 1>0.
lJ "., .... ,t.....<iI t? "f tM er ""p;1I43.
no- ;Lis b, "",1" 0.!.d1,,<;.
m.tl"in& Ill_ t.._vr $/tUt_nt ;!\io 4$7 Md ... " .. lUi!. t",....rl
,," lIJght."
kQ .. by Inl.1&1
.!'f ..I it .." \>!> h'1_" q .... <.. U ",_be .. ", tl>_ &""..
ti!:I'<>Utt>" .... _11l!; "P"?U1.00 U ,,:lund... ,.. to< it,
?r. .... r.,jU " In ..
{"""fll,;g ..l Thr< ".lo.y t" ....up:!ng ...: .. td
",1""" ."it .. .." ...1.d .l.'oo 6n''''r so ",".d
Ml1>l\l+ th" .. \" .... o",ln 1>:<
trrDlrn!MLfL $... 0.
Al'PI::NDI:t I
An approxl"""tion of tho offeet .c.1ch" dolayed_... otion wait_
ing .oapon can have 1. soon In tM air force ung@ 01' delayod_
action bomb.. A. FEAF report __ give. foHowlng ln1'or.... Hon:
From 15 to 21 Octooor 1950, B-29" oontinued tho pro""",,,
of dropping delayed_act!Dn """,b. along tho .MOlY" p1'l"",ry arter
Iu of 00"""",,1 oat Ion., at bridge approacho., and at important
road Junction., further complicating repair of dornage previouely
"rought. Durirlj'; tho,t .uk, one hundred and uventy_five 500_po\lnd
delayed_action (;P bOmbs ur. sO." olon,g 250 m1los of key rail and
hIghway ooavr.unlcation route the.e b""b. a,.. diffloult for tho
enemy to loe.h, pa,-tleularly at Inee only" .n:$H hole
1& ....de in penetntlng tl'>! Without hChnl0o.l1y trUned
DOr.onnel it 1. practically imp<>o&lble to ",mOvo or to do.troy
tbem. Fuuo arB ut to dotooah tl'... bcmbo &t Int.rv.al-o v$r-ying
from ono to .. voul hour. ,.fto. Impact. Ruultlng e"plo.lono in
the of tho ma .. or laborers uud by tM ..ny to ropair
dllmaBe .a. colculated to roduco thair in .additIon to
inflicting euualtlo.......other import&nt eonslderotion 10 the
advor.e oHoot on ,"orale of transportation <re.a and OIIHtarr
personn.l torced to tho> llno. of cOlOlf,unioatio:rl.
Delayod-aeUon boOl'>. $150 ..Ol. on a pontoon bridge at
Se.,ul I" Po"gu.t 1950. On 16 Augu.t, B1xt_n l,OOO_pound bOlllbs
(four dth 6_hour .lght .lth. 12_bour delo.. ) wer. 'n
<:dntty or tho br:dg". A db'.ct "it "allo on tn.
OIl ?d thirty_two 500_pound dolal"'d b""b0"" dropped near
.hleh "as ""t. The nre fu in Col
lo..-lng mannsr: fivo with lWl-hour dolft... l_hour; ,ix, 2_
hOU"l five, 6_hourl fivo, 12_hour; and .lxteen nOn
delay bomb. woro dropped at the note tl..e to the .Mt!l'J._
The ruult., ,.. indicated In the tollolllins intellisonee roport.
.er. good.
A South Kor" foroibly ""sagod In ropairlng a pontoon bri<igo
In tho ne1nlt:; ot Sooul ",.do tho rOlla.lng ,..port: ......
1. During the Olonth of and the 8.rly p$rt of August
1950, GP bC1llb. droppod by \IN ho,d only tho norll>O.l effeeto,
I.e., destruct10n by d1roct hits onu"ltlo. from tragment..
Z. Fro", 195G, tho uu of
bOmb. had a highly d.lIlo .... 1Ulng And hO-r .... ing .ffeot HK
troope det&Uod to repair tho pontoon bridp,o. ThO South Korean
furthor .tUed that, .ince del_yed_action M .." ...ere not r.cognUed
u .uch, for tQo first few dal'O ouu..lti....ero extr0Pl61y h&ov-y.
Later, thio typo b""'b ..as recoE>f\lzod, civilian penon"$!
.ore foroibly uud In tho .ork. After many ..eN>
.. PEAF Weekly Intelligenco Roundup, 22 October 1950.
*" lil .. ion roports, 3th Bomb S'l,uadron.
GH:<, FEe, Intelligence No. 297Z, 29 vctooor 1950
ll".:JiE ti,w!!
k'_\:Llld " .. >'*....' ..ke I'".;t""" ........ -..mm>,
: t ",..... 1 .... S ...!Inhlvl<l ...rt,... 1JII \ranI"< "t.,1;">'*4 "'w;,
'"n
_nh ".,OUt,.,.
to
K....... "" ..""l"""t..tI""
mJ. J ...lqlne <ff>
lndttt.tt tl\ ..t 1.. t .....
Ct..."d.... lIg6d \It'tdyo;
","""",,4 <Of >'*e<mt
ulA t!>tt. 'If!>!:'" tee
'tht .. of .. -""",b. ""'. th<ln, .... u
"'.Un" Qf dlat'uptt"ll t<> '>h. TlIo alI" t",,<:<o r,,"@
!'\fa<l th<l f*1' .,'ntl"""",. dl!lal th.. 1b> "".. X "",.
hnd lOin,. trr a.h, l"ti11.oory. <>r ..,.,.;,.. ,....., u"! .... U boo
A "",.n5 of nb\;.I"'ng .he <l"..i""d
1;0 tho (\oUt nUn". <!do.y trhloh 10 ut ."
_1th 01' .. ulde .tr<>:R dfm<>rlUU.t!Or.., ..l ...
.U1 "it no .. ",,<1 t"." MtilnUe. 1I1%>O>J hoo
nry ",Yen ..n thU or d..:l"l'<'d-.. "",,1:
<tr Aug.!,,!'.
11>" h ...roll orfie& ... de a [ .... 'ill<>"
or AT ",h,.. bo laid 'n u""Il: flO ..... ...ug.n, Tl>Io
"' of ndll n u 0 or u",b.oou
or .. u.ing .. lh,1!.<od rcro" ",,,n.
I'cll<'or1ng proposal te.t, nn 111 K9ref.- t9
....... iM tM jn$t<t.llatloll ""rro...... Qt the urth "" th"
1ot.<UbH1ty ot tho 11r
'"
AfPBNDIX I
The tuu iM,orH>ed fully In .\rInu 6)
earth auger. c"" be ud on and off r""d. efficiently and ntio_
faotorlly In the layIng of ",Ine Each auger oan as an
Independ.nt unlt carryIng It. own and s l<>lld up to 50 mlno
On an )(SR tQ .[ght lnohu of 8,."".1 0,. ,tQne), ten
",Ina. oan be plan1;od pel' hour; on uoondarv road. (rour 1nch of
packed silty olay) , the ""te h 18 pe,' hou;', on .and 40
p&r hour: and on paddle. ano nood platn., also J,o
Tho rando", method of mine. us found to be much
mO,.., diffIcult to dehet than s regular pattern. Also It .a. de_
termlned that. mlne covared hy dry ,"at.. rIal obtolned tl'Jo
road .urface _. more diffloult to det.ct then ontO co""""d 0'1
tQken from the holo, The otl _a. dlopo... d of
In ,Utch... ,Or tho of additional !OIne. or charges In
a hole, very little tl1lle .a. requtred to dig the duper
OM mlnute add.d to the d1AAIng cyole .Ill eOV6T the addl*
Uonal timo ,..,qul .... d for an1 oo",blnatlon greater than on. ",in
By cooopo.rloon .HI> the oa"tn,"uger po.cfor..anoe, thr..
hand "0010 ,.., &010 to make only two emplac6monto of 8ln
gu ."nn I>our. Furthec, tl>e us. of hand lobo>, tbuHiple
planting. or a .. .upplernonhd .. Ith dyn!lrnlt ...&0 not praot'eal
on "n )lisa.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Tl>e tum"".. r of troop. in
tMt trUned ..en returning
wer.. Urg<>ly untrained. 'l'here was
& ..dlahle for tra1nlng. a laok
quipmont. 'l'ho trUning tIme
offlc&r8 $ V$"Y bri.f in the
aboyo and .Ino. 18l1d min..... .. Uid
11:0..... not report&d. OJId often not ""d ol.....
onnlud.d tl>at the tr"inlng in U." of Hnd- min.. by conlbat arm.
ouhide the engineer. 10
2. Sinee only t ..Q out of ,l} of the .. nemy ",,"or eur","yed
_'" tohl l03.u oaud by land mInes &nd .inca th.. US
J
I
6 out of 64 caoualtlu it conolud.. d that tho AT
.,lno. In u.e not lethal ..hen u.ed
;. Aot"d rteld te.t. d"monotrQhd ,,"rth "ugn. can
be u.ed tOo emphce""'nt of ",ino. efflc1entLy and ... tl.faotQrlly.
The auger vehicle oan opopate Ind.. arrying \;h" < .... "
and .upply of mine., Th. minH oon be .mpl"eed ..tth .peed and
mad. d1ffiouH to spot. 'l'ho hOIU can bo dug to ony dea'ir&d
do"th multiple In .h.. of tho succuoful
t t it I. eono).ud&d that oartl> aug.r. YIOuld 'be "f!.. In
"'iM_rtold ,"orl<. The Korean Ur .hO... d tl'Jo for" oontlnu*
ou. Interdlotlon OJ' tl'Jo eno"'Y'8 .upply line. and rout... of
ThO us. of d6Hyed*aotion bombu off.otlV6 In
----
OOIiCLUi>IOIiS
dhl'Upt1ng tho ."""1'. 1< 18 ooncluded Ulat tbO dnelo!,,"ent o!
....mote_lay 1111"" ... thoo!a .uel> .. air rUllel"]'. or rooll;.t do:U"
e..,. "ould extend ;ho WlO of ...Inu boyond thU or .. ..ore deu':rtl!.
bIlrUa1ng ...."on to d..truotl... d....orUlolng .upo".
4. thoo ""''"1 .. ""....ng. rate u .. log l"!lndoml1 ..... ld
n .. lda. no "et p&tu,.n ort.n In d .. pth...nil. not n oour111
cover.d by fire .a. BO_IOO min.. por c ..ualty. It 10 ooncluded
tbo.t tho cur....nt US ,oIne doctrl ... Ibould bo .......,..... In.4 In chi>
llght of .,.,my operations In thts c ....pAign with" vb. to to
oludlng ouoea!ul toohnlque. tOI" po lbl. future uo
b. Tl:e on."'1 ..codon_box AT ",Inoo 1n clluuog
daloy and dam.ge.
IlECO/.II'.llNDAT IOIE
1. It I. ,""co"""onded thOt oomhat "."00"".1 h. gh." adoquat.
t ... lnlng In ttl> .,.pla..... nt. dohctlon. and roeognttl<ll:l of .her
nd h"" min... Can be orro.thel1 "",,d.
2. It I. r.o....... nd.d thot all oporat1on. Invol.,.1ng "",phce_
mont of l""d ..Inu havo .Ithu a t .... lned ."glno.r r.pr..."Uttve
on hand. or lw.VfI poraoDnd preoont obo .... to pr.po. .... ""
aCCUrAto I'fIeord "f .uch am"lu."",nt. to b. fortirded to tho dh1_
elon Or corp. ongIn..r.
). D<opondlng tlw traneportation lI"ko ..... U_
..blo to tho troop. t"- q_ntltl or till"". thoy ..Iqu..t to tho
fullt .xhnt polbl
4. lI""d.toctabl. J.'I" l<Uld mlnn 1>o ...lng a l.thal
hould b. dovolo"ed tar .tandard u....
5. u.o of earth augoro to dig holol for .."I,.a1ng ..I"".
ohould b. adopted by the ....,. .. <e .... thod of ",1"., .lIplM.,.ont.
6. Thio un ot rand.... nolda laid 10 do"th 10 ,""o.-.o"do<l
whoro OlId Ihon they .... tecHcally t..-dbll.
7. Ib:pedtt. ""oreh ond d .. "lo!>"ent loadlnl\ ,0'
a. IIOnd.to.table At' ",1,,00.
h. Lathal AT .. lou.
e. AnU..."hl""lar and IlIlt\rallroac\ ..In d.l1.... ra'bl. I>}
""m"t...othode. au.b o 1r. roekot, Or art111.ry.
d. "thod. for detoction 01" <iutruotlon or "Oln<Jtdll
.. In...
'"
$(o... d,
E .... "'!
P<>llt>Yt!!g h a H\JIIHtl<m t'2 lO"M. M> l!L sm,u "l> t,,,
1 19'i(l ... """","",4 ,;"rt"", th>14 ."r...,.

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I. U-mlX 2:
ENEV_Y ANP llIIill OPE'lATlONS
Enemy Mine Fi81d8
p"u .... re Moured 801"'01 .. 11,. this from I
for tho> por(Gd 27 January 1150. Thu. r"rnl.hed
d.t81h On 26 mine fields lo.!d by the en.my In r.Oorp. 8reaor
thh i. tho total of 811 the 8Mt1lY "'1M fIeld. ,.,.ported by
unit TI><> data a .... lhtecl OD the tollodns ?"g&s.
1'he.8 26 .. 1M oon.81ned 416 AT mtno. of whIch 75. 01'
IS perc.nt ...e .... US M6 ,,[""s. Four or th 26 t101ct. no n',,,,_
or m!n The of ",Ina, por field ran fro", B to
90, the avapag' having 19 There _r& 7 t!&H.
ing ro..-ar than 10 mine. empl,eed.
Of tI.. ,. rl81da, 1) Ill?; were to
infl!ct.d to :m pH.oM.1 Or nn $qud
caus.d no d.lnRge) 8nd fop lj. min<> field. (15.4
th8 1nfo"",at!on n. althop or li.t.d as "unirno..,.,,"
damages infllet.d In tM II offective fields o"d to.
mino offOPt in 8ach ..as

1146, 3 ploou of track a"_d
ouote" half or bOi>:te
1 tank traek blQwn
2 WIA and 1 D-7 traek
3 !lnd 1 J$OP
1 tNel< d"""g"d
1 KIA, 1 WIA
d8"B"ged
loIlj./; t .... oka da",Qged
1 jMP da"'8ged
) Brlthh
No. of MIn
'9
9
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ThU' 8hout 11;2 AT ",inu l"",ohllhad .. v .. h101u,
man. and ..-our.:led .ix. At !16.60 pop ",1"., u.lng tl><> _
thnUod 1950 ""'0' f guN! for 116Al lO'M. thla
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effort ooot .o",. *2.357 tor tn. .. produced. TM aotud
... _!lll" not heny, .till "U cloarly ,"orth tho- offort.
Conotdulng faotor. or and t.ct:c.. delay, tho
re.olt. a,.. aloo ... ry fnorabl.8. Furt""", if the 1",," ruin'"
hed been that the da",o.g. ttlLve been letho.l, teo. ooat
exohange rate ,"ould M.e bean oxt,..,,,,,,ly hlst>. th" Unk.
alone co.tlng Inor .. half & "'lllion
LOcatIon or JUn. F101d,
T .... large,t n"rn""c oC ",I"" fIeld. (V) on tile
road. and rORd shouU.r.; by-pa.sea r.
loeations; opon 0); d"rn". (2); and
uoond hading
a rorrr landing
(l )
EIoplaoe","nt
enemy field. of ton ..eU laid 1n ha,tnd
poorly.",placed. Only flver. reoort.d ., cov.,.,d bv fire and
eight .ere "."",,,ked on for extremely poor concealment.
F'urth.:rnore, in ten fields thee<> "a. nO ;>'lnorn. This Induced
cautlOli and .loud r.moval eopeeially ",in., mio;ht O. ooohy_
a, tor thld No. ll. rhe u.e or nDnpattern
e"'pUce",ent i"'peded progres., a. wu Mmarked fnr ruu NO. 16.
Durinl( this th9 enemy mad. no "tt'''pt to do :no","
than aMoy and delay UN fo"cu land ",lne
Even th!. lock of J"'ttel'Tl u, po.. due in .m.e
cas to ha,ty th. reoult the a. if the
non pattern "io:d. h&d hMn for they effoctiO'&ly
i",peded trn US of advonc$.
Although th& 1 tb.at tho enemy achteved
rnueo .u..... with wo_, fortuMt.ly
reduced the
No. 2 of E'I'ID


Also in th$ X_Corp. area, tho enemy ti'$d "ine. in tho il'onORn_
HlIJIlhung to a very limited ..",tent. Quo.ntltlo. of AT .. tn..
wor$ di.cove",d oy ROlt on till! heach at Won.an and
""mov.d. Larg<> .t<>ck. of pOrtlally cornplet.d .. r. found
tn" factory In Wonoan. They tho wooden AP mine PI'.D_6 Or
'"
AlINE:{ 2
EJ(lfITP.,IRl<Y Al;t> X-CORPS CASlIA.:.T/E3" BY JUNES
(1 July 50__ 21 Je.nuAry 511
lid
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<'lp,hth Army Total
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'"
'"'
GaUM
'"
'"'
'"
Eighth Army TotQl
Cuu81tie.
from All
1,2, 1l9q
ToUl Caoualtl$' IUn..
Coo:blned lotaJ. CaauaJ.t!e. tr"" on Cau.eo
Percent Ca,,,,,lt:e. Cau.ed by MIneo
Total 1,0,"6' C$u.ed by Mine.
6h (lB)
')76 '2561
11.1
'"'
TABLE II
CASUALTIES A)ID LOSSES '1'0 MllIbS BY 'I'ANK TYPE
(1 July 50--21 JonU"ry ,,1)
.... Humbar
Nu,mba,.
P"roent Committed

24 13) 9.;; 0.2)
,,'
"
,;'j , 6.'8 (2.7)
, ," '"
2. (1.4)
."
"'""
,
,
"
,,,
1.8 (O.Q) "
,.,
(Q .Q )

'"
Pi
None !lh5
'"'
.. lr. pr.nthu6. ",,,reoent eom?16te
lo.,e
I
acllu m1n.. No othor mine field. of .ere uncoversd
I Corp. ROK englnurs l-ocat6d a large AI' flelj on tho
north of Songjln. Over 800 PGMZ_2 A? .. 1no, ..er. In thh
area. MIne. have been dlseovered along road shoulder" In dltcho.,
and ol-ong tlv! f.Ulln routes of 8dnnc". Tlv! .n8my .ffort.
wa. oftset by hi. lock of camouflag
An AP fl.ld conolotlng of 17J AP shro.pMl ml"",., POlll_2 wit'>.
pull MUV, ..go dl.cove",d and ",moved by X-Corps unIts al-ong
tho oeach .outh of Inchon. Tho "..IM. wen pIa cod in 1.,.. ""geU_
tion to poovlde concealillent. One trlp.... lre from uch ",lne wa.
parallel- to beaoh utendod tho "dj8oent mJ.Ile
to .Ulo. drl..,n In tho ground. ca:nouflag" agaIn .a. not .rr"o_
tlve and ""re discovered and r ..:noved. The fleld was
booby_trappod by futenlng to tho of ene:oy dead,
a oantMn, and a fl.ld
According to X_Corp. "ng:neer., the lnohon_3.oul
area tile ene:ny .mployed mine nrf.re In a 11ml ted and haphaard
manner and u.@d ml"". for tholr nu!.anoe wluc than to
uotlcal .Ituatlon. uo,,?tion '0 thl.
rule occupped In 3eoul "hepe both AT and :op ,.1"". _epe exten.lv.ly
e"ployed 1 n tl<l defen.e of rood block. and barrloade.. nl major
,troot Inter.eotlon. we"" hoavlly ",[nod and oovored by fIre.
Likely erolng .1 teo on the Han n.ar w."e mined
with th<> box IlIlnes aM AP mine.. TlJO were laid
In a hurry and ..er. poorly c","oufiaged. In the S.oul_Inchon
area the lot KariM Dlvhlon muoh mlnlrtg actlvtty.
follow1ng I. on ab.tract from a lot M!U"\n"
Sp.clAl Action Report, Inchon_Seoul, 15 Septe"oor_7 Octooor 1950.
"I'ihor. hr. {the eno",y) deC"n.o oentued around 8 principal
road, It did along Seonl_Tnehon hlghway, the .nemy laid
oxuno!v. ",!n. fl"ld' that sord to r.tard .dvaMe. it h
.ignlfleant, ho..-ever, M.t min. f\eld3 w.r. hOt.tHy ?l'epar.d,
90llletlmes and ..,..otimo. m.rely laid on top of the
and vSPy raroly co.oNod by 4n<>my nl'O. Th" ,.Ine. th8t'O_
..... r lthor Qr ..n<l of e1thor
wooMn Or ..Ha) cn.trucUon. EspeoIally!rt Seoul dId eno",y
cover his ratreat fro", tho elty by mln!n" all routo.
of advance whIch _ had to ,,80>."
rnlnlnp act!vlty $lowln,;
D plug ten "hl. I the en .,y) deCena" furth,," eCOlplieated our
'"


L
,
LLSNJ)
-
,
0-"-' -- " .,"",
.. ,
0" K'" om.' ,,,,,,,.,,,
0_....".,
"" ,"'
0" ... "" ,."
G" '" "''' , "" ., ''''.
-'"
G""", """ """ '''. ,' .,>,
t;;.. ',-'''' -c,.,,'""" "''''
I
.. ,,"' '" '.,.",-,
"' ,"'" -" -, ,,.- '"
, ......,-..
u _" '" "". ""
...........,.., ..
e -"''''''''
- ..... ,. """"
.., ''C' d '" ..'
_, '" _ "'. "

G'i>' -." "'"' " "'"
il" """" .."', ...... ,
P' "' .... , """".,. '" __ "" "" ,",0 ,
""
-.. ""'",_,
-S.. __ '" .m ,.". "'"
x eORpS
tNUl"
X <If't>$ 10M-$.
-'
..,.."" " ., ,"-
I
axie)
hold up ou" adv8Mo
.APFENDU
.d.'M8 by oxt8n819& ",Ine ri&ldhicl"t wore both dol1b_
oCHely aM h"pho.za,.dly Uong tho rout of al:prOOlch and In all
location. tho r<'<ld"..,.".
D plu. 16 road) "R.dstone. day
con.isbed of nUlMrO". mine fiold. along the rout<> of
The ene."y .. ina whIch ,.. onoount.rod had been .et up
hastily and OQDsl.tod for tM mO.t <If ..In
loeoted along tho> road and in ad,joining fhId
onemy n tlll trying
,,,",ud tho town or U1jongbu.
along main road ond wero well
n.ar tOo. Dut.l<lrta or the tOWIl to up
engi .... r
"The rOtnoyol of land ",inn "U
" ",.. Jor
<"",,pAn1e. during thi. p&ri<>d. 500by_
tiline....ere fOlUld removed."
.,' mlruld, but no
OIine road
id In tho>
Doctrino
Although. U he, bo.n noted el,."h.ro In thh uport, tt
e".IllY did not o.dh&rft to e.t&bl1,hed dootl'ine, hi. tra lnin;; nOJl"_
ttlos. provided fm' oHtaln "lemMtary ps..torn It .hould be
that these ps.ttorn. were not oQn.idered Intlulblo
rat""r _re uood a3 a buh for InlproviuHon.
1'hoo fOllo.lng Information on .""IIIY dootrlne _. publlohod
In En1;:lnoer 1'ochnlcal rntell1g8nco Bulletin No.6. 1<:1 lioV<lmbor
1950
IIKPA Squad Antitank Mlno Field fattern
Source: Prhonor of War Interrogation (.ADVATIS Report).
,"
u.e by M1All
sntltftnk
tal! ..
i
,
Squo.
J
,
c.>.....
,
,
!
Anll ~ t o n k Port. rn
__
-:......;.. .-"" -".
.,
1'" N.,,,,,.,
_'" D
",
,
-'--,._0-0--
0',


o
........----
_Hb if' I7iMt.StLT i CO/i"S
JJN<ll'i"1!E,rMC
U"'. u 4IItH:;oJ bill; \I#tn, 45
tr. "r ut):bt< *ruI "t 1"'*"1:>,,,1,. htd ..1",.....
ftt.rn"fiI 7ho 1"'''1\ .." ... h thoIr, ""t ttoU thft
aW .. t. U, t .. rr"", \1>$ n .. .. , ..
... , "" lH<I '1>1 tIM l:n"
lIKP/o, l't.I.'t(}))I Ml'l'HANK IlIll!l n:;;:c I'A7URlI
,
1l. fm,. X thh
On n,,11 illi" """'" 'Or
(DlllUWfJ). todd ml=l n .. H d..""""....d, .... d
.. d ... tI'oy"J or 'ho ","r. liot;: \W>tr>.-+ lmd.,..lgne<l
(l';QO ""1lN 26 511 '1.1:>0 "a1.+1 n..
"'" Lt. Cluk,
\0 that
ThO" mine field by :'1.. Ch.I'!< 'At 11.... 1""
Hand jot",ll"", "" "he lin-I:, 'lUth t1'1v .i....
u
APPEIiIHX I
SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION
Tho .. lIlO rield contained. (5) and. no ho ....
tiens nre al1k<1 tn 80 tar u moaouroment. or w.,.. .OII_
c.rDod.
Tho .0otiOIl. eo".iotod of tho n....hor of ""tip.r_
oonnol lland G....nadu .<:noe.ted with trip drao ranging from 7 to
25 teet in length.
,
Unknown
,
"
,
,
IlnknQlrn
,
Ilnknown
, " ,
, ,
"

60
An attempt by. ne.,y p.ro""".1 W,," IIIIId. to lay til"", in
natur.l approhllo of troopo "r potrol
CONCL1!SlON
eitd bd... 're r.,... t,.O<o Lt. C,..,.k:
0"""'1 .. in. fi.ld wao ea.y to find duo to tho following:
0_ N<> pO.thrn
b- Eaally oburved
._ Improperly plaoed
d_ Did n<>t u terrain for conooal"",nt
0_ not buried prop.rly.
f_ Pins not ""moved, min not AcUvatod.
Trip wlr not hookod proporly
h_ 'or. on. who .et thom wor. not train&d
proporly in tho .... and value of mine flGld.
1_ NQ firo On mlna
J- Some devices mi Ing
"Th. ROK Sngiooera have deactivated 2100 ,,,In -.1
& o1ng16 .a8u.lty and thooo ronclu.lons should bo fairly
,..,liable."
It 10 apparont that tho mine fl.ld _a. >aid by poo,.ly Qr
untr<>ined onomy troop. or b<!eau.o of tho lack Of eon
almont at'ld haphaard ",etb.0<I8 or 1nohlbt1on.
R R\)"1I1PRPORD ,rR
ht Lt. CO:
Co",,-
PClf it<w_.B. "" !.'!rP". apd 1114U t"rl'fu
rl'Porh of ,1; _M
thH nail """" n:-:-1,,;:1 '" ,onto
",tth 1=<1 ,.;c,> Qt '1,1:>0 ....., typu, rim
.. of OIl".. .. ,Q 6',","1' 1:v!:t"8
h ",,101. 'I'llb .h"". tM .ci '" 1m'
pla",",.=t .. ... ""Y offen 0" .;,-, ...,., <'Itt MftC
"" ut... tor Jr.t""",",U"u IM1.....
CAllS !>lS rpt 2017)
.. i'r.d il::;, S:,lj".
50 '1'11-41 'f
150 !:V-5 ..
20 ?w:Z_Z A,/,
",:en. #16 211-9. 2l02)
'!:-d BnstM!r Mtjw]:oYM!""' lin, (n.5 vdd
;NO mln"3
60 AF "h,""
(Ant> rvt ZlU)
'o:<l ,rnd.8" Mqi<l!ls!ll;t: iaJe llr"
20(1
;H AP ",1,,__
(terIS #B no,)
11 s..p....,..b.r .".1 tUM:, t<> loy
loa .. :;:""43";)::"4
tho:
rc"; .....e iH", N,m( ,\ (-;:q.,.:,6 ))
to Mn,- H ("JCS."1)4':
un);n.".,. :9%..J,t,;6)
u
Tho ..ork ."0 4=9 1:: ..HI, .. .dMO.
tJI'U'

FV:_f. 1<r .. 1""8
#w<." """ AX
!kU} "'"'"'" i<r: ,.\""
AT1S

Hne li
:1. bo", At z.,,, S.?,.}\:
;,h<1N
5 :-0. "'"
fl.]",

0:0
II-I.sr l'"tO; 1:w
,,:th 6 lnchB'.'
""Y '" m<>,-.Cal'
shllll <>r lnH,,, "lth
II'"'' t1'l'"
"bin,,,. ;1;';.6: wah
,uHy d..
""
>lit" ",r
He ien:"''-'
,Cl,-.,uhr I'
: ...,igH. 12 0;-1_;' fUH
, ..t'U> lE_J d+t ...">uc!"
, :loH;;ta),H
Ca,t
"'!eht. 3C IN;
FD_2
,1... ",Ht; yn.t;;.
j) J;r.n
ti\l>i'!.H: deHH"b!
7. (J,p)


,
?;?

8. booby trap
NKPA AP
n.<8_2 AT
11. Jop9,
12. Jap 99
13. No.4 Chin_Line
11.. No. 8 Chin_Ling
1,). PC.IZ_2 AP
16. ?!o l-4o AT
lao n. AT
6 blaek pooode,.
1.S lb., 60 per_
Cent h
2 n. picric aci<l
2 lb. pierio ao
3 Ibs picric ao1<l
or TN!'
2.6 02 T'IT
8 TNT
9 lb. TNT
1.5.7 lb. n"T plu,
1 Ib In center
Cardboud container;
.bopl& Il1niter;
oap and pull
..Ir<> til<! only ",Hal.
2 lbo, 4 QB;
:!Iado by R
.ectlQD Qf .Ud pIpe;
CU'6 /md 1ID_2 de_

tar on
oa'6;
or !l\V-SK fuzo; non_

0'111 CQt detect.
Cyllnctrloal co,t Iron;
nlght, 1.2 kp,; nOn_
lethd.
mine;
oyllndrle.l; total
weight, 2 lbo, H 00;
.tdhr
Armor piercing, c:;Hn
-eight, 16 lb.
Ar<:or piercing,
.. eight, 7 lb.;
oa.t Iron; eopper Ig_
niter.
Shrapnel eylln_
ctrlcd; weight j.75
lb. (Sll<!ll only); to_
tal 4.4 IbA;
MU'f or VPF pull 1'llze.
Clroular at&ol .aoe;
night, 20 lb.;
fuzo .
Wooden ease; ""lght
14 11).;
Wo<xhn bOI dlf_
tie!!) t to doteet .1 th
SCR_625.
I
FUZES USEP JY !1lE
2. Ruu1&n cloo","ork
fuze
,.
4.
; . Pun fuu, lWV
tlon
MetalHo 00,$ wlth dock wo,.k
rnechM:.rr, .nd bOUery; \Oe'gllt,
.75 lh; , hu:,d_
ing., et.t.. at tlrr_p chO,en
hy the &x".,n.d
1.5 IbB; ,am. a.
abo
in certain
min ; Is as
MV_"K.
Bras, detonator; used !n almo.t
all known Ru io-n bMoy and
fu.s .
0pMU'ng pul: of ,_2 n.
Tequlred; th> mo,t co"",,only us.e
ty9<' In SovIet min""
.. InformatIon ba.&d on EUSAK ,..pON.,
"4
""""
ENEMY BOX MINE
KOREAN ANTI-PERSONNEL MINE
)
I,
\
I
'I )
\
I

L
"
, <,ll
, hplo.I
<
Wa,hor
Wood'n ",ok,
POMZ-Z AP min.
liol. f., '"" pin'
ROlla.. Pin
Go.. (PI.otlc)
SprJnq
I I
,
"'I
i
".UV .,'n. 19"110'
DETONATOR
TN,T MAIN CHARGE
BOOSTER
CHARGES
"---SHELL CASE
__
..
. "c.....
'. "
CHINESE IMPROVISED MINE
IMPROVISED MINE UTILIZING ARTILLERY SHELLS AND CARDBOARD
CASINGS.
J.PPUDtt I. UIiK1 "
vrna Oli' RgSPOIl3HIlJ!: PERSOIOlBL OI LAlID.1II11E U$ III KOREA
In the ecuru o!' ",,-l.lect1ng ",ater1&l ond ln1"or....tlon on the
."'plo,....nt or land ,.1"". 10 ]l;or08. the yIno and oplnlona or re_
op""olble !",rooDMl ,.. obtdo.d, Whll.<! mucb o! tonh Info""o_
tlOD 10 IncQ."orated .lulfhore In ttlt, nport. tho.e
..... collected hore to Fu.nt the ytau of otbau than the ..,.1 tor
,f thl' report:
To ba oreoctlve ... mlno rlold mu,t bo cov.red by flN. US
.Iae-fleld doctrine .... vIolU.d by uto"olve faUu"" or "nlto
to report 01100 aO>! locaU"". of mIne tleld
S.nf_oterll1utlon .hQuld be b,,11t Into OS 1",,1 .. Inea.
The trolnlng of Infont17 .oldlor, In hnd mlno. h"" bo."

Weatbo>r I. faetor to be coneld.r.d In using 1",,1 ",in...
In .. n,,11 tutleBl .Iwatlon oueh .. nlsted ",ueh of tho
ti... It 10 not olear wflen .. 1... 0 CO" be uud without denyIng
to ooudf.
Tne.&<>omy uud llmited number of mIn and in.talled thu
:,oorly.
Tho CCI' not b.en aarrylng .. but he.... been mprovlo_
In,o: them.
Ono meuure ot .tfeetlveno .. b tho exe.llont lift whleh
ml".. g.... to ROil: ."'rat..
Tne rip.t tr.lnlng on AT did not until
,0 June 1950.
It took '0"" tl... to tueh tm nOKA tm .knlful use "r
"'M Thov ...ou1d bury the M7" too d p, Tho M7 Olin.
would not atop. T,II(8,; two M7's .ou1d .u.o d .... to lac1< ot
trotnlng. the ROKA lUd ",ony mine, but d1d not arm thorn. Tho NKA
reeoyered of thoS4.
""'" l
Tbe .6 ml00 .tf*etlYelr stopped tbe tank.
n ... 0", tbe 'I'"gII-P\1un perl.oter tb&t the HOI'. .... ny
l
ot tnto t!. .1"" bud,.. ... " 1l1oo S""tl> tnHtal1,.
o.t .u ..dtel.,.... in .lnu .......ult ct ulllIg the nak M7.
Bltnlloo,,\ ...u1h ...... "bt_ .ned. "" tbe portsatol" lOin. neld.
_ ....b,,1; 2,800 AT. _1"u ...........1.""01.
,...:> III: plato_ ..... wiped. OIlt trying to 01.....n Af_I.'!'
.1rI. rUle!..
SUpply good..
h ... .:ru1,. through s..pte..bor on1,. ..bout 300 HOI tl'OOp...ore
.._1101>1.<0 witll. l&Dd_lll... t ... l"lng.
Tn. u" Dr .1....... t .. port&nt I" tbe 11ne d""lns
n. TUgII 4.r.DU. Tho lntantl"J' d....10o4 """tld.noe In tbot
.nsl-........ aDO! ).ear"e" to OUT .,,4 df[."d Ob.tacl...
'fbo III: .....lao pcorly t",lned In 1Il1DO .....ta.... '!boy ,"hoed
...,. .. _ ..... '1'111" .1......... p""",,,Uy ....,. to .eo and they
..."ally ...d4I l1ttle .ttempt to conoul ...1.,.
r.w patU"" fidele ... l1M.....n ."'phcod t ..reg_ to,,"".
tt....d.
On. n: Ai' ..lne uuruJ. ..t night ..as '" e...,de g...." ..de 011 .0. Hicl<
P>'OIUll8 rut .boYl> S"oun<! nth t.-lp .1..... a.,,,.r<aJ.ly 11K
.,".... ,,0 d.t.r....nt to the ROK'e.
or U1.0ng ond YOD6ehon--ij
<hao,ge<l .",. ..1".. h 1<1 by tbe ROl\: 6th D1'ole1=.
...ll:r n ... lnod
_orand... fl'OOI tile ROll II Corp., a SepUOIb<>l", atated:
ar_ ouhland1Dg ,"ohleve_nt of til<> put _.k fa tho V<>o'th of
.<>operation b.t_e" Inr""tl"J .1><1 Ji:osln...... !nfontl"]' COOlll,o.nd.,..
ban foulld the wortl> of &:Og1""..... and arteet no til<>
......,.. "..1'..... 01 to,.Utt...tl00. plwo diggIng_in dde<l
Ably'. II-Corp. unit. holdIng tho lIne."
.U .1......... n ded "or" thul kT ..in... Tho ..OilY ghu ".,
11.... rilllegly.
Pnr t"" datonol of 300nl. l.t C.Y&lry Di.i.ion k.d tor
,0,000 .P .1..u; U.... u"'" DOt obtainabl...
Pnr lea""" , On 28 Januuy In tho YOju ........ I ''''p bit ..
1ne I<t111na ana mag, .cundlng and the j p .a. d
,',
JJ'PlIlIDn I
On 1 It .'.
that tho ROB: _ put till.
In ttt. p .... rt""\amer. )llUly Idd ..". tlHl ROI(, UIi: r<!l" ......
and the 1JS ..1'. not r<oporkd.
in int...,try .","pany .1lI> draw min and Dot "cOrd Or moke
ontlal:>b ...1'1...... ,,< d.ou, 'I'bo d1T101011 oh.,,,l<1 kn_ uob tt_
O<Dpany Or dr and uN. .,t.... ,
lit............ " ..<I extenal ... ly on the ,Bth p.....11.l .bout ,0
December 1950. Prom &un"_rl to Sooul 'ho po.e ..... too t t. oDd
rn .1.,........ "Ud.
Tho diYJslon n.... r .Upd (1ft li,.. lO11g .,.ough to
tl>o orrecUnnou or .,ID.U. Ti>oy ""oU.tld to ,,_ lOlnu. 1>8 ......
Icnowlng ..-hln thoy ...... going on tho dot.".!... or ...... 801n8 t.,
.ttoolr.
Tho Int.nt,.,. h putting In ml ..... but nO record...... kept.
l'ho .. neldo ..... 0 ooure. or ""I"l"'l' to otho,. 1>Dlh. 110 "pOl"h
re,... .... d. to EnglD..r (C) Battalion tro," tnltant17 ""it
I.".th or Sooul the 3r<l KrIst"".,. (C) I:l.U..UOD 1.1d ,.1"".
In rront ot the b.ttl. 1lno. The ,1'4 Engln..r (e) I:ln got only
Ob""t 25 pOrcont or tho AT .. In.. It .. tor .nd .boot 5 percont
of tb. 11 It ooulct ThO AS1 .ould not 8upp1y tba&.
On 6 JIUlu""y 1951 tho ECI:l .oIiU mlou but got
only l,BDD.
The 24th 01"Ulon empl".,ed IUl .. totOl or 20.000
minoa up to J.nuary 1951.
De.p nelda .re not ... ....rlly 11"0 ft.ld. can
be anpt hot, In ono Inotanu 157 AT .1n.. n ... ol.....d In 90
.IDut...
... 0 lo.elc of planning th,e In .. ret .... t IIlId l\orto80
of onglneer p.u<>n...l.
'1"1>01'0 .e.... _oy In.t&nCU oJ' CI7111&n.....d ",,1=1. belDg hit
by ..1.....
It to...... day to get .1".. wp rr,", the ASP. hrth of
Seoul. 20 Deo...ber. tho 24th Dhhl0" op."t five dan puttiDg 1n
traoeho 1.... and borON '''1 .. !no. orrl...d.
Only t.o after th.y got til ...I".. tho CCF .tholt:.d. Tbo
oupply_tN"oport .ltu.t1"" .... not @ond.
TlIIr infantry D88d. train1ng to need tor 1111"",
Tho Infll.nt,.,. 1. not tr.lned l.n
.. l1fiough not ...... r ... d upon by the 'ouro... tho 24th DI.ldon
prov.d re.ourcofu1 In ..oking Q" <>r imvrOY1..d .ID.

i;ii
n
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APJK&'Z!U 1, .unmx 4.
Tho 1\1lA1.:.M.. _if. i 00,..,. ,,!ib. &lit <>r u::d......
it, l....w 00.1.... -1'1......'" -0 lhud !:to hltt. J.
"AlILii: 1
ZIlQl_ miTt!! !J lHl11l11:1l. r.:TII LAlID 101 fllli,TMlllI_
All law .udh .. a, 1nr&ntFJ tho 11th
and 74th Bnglnaar (e) Batt.lioo.. Tbo nODdl.lolou .ngln80r
hattal1oo. IlO.d boo.. on g.".....1 dut,. i" "opan and bod l1Ub
trainIng In laDd .. l". In"ulhtion.
The .trangth of .o....loot.d MOS'. in Kor prumabl,.
wUh """'" land.atM tralDing.........h".., In Tabl. II.
TABU! II
ACTUAL ElILnlTlID S'rR!!lCTH OF SEIEC'l'J;:1) JiOS'. __JULY_1I0VE)!B!I 19';0
In ddIt!on to tbo.o, am...man." ""r,oDnll .uoll Os .....bor. or
bomb dtopo1 unit.....y bo um.d to haTe I\B4 land.lll". ozpor_
tonee.
Tho Eighth.A,..,. traiDing blndioappod b,. of
f"'" ","",ouYen, by oooupaUotl dutlu, ond by turn-<>Tu of tr<>opo.
In tile geoon1 tro.tnmg plan. tho Urot o'oJectlv ... to proper,
Indi1'ldual ..::,0'1 unit. for OOCllpat1OU duti In.true.l"". _,._
luued tOr training In uu of 1000 1111__ u part or eo..bat ,t..dn_
lng bot l ..pl .....ent.t1on lOOt Slln:J obata.l... Tbo ...Uono ot tho
tratning dlro."th. ond n to t ... lnlng 10 u"
of land 1I1nos ...... tOll..... '
Ubotr.. tr"" TRAINING DIHECTIVII 110. " __ EIghth A..."..
15 A>,111949)
S.etlon I
?u... 2. Ol>leeUvu,
To prepare all lndh1duU. ond WIlt. fo,. oupation
dutiaa.
To '1uU.1t,. oo"Wlt ""it to copt
prt.al'Y 001 ... 10". in e"..hat
............
I APP8lIDIX
Par. I}. In.truet!.,.,. ApplIcable to
1. IIDe. Booby Trap
(1) (J:llllnnt 0,. pr.ot1u types rill
pt. ... 4) Cl,., 7, ORQ., nco
(2) Unlt, .ust be In handling 8nd
booby In cle.ring extonotve mIne fIeld. Include
don ensineer., .ep.... to enginee.. eombQt battalion., platoon.
o.n<I noU.,," ot ontit.o.nl<, ontit.nle min ptonur and demolition.
01><1 _unitI"., and plonur unit
Unito whl.1> ..ust be tr&1ned to olur .dnea and
booby traps rrom .UBll ...... include .,1 dl.totonal unit. ond
nondiyhl""U unit. o! the oo,.oat "-nna.
(4) !!nth ..hiM r ..... tl"., ordinarily 10 rur ............. t
be trdDOd to reoognl .. and report ..1""0, booby t""po, anel 8UO_
pooted .1n.d "-".0, and under.tODd the prooedu... for m...klng
.I""d .r..... 'l'beu "nit. Inehde 411 typo. not ...ntlon.d In (ll
and (2) .bo.... .
Anoox Mo. 16 to DIHECTIVE No. 4--aQ.
B1shth .lno.y, 15 '1"'11 1949, T.. or EngIne.r Unlto.)
Po.... }. Teo1m!.al T .... Inlng
a. C_bot 'l'ypo Untt.
(4) Kino. anel aoobJ
P....""".l ..Ill be I".truohd In all otand.rd
00.1""., booby and rtrln,g devlcea. TrainIng "Ill 10
clOO. propo.. method. and proc.du.... for laying, ",arking, rseOr<!_
IDS, ""oognhlns, "'portlng, surohIng r"",. cl.aring or Mut..al1_
olng dl typos of IlIt". field., both .n.my ""d frl.ndly.
P..... I}. Dotalled I.... ruetlon. Applicable to All unIt.
co. (1) T""I"lng of RepHoo",.nh
1) R.plac.... nh 8ro b.ing ,""""h.. d 1n thla ......... r
"hO ha.... not .. d tho full numbe.. ot ...eka of traIning p..e_
rlhad by approprlat. ""obllIHt1on training
'"
ANNEX 4
,",3 April 1950, Training D1rect1ve No.5 re.el<'<l.d. No.4.
'l'hlo d!ro.\:1ve otated. Iih. dUfl oultlu oreo.tod by tho rotation
p1"" Olld gavo combat training, rataor thom t""lnlng fop
tlon dutlo., flr,t
(Abotraeted. from TRAIlilNU 110. April
Roooind. TRAIIiING No.4 I.
Section I
Para 3
(al The D/A pan for rotation of p.psonn61 to .nd
1"rom thlo thootor, and tho Eighth A..... y polley ror !mplo",ontatlon
of that pI"" puult In .och unit, rogardlo.. of 01.. , ,.otupn!ng
to tho ZI 4 panont of It. tro.1nod par.oM.1 each
month. Tho major!ty of tho r.plaoo_nh for theoo parooMol
co.n be u!>"ctM to hove rocelved. no unit training o.nd their
d.ivldua1 training padod wlH havo bMn of 8 to l4 _uk. dura';lon.
Ib) T! opt1l:m", trdnlng cycle comn6n.Urat. the
obJeotl .. of tho Ight;, Army and odth tr"
plan, h of 12 ",,,,,tho dUP",'on. Tho lnte,.",.dlate obJoot!vu
he .... 'n are to be &co","pl1,hed within
1<><1 subMquent to the effeotlv& of thIs directive. an<!
during uoh .["ilar pariod thoreafter.
4. Polley.
a. Wlthln Eighth Al'O\y tho mi lon ha,
priority. Duties not lluthorbed In table. of Or
table. of organlutlon will be radycod to bar4 ....ntla1o .nd
_111 be pohted ,,",ong !nd!vlduah.
S. Obleetivo.
(41 To '''eeentully to.t. on Ind!v!dy$l
by every lndhlduol. The ...ubJocts OpO 11.t.d In
Training for IInly Enlhted huonnol In th.. Army."
Un of Mine. in T",,!n1ng'
Circular 7. GHq, 19 F8b 191,9. r. II 3d(I,1 oall$d fop or.ly
!nort Or pract!ce type. of ",1"$0 In L:vo ",in., co,,:'
be In deoton.tr&t!On. b-, .peclal a tated
In (41, It.m d, part, of Section II of lio.
7, 1.9 Fob 1948:
"l\inu and booby trap Inept or practioo typ'" or.1y
_Ill be u.ed !n tpalnlng. exol.o.lve

&I?nln 1
M<I It!"., ..M !>o<>t>y tnpt """l' "" ".,,<1 l,.,
"I" 1;y ''''

I/o. H, 18 hll H4j, "1&,, """"U+6 thd Un dn.. bt
<1 In ""'1.1.
"., or lh....1"". !<M ':'><'b)' ti'''I'' .il: boo
"? .. to <I....Q.. "":1,
"d. TI'.lni"l!. Lo l1u ,j...."nu"". "'-'1.1 >rul:",eai nl.::
by ""it ....uth<>vlU<i o.""""l1U<><: 1" Tab ..C EQu1!'
"",nt. Th1. tr&1n.(!>g .. 1>e "",1y t<I1' ......"".
",,:1. l"$qu1red to un = ut _ 1_....... ....
in - ;.n.o:!tl"",o t,.,,:n1TIjj t" ""boor '",,,4pI ..1l.l.
be en1'lneti tv do."'''.t.....t,'''' . 11 I'""..\s}""", "r ... r ..,...
11>(2) .1ll .dl>l".... in ul ...... 'I'bo..
111 not to ,.... M u... ot
tlrHuck$U, aM .......U .;,.."aU>IIl uot U",11' t"
to .1,."U;., WOUt. "t>b....
ITo. 1970..... 1'<1....1.
tl"". .11<1 .....tt.t., t .. ',n lin .. r"". Uo
110. 57 lli .,...._tf'Krh 4 _t.,...
nf lh_ 1111"". II.IIa tl'*;>11 '" :"",h.t,,
.. .... .l<Npt ill wtt
by tllrl h .. t ..e. t<>
ir_'ntng."
TIl"", " r11 \1"1<1 M 1:ta J"'rl<rl c''''''1'<14 it>.nh
HtW.y, ""i":;..rt,,,. fH,,,\n.d <>nl1 tf'H")"'1J in latrl.2U'1l
""'9 ...1.1 boo,.. t"
".... .. ",trnu. ShUnt",..."",..,.,. l<>
"""". r<>!'.:..o.o .. oh.. "i1 of ""-"'" '1"1' ..lQII .._ & ,U\I&_
tt'>!'l J'lI"""l>l, tr"" lool>4...1l1iOf .. 111
t:I ,.,.., ,
ot t"dnJr..:; hu M." ""p""h<! ..
p..-".!ttin,r "." of th"mul"u ..1:<>& d<!I'kIe."......nd "."'_
l!,O.VQ p,...vel>t.<l <Or: tn.. <1..,..1" d....
t" '" hnu, of tn.. I .a...""d """"t ZOO
& 3trstch ot rO&d lG&. &f "
Unk.
T-urnonr or Troop.
Tho> h4i:h rat. or turnove .. or troop', m&ntlo.... d @arl1o.. , 1.
oho"" I" tho figuros fo" length of so .."loe 'n or J"n&
1150, given In Table Ill.
TABLE III
LENrYrB OP IN FOR OfFlCgR AND
ENLISTED PERSONNEL AS OF JUNE 1950
25 lIonth.

k.raonn01 and Ov",. onth.
907 h;63
!:i
1O
....
llstod

Month. Month. Total


7,} 0
4i:m
,!;m
1Ie,.0 1t la Bean SO ,."rcent of te." onlisted Mn
had servod on17 1 to 10 "'onth. In nc and, "" no oUted In TD
110. 5, tho majority of wore arriving with no unit
tralnlng and Mad Mad Indlvldual training ror only B to 14 .....4.
A 12..,onth training cycb n. M"dod llnd6r tho oon.tantrlow
plon to aeoompl1ae. tho trdn1ng d1root1ve of >Apr1l 1950.
Fr"", tho> proo6ding ond fro," statem&nts of ertl
o@rs of !?1ghth Army.. eoncernod with ono may \"
....",al'}' thlit tho tr.inttlg on land mine Op&Ht1on ..-a. hamp&""d
by l ...ek or facil1ty, high rUe of turnnvor of aprlvU
In nc or troop& larg.)y not trainod, of unit training,
Qnd lack of tra1nod a,.8eiall.t. to In.truct.
What was l.eking for & sue""soful tr.tning progro.m, In addi
tlon to trainod Instructors, inelu<lod t,...tnjng .quipro.nt, .tabll
ity of units. ond work. lI_itb.r orCiO&U not' enlbtod
m.n _re adoquatoly tuln.d 1"";_o>ino "ork, tnolr traIning
gon.rUl,. conobUng of a b,.l_r oOUr.e in a OGS Or flTe
oclwdule, p<lrllapa __"ted by about ;I hours In olo.u 8t Ft.
Bonning. Such blackboard W8. not uoually, howo.er.
mentod by p"aotlcal Lt. Col. Vincent P. CArlo'" or
tbe 8nglnur School h,.....ntloned lo.ek or hdllHes for prac
tioal trainIng ao a g,...t hondoa,. In tho trainlng progr....
ROI J.raiy ho...onnol and Tr..t"lns_
The ROI Arm::!' ",iao tr1l1alag wu Inttla.Uy handleapped by
hO.vlng only tmo.. American ad.loor. on tbo projeot. With the
Vi... obht""d r .."", EIghth .....y oUlc&ro eonee..,.,..d ... 1t.h
,.-1nInE' Lt. Col. Thoma. R. Lt. Col. Vinoent F. C"rl.on,
Cel. E. John.on ond loI_jor J. WID.....
.. loIa)or c,.fordIMAG.
I
and, on ,0 JIlI>II, of 500 116
training It took
akl11 In ""e "r .. Inu. hong
the 117'0 too <Jeep .\t
"'''''1 of tnoao hid .0... not
.mol. aOll In July and Au,g.
UH, ,00 ... n llod ""1 1and.mlno training. 11>0 oonoo1
had ou..ted 1 S.pte..b .. ,. but It .... $bout 15 Ootobo,. boro,.. 00""
.. trlllnlD!; ... inc1udod In tho .ohoo1. Do.plto t"" laCk M
training, tn.. HOll dnoloped conUdonco In mlnu ond ..plac.d
minIt" g,..,U .uco....
'"
ArPBIIDIX t, AIIlIEX: 5:
lIU?PLY AIID EXl'EIWITUliE I)p LllID MIIlES III FEC
MuLl
.,. ."lJIIl)" ot 1.,..., ..1>In
'1'100 I'I'hU... l, ... ok auppl, ot
b, of loh" mini. 1n
eu...d hter on.
Balio Lo.d and Authar1zed Theater Le?ol.
Undor lillghth 1.=., Clreubr :Mo. 4. 1a JOlnn"'"" 1950, '<be
aut.l>orlud bIde of 10lld min...... ,
AT ml,... por ,..gl_nt
POl' lettered oomb_t
SO poroent to be IU; and 50 porcont to be W? min
U ..1....--por ...gl.... nt
POI' lottorod enginoer o"",bat o,,",panl
50 porclnt to be 112, IDd ,0 porO<lnt to b. 1!.3
Tile bule leU 10 lI'Oa,..4 to all erganlutlon" ol'J!onlc trano_
port. That 10, tho ".,....1 "ugo of ... lg:nod t ....naport prov1des
tor thh QUo.Dt1t7 or and _\nO, in litb Ul other
Trn.K to be carrIed. It .. bigger 100d 10 ""rrled, it 11 40ne .0
lOt tho upon of 00.rrl1"8 othor .qulpmont up to ."thorhed allO'l_
.nc... Unth to Ko..... c"rrlld .t aut theIr oorlln ba.ie
1014 of bnd lit,...
l.utllOl'lud !'Sll L.vel.
Tho tollCJO'lng .,.. tho o.uthorlud PEe hvelo us 0I1nn:
'7
"
8< .SOO 165.000
At tt. .tart of thoo .... r _l.moot 49,000 AP Ind _l.moot
64,000 AT .1.... _ro ..... tbble In ."., PEe. 'I'M .upply ot AP ..1r,e.
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L.\IID 1.!Iru:S <\.1lIlIJ<m:.JI T.lf 11';0
(Do!It.a c<>l).ttOtt><l tl'= Tli.... u..r.unlU"",
Nc. Availabh
I Al'P8I1DIX
UollUl: nI
IlV'OT STOClI:
<



TABU IV
1: OORPS DKI'OT S'l'OOIt LJNU.S
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TABU: V
:1 C0Ill'8 '.$l' STOCK lL'{In.S
.. TU jluh4 to;; Olrt,,"::, 1>1 lIilull1 'I'bA
1I0!ltb.l:r hl"nM""" "MldnJ. tll<1 l.t Od Jlltllttl>. !or"...... ,
l""lttdu tld.'t tar Ii'l' """.... \U$ tl.8_" ftl,,'
e:h411 11> To.I>J.'I< 'LA..
Il:W$il ~ lPiI ~ n : I I 1U MJl>'1I
fi'u104 lIS ll""....~ : r " " " C4uOllln 191\ti I
',500 to 6,500 in IIc .... ".1>I>1' and I'OU otudily fro", about to
approxi ...te11 44,000 in the two _el.. ot Deoember.
X Corp. ASF'.
T..ble V al>OW'" tho ASP auppl1u r .. "", 2, .",.",ho.. thrQusl> 7
Decerabor .I>m the ASP'. olo..d. Tb> AP .tach '110 ....... gtig1b!.
.nd thoo J.T .toeks .... _I""d Rt ..bcut 8,000. The ...... Dot
d,.,.... OD to ...,,. exhnt duI'lng tbb cI'1t1eal per1od.
Table VI .h"". the e"'PllndHure. or land .. Inn hn doy
p.1'10't. !'ran 26 Juno througb 20 Dec... ho... TI>o per1<od 26 Ju","_
lO Septe..bor 10 not t>""loon beeaun of the laok or dot.ned
d.U to,. that p.,.1od. A. would b xpected, tbe boav1est per10da
....... thooe of tho ret ....at 01' the ..a,.. TI>o data rurnl.bed
1'or th1. by J.Plln Logl.t1cal Command Indioat&o tn.t le
than ho.lf tho tot&! AT minn in lorea "eN dur1ng thill
perLod.
Mine. AbandOOed and Oe.trozed
T..ble VII .h.,.. th.. n"",he,. .,f .. 1",.. reported o.bandoned llnd
d... tr<l1ad Qur1ng tha retreat phlon I'rOO! 28 lIovo",h,. through 15
December. Tilt. indicato. til. po.M or tho taotloal atto.tlon as
.. hotor in tl>o ne 01' .. 111&8" mantlonod e1oa.ho.... 1n thi. ""port.
Tho b......lo1on> In Tabla VIII obo tho ""pllndlt!{I'u during
tho .... t,.ut pbo. ... In R" ..e..be,. ond D.,ber and the period. pre_
""ding thla. Tbe "'I"'ndlturn 17-2.6 Nov_bar re Hght
the tIS ...."ce. 25 lIo... Do ....b..., a rot ...at
phon, tho e"'l"'ndltu""a mO"" than doubled. !"rom U.II until
Deoember. o"l'endlturn doubhd .. gain for .. ll type. colleotively.
The aupply of US land .1n In FEe ... 1n.rd by tho
10,,",1 pr<>duot1on or .olw. at.... In Japoltl. fbi. produoUon ...
"ooompllshod with .peed and eoonosy, .and tile iol'oI'lOUIO<1
this i. Inoludod not <:nIl' U ..., import.nt p..rt or thoo
aupply plcturo hut Rho .. on ox_ple or .bat .on aob,l ...d In
ahort order in a tbe&teI' of 01"' .... t10<1.
Tho> dreadod .chu mine ... "noounte... d by Allted oo"'''''t troopo
throughout tho Medlterr.ne"D .dd Buropean e....p.lgo.. It on.
01' tI....<>at .ldoly uoed "tJpe. of ontll"'rAonnel .,lnu In World w.,.
II. It ... ti... t uoed in the R"".o-Flnnloh WIli" by both tho
SO'fteu ...,d the J>1nno. Buy end oheap to mlU1uhctu......impl. to
loy yet <l1tf1eu1t to detect, .frocth...go1nat root t,.OQpa, 1t
.a. adopted In the German and It.lian armi... It
,,,
I APP!:lIDIX
...pl"",d 10 tho [houk fighting and I tlll .tandud in
tM 'I'lle U .... -oohu "'lno" ... derhod tr<>tll thco Go"""",
..bbrevlatlon thoo "o.huu.".,1,..," litorany trandUe<1 ..
"rlfleaan" .Ine."
Thb .. 1m con bO 1.101 on top or l""ger uplo.ln charge.
Tho So..loh hove \Iud 1 t ..1 th --.).1 mOrtar oboll Dr SUu bottle
f111e<1 .ltl> u;plo.tn u the main chQrge Instead or tho u.""l one_
half poun6 block of TIT.
On 26 July 1950 JroSAK ordered I,08() .el>u "In....anu!aeturoed.
On ,0 July an wera orderod fo" ""Ieb ",,",pOd'mt
porta Y8re availabl.. Addltl"".l parto nro rO'l"lolt\onod froO!
the ZI for 20,000 ",ore. On Ausust .ere .l>ipp"o1 Korea.
On 7 August tho EUSU: oI'da" lfU illere"'.o1 to 40,000 .. tH. ",,01 On
12 Auguot tllo order ... 'tllmged to 200,000 tIIl""o to be "",do .t
tho rato of 10,000 a daJ. lbadlng .... dono otT..". $tora,o:_ depot,
or lkego. AbOut two "ok. " .. tho t1_ frOOl tM
lMtlU procu.......ot req.... !ot to tM Hut dOlI... rl."
Snen contract...t VA"l'tng prlceo .ero lot to pooeuro part..
!iuanUtt Unit Co.t. {lollar Coot
Dnieoa

.76
(die cut)
@ .20 (tllachlnod)
@ 2.00

.8,

.S,
Cao.. ,0,000
,
.<3
, 00'


( tORn.port

, depot ohop
labor) ."
.""
All contr.oto ..,.. oo..ploted. Tho US turnhbed the TNT,
blut OQP" and pl'illler.. JQpo.no.e rlrmo eo.. tbo oontract .
An uti..... ot tho at the "-""y Tran."ort Dopot ..
thot 40 poopl. on an .ight_hou" dQy .... "" able turn out 1,500
.ehu bon. ddly.
Tho 200,000 .. In" coot .u,
Dovlce.
$ 9
Ca.. oo,tl
."
.W
Aou..bly .(12
'"'
""'''

'!'1It U'lO,...tu '>t to#b ,..... l .."" f"". U><t<> .,,,,Hi:.,., O"1'''t on
n J""u<;ry l'Xl iM!.... t. t<>U""LlIt! \/lilt ."..to'
n...l",....
<u
n
" __'lity
'tIl>! t ':<>4 t
Th" ht"l1 " .. ..."1:>lr "I_t1=, .. ",r .1..... "_
...n en...1I3U
lI.n )I", 1. ()po" u""",:'17-i)".; ;;o.d"n?
U ....,bly t.cx,
'..h....':1 ,,...unt. plu"
u."",tllJ b<>s "" ""..\: hi>h.
":1,... ....'p:iNOd; N
II." IIQ. 2. (!po" fl.!'l'>e_<!4";U p"k1ns .... tu. r ..""".
ftl"lD!t """leu, a_!Uct TOO l'lau m:
tAb....
<1'1..
":'Wf ':>-:"";.; ,.rn\
U ....."ly In .1:>1 1$ (,$1;
1'1<;;11, J>Il"" """" " .. , 'j ,,,,J ""'. ",
TIM 10
,,:<:d *40_,:<11 t<> "u,,""
.n 0"""'01.1",.. "..... f".. u,,. 4,,
.t",,4 t":lettm, It..., """nee" "",.ttl"" ,,:
rtl'l"ll nIT 1>1",,". !i<"A "Q'",*'''
..
lId Qr 7
""a M,
q",. 9
3...noll ",,",,11<>, AA t1>" "r
uU01blr ph". baflM (2)
..round b"",,. "US t., "",n "". 9.
Ti... .. ""i>'fld: !; -.
" "",tol, "'"d
!nto origln&l 2'> ",1"...
otenc!l un., 1>"3$ N nIl 10,
Tt_ r .. *1"""'". Z
lill" no, Ill. il<md t4 and ,n ..d
flo
L ..l""w, .. 5
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Al'Pi!llDIX 1
TOUr. linE n=s IIKPOR= TO EIGlITlI-AIUfY 6lfGIlIEE:RS
(27 .June-}O II<>T<1Olberl
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Field
, .
..

Date
'0. ''!w:
". =fE.
,m
-
2.6 July w
_.

..
9 "
"
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- July
,0
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2 July
"
1\2(11), 27 July
" 21 July
'l:
" 25 J\11y
il
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TatAL ]lINE
(1.4
L DiY.
,.
Dh'.
D1v.

Div.
Dh'.
l: Dh'.
I:
D1v,
Div.
,. D1v,
Div.
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U.
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DI v.
DI"
".
D1v. il:
DI v.
Dlv.
Div.
Div.
Div.
D1v.
Div.
Div.
D1v.
Div.
FIELDS RZPotlTED TO EIGIITHARI'Y EN(:rNEERS
JanuAry 1951)
-- 9
50
92 .-
-
old NJ(


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9
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17
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19 Do
16 !)flo.
1.4 Deo,
14 De
1.4 !lec.
1"/ Do
17 !leo.
17 Dec.
17 D
';9 !lec
8 Deo.
"


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APPEllDIX
,
" Ft&le
".
-1=
::ii::
"
"
--
,e
-
25th Div.
--
,
- Doe.
l'.
,
-
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th Div.
,
Jan. n --
,
Jan. ,
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.
24th [liv.
,
,

25th DI v. 40 6S
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7tn Dlv.
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24th Div.
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JOn 24th D1v.
"

24th
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24th
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4' . -- --
,
5'
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7th Oiv. --
'5 -
n Jan.
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-
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4, ,,4 - 15-25
4]. 24tn DIV
4 . 24th D1v.
,a
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"
"
Jan. I )
4.
24th v1 v
--
n
(Cru.ngho.on)
49.
","
Dlv.
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"
;0. 25
th Jlv.
"5 --
"
--
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25th Oiv.
51-
25th Oiv.
Jan.
5'
'a'
.
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--
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4,
-
"
25th Oiv.
4' --
,I
Jan.
5 25th In!".
--
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J"n.
".
Inf.
".
25t h
5 . 25tr --
" -
n

Jan.
25th
'" "
" )/s1h.hpod to TIlT
.
15_ firing devtoe
..... EAcn "a. 8 2., TNT "" 8 .Uk<>. Nut to th"
... plso.d gl'1lnad" b a cM.talnH and 100 shrapnel
in A oloth.
3L1oIl.IARY UF ;UHTITISS USW
!2 !!L
Total lC22
"
!is;;: 01' EARTE AU3;:RS PJR !.AlID-M
PROBLEM
The or thh i. to .valuate per!'o",,"ance of
PQ.er n.rth augur. in the Qr hnd minu.
PACTS
A proposal no by tl".& Operotiona Research OHico
for the or p""or ul'th auger. 1n tho of land
mine. in KONlA.
Pleld to.t..... re carried out in Korea to te.t the r ... ll>1l_
it,. ot oo1ng p""or In land-mlne en?heelll<lnt,
DISC;;SSION
Intr<KiuoUon
to,
con.id.Utl on .. as gtun
lr. "',,"'. of ! t.
E9uipm&nt
The SIgnal Corp. type. of auger, the
Koo44 (ue F1gu,... 2J and v_18 ' ..... th boror " Teot. .howed
thAt the V_1B perform. OlQNI ntlsfsctorlly off tho rcoul than
dQU too K-44 becauu or h.ttsr traction. H,,"" .. the K-44 digs
tutor in the rood. tb8n the v_16 hy 0 fa.tor of 1.5. Thon
tl'unk-mountod are e'ch c.rrying It. o.n t
of .""'111 .... y tool.. In ..<Wltion to tho driver end cp.rUor, tho
'-'ill
,

>.
,
2. __7,,6 c >
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.."" Ned h """
. """ I
'," ""'mH
v:a.. &l-uby :;,iUtU'.


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fer L'. ;'1;
"
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"QI"'iH. "V"W" tVn6,'
,
Zits. f. c,'; 1,,,," ::J
\n':,u in H"-",;",,, id' '"""",, tor p:o".,.
<:,mt it" "w,"".. fsint
(t'M" N '"'
d ..... "':;r ;1_ >.
c._, ');\l
ML ',1 ?'.' ,'
ch. ,_.r,' 0
, spet
\t:1il"l ",
'" .I>,U;

Tn, ext"s
ec-Jes
"';;";' -.ro,. ;' , --;",;,-Jy
nelA 3;'"",,; ',' '",j" 0070r
Dt 0."1 """" thh C.<IV""
oc; "Mt Hi
"",,, in', How
5
Al'P!llIDIX 1
truck can carry 50 1111<>&. and tho th.... e lI.".e"" to
plant ",In.. and chan "p at 8&01> lo.aU"",
During t"",e te.ta. the p..-r augoor. u .... Dot dlt:r1_
cult to .",<1 tlul a"go" bit. p .. one! to be capable ot dr111_
Ing .Utoto.torily 1n the rOll""l!,\!! .OU., 0) .ott .0U. (.IH.
sIlty ol ..y. and (2J tOUl' 1nobo. ot packed .11ty olay; .nd
(,) g"uel or ."".hod st""" to tho dopth of eight Ine""o, The
tirst of tha.o eon. bUd of flood plains. poddl , ""d .""d
nato; tho Moond of ueond.o.:ry road.; and tho thlrd of IISH'
lIobility of tho o&l'th_au,tor .ohlel0 wu Dot a Ilmltation "" tbe
operaUou1"ee It provod able to oper.te on ond off the road.
du"lng thol.. t .. to ,
Tho ",ln08 "'1'. ouppllod by Ordnanco. Thoy wore tho ,Unda:ro1
antitank ",lno, B Inel... In <l1a... ter and approd",atol:r 5.5 Inoh
thlok. WMn a"",.d, thl> fuze proJeet. "" additional two Ineh08
abo... tho bod1 of tho !>.IM. Tn..." ",lne_ oro .hlpped In ...hl
tra_ box e"",pl.te >fIth fUZ05 tor eltho" Or ",,-tlpor_
oonnel u
T.ot l'?oeoduro
rho .. In...."e at "",,<101D to .... tho pooalhll
It:r of vloud o1etectlan, Slne" dotoeU<>tl olther trom tho
or tho oil' Is taeilltR!:od by ... curronee ot th!o oam. tut"".
at opacod or alang a .tralght line.
<1letrlbutlon reduco. tb.& po.. lbillty of d.t.ctlon tnl'<l"gh
auch ....n. of oburvatlon. In th!o'. tnt.. for 0"...p1., the
spaelng along an Msa (.....ur.d along th!o conterllne of tha 1'00<1)
.....lIId from 10 to 60 het; tho arr<>nS""'ont along tho roo<1 ....
ataggo .... d by the mln at nrIouo diat<UlOn loft <>nd
right of tho centerline. IUn were plantod 1n the tol101Jlng
.. anner'
111"0 ttold no. 1: Tills waa pl8.eo1 on an )ISH, and tho
traff1o .... b:r-p&nod, 'Thle .. 1lQI'm,,1 mlno neld
plaoed during. ".trotoSlc withdrawal."
Kin. f1eld I1ln... " ..... p1&nUd along a
of Ml;R "Red DI ....ond." Tbl> nold t8ob1-1.l>od to
.!mulato eondltl"" to tbe detection of "radio Con
trolled" .. In.. or othan havIng a tim. lag betnen p10nt1cg
UId aetlvatlon.
IIln. flold Th1. wu plaeed on typleal ",,,ooDd....y"
"ood. "". of tho ....th roads tho.t hr""ch.. off or K3R "Red
DI ... oJ>(l.."
1I1oeollanaouo, 11_"0'" !.IIdlvldual hoI.. ""d groupo of
hoI.. .ora dug In the .and flata .t tho Junct1C<:1 th.llaletong
and thl> KlmIho H1....... , .nty flood plaIn 30111, ""d In Q numbo"
m
- - -
A.m.:x 6
of d!JTeront .. ,011 ',e" "olay

1Itt" "'1' or :nin, ox; :.unLal d1gg!DBO
th.o of te" ,oli., .d typi _1 rood.
The po.er u.dh aGg.c pcov.d .' i to ",eot
tho varia .. ["PO'Od Ko,..,an .0110
road. h d. 1'ho th6 involved on not be
A?plie;i ta ooher 1\0,..,00 exe.pO .'"or- .Hct
00 10 In ';cropa, for in_
.tame, tho hIovo ... \>0.6 lh!ekno",. '"'-'oso, tho ty?O oj
u d :n Preneh col""!"l ',"eA. In
and .. [11 not ,.,,,,,,it the ".e f " .. auger bo_
of tho Urge .tone blocb r, Tho
,b""" In 'hbJ,e I are appHoablo roO.', ,oiL
lUthough th& 01"<' cot fu..d f0r ".' :i.1d to.t, oev_
e"al "-.ono .en ma1e to t"" to
ood rudy them for 1n,to.ll.t1"n. Otl t.o- and ....o_
'''In. eOOlblnaUon$ (ne n""u :I) ""d (--, ,c,. ,. ,..lnrOr08d .lth
1.0 pound. oj' dyn... n., tho wo. kept '0 ",.,.In. the
tIme roq"l...,d e",plOce
of the a", L' I and dlo
in the
TABLE:
slliGLE_\'INr. ;''1
","pho.
cOV
Aug<>rY .. ,nento
,,,
Locat10n Mater1al ,M In. I :' lIte"'
,
,
6_""
"
.;r.vol
'0
,
eru.hod ,tOM 0 ,
,
, "
Secondnry 4"
"

,
road. ' .Ilty clay
,
,
,-, S,."d flat. loS
'0
"
,
, olay ," I 4 ',0
Stlt ; ,
5
I
P1Qod
'0
plolM
i
T{o:. 5, dig
,

'O'

'0
nut .1
T101. ...ry '0 olant tho mbo, flll tho "010, mOVe
the next h.
In !tem.l an\\ 2 of T..blo I, roqu'ro. moot ,f the
v.rie, the but doo. not 8H.ed one
Ao for ), 4, ""d 'j, froot 10 to
2Q ,Hond.; tM U",e pr.donl,,,.t .. In tl@oe ea.e,. In
tne throe ola,,&. of "06 of .,.
'"
W.;" '" 0,0,,, ...
"", 'led' ."....,."10 '"""
.. q .... pUB .!:nAnO. O;.OlpUl HI" .(""," "UU,W JO
suit,. oq; ....
, o!ril," JO _"<Ill 0.0.;
'.UO\U,'" JO In "'OJ
JO 0\\1 POWOA"'ct .'''u Uj a, "'n ""
JQ pun p 'Il" 0'1' ouo "'"
..." 0'11 d1tp StIT
_p .....",' 0 .. "Plol1 9<!1 Ie va.
P"" 0"1 ,. pOBn 0"" 1v'!1 u'[O'l
uodo tnQ u"". <ua ',u.",.ou"ldmo eupo JO
""1."(""" "'{O uJ " "lqH"
"l! "puo< 9-':' 0"(,1 'Op"'" OJ"" pUll .J.U.I."qo
{OHnbooll) UO"U"uqo .. "OJ ''''',''111 IT,
0tq'n"H 9UUO$ n \pn....... "'HJ d'''1< ononuuuo,
'I"" .or "I poddw1lI "" H popo.oP U'I PI9,J
, 90Uc .'''1" p9p U .. ..:I_uno""," 9'1.
JO .. "1 0..... UonUQno
uouoo,<O(]
'OUJlIl OUO uonou''1.lIJo'
'\lO .1oJ p_oJnboJ. t"""lH??" :UM Qto!o 3u.39Jp
Q\il 01 P'" P' o,nuJ'" .\!(. ."""''',(P JO ptIll OliJ"' JO
0'1' U,'" .10 9UO JO ,uoCJ90u,d
JOJ p.....,nl,oJ. 0"';1 ....1X. 0"';1 ...leA
".p"J.';c,c,. &\,', U; ; J J.<loJ uo 91P _""",u P""
"."'1. p.QJ ;Q ."'10Uf Xi_ p... ;no ....
HS" "" Uo Ouo .U '1""J .:.Ijp .Ie,"".
OOQP n ce .OI"II .'1.
';0 "'I' "I oJ .loco,) dlP
...;.""IP U\ '.'1ou, 02 8 "", .. " 3u,Su."
;" 'n,. ...,. "Hun G'IJ.
"' 9<11"'1 'dup ,,,i.",o
x,, "'l"tO" jl:]" .. 1I
"1ott. JO .'n" p ..... g
"no. ""O.IJ "1 ."
.'P .. " ul SUIEli:m
"" Uo
_, 01>:;\11 .EanUOld ouI1"
':Qq_, l"'ll oq" po""". Joq.l-"UO,,! "'IJ.
..noq '"ll"" 9ul"'_"'"'0 " .. Plnoo
'Q""l' ''''1, "unOJ Sa" 11 ' ".1" "I
"
O"n ;\.0".1 ",m"l,,""' Uj
"; G puo I """>I JO ..toJ
punoJ pI>:" .,eo, WI;U tl" u; ".qllmu o,qnop)
, v ..
i'
elu-Ity. '1')1.01'01'01'0, ....hlo1o. aroond " nlnad """8 .ill
l<Iove "'''''Y lgno that _ good cr boen h8.$
noid.d, For the sa"", rea,on, it 1. going to lmpo 1ble to
dl'gu\oe th<l raet thot an rth aug.,. (or tru<k) 11<1. been drhen
from phce to plae& j" a topp"d, ""d dloturbed tho 801l.
:!'Igures 1 and II tho .heol track' ",ode by 0.....1> au!!""
truck.. In Figure 1 it 1I'1ll be soon H.o that ...he") "'''''e
.t hut 0''0 eouon ago have not 'boon onttroly obl1terated by
later ..atlon of tho f'1.lrls.
Tho! aeeond "sIgn" 01' tho pro.onco of mlMs to tho .pot
appo.ronco or the In.tolhHono th&m lvo. (00" 5). The
.....ur"nce M similar .pot. ",0"" Or 1." olo.ely spaced implieo
that they are In .alle way a05ociat<Pd. The undo", <lhtrlbutlon
of tho mine. ..... \..s tho tir.t Am! best to d.1.guh.
R""dom dlotrlbutlon and rolativ.ly widpaeing -.ill l'<I_
<1uce the po.. 1blllty of .. Ioual d.tootlon to mini"'''''' without
mHeridly reducing the prooabll1ty of h ing tho min. d.t""at.d.
tho Oold b, h...,d ",.thod. 0100 10 compllcatod to <ttl
aqual dogr.e. Tho ,ltuation tg ideal fOr the h,. of ron>o\.e con
trol in ....ming UIl&""'lng tho mino
A ,uated rule or thumb for 10:
throe a<1Jacent ",inhould not fall in a .tr.'ght 11M; mini.."..
.paoing .hould b. f.et. unit group3 'f '''''06 holu,
tho ,poco t11& .eeond and third .hou)d ury frO<n 2 to 4
th.u tho dlstono. first '"<co, j. .pac
ing 'hould not be u.ed the ""re. f101d.
Tho finU ,top in pr.ventlng v\o,,': dete.' ian i. tt.6
or tit<> ",ine it lf and tho dl.po.a) of e"." material. Th.
fln81 of the .. Ine Mn,l"od or tho lightly
.lth ond then 'prtnk)ihg th" domp .pM dth dry .on or
looBe from the ,.oM ,r.ovldor.. u tn. t1"6 th\o WSB
TOry effective. 1t it to nlk back ond locat8 a
.pot t8n .,inutos lot.r, 1 t "1.0 r"r the faot that
T_6 (Tllo.qu!to) obruU"" not fin" tho several
hQur. !otor. and t.o days lat<r tho .pot. sho_d 018&r11
the t1... 88ve \h. d"",p .011 in 'h. hOle an oppor_
tunity to moisten the dry ooverinE. By tho day tho dry
wind, wuthn and 8unohlno had rever.8rl tho tc.nd and
or ",oInea" w.,.., anl:!, fUntly vl,iblo,
To Overcome tb. 16ft ,-, tho .0' ,'oy >011 ...
collect.d from tho road roo,l to rill tho ),ole.
This proved to he qult8 utlofootory (.B. t'ig'""" 6). P"l'oper
..tlng tochniquo ,,11) pr,v"H wlJ& .eattor1ng of .011 dur_
ing th<l augor" operatIon. Exc " "o11 e [rom tho
oporstion aot pr... proole", . It. dl.po.sl
1 of In th<l t t -.he.... ox_
eo.. soil remained. H .... placed in ok. 'n,' .c.tta""d In the
ditohu rath&r than at on. pl"co.
2
7
5
I APPENDlX
COliCLUlHO!f5
1. Kod.l. 1(-44 arld V_18 po..r ..... th eugo... oan 1:>0 ..d.
ettlci.ntl, and .ati.factor!l, in the of .tne field.; 10
_U>&" per h"".. Carl boo ....ph...d In IISR'., 18 10 .. cond.", road.,
cd 40 ott \;be road
2. Model V_IS 10 p,..teM'od to.. ort_tlle_road lorl<
ot batter tr&otloo. 'I'bo 1>-44 dIg. faate,. in the rOOda thon the
V_18 b1 tooto,. ot 1.5.
'I'he poaor earth ""bar c... oper.te B" Independ.ent unit
carr,tag Ita Owa c..... the required. labo,..ro uaed 10 flll_
I11g ebo hol.e and load ot 50.1"...
5. R...d..... "l... ced _in.. ..,... ..0 .... dlttloult to d.tec'
th'" tho In a r.gular pUtern; 81r obur'utl<rl "an d.oteot the
otandard. ... ctangul.r pAttern ot 010,011 apod. .tne. but con
Dot d.t.ot the rondom d.iatrlbutlon.
6. Io... of tl>/> lnatallaU"". could. <>0 ."eD "" II. lIIaR ahe...
traftio had p....d tho tleld. (th18 ..sumo. radiO Or tiao
d.'].., aottnUon ot .in...rt.r cnUln dap.od pertcd..J
7. ...d rapid plau.ent .1th etreethe c .... "uthg.
Irat""d. oaoacien'tou, .orVera.
8. g""d......iD. pattern..... dlttlcult by .lr
pnotc 1Dhrp... hU"".
9. One. d.Uetod, e .11Ie tleld ea:l be "'.pped. In d6tall
aUh .trip ttllo t:rpo comer
1. SigDa! corp. p<>&"r '''g.''. oho"ld be "sed tot' tho mining
oper.U"".
2. Ho.rtdom pl""Ung is 8uontIal to p....Tflnt d.tectlon.
}. Row! min...hould bo eOTflr..d. dth dry ",atarhl obtained
trOlO tho road .""tu. rUhor than tho moht .oil to.ken trOlll. tlte
hole. III tl.1d,. top eo11 be ",ed rUl>/>r til"" ."b_sol1
bo.'"'' ot 00101' chango
4. All ... ta 8011 ehodd be ocattend. ratr...r ttutn d.umped.
In "- boaI'.
,,'
5. .1,. ObUH&tlan and al.. photoh""ld be U 8.
or Hnd 1I1.11e deteot1"". TO aoteet ,,,1Il0l nelda on eultlvehd
ground. l'5(lOQ .nle h prohahly .etf_ractory! en 1:2000
10 a ..1111,"'111
APPEJ/DU I, 7:
EIIEIIY EMPLon;E111' OF LAIID 1!I1iB3 IIi 101llU.
(1"1""'" 21 Janu.ry to a April 1951)
Por the poriod 21 January to 8 t.p..ll 1951 u ..... we .... 91 US
.,.,.Or e,,"uUtle. ea"oed by land ,.1".., of -.l>loh 20 _ ... toUl
lo..e.. 111".. thu. continue to b. the .,.t deat"uoth" weapon
agoln.t US armor. The high ..."dt1e. h .. ued tho.. d.. to
bo.zook*. In the ..... P<'rlOd (5 o..,.,..ltl.. , all totU lou.. ), o.nd
tho.e due to ,"orU... -.ml"h numbered " ot .1>10h ",,11 ""e ... a
total 10", Many othor ..hlel... ol.oo w..... _ged 01" dutroJOOd
by land min in title pori<><i. It 10 WHn.d that .,... ot the
"".ualtt.. ....rtI oau..,d by ""r"ported uti ..ine field.. put In
pr...iou.ly.
Tho .ne",y 11.&8 Incrtlu.d hie min" aotivlty 0IId. contlnu.d the
u of rando," mine e"'placemont Ith a nrUty ot dee.pH... t .._
ture.. US rarce. are plng road" tar S.......l In
.t&neu haYe !>eon found or cr.ter. being made in tno road Uld an
AT mino put on tho .dge or tho era-tor. Ilin.. aro boing put down
to d.. pth of t.o h.t Or ",ore in tb." ro"d .nd eo.... red with rook
1'11.1...ak.. deteetion and probicg dltf10ult ond 0.1.0 ...y allow"".
or ..ore 0"llI01.. to pa.' b.ro"," the .,1... dotonat... III.lnoo lloo ....
been plaoed in tord.. and bn aet to d.tonate ""d.r tho
Ight or a Jeep. Tho IItn.. h ..... eomplet.ly d.molhl.-d j ... p
Min.. are bdng wt tn 111'''11 bIY.,,,,,e or ...tlll.r,. arno to eau..
d""'age to tr"olro and othor .-.htol
On. r.port that to. CCI" dUg. bOlo 6 tt .qua,.e b,.
, n dup and plaGod t.o IIIlnn In hol., ban11 eooering ..
by fill. It n. Int.nded that IJJI toro.. lat.r fill In tho halO,
w1thout d.tecting tha min , ""d ....ntunly, .. th. road ..,....
do,", a .,..hl01. tho "'Inn oft. MOllY Mlo. h....
Won dug and tilled to auss-at mine .Mplacement., .hil...an1 oth.r
11.01.. hne had only oerap ... tal l!l them.
The ""0 ot 0 charge plao"d In tha e.nttlr or tho .. ""d
was ,..,partod enoOunttlred Jon" ..,. 51. It ... up<>rtod tbol
2nd Engi,,"'r Cont ..ol Satt.l\on that a tonk damaged by a boaOJ
"'n& on a ",ad ..hleh hod hn ..... pt ond pro'!).d. Pragmonh of a
plut1c ",,,t.rl&l wo,." ro"nd n.ar tho orate.. , ond it n. tholl8ht
'1'
tl:t&t "- nd. ph.tlc t7l'" Gf 111.... '"..,. bave bun " d. AIletho" ",11>11
...nt uu<1 th.. ono..,. ""qui .... " undor'lllin1ng tM read, t'r0lll
the "h""ldor 1"...""0 and placing AT minn in tho hel". No 010
t""be<l nrth 10 rtoibh on the .urt..,,, of th.. In other
tho and tbon orr... t tho
1"0,,<1. 'robing tho
... hl.le. holve bun
l>l .. r"l, lan<l_mlne "."ge hu gr.atl,. Ino"""9.<1 In tho
perl"'; 21 Janusry to April ond ho-a hen sueeeurul In eauoing
dol",. and damage to UN tore....
'"
AP?ENDIX J
I!ECHAIIICAL RI:LIABILITY Alo1l CWBAT ZOllE
FUF.f. LrG1STICS OF uti
SU!!lIARY
PROSLEl!
Tho problem 10 to $val'>ah on t);o baolo of Koru.n
thoo Mohanl.&l ""llaMllty ga.ollne cono'""ptlon of UII tanka.
FACTS
In tho period 1 July 19l0-2l 1951 there w.,... 5,6 UII
tank whieh 25 wue
Slltty percont of the total "TId fort? p-ereeTIt of
the totd lou.. were due to f&llul"u.
The p-ercenhg$ of tank> _lth . chs.TIlcal trouble.
quh-1ng evacuatIon to ns,
Porcent
Tho fuel 6on.umptlon to," US tank. In has been:
th<> the flguro h... ,.8 ,al/"'lle. It h u_
tl",ahd thAt for tho T42 til<> cons.umpt!on would be 3.3
DISCUSSION
Tho n""ber of hllur ha. b$.n partl1 to tllo
rough terraIn and partly to the fact tholt the 114' ..,d K26's ".r.
of World Il, and Ilad 61thor bMn a eon.!d_
e ..able tlrtle or "'ad for t:-alnlng T);o 1146, on ott.. ..
,eo
StJlolllA/l ,
hoM, ..... a now On<l untrIed tank, .lth aUoral tut""
. ... , tho nIgh. Ineidonee of .... ehanle.. l r .. 11ure Indieat
roo,; for IPlpr9"mtnt 111 tho> QC ttS t .. w.
Fuol oonoumptlon.tlgur8." .ho. thot the t-=Ily of ...
cooled. I!".r_drl""n and tank. havo a l1nur
Nllatlon bot.eon tank Ight and guoline o",oumptlon. 1
prozl.mately 0.065 gallon. per ton milo. rho 1146 and ru2, dth
hydraulie tongue-CQDVortor., .ppo.r to be 1... effIeI.nt Qn ..
mIlo bo.l. by ahout thlrtJ poreent.
CONCLUSIONS
O... tt.o hu b"n hlee .. rol1ahl. ,"",cllOnieally
.. tt.. K!,.6 In KorO$. It 1. reoQgtliud that the 1146 .111 Impron
In rollability ao Ih oarly produotion ... alrneuu ......
"llmln.o.tod.
ThI> aIr_eoolod engIne or tho YU6 !la, bun tho mO.t rol1"ble
tank engine.
TI>oI M46 tran,Ollulon ha, hs.d tho lout .... 11 .. b1).lty
among tho t .. nk. In Korea.
'l'h. reUOn fOr t:o. high terrain 10.. or tl<> ao ..red
tQ tho 1146 1. undoto""lnod, but moy be duo to:
1. La.or fatigue In tho 1146 bOc.o.uu of
drlvo ..,d
2. Grutor mObility Ln tho 1146 to the hIi1>H
"",eIght ratio, drivo ...nd hetter .
Un or tl<> In ",oro d ..
Tile high. lQU of frOl:l .... ...nloal fallure W&o due
",.o.lnly to t1<>1,. hnuro to otand up to .u,taIn.d ",.,.oh..
dudng wlthdr Al.,o.t all tAnk. enul"
and repair.d during an adunc. Or In .. '""-tlc ."",bU oItuat'on.
Tho hlgIt Buolino of tl<> 1146 as .0Olpared to tho
K!,.A, 1. partly duo to Igbt of the M46, ond p&rt).r to
thIrty porc.nt lQr Q .... r_dl efficiency. 'l'h. ellUsO of tne
lQ.or efr1eloncy In the K!,.6 and Tu2 10 boHeved. but not prod
to bo, tho hydraulic drive.
The ).oglotlo requlre"",nh by tc.o hlpjlol'
g... ollno r.qul.-ement of the 1146 I. an .dvor88 faotor Ir. tno
Qf th!.
On tho bUIo or 10,000 tank. bOO .. 1J.H por I:lonth In
EU>'opo. tho u.. of t11& Tu2 In p).aoe of tho 11.1,6 .ould .avo .ufficient
2" ).
tlKll tor da11,. FSO sorties. It T42 with. g<>a.. trans",h,lon
ot R trA11 ...1ulon ..... re uoed, it 10 uttmatod
thot tho I.vlng would pro.-Ido ruel tor 'j00 dally r80 oortlu.
Not dooumented In thlo but .l....h....
In thh "eport. 10 tho .ub.hnthl1! equal .o",bat
of tho M4A, a. comparod .Ith tho M4 In Korea.
In vie. ot tho h:gh Incidence <>f "",.hanlcU fallure"_ US to.nl<
d091gn.ra .houl<l milk effort by & and donlop_
",ont program to Improvo tho reliabIlity ot tanks.
For production \n the V$, tho t""k with thfl lot
p"".lblo lght tot" perfo,.,.anoe on tho battlefield
oho"ld be cho.on. Slnce!t i. believed th.. t the T42 could ""
equol or .upador to on the battloneld, it .hould,tor
tho ,..uon glv." upplant tb M46 at tho urUest po.sible

J. _Hh a gur tran>ml lon .hould h<> uriou.
con .1depQt 1QJI.
,a,
IIECHAlIIC.\L RllLIABILl'rr AlID ZO'"'
FUEL LOGISTICS OF UN TANKS
PROBLl1J!
Tile p",bU", j$ to on the ba.l. or )!:Ol ..., upoI"
1ence. the .... and g..ol1"" oona_ption or
U!I tank
FACTS
An analy.1o of tl1& or ","chanted fallUN gtn. tn..
..... ult. In II.
The pe,.centage of tonk. that h.!.ve 1><100,... e...ualth.
j. gjven In T&ble III.
flgu,.e. in the third oolumn of table III rOI" nonl"&OOV_
loues are dl t .. .ith t"" ""_
coptlon of thou to,. tho 11,2.
'"
'!' JlII1( M1:i
19)0 N 2]
i
9&n"H
"M
:nt'>tl'7
I


kotltonk fiM
C'mu
iu'Hl1"""






, ,

'"
iO)
' .



, ..
H
..
I
,la)

I

-.


_.

. .

..
,

(2)


,

I
.'
..
,
,.
I"
,"

I"
'"
U\!UE r;
?4!LJP2J or C}??tR2st
,,,U"!!'
Jtl".

,
l'.u

,u
"I
i
; ,
, ,
1
, 4
)n 1

1: "
'

. .
"'" "or NT' r: t j ""
1.I31 III
,
,
,
1
,
4
,
,
. i
j
AP?EII11IX J
Tboo perClnhge incIdlncl of ",.onanlcAl hllu"," In US to.nk.
baa a. rollo,
TA!Il.E IV
nRCEJlT 01' ISSUlID TANKS MECIilLNICAL FAILURES
Tho fuel .hlch unIt. hav. for road
.. aNiwa in 1:0...... 10 ohown In V.
TABLE V
GASOLlllE COHS1JllPTlON FOR TAfIKS
Ga.olino Conau'"ption

(Ballon. 2!!r o>11el
;1
:il,
G.
Llli
DISCUSSION
Tbo ."oot teUIlr<> ot ht>l$ I 1. tho n"",ber of cu_
.. du8 to ... chanIca! r.pr".nt1ng al.J<ty or
the total .uuoHiu. and p.rc.nt or tho total loue.. It
'M"ld b/I h"..... that the 14'. )(26' r. yoterans
or World War II and had tn ....ny cues b06n .to,..,d fC/r R long pur_
10<1 0,. uud for Tho 1(46'&, on tho ho.nd,
nn tanko that had not bo.n !'ully tried, and ""liabil_
Ity Can bo to l.mpron greatly wh.n .""'" of tho .uk_
ne.... brought out by tl>o Korean e""'po.Ign .,.., oorrected.
or tho 107 tanh thoot boca",. total 10550& boc.. <or "",chan_
hllurG, 102 had to bo <or UN forceA
were withdrawing. Nearly tank. could have boon
ar e ....c""ted Hroe or "'''''8 at removal avall_
OUri.ng the .. l rr"", Korea, ..era ....
to ",,100 long and then u. neltlr tho tl",. e
qulp",.nt to oehlclu which brok& down on tl .. It b
b.c.".e ot logistloal limitation. a conoid.red
..10k ..a. Ulo>n by eo"""""d In wilding "p el.... 1. ?, and 5 .uppl1e.
'"
DISC\JssrCN
.t tho of cIa 2 and in North Korea; the r ulting
.hortage of part. to the dHfloult1u of k ping
Unk> in o...,ration.
Wore ",eohanloal failure. $ho'l'n in '1'",,10 lJ than !n hl>h
.00,.. ! bocau.e d""" tho.n
Tho moot r .. lIable engine "PDUr. to be the alr_oooled motor
of the )146, but tht. t ... h.. had the mo.t trouble .. ith too tro.n.
",lulon, and "'''''y rdlur.. .nd oil_cooUng
.",te", . h.. bee" oxp.orlenc$d with
cQo11ng .y,teffi Qf the .. r_eDoled which has the h1ghe.t
1noldenc6 of onglne
reoord. M"-", tl>a eng'n.
ap,.,ar. to b. tn to the 1'.46, a"d tran.rn: .. lon
coolin!! 11.0,,0 glvo" lu. than in
Mo.vlor tank The has hM hl"r. pste of angine failuro,
approximatoly u" neorly t:o. a. tho and has t;ad
t1>o hlghe.,t rata of .. 1<m tallure to of tho 1,),6.
Thto M24 he, also h.d the tNuble tho
.lth tho ro<oll TI>.. or traOK and tinal drl ....
eaoualt!a. i> alJout tho "':nA for all type. of tank
tho ho. to the mo.t reHsH.. tanK
Koroa ",eohenleUly, it hu I>ad highest of 1000
of terrain d1dioult1a., which toI1ght lack of mobUitJ.
A$ tho hu on adequate po,",c_to_... lght ron", tho oau may
be lack of traotlon ow1ng it. traok. The.e
mBy 8180 bo buls for tho "pUlI011 te.a' delve" tUlgue In thto
.111 b& hiRh beMuoo of it. "8nudly_controH,d traek.,
eotolpar.d to tho hy<!raul1cally_controlled tt"oks of tM M46,
tho.t th!. "",y account for """" of the teruln Th3 hlgh
terrain 10" ?rob&oly b \;/y tb.
hot tnU the t.nk I>ad MbA;'. and that
, having more ",1..1ons In .upport of inr.ntry, tende1 to
in Mr6 d&ng$rou. hrraln. The has proved 1 ... abl.
to .It\ut&nd mine and tho.., tho M26'. o.nd
!!46's, ..hich ",lght ba upected on or H. havtn" 1"5. armor;
of the eight tank. that have bun knock<ld out by bUQok'.. , seven
hay. heon .v4'
Th. fiRur foe ... ohan!oal th.. repoct .... c. b....d
011 ,,"cords of tank. to ordnance, aTId do not Include
minor repalred by oompany or UttaUon rna!nteno.nco. In
thh c$speot the eomparbon moy be ""h!c to the 11116, Os it nu
been the policy of 0118 to TI6&rly all tank...1th
... eM.niesl to ordnl>noe in.tead of to mal> ",,!t

2. A LogiBtlc Comp"rhon of VS Tonk.
AfPEIIDlX J
Sh.lpo:ng'
(1) From tho Tochnlc.1 An.lysis GHQ Tron._
Section, the freight for tanks hO.vo
Men obta:n&d:
DHrolt to San Frarte:.co__50_ton oa,.. $450
s"" Francisco to !\oroa __ Cho.rter 0.44
po,.. coblc foot
TI,2 __1o'1l" long x l1'd" ... ide x 9'6" cu rt
)(46--20'9" lonq x 11'6" ,.ide x 9'1" hlgh_2150 cu ft
the co.t for the T42 tank frQm to
Korea 10 and fo" the 10146 is .1,395. The dHf&l'6nti.l
!o HO pO" in favor Dr tho TI.2 tonk, and monthly d!ft.,."n
t!ah on shipment. of ..r:ou. of T42 pe:- month u <011'.
p.,..,d "'lth .qual rnonthlr quant:t!e, of 1146'. t, .hown In Table Vl.
j'o the cost of tho. haole mu.t 0. tho co.t of
,..,?lao.mortt.. The planning usod by Ordnance
for np1aoo",ent. h fourt4en and t".e co.t dlffe"""c. 18
bv th:.
Yl
GOST m:
T42 TANKS nTH
Dlf'e,...nco 1!46 And
Dellvary T42 T""nsportatlon Co.t.
Fe"
19
11200
2t()0
'"
800
200 000
'"

,
"
(2) 10 AUgu3t to 10 January
1951, 219 and loB M26 tank> pe to Korea.
Tho av&ug. monthly rato tho tonk. h forty
p&r ",onth, and tho averA". rate fo" aU tank, to llO per
",ont.o, 1 show. the .h.!pplng oouav9d pe" :tOonth by
tho T.,2 tonk. to Koru In or M46
,
,


looooL

,

.-

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.-

,

6000

0
.'
.,
,
0
0

>.


4000 "


DOLLA"S SAVEo PER MO"TH 6< T -41
'" TONKS TO "OREo '. PLACE 0" " - 4" r""KS
MONTH"Y DE"VERy
"


,
"

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2000
1>0 ,GO 20{) 240
'"
NQ T.""$ DEC,vfRED
TO KOREA
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;l.) nqa4 "" '"'' thl>t 12M H -'Ito ""$
"""s en " ... .. p<>r1.od, It I> r>f' .\_
'.':"1>' (yd \Ij' H,$
I'u'3 1,1: fLJ
t",,,,, tT. 9f lI4t..
(2: ;:u,>H,.,.. ,,"ri<l'J' 03 '"
h g.t..,,, in 'Ntl... V. 7,,,, oon.wnpH""
hH tr Or-4u,,'06 3",,,tl,,,,_. ... "2 "U
",11<>, t-;-",t <'f ,he c""t",..l"" J(or."- "0 ?l'f
.. 11.&. ]<1';=4 i' a plOt. nnk _eight in te".....
.. I" ",,11<m& POI' .. the n"lly
AM tan". tha,'!! " ';.!MH
t>otns:'l t,""l;; "'"i#>" in tons t .... ,
(l,()b, lY'llorM tC<\-",n It I. """. the
9,.,. l ..u drld..nt 0" b,.. ,s 1>'1
thl,.tJ po""",,t. 71,." 11 to ,or", <>t ,,0- 3M'"
thi>, " ""'Y t:e l<n",""
of ',ti"""lle ..". ,,'; to.. ''led.
;)l
AP,EhllIX J
(;1 Tho In fuel can no" be
oonver'ed Into of fuel to deliver the
exce., fU61 quan'ltl63 and tho nurr,M" Qr Hll
to thi. fJ.l to H h a.,""mod
th., fuel 13 t""",po .. oy t.nkop fr,-,rn 1-unol.co to
?u.an STId than oy r,ll Puo.c. to a 260 milo. north
on Kopean tho fud -,,""ulMd
o. bacrolod' M""d by t puck... d!,Uno6 or 50 "He
An oc"an-golng tanl<ec f,ood 21,D noutlcn
cor,<> has tolal of ;0 and nov$l. ,aoo nautloal
milo. SO" to Pu.An. '1'he ls
a, ),922,000 ;;Allon tlnt" 19 CQnwut"d u:
+ time,
'11.7

rr:-7
Tablo U ,h"". tho of U:[,J1Nd IT.<>V&
d:ff3"enc6. In bv 11:0 tnres types or In .lx
.
,
,
t.
, ,
less nan
,

,

;'op the r"ll ;'r,',', Fu.a:o l' Is t."'" aaoh t8nK car
h oa?acltr of dOD,) ,C fu,l ac.i ;.' "11-. ""r
fner. t.h. oJ",,",' Q!' 'ank <,po t" tOo" dHce,'ences In
:. ,",
.,____<T "
" ,'-",-..
:< t. Hbt t--'< tost ;011, , ... n
r._it '" 1,.,,,,, ':; /,:,11 >0
:h M",,..,:' ._oct "Qn OOYO'" 10" '" jay.
th<> ")'.. IM,.. I"
H 1, .,f tc ,,',0.' Ie"" of P..3C .<",,01,,& ,.\hi>
he ric..,.. .- ; Jel """_od "'1 ''''' <;A3 h.-." b
d <he l::'S. ""Ll .l.w n 'c. bJ;' ",:n" the on
,bee ,.( th<" .. "n .".00 ose, :% !l"n<>M
d !".,l "',- '''''0,.. ." ,'C' ,_R 1.';
APP3NDIX J
fiG l-rDATA TASLfS:X: AND XI)
RAIL rAN" CARS ANO 2 t/2 TRUCKS REOUjREO TO MOVE
OI"FERENOE IN FUEL '- TH[ M4A' ANO
M-46 TAN"; ANO 2. ".E T-42 UNK THE M-.,
"
MIlES PER MONTH
III - G IIIONTH PERIOO

CARS
r-,..--------
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1..;):> 2.6
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r'" aHOi,ft, ." Y"cl' 'ma p&"A >'ill u"'"
Sall,,,,. of fJ.!." 'the t,,.t of ".bit 1'_
M tho ,;;.<" \,"M ";",,,, ',:" ,'l'e.,. V:;6. ._,.".
v""td 'nto '01,. n' r)G', ,,' to. 1"
t',lo or :"d, .,,""" 111 Hi
tn" ha.\' M 1 .t;:; - _'"P:''' "t' c(
,,,,. "'-"",,,,- ct to"h', t"
0.,-", ie. r,," c_"","',,d C"C tt" ." """ '>t
wHt, tjv .. , ..t" aN "H<I :n
Pd. 1'.cw". f,."", "h> e ,,,,,,n
:. ,',,' U.
","_<)$ "",C,,","',Hd.
M ""!,,ha "'It V'At H-" n .. ,,,,
0" l .. H \0 !uP"P') (' 'n -l". t, d;rr",,,,,,e. 1n
'''"'' L ',A \r tho
""jM I'.
IV,,,,,.,
,"" '"""""J

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"0 ". (!/' "lM< T1U.. <1:''' n
:
Cl'tlUrtc ':'l<r \\Iff(AtNOIl ", rvt.. 1\i1'WTH
h 1;14.." 14.r! _ Ti<t 11-48
I
r TIll f'''1 '!lI;1ol!:.!Me t.u..
lOUd( ltd.(. " I'U _n<
!It>:!/;! II! -II_til '01(1(1 I
l1M.,,, lUU

L ____________ ...."..._.._.. __ ...__..... _____________ _


2ft.
l
i
"10, 1-,:;";-'0;;- :l\II'S
m 11'0'1< ,THE
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"'''l TA"_. ""'0 f4",( A!<IOz,,,e T-4,f
>.liD TIlE tHf ijllll!l!tR Of' f-BD
,
",,,,t:>< n r,"oWN nitS' Cf"<i""""'i
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,.. f''L 'IS ;!ILU

iMfA 'RC}M :xm)
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i i,QOO I" IOIH1IH'tN fUROPE)
,
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or
1ABLE XIII
Thu., H ."" bo 040n thM 1f ).0,000 T42'. u.ed inotnd
of ><46'. .',,_",ontn pO"i"" tn Europ&, tho equ1valont
or 20 ,,11e. a dO", the .ovlnR would a",O'1nt to 2.4 tanl<er
tank car> and j24 thh would bo only 5. .",.. n
proport:o" of thO total tranoport, any "oduetion In th& numb"" of
v&h!o).o, woutd lud to a corre.pc,nding reduotlon In driver., ..&in_
ton,",c" personn&l, pa"t.. shipping 8POe& ,..,qui1'od. In
aod:it1on, the ruol NOu]d bo to dlow 200 F_80'.
to fly" do!l.y ,or"le, 0"&" the .1X_nlMth porlod.
'.rti"," of 1) ton. of .toe). per hnl<, ","ountlng to
Over half a ",lIl1on ton. of steel .aved If 40,000 T42'. -.ere built
of M46' ould 01>0 be An eon.iderat1on.
CCNCLU$JONS
the Ml,t., OVH_all h... been twlce "8 ,..,l!able lIIOcho.nica).).y
"" MI,6 In MNa. It t, that M46 will inprovo
1n ,..lhHl!<y a, it. udy producEon are
eliminated.
rbe ec.o;lne of t,too M46 the rellaol&
conk
i'he MI,6 ha, t"" loa.t "",ehru\iosl NOl\abll_
i ty amnnp tho tanks in
The tho nigh teraln 10'" of tho U oot1lpared
to tho \\46 is undetermlnoo, but "'OY b. d"" to:
1. dr'var fatigue in the 1!46 beoau.e of
drlv6 and oontrol.
2. C"aatec ruobillty 1" tl'.o o'fing to tho h1ghec po,.er/
"oight ratio, hy:lrnul1c drivo, and better trHk
i1u of tna M4AJ in ;nO". teerain.
The nigh 1-0', of tank. fr"'" :noohanlcol fallun u. due
",.lnly to their to .tan'; up road ",orch
du"!n;, wltiodraw.l. tanks oo"ld havo b.en reeoverod
and r .. dudnp; an odv'neo or in statio coo.t>&t
CONCLVSIOHS
Tho hIgh geoollJ1e oon,u,"ption of tho M46 a. o",",pared to the
15 partly due to the U005' wolght ot tho 11.46, and p"Hly
to thIrty P<'rcent lour onr_oll .ftlcl.noy. 11>0 of tho
,ower erf!d&ncy !n tne T42 l> bolieved, but not proved
to bo, hydN.ullc drive.
The .xc.... logistIc noou.ltated by the hIgher
g,,"ol1no of t"" M4(, h an a.dv.rso in ."" uoe
ot" thIs hnk.
On the ba.l> of 10,000 hnk. running 600 ",11 per month in
tho u.e or the T42 In of tl>o 1146 uvo .uffl_
<lont fu.l fOr }CO daUy F-Bo It" A T42 with g
trans",r..!on Instead Qf a tr&n.",h.lon n. u.ed, It 10
e,tlm.hd that the fuol fOr 500 ddly 1-'_80

No" doou.".ntod In tl>b but de.. elUlfhore
In tltlo 10 tho equal comb..t eff6ctlvene'3
of tho !!4A; ..-lth tr.e 11.46 1"
rn vIe. of the hIgh Ine!denoe of mechanICal .. , US
taM make a effort by a 8.l1d
to th$ "'.e....nleal o( tank.
in the tJn!too State the meol,,", tank with tM
lo_.t po,.lbh .... lght fOr porforMr,ce on the be.tt14_
fleld .hould be chon. S!nee It 1. belil'ved that tho r42 could
bo to th$ 1!46 on tho 1t .hould (or
tbe J';lve" p,""vlously the 11146 et the urllut
po., i bl. ,"omont
A T42 wIth a .hould be ghon ,$rlou$
t I On .
APFI:NDIX L
ON FOR 'J'!l?: nRIDD
Zl JANUARY 8 APRIL, 1951
0,
E, D. Strong
INTROOUCTI,)N
Fravlouo .eotlon. or thl> doou",ent, (F'EG), "me
of In Koru", oo"er-ed tll& ".& of 8"",or by
frtondly ond enemy roree. rrom the outbre.k of ho.tllitle. up to
n J.nuo", 1951. '!l:Ii. oppendlx, reeent ,,1. it. to
unit. in the field and dlsou ions with I Corps ond Zighth Army
.rmor .eot1ons, ta de.1gned a .upplement to \>rovlde
on ".rious .. peets of aI'lllo,.ed .'l"faro In Korea In the
period 21 Jonuor:r-S April.
During the period oo"er&d, 011 or the UN !oroe.
W&re engaged in wMt .... o!fleblly 8n o'ten.he
.. 1th llm1ted , whieh le<1 to the ero.51cg or the H.n
And Pukb"n rivsr. and the CIIove",ent oj' UN forees to ths
or the 50th pArAllel. Enemy toctlc. 1ndlcate" thot tMy Ure
trying to Muse tna "U1",U", dU,y to the UN odnnco wh11e bu!l<1_
up l-or " oomter_o!Ten.lve po.itlon> north or tile

Wlth the $Xceptlon or OM T_34 ,,:,1ch .pp.r.ntly w hmobl_
11.ed ln bed, no Woo encountered by UN ground
rOl"M'. Frlendly "","or woo M_ploysd in ouoport or lnr,n_
ott. ok., on rscon1.l ... and ".trol m1 .. lon., ,u<t .0
1nfontrJ t.sk which penetr.tod lnto .r s to
.eGK out h!. di.positionnd COUOq C'Su.Hles 'nd
to and '''?pli... ool',,,u100 lie.ked up the
187th drborno ReI' o!tel" thelr drop ln :.'"r."r._n1.

tonI, e.. dllr:-.r; per10d 21 Januory_8
t1ven in dO_10to tonk,
"Men tot.l los , or The t1f;UI" for t"O'"
ppeot on 1 April [e.<l"<1o, all t._oko In thO Mn<1. of unit. o,d
n.l<1
)'"
'!h!il. CA1W4... '!rE'S (KIL..S)
21 April
;;S(ll;
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15
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S(e)
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Thfr f tanks
t;;, M oonoidned .. lei ,,1_ "t t):...
"'t1....1<"" thoo. l<",ve <'1>"''' ""'n;r <>f' "Ol-" t.mks. p;,rl1c"lu<y
lIi+'$ .,,1 flU;'!'" or t.,,"loiI oJ:' trn> 70th.
"00 iNt.'1 h"l< h."", ",Un 11l r;.>:NW
.mlo11 1# thl> ,,",At ,,-"""c,""":!" for this t,P" ,;t Unk. ,,-,
tM ",,11"-. o:hr:t-'-t ""1,' ti;" in 80'a 3'L! t.lwb
!lrn ;7$. "'-Md ",:t"., I.e. ,,1M. tilt. root tl'.41r fWoh><,,1Mt
.. rnNt''"1 "" uti.1"Ootory. TIl"
t" tHll ..itt. o11_o<o"},,,. At"., AM
t.;, t"",."., e P'<'I>'''''' '-a ,s1",! by ...."
t .. ,"j,.bh I\$$l 'W"'."s<t ti,,, 64th hnk b.ttsl'Gn i. """'11"'-_
fdlw-<> <m I;W! H ts -j).U "'-"7
"" \']!' ".t"""tt"" r .. .'rM "SO of nnl ff1
tr", """,do, viM' th.t 10 b)- q,@
th tho bHHlJ.<;m5 10"" ,,-Itl> ..r_bw.i "l"t.1M
h.w> ..! tho" t"=;--H, " d Britt.1> tool<.
'0'
. '
""'gill!
r ... ru."hJdM ;
_rill,
Nnti
5,,.....,,,,,1,,,,
/!""H"",
, t :".1. I'MUNn j
1 1Mbr!nUnt: :.111<....
I



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(jom 0'''' Th>c::41 .""'ct.
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north of tha non tQ htly
",1.,.4, "M "",1tUdlltlt .tth 1M ,,,,,,,boo,. ct ml,..,*
hH VUtly "h)t"r or
lat F('K Ml'"rUd Nt ."ttt.nx 1" 0ldl'
$MU"h ;"'"ad" Hoft Irojtn l!lnN, 1".n uot""..
If., .... \tlCl'<'U6 tn 0""'1 tli1nlllK *,,,',,(
'"
th.. P<'rlml. MObt of tl-...."Utoolt "'1au " .... " Jl....,.
but moot
.rt1:1ery .n@ll. t104
.nd dth "-h.lr !'1>.U just .b""", I:h<. gt'O'....d,
.. 1M. ;f<>.t 1>1"" ...
ne.. no. \'Ieen \)1' ..I>loh "i<lu ON! I>=\ed HI tc
bd.,. tho ."rr.,'e. '1'1\" rUlllt & <lelayed
l>J' the .. t"oplng or .08unt .. b&J:'e....
tn. "lno. g6 "rr. d p mlnu .re t",
0100 noleo .1t.h _ttl
!'l t;.,...nd Qtl)oT " .. ong "in".!'"1@l<!.! 1n
t........ <>l'd".. t9 d"hetN' or .,1<' ...8 to
fr.qu.nt
".Q"t ot the
't.. u ....".l


APfF>NDDI: L
Weapons
The enemy oppo.ro to b..... rolled on min08, hnk trops, road
blooks, and tonk_killer squad. to .top tank., Antlt.nk gun.
been reported reoently on only very rew ooeo.ion..
11, hnk_killer squa". ormed with. 1>uoolulo, polo olutrge., or
ob.rges .ttempt to "mbu.b tonk> .t 010." qUlrtar.. or
tbe .1>: tanks hH by I>,,"ook.. , .11 b&llovod to hue been }.5lncb,
the ronge n. In no cne gr""ter than W yords, and five hnlm
..ere penetr.tod, 011 1n tho .1d6O .nd r$Or. o..lng to tonk. co..er_
ing e.ob other ..Uh tbe1r machine gun" or h.."ing lnf.n""." .ith
the"" close_quarter .ttack by enem1 troop. 11.. been 10rge11
in&!facti....
L1sht Aircratt
The value of ligbt O1rcr8!t o",,""ting with tank bottdioM
10... been ..ld.ly commenteo on. lbe followIng extract rrom tbe
monthly "Report of Soction, I Corps" i. or intert. -The
111lht observot1an plone i gro.t ...et ror reoonnoitering rood
neta and t.rrain over whieh friendlY tanlm "",.t p.on. It l. ,0
voluable th.t its loss, .von hmpor.rlly, to a tank battalion
can m88n the ditfereno. betw.en auce ond di.a.ter, Division
bould. n.... r deprive tank battoHens of tho uU of their asolgn.d
light aircroft except In of emerg.nc:J It i.
thot the T/O&E or .. hclc bothlion be cho\l.ged to includ. two
118i.on aircroft so aa to pro..lde .dequ.te time for ground oheck.
end melntenenc. end to in.ure uninterrupted 81r cover during on
op.rsHon." rt 1$ folt that thi. rec""'mendation i. jW!tlf1ed, ond
thllt two I1gbt oirorBft .hould be provid.d tor tho BrUhb tonks
opor.ting dth the 29th Brlgodo.
Indirect Fire
The maJorHy or the tonk battolions do not hove their
u.ault gun ploto,," (eon,ht1ng of tanks .quipped wlth 105-_
howlt.er.) and opinion 1. divIded os to u rulne of this pl.toon.
Nevertheless, .ever.I loot.nee. bove ooourred of t&nks
being uaed in rolos tor which the howit.er
.. ould been suitobla. An ntro,,9 cue _." tlat of platoon
or B Compony, 64tb Tconk Battalion, whloh tir.d 900 round. of HE
in four hours In support of tbe 24th ReT during their
or the IlIIn Riv.r, One hour orte," the laot round .... nred the
'b$rrela were stiU too not to toueh, ond two of the gun tubes
needed reploeemont. (AHhougb tllo normal l1h of 90-..", gur.
tube oOn be con.1der.d 8. 1600 round., .ustained firing of tlli.
Ieind .111 !OsterloHy athct a gun's 11h.) Bocouoe hnk guns
"na cre.a ore not c_pable of the .u.telned rate of fire of ri.ld
artill.ry, tbis kind of firing .hould only be rB.ortod to in an
emorgency. Howover, tonk_mounted hOWitzers, be.ou of tho greater
l.thal of their .10..110 end gre.ter elevotion of their gun.,
oon give better indirect-l'tre $upport tho" hlgb_... locity gun. on
INDIRECT rIRE
up to 10rd. r.ngo.
Special Vehicle.
'"
mentioned 1n 0&r110r report,.
prov&d adequoh for the tuko
1. boe.u.e tboy ore 1m!! t on the
MY. not been powerful enough
Both 1n til. e..6 of the

cr.ter. tonka on<! veh1cle. croned
orrtv.l.. tonk 1 deflntt. uset, but
Bpon on more rel.lsble cha i. tnAn tne Church1,l woul.ct
s1raUe. TIle .1"" .peo<! 01" tho Churenlll. brldgel.oyer h 0
hIon<!lOap to tM movement or armor"" columns.
" ,
hlIote been to an),
"'
present
roll",,
there w1ll much
Uthough
continue og!lirrot
AfpiONDIX L
""d can t,.av9r,. tM ''''''6 'erraln ft, B "" a tonk_
ta.< with to ",l1eve a
,ureounded P.GT Moe The only '.eo de_
fl19, and tho un the hllh land tonk.
through, b"t "paned w! tn ,moll_o,..,,' rtNl oncl bazooka. on
ee,t of tho column. Of a company of lnfo.otry ,..!d!nl th.
tank. ""d in thln_.kinned vehicle only elp,ht got ohrough tQ tNl
obJ9ct!"" 1'n..oun<J.d. A that was p,""of ogain$t
would Mvo pr<oV.Dt.d mo.t of c.,uo1tle p"r
SO!1n$l cordor, obo ",o"ld t>o u.ef\Jl In C'Hying stores ""d evAcu_
othf, ",o"n<l<lo ovee
Ordnonce
Unlt. ordnance !los greatly
N.v.rtlceleu ord"OI\o$ 1la!ntonono<> bottallon in on lnhnt,y
divl.!on car.not .ufflClent ,up'ort to a division that r.as a
full of the d!vl.loc_aI bot tell On slOM
ut!ll'e capablllties of the oron_nee rr.edlu",
tanac.oa compar.y_ DUf'cultt co-,ll b. Nduc.d bv c,&vlnr oedn'nOO
cloo.r tu the [ruc.t, thu. c,t'ln? un lon", haul. of
d!,obled ver.icle and by out 400-" cor. tact
It i. unBconod=l to a e"covery .. tow. t.nk to
ordnanc. for engine when \his ,'00 bo done ',..
Hndlng an ond roosir J'ro-n or,Jnanee t" <l',o unit.
srS"O_p"<t. ,r.Oet.'6. 6<i.t. thl> .r.oetage heine
!n "oad "'_"",01 no ;'"0"" to ",1ne_
tonk The,. "arts are ".eovv on:l Dulky, and ordnance
a,.., In the tho" can _,tock.
Supply
Th. fam!o;; out of tank c"",,anles b or
ha. phc" a .traln On tile IIUdouaet6es an1 Serv:c.
COO"_panle. or tank battaiton If All ore
!n on tile ,am' coy. I.n 10 to
6,t!",ote Df In com_
bR'. ce',ulrom6nt " ;:0)" ano flnd:nc.
lttdl<ate that tt.:s "'-0", l;,OO_lllOO g&llnns fOr- on com_
pAny to ,OOO-3S0D gallon. for an Mi!6 '.0
21_ton truck load. for on company, und fou" for on Mi.
pony. fuel OOOou,"pt!on nt 10 not M hiS" a. It was
InS cold winter weotMr; on ","rche. tho u.eg
"bout 4 soli",lle lI!:p gal) and the C&nturion S.l/IT_n.
(2.d
il-n.1Iun:t1on have vaded occordlnp to thQ
"" .. 'On .". 'a"',, fCCGu,,,Cly
v,.d up to Z;_ton tr"cK cf H"".ur.itl'm In a day, I" "dd:
non th.. '0.,'0 1",,]. An :nccease :n tne .t,..ngth 0:- the
POL and ,edIQn, of the b,tt,llon 3up,-h 1.
;0;
,
t" r,'61
Udt:,h ,,''It. M"" c,ot .'porJ'ln,,,,d ",Jth
2?'t\; "." '''''' "",y "''''
'>t' ""..m. at " u-..
H M. ,F, 1. .... 110
""r""U'''l! 1M'. u"lt$ trot'! J,;
,;rW4. SMW e&"",l\"" to <g-. at
., snG
11:,,,,",,; rr= the '),gel\.<>r, oy ",'
"r M ',h <In",. :f",", lh .upplv t!oo
n-.;; ""rl'g't "'f '*,," ,1'.0 ,-t,aa"n ""0
t". _M =;<lddcy ''''' 1
'[More t. M""",,-. or
.". ;nt,.,
)..
tho OJ"" M "'.old flN,
tloMd ,,, p .. ...ic", h,..
.W"' 0;,- 1- ''''' "'If. "A"
M tho ",,;ch 7Cf1 ro""d. Qr
9" ",,>, U,OX Nuno, ," cq u.50. t,TX> 00. 0.$0
In or' .. -,f; ; .. Hn tttd
ch,n -0 U",- tM l".. not tho
W""0 "'''ut,.mod uf>' .. A ths r,Hi!, $r\thh tMk
tto... t;", or ,,,. fii0q
hno ""0<,,,. .:",nv lMt til tth r1,6
""' VO,"."l<, '" .... tN. "-'-in",,,
fl: ""n. .. bM
n\"." US .. jmF<'<>YiM" ""lr,e. "'V'
ou.d ."oro,' 'A"k oA."altlu, ",cot", ,,>it !\!1. hIlII'H6t', "",,"
"" !.,,, '"""").
,2: ",,,my, "ut lOr
tV "r ko. !",,';'. e""''"'''' 'p
Pt;,- ... UC"l't in. i,>"1 ""00 "1' >h ,-1.<>.
I,) ;-,'Ml !;or: 1'1.::' 8,,J C.,,\up! '"
.,.,. ,.'n
(,;
h,,,V' "Fe,
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UNCLASSIFIED