2 0 1 1

2 0 1 1

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Contents
Foreword

vii

Acknowledgments

ix

Indicator tables

1

Users guide

3

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts
1. Basic indicators
1.1 Basic indicators
2. National and fiscal accounts
2.1 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.2 Gross domestic product, real
2.3 Gross domestic product growth
2.4 Gross domestic product per capita, real
2.5 Gross domestic product per capita growth
2.6 Gross national income, nominal
2.7 Gross national income, World Bank Atlas method
2.8 Gross national income per capita, World Bank Atlas method
2.9 Gross domestic product deflator (local currency series)
2.10 Gross domestic product deflator (U.S. dollar series)
2.11 Consumer price index
2.12 Price indexes
2.13 Gross domestic savings
2.14 Gross national savings
2.15 General government final consumption expenditure
2.16 Household final consumption expenditure
2.17 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
2.18 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
2.19 Gross fixed capital formation
2.20 Gross general government fixed capital formation
2.21 Private sector fixed capital formation
2.22 External trade balance (exports minus imports)
2.23 Exports of goods and services, nominal
2.24 Imports of goods and services, nominal
2.25 Exports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.26 Imports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.27 Balance of payments and current account
2.28 Exchange rates and purchasing power parity
2.29 Agriculture value added
2.30 Industry value added
2.31 Services plus discrepancy value added
2.32 Central government finances, expense, and revenue

7

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
38
39
40
41
Contents

iii

2.33 Structure of demand

45

Part II. Millennium Development Goals
3. Millennium Development Goals
3.1 Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
3.2 Millennium Development Goal 2: achieve universal primary education
3.3 Millennium Development Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women
3.4 Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
3.5 Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
3.6 Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
3.7 Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
3.8 Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

46
49
50
51
52
53
55
57

Part III. Development outcomes

iv

Africa Development Indicators 2011

Drivers of growth
4. Private sector development
4.1 Doing Business indicators
4.2 Investment climate
4.3 Financial sector infrastructure

59
62
64

5. Trade and regional integration
5.1 International trade and tariff barriers
5.2 Top three exports and share in total exports, 2009
5.3 Regional integration, trade blocs

66
70
72

6. Infrastructure
6.1 Water and sanitation
6.2 Transportation
6.3 Information and communication technology
6.4 Energy

74
75
77
80

Participating in growth
7. Human development
7.1 Education
7.2 Health

82
84

8. Agriculture, rural development, and environment
8.1 Rural development
8.2 Agriculture
8.3 Producer food prices
8.4 Environment
8.5 Fossil fuel emissions

88
90
92
94
96

9. Labor, migration, and population
9.1 Labor force participation
9.2 Labor force composition
9.3 Unemployment
9.4 Migration and population

98
100
102
104

10. HIV/AIDS
10.1 HIV/AIDS

106

11. Malaria
11.1 Malaria

110

12. Capable states and partnership
12.1 Aid and debt relief
12.2 Status of Paris Declaration indicators
12.3 Capable states
12.4 Governance and anticorruption indicators
12.5 Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
12.6 Polity indicators

111
114
116
118
120
124

Technical notes

125

Technical notes references

181

Map of Africa

182

Users guide: Africa Development Indicators 2011–Multiple User CD-ROM

183

Contents

v

Foreword
This year’s Africa Development Indicators,
which covers some 1,700 macroeconomic,
sectoral, and human development indicators dating to the 1960s, comes at a critical
time for Sub-Saharan Africa’s 48 countries
and 841 million people. After a decade of
economic growth at nearly 5 percent a year,
Africa—along with the rest of the world—
was hit hard by the global economic crisis,
but it rebounded within a year. In 2011 the
continent’s growth is expected to return to
precrisis levels. The poverty rate has been
declining at about 1 percentage point a year,
and progress on the Millennium Development Goals, while insufficient to reach the
2015 targets in many countries, has been
substantial.
Yet, Africa faces some of the most formidable development challenges in the world.
First, growth has been uneven, with about
20 fragile and confl ict-affected states seemingly trapped in persistent poverty. Second,
economic growth has not translated to productive jobs and more earning opportunities
for Africa’s labor force—most of which is
engaged in agriculture and informal enterprises—and especially for the 7‒10 million
young people entering the labor force each
year. And third, Africa’s growth could be
faster and more widespread (and abject poverty eliminated) if it could address its most
fundamental challenges—improving governance and increasing public sector capacity.
Just as the World Bank’s Africa strategy,
Africa’s Future and World Bank Support to It,
seeks to harness the continent’s recent dynamic growth to address these development
challenges, so too do statistics in general,
and Africa Development Indicators in particular, reflect both the progress and the potential of the continent. Africa Development Indicators permits policymakers, private actors,

civil society, development partners, and
citizens to monitor, study, and document
Africa’s economic and social development. It
also shows where we need to improve. Just
18 of 48 countries have poverty data for
2007‒10. And in the 2000s Africa averaged
1.5 poverty figures per country, less than
half the world’s average of 3.8. One reason
for the shortcomings is lack of statistical capacity—as of 2010 only six countries have
statistical capacity building indicators of
70‒84 percent. But here too there has been
progress: all but four countries now have an
official national statistics website, compared
with 50 percent a few years ago. More than
20 countries have made their household survey datasets available on their national data
archive website, and more than 75 percent
of Africa’s people are covered by a population census less than 10 years old.
Since 2005 countries have developed
their national statistical systems by designing and implementing a National Strategy for the Development of Statistics, which
links data with poverty reduction strategies.
The World Bank, in collaboration with other
partners, is providing financial support and
technical advice through lending operations
such as STATCAP, through trust funds (in
particular the Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building and the Statistics for Results
Catalytic Fund), and through international
initiatives. Moving forward, the Bank will
scale up its statistical capacity development
activities, not least because it is only with
credible statistics that progress on the Africa strategy can be monitored. In addition,
technology is being used to accelerate data
collection, especially in underserved areas.
For instance, in Africa’s newest country, the
Republic of South Sudan, the Bank is collaborating with the local statistics office to
Foreword

vii

collect information on people’s economic
situation, security, and outlook using cell
phones distributed to 1,000 households in
10 state capitals.
Africa Development Indicators has another,
more fundamental role in Africa’s development. Statistics—and the information contained in them—can empower citizens to
hold their governments accountable. From
the first public expenditure tracking survey
of education in Uganda to the Ushahidi platform for tracking political violence and natural disasters, Africans have demonstrated
how systematic data can mobilize citizens to
spur their governments to action. Inasmuch
as governance was identified as the fundamental constraint to African development,
Africa Development Indicators is a major instrument in relaxing that constraint.

viii

Africa Development Indicators 2011

To that end, since April 2010 the World
Bank has made all its data freely available,
resulting in continually growing use of its
online resources. Th is volume is part of the
Africa Development Indicators suite of products, which also includes The Little Data Book
on Africa 2011 (available online only), the Africa Development Indicators 2011–Multiple
User CD-ROM, and a data query and charting application for mobile services.
A tool for learning, capacity strengthening, and accountability, Africa Development
Indicators 2011 will continue to play a critical
role in Africa’s economic transformation.
Obiageli K. Ezekwesili
Vice President
The World Bank Group
Africa Region

Acknowledgments
Africa Development Indicators is a product of
the Africa Region of the World Bank.
Th is report has been prepared by a core
team led by Rose Mungai comprising Francoise Genouille and Jane Njuguna in the production of this book and its companions—
Africa Development Indicators Online 2011,
Africa Development Indicators 2011—Multiple User CD-ROM, and The Little Data
Book on Africa 2011 (online only). Yohannes
Kebede coordinated the Africa Development
Indicators Online apps platform while Mapi
Buitano coordinated the dissemination
of the book and its companions, and Jane
Njuguna coordinated production. The overall work was carried out under the guidance
of Shantayanan Devarajan, Chief Economist
of the Africa Region.
The technical box contributors were:
• Ghislaine Delaine and Antoine Simonpietri (African statistical systems).
• Shantayanan Devarajan (Africa’s future
and the World Bank’s support to it).
• Quy-Toan Do (Multidimensional indices
of poverty).
• Punam Chuhan-Pole and Manka S. Angwafo (Transformation of Rwanda’s coffee sector: an African success story).
• Sailesh Tiwari and Hassan Zaman (Food
prices in Africa).
• Dilip Ratha, Sanket Mohapatra, Caglar
Ozden, Sonia Plaza, and Abebe Shimeles
(Migration and remittances in Africa).
• Bernard Harborne, Noro Aina Andriamihaja, and Viola Erdmannsdoerfer
(Confl ict-affected and fragile states in
Africa).

Stuti Khemani (The political economy of
public policies and government failures).
Azita Amjadi, Abdolreza Farivari,
Shelley Lai Fu, Ugendran Machakkalai,
Shanmugam Natarajan, Lakshmikanthan
Subramanian, and Malarvizhi Veerappan
collaborated in the online data production.
Maja Bresslauer, Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary,
Masako Hiraga, and Soong Sup Lee collaborated in the update of the live database. Software preparation and testing for
the CD-ROM and mobile applications was
managed by Vilas Mandelkar, with the assistance of Ramgopal Erabelly, Parastoo
Oloumi, William Prince, and Jomo Tariku.
William Prince also collaborated in the
production of The Little Data Book on Africa
2011.
Jeff rey Lecksell and Bruno Bonansea of
the World Bank’s Map Design Unit coordinated preparation of the maps.
Ann Karasanyi and Kenneth Omondi
provided administrative and logistical support. The core team would like to thank the
many people who provided useful comments on the publication. Their feedback
and suggestions helped improve this year’s
edition.
Staff from External Affairs oversaw
printing and dissemination of the book and
its companions.
Several institutions provided data to
Africa Development Indicators. Their contribution is very much appreciated.
Communications Development Incorporated provided design direction, editing, and
layout.

Acknowledgments

ix

Indicator tables
Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts
1. Basic indicators
1.1 Basic indicators
2. National and fiscal accounts
2.1 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.2 Gross domestic product, real
2.3 Gross domestic product growth
2.4 Gross domestic product per capita, real
2.5 Gross domestic product per capita growth
2.6 Gross national income, nominal
2.7 Gross national income, World Bank Atlas method
2.8 Gross national income per capita, World Bank Atlas method
2.9 Gross domestic product deflator (local currency series)
2.10 Gross domestic product deflator (U.S. dollar series)
2.11 Consumer price index
2.12 Price indexes
2.13 Gross domestic savings
2.14 Gross national savings
2.15 General government final consumption expenditure
2.16 Household final consumption expenditure
2.17 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
2.18 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
2.19 Gross fixed capital formation
2.20 Gross general government fixed capital formation
2.21 Private sector fixed capital formation
2.22 External trade balance (exports minus imports)
2.23 Exports of goods and services, nominal
2.24 Imports of goods and services, nominal
2.25 Exports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.26 Imports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.27 Balance of payments and current account
2.28 Exchange rates and purchasing power parity
2.29 Agriculture value added
2.30 Industry value added
2.31 Services plus discrepancy value added
2.32 Central government finances, expense, and revenue
2.33 Structure of demand

7

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
38
39
40
41
45

Part II. Millennium Development Goals
3. Millennium Development Goals
3.1 Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
3.2 Millennium Development Goal 2: achieve universal primary education
3.3 Millennium Development Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women
3.4 Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
3.5 Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health

46
49
50
51
52
Indicator tables

1

3.6 Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
3.7 Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
3.8 Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

53
55
57

Part III. Development outcomes

2

Africa Development Indicators 2011

Drivers of growth
4. Private sector development
4.1 Doing Business indicators
4.2 Investment climate
4.3 Financial sector infrastructure

59
62
64

5. Trade and regional integration
5.1 International trade and tariff barriers
5.2 Top three exports and share in total exports, 2009
5.3 Regional integration, trade blocs

66
70
72

6. Infrastructure
6.1 Water and sanitation
6.2 Transportation
6.3 Information and communication technology
6.4 Energy

74
75
77
80

Participating in growth
7. Human development
7.1 Education
7.2 Health

82
84

8. Agriculture, rural development, and environment
8.1 Rural development
8.2 Agriculture
8.3 Producer food prices
8.4 Environment
8.5 Fossil fuel emissions

88
90
92
94
96

9. Labor, migration, and population
9.1 Labor force participation
9.2 Labor force composition
9.3 Unemployment
9.4 Migration and population

98
100
102
104

10. HIV/AIDS
10.1 HIV/AIDS

106

11. Malaria
11.1 Malaria

110

12. Capable states and partnership
12.1 Aid and debt relief
12.2 Status of Paris Declaration indicators
12.3 Capable states
12.4 Governance and anticorruption indicators
12.5 Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
12.6 Polity indicators

111
114
116
118
120
124

Users guide
Tables
The tables are numbered by section. Countries are listed alphabetically by subregion
(Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa). Indicators are shown for the most recent year
or period for which data are available and, in
most tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1980, 1990, or 1995). Time-series data
are available on the Africa Development Indicators—Multiple User CD-ROM and Africa
Development Indicators Online. The term
country, used interchangeably with economy,
does not imply political independence but
refers to any territory for which authorities
report separate social or economic statistics.
Known deviations from standard definitions
or breaks in comparability over time or across
countries are noted in the tables. When available data are deemed too weak to provide
reliable measures of levels and trends or do
not adequately adhere to international standards, the data are not shown.
Aggregate measure for region
and subclassifications
The aggregates are based on the World Bank’s
regional classification for Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa, which may differ from
common geographic usage. Former Spanish
Sahara is not included in any aggregates.
Statistics
Data are shown for economies as they were
constituted in 2008, and historical data are
revised to reflect current political arrangements. Exceptions are noted in the tables.
Consistent time-series data for 1961–2009
are available on the Africa Development
Indicators—Multiple User CD-ROM and Africa Development Indicators Online. Data for
some indicators, including macroeconomic
statistics, Doing Business indicators, investment climate indicators, governance and

anticorruption indicators, and Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings are
provided for 2010.
Data consistency, reliability,
and comparability
Considerable effort has been made to harmonize the data, but full comparability cannot be
assured, and care must be taken in interpreting
indicators. Many factors affect data availability, comparability, and reliability. Data coverage
may be incomplete because of circumstances
affecting the collection and reporting of data,
such as conflicts. Although drawn from sources thought to be the most authoritative, data
should be construed as indicating trends and
characterizing differences across economies.
Discrepancies in data presented in earlier editions of Africa Development Indicators reflect
updates from countries as well as revisions to
historical series and changes in methodology.
Readers are therefore advised not to compare
data series between editions or across World
Bank publications.
Classification of economies
For operational and analytical purposes the
World Bank’s main criterion for classifying
economies is gross national income (GNI)
per capita (calculated by the World Bank Atlas
method; box 1). Every economy is classified
as low income, middle income (subdivided
into lower middle and upper middle), or high
income (table 1). Low- and middle-income
economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The term is used for
convenience; it is not intended to imply that
all economies in the group are experiencing
similar development or that other economies
have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not
necessarily reflect development status. Because GNI per capita changes over time, the
Indicator tables

3

Box 1

The World Bank Atlas method for converting gross national income to a common denominator

In calculating GNI and GNI per capita in
U.S. dollars for certain operational purposes, the World Bank Atlas conversion
factor is used to reduce the impact of exchange rate fluctuations in cross-country
comparison of national incomes. The World
Bank Atlas conversion factor for any year is
the average of the official exchange rate or
alternative conversion factor for that year
and the two preceding, adjusted for the difference between the rate of inflation in the
country and that in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the euro area.
A country’s inflation rate is measured by the
change in its GDP deflator.
The inflation rate for Japan, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the euro
area, representing international inflation,
is measured by the change in the “special
drawing rights (SDR) deflator.” The SDR is
the International Monetary Fund’s unit of
account and is calculated as a weighted

average of these countries’ GDP deflators
in SDR terms, the weights being the amount
of each country’s currency in one SDR unit.
Weights vary over time because both the
composition of the SDR and the relative exchange rates for each currency change. The
SDR deflator is calculated in SDR terms first
and then converted to U.S. dollars using the
SDR-to-dollar World Bank Atlas conversion
factor. The conversion factor is then applied
to a country’s GNI. The resulting GNI in U.S.
dollars is divided by the midyear population
for the latest of the three years to derive GNI
per capita.
When official exchange rates are deemed
unreliable or unrepresentative of the effective exchange rate during a period, an alternative estimate of the exchange rate is used
in the World Bank Atlas formula below.
The following formulas describe the procedures for computing the conversion factor for year t:

country composition of income groups may
change from one edition of Africa Development
Indicators to the next. Once the classification is
fixed for an edition, based on GNI per capita in
the most recent year for which data are available (2008 in this edition), all historical data
are based on the same country grouping. Lowincome economies are those with a GNI per
capita of $995 or less in 2008. Middle-income
economies are those with a GNI per capita of
more than $995 but less than $12,126. Lower
middle-income and upper middle-income
economies are separated at a GNI per capita
of $3,945. High-income economies are those
with a GNI per capita of $12,126 or more.
Alternative conversion factors
The World Bank systematically assesses the
appropriateness of official exchange rates as
conversion factors. An alternative conversion
factor is used when the official exchange rate
is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large
margin from the rate effectively applied to domestic transactions of foreign currencies and
traded products. This applies to only a small
number of countries. Alternative conversion
factors are used in the Atlas methodology
4

Africa Development Indicators 2011

and for calculating per capita GNI in U.S.
dollars for year t:

where et* is the World Bank Atlas conversion factor (national currency to the U.S.
dollar) for year t, et is the average annual
exchange rate (national currency to the U.S.
dollar) for year t, pt is the GDP deflator for
year t, ptS$ is the SDR deflator in U.S. dollar
terms for year t, Yt$ is current GNI per capita
in U.S. dollars in year t, Yt is current GNI
(local currency) for year t, and Nt is midyear
population for year t.

and elsewhere in Africa Development Indicators as single-year conversion factors.
Symbols
..
means that data are not available
or that aggregates cannot be calculated because of missing data in
the years shown.
$
means current U.S. dollars unless
otherwise noted.
<
means less than
>
means greater than
0 or 0.0 means zero or small enough that
the number would round to zero
at the displayed number of decimal
places.
Data presentation conventions
A blank means not applicable or, for an aggregate, not analytically meaningful.
A billion is 1,000 million.
Growth rates are in real terms, unless
other wise specified.
The cutoff date for data is May 2011.
However, the database may have more
recent data by the time of publication.

Table 1

World Bank classification of economies, 2009 (GNI per capita)
Low income

Lower middle income

Upper middle income

High income

$995 or less

$996–$3,945

$3,946–$12,195

$12,196 or more

Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Somalia
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Algeria
Angola
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Congo, Rep.
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Lesotho
Morocco
Namibia
Sudan
Swaziland
Tunisia

Botswana
Gabon
Libya
Mauritius
Seychelles
South Africa

Equatorial Guinea

Source: World Bank.

Indicator tables

5

Participating in growth

Table

1.1

Basic indicators
GDP per capita
Adult
GNI
Net official
literacy rate development
Population per capita, Constant 2000 prices
Under-five
Life
(%
ages
15
Land area density
World Bank
Average expectancy mortality
assistance
and older)
Gini
rate
at birth
annual
Growth (thousands (people Atlas method
Total
per capita
growth (%) (years) (per 1,000) index
Male Female (current $)
$
(millions) (annual %) of sq km) per sq km) (current $)
a
b
2000–09
2009
2009
2000–09 2009 2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
Population

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 841.0
Excluding South Africa
791.6
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria 636.9
Angola
18.5
Benin
8.9
Botswana
1.9
Burkina Faso
15.8
Burundi
8.3
Cameroon
19.5
Cape Verde
0.5
Central African Republic
4.4
Chad
11.2
Comoros
0.7
Congo, Dem. Rep.
66.0
Congo, Rep.
3.7
Côte d’Ivoire
21.1
Djibouti
0.9
Equatorial Guinea
0.7
Eritrea
5.1
Ethiopia
82.8
Gabon
1.5
Gambia, The
1.7
Ghana
23.8
Guinea
10.1
Guinea-Bissau
1.6
Kenya
39.8
Lesotho
2.1
Liberia
4.0
Madagascar
19.6
Malawi
15.3
Mali
13.0
Mauritania
3.3
Mauritius
1.3
Mozambique
22.9
Namibia
2.2
Niger
15.3
Nigeria
154.7
Rwanda
10.0
São Tomé and Príncipe
0.2
Senegal
12.5
Seychelles
0.1
Sierra Leone
5.7
Somalia
9.1
South Africa
49.3
Sudan
42.3
Swaziland
1.2
Tanzania
43.7
Togo
6.6
Uganda
32.7
Zambia
12.9
Zimbabwe
12.5
NORTH AFRICA
166.7
Algeria
34.9
Egypt, Arab Rep.
83.0
Libya
6.4
Morocco
32.0
Tunisia
10.4
ALL AFRICA
1,007.7

2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
3.1
1.5
3.4
2.8
2.2
1.4
1.9
2.6
2.4
2.7
1.9
2.3
1.7
2.6
2.9
2.6
1.8
2.7
2.1
2.4
2.2
2.6
0.8
4.2
2.7
2.8
2.4
2.3
0.5
2.3
1.9
3.9
2.3
2.8
1.6
2.6
1.2
2.4
2.3
1.1
2.2
1.5
2.9
2.4
3.3
2.5
0.5
1.6
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.0
2.3

23,636
22,422
21,511
1,247
111
567
274
26
473
4
623
1,259
2
2,267
342
318
23
28
101
1,000
258
10
228
246
28
569
30
96
582
94
1,220
1,031
2
786
823
1,267
911
25
1
193
0
72
627
1,214
2,376
17
886
54
197
743
387
5,738
2,382
995
1,760
446
155
29,375

35.6
35.3
29.6
14.8
80.8
3.4
57.6
323.3
41.3
125.5
7.1
8.9
354.2
29.1
10.8
66.3
37.3
24.1
50.2
82.8
5.7
170.5
104.8
41.0
57.3
69.9
68.1
41.1
33.7
162.2
10.7
3.2
628.2
29.1
2.6
12.1
169.9
405.3
169.5
65.1
191.2
79.5
14.6
40.6
17.8
68.9
49.4
121.7
166.0
17.4
32.4
29.1
14.7
83.4
3.6
71.7
67.2
34.3

1,130
844
757
3,750
750
6,260
510
150
1,190
3,010
450
600
810
160
2,080
1,070
1,280
12,420
320
330
7,370
440
1,190
370
510
760
980
160
430
290
680
990
7,250
440
4,270
340
1,190
490
1,130
1,040
8,480
340
..
5,760
1,220
2,470
490
440
460
960
360
3,280
4,420
2,070
12,020
2,810
3,720
1,487

618
428
408
1,313
363
4,082
264
112
694
1,763
233
265
367
97
1,267
536
904
8,011
133
201
4,054
382
343
400
143
452
471
148
255
168
304
462
4,917
371
2,673
173
506
334
..
534
7,389
265
..
3,689
537
1,553
426
247
366
401
288
2,191
2,190
1,836
7,692
1,809
2,805
879

2.6
3.1
2.8
9.9
0.6
3.0
1.9
0.2
1.0
4.8
–1.0
6.7
–0.3
2.1
1.8
–1.3
2.1
13.6
–3.4
5.7
0.1
2.1
3.5
1.0
–1.4
1.7
2.1
–3.5
0.8
1.9
2.8
2.0
2.9
5.2
3.3
0.5
4.0
5.1
..
1.6
0.9
5.8
..
2.8
5.0
1.6
4.2
–0.1
4.3
3.0
–7.4
3.1
2.5
3.0
3.3
3.8
3.9
2.6

52.5
52.6
53.6
47.6
61.8
55.0
53.3
50.9
51.4
71.3
47.3
48.9
65.8
47.8
53.7
58.0
55.7
50.6
59.9
55.7
60.9
56.2
56.8
58.3
48.2
54.9
45.4
58.7
60.8
53.8
48.8
57.0
72.6
48.1
61.6
52.0
48.1
50.6
65.8
55.9
73.7
47.9
50.1
51.6
58.5
46.3
56.3
62.9
53.4
46.3
45.4
71.5
72.6
70.3
74.5
71.6
74.5
55.6

130
132
131
161
118
57
166
166
154
28
171
209
104
199
128
119
94
145
55
104
69
103
69
142
193
84
84
112
58
110
191
117
17
142
48
160
138
111
78
93
12
192
180
62
108
73
108
98
128
141
90
26
32
21
19
38
21
119

58.6
38.6
..
39.6
33.3
44.6
50.4
43.6
39.8
64.3
44.4
47.3
41.5
39.9
..
..
29.8
41.5
47.3
42.8
39.4
35.5
47.7
52.5
38.2
47.2
39.0
39.0
39.0
..
45.6
..
34.0
42.9
53.1
50.6
39.2
65.8
42.5
..
57.8
..
50.7
37.6
34.4
44.3
50.7
..
..
32.1
..
40.9
40.8

74.8
74.8
..
82.9
54.2
83.8
..
72.6
..
90.1
69.1
44.5
79.7
79.5
..
64.7
..
97.0
77.9
..
91.4
57.6
72.8
50.8
66.9
90.5
82.9
63.7
..
80.6
..
64.5
90.6
70.1
88.9
..
72.0
75.0
93.7
61.8
..
52.7
..
..
79.6
87.8
79.0
..
..
80.6
94.7
..
..
..
95.2
68.9
..
..

56.3
56.3
..
57.6
29.1
84.4
..
60.9
..
80.2
42.1
23.1
68.7
54.9
..
45.3
..
89.8
56.0
..
84.1
35.8
60.4
28.1
38.0
83.5
95.3
54.5
..
67.0
..
50.3
85.3
41.5
88.1
..
49.8
66.8
84.0
38.7
..
30.1
..
..
60.8
86.2
66.9
..
..
61.3
89.4
..
..
..
82.0
43.9
..
..

53.2
55.1
65.9
12.9
76.4
143.4
68.8
66.1
33.3
387.5
53.6
50.1
76.8
35.6
76.8
112.3
187.7
46.7
28.5
46.1
52.6
75.1
66.4
21.3
90.3
44.7
59.5
127.7
22.7
50.6
75.7
87.1
122.0
87.9
150.2
30.7
10.7
93.5
188.7
81.2
263.7
76.8
72.4
21.8
54.1
48.9
67.1
75.4
54.6
98.1
58.8
17.2
9.1
11.1
6.1
28.5
45.4
47.2

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

Basic indicators

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

7

Table

2.1

Gross domestic product, nominal

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

272,131
193,303
124,769
..
1,405
1,061
1,929
920
6,741
..
797
1,033
124
14,395
1,706
10,175
..
..
..
..
4,279
241
4,445
..
111
7,265
431
954
4,042
1,238
1,787
709
1,137
3,526
2,169
2,509
64,202
1,163
..
3,503
147
1,101
604
80,710
7,617
543
..
1,136
1,245
3,884
6,679
111,546
42,345
22,912
..
18,821
8,743
386,556

300,900
189,013
160,605
10,260
1,845
3,792
3,101
1,132
11,152
339
1,488
1,739
250
9,350
2,799
10,796
452
132
..
12,083
5,952
317
5,886
2,667
244
8,591
541
384
3,081
1,881
2,421
1,020
2,653
2,463
2,350
2,481
28,472
2,584
..
5,717
369
650
917
112,014
12,409
1,115
4,259
1,628
4,304
3,288
8,784
172,192
62,045
43,130
28,905
25,821
12,291
472,997

448,082
279,985
212,189
13,956
3,558
8,087
4,270
595
13,622
797
1,139
2,737
324
5,673
3,496
13,737
622
2,952
771
8,539
6,055
367
7,624
3,446
475
14,904
947
410
5,474
2,425
4,362
1,285
5,610
4,666
4,934
2,731
67,656
1,846
98
6,871
706
991
..
168,219
17,780
1,796
11,659
1,759
6,337
4,374
5,658
249,820
68,019
82,924
24,063
49,823
24,992
697,735

Current prices
($ millions)
2004
2005

559,094
340,092
252,030
19,775
4,047
10,049
5,109
664
15,775
925
1,270
4,415
362
6,570
4,649
15,481
666
5,241
939
10,034
7,178
401
8,872
3,666
535
16,096
1,206
460
4,364
2,625
4,874
1,548
6,386
5,698
6,606
3,053
87,845
2,089
107
8,041
700
1,096
..
219,093
21,684
2,282
12,826
2,061
8,469
5,423
5,671
282,321
85,014
78,845
33,385
56,948
28,129
841,140

2006

2007

2008

2009a

653,676 763,395
879,541 1,009,865 954,357
406,780 502,768
593,774 734,377
669,740
294,213 355,441
427,372 526,649 496,310
30,632
45,163
59,263
84,179
75,493
4,287
4,735
5,546
6,683
6,656
10,255
11,255
12,386
13,545
11,823
5,427
5,771
6,767
8,046
8,141
796
919
980
1,169
1,325
16,588
17,957
20,686
23,736
22,186
999
1,108
1,331
1,531
1,549
1,350
1,477
1,712
1,988
2,006
5,302
6,099
7,016
8,357
6,839
387
403
465
530
535
7,104
8,543
9,977
11,588
10,575
6,087
7,731
8,344
11,789
9,580
16,363
17,367
19,796
23,414
23,304
709
769
848
983
1,049
8,217
9,603
12,576
18,525
10,413
1,171
1,281
1,374
1,654
1,873
12,286
15,134
19,182
25,899
28,526
8,666
9,546
11,571
14,535
11,062
461
508
651
822
733
10,720
20,388
24,632
28,527
26,169
2,937
2,821
4,209
3,778
4,103
590
597
692
847
837
18,738
22,502
27,166
30,031
29,376
1,315
1,417
1,577
1,594
1,579
530
612
735
843
876
5,039
5,515
7,343
9,424
8,590
2,755
3,117
3,458
4,074
4,727
5,305
5,866
7,146
8,722
8,996
1,858
2,699
2,838
3,589
3,024
6,284
6,507
7,521
9,310
8,589
6,579
7,096
8,030
9,867
9,790
7,262
7,981
8,806
8,970
9,265
3,405
3,645
4,246
5,357
5,383
112,249 146,867
165,921
207,118 173,004
2,581
3,111
3,741
4,691
5,216
114
125
145
174
191
8,703
9,378
11,334
13,175
12,822
884
968
1,026
926
764
1,239
1,422
1,664
1,955
1,942
..
..
..
..
..
247,064 261,007
286,302 276,451 285,366
27,386
36,401
46,531
58,032
54,681
2,524
2,670
2,950
2,840
3,001
14,142
14,331
16,826
20,715
21,368
2,108
2,218
2,499
2,899
2,855
9,000
9,922
11,892
14,441
16,043
7,157
10,675
11,410
14,382
12,805
5,583
5,203
5,018
4,247
5,625
324,517 377,737
448,926 556,721 522,285
102,339
117,169
135,804 170,989
140,577
89,686
107,484
130,473 162,836
188,413
44,000
56,484
71,803
93,168
62,360
59,524
65,637
75,226
88,883
91,375
28,968
30,962
35,620
40,845
39,561
977,859 1,140,739 1,328,046 1,566,195 1,476,265

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

1.0
–0.7
3.0
..
2.3
12.6
4.8
2.2
7.3
..
8.1
5.7
8.0
–6.2
2.3
2.0
..
..
..
5.9
–0.5
1.7
3.2
..
3.7
2.6
–0.8
–0.5
–5.2
1.8
3.4
3.5
8.8
–4.7
0.1
–0.2
–12.0
8.6
..
6.2
9.3
–4.3
6.4
4.1
10.1
1.9
..
4.5
20.7
–3.1
–0.1
4.8
4.5
6.8
..
3.7
2.3
2.2

1.5
1.2
0.8
–3.8
3.5
4.6
0.0
–3.3
–2.5
6.4
–4.3
–1.3
–2.0
–7.1
–2.4
2.2
1.7
22.5
7.2
–5.7
–1.7
3.6
2.6
3.0
–0.6
7.7
4.1
1.8
3.4
0.2
0.4
1.4
5.8
8.3
4.6
–1.8
3.2
–2.0
..
–1.8
6.0
0.6
..
2.1
0.8
4.4
10.1
–0.1
8.8
0.2
–1.5
4.2
–1.2
10.8
–0.9
5.1
6.0
2.5

15.2
16.7
15.7
32.9
13.8
10.8
14.4
8.4
11.2
14.1
9.5
23.2
12.0
12.0
18.2
10.4
7.6
34.1
13.7
16.9
13.4
8.6
25.0
3.2
19.4
11.8
11.8
6.1
9.5
10.9
16.3
15.9
8.5
11.8
13.3
13.8
19.9
15.0
11.5
13.4
4.9
13.1
..
12.2
21.2
11.3
9.1
10.0
12.6
20.3
–3.6
11.2
14.6
7.7
15.0
11.6
9.3
13.7

a. Provisional.

8

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.2

Gross domestic product, real

1980

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 227,433
Excluding South Africa
132,121
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
99,187
Angola
..
Benin
1,084
Botswana
1,209
Burkina Faso
1,101
Burundi
559
Cameroon
6,339
Cape Verde
..
Central African Republic
735
Chad
665
Comoros
136
Congo, Dem. Rep.
7,016
Congo, Rep.
1,746
Côte d’Ivoire
7,727
Djibouti
..
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
3,594
Gambia, The
213
Ghana
2,640
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
115
Kenya
7,078
Lesotho
380
Liberia
1,391
Madagascar
3,099
Malawi
1,000
Mali
1,536
Mauritania
693
Mauritius
1,519
Mozambique
2,462
Namibia
2,292
Niger
1,523
Nigeria
31,452
Rwanda
1,368
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
2,683
Seychelles
292
Sierra Leone
929
Somalia
..
South Africa
95,503
Sudan
5,525
Swaziland
470
Tanzania
..
Togo
964
Uganda
..
Zambia
2,730
Zimbabwe
3,699
NORTH AFRICA
118,981
Algeria
35,291
Egypt, Arab Rep.
38,506
Libya
..
Morocco
20,086
Tunisia
8,622
ALL AFRICA
348,882

1990

2003

273,288
162,355
127,336
8,464
1,412
3,395
1,556
865
8,793
303
815
1,106
181
7,659
2,796
8,298
660
207
..
6,234
4,298
305
3,267
2,088
186
10,544
504
433
3,266
1,243
1,630
816
2,726
2,499
2,591
1,507
34,978
1,673
..
3,463
395
1,014
..
110,945
7,062
1,033
7,547
1,071
3,215
3,028
5,691
178,165
46,367
65,579
..
29,312
12,237
452,854

383,153
237,556
184,367
11,137
2,571
6,751
3,150
747
11,393
613
884
1,925
223
4,614
3,524
10,106
596
2,764
692
8,798
5,290
460
5,691
3,503
195
13,631
819
411
3,941
1,778
3,039
1,188
4,975
5,485
4,320
2,089
53,102
2,135
..
5,268
572
1,047
..
145,693
14,821
1,592
12,367
1,419
7,542
3,687
5,069
273,922
62,918
109,198
36,180
43,735
21,891
657,068

Constant prices
(2000 $ millions)
2004
2005
2006

407,008
254,798
195,958
12,383
2,650
7,154
3,296
783
11,815
608
892
2,572
222
4,921
3,647
10,287
619
3,815
702
9,993
5,361
493
6,010
3,585
201
14,327
838
422
4,148
1,875
3,105
1,249
5,261
5,918
4,850
2,091
58,731
2,293
..
5,579
556
1,125
..
152,329
15,579
1,632
13,335
1,461
8,055
3,886
4,720
286,676
66,190
113,666
37,771
45,835
23,213
693,666

430,323
270,086
208,072
14,935
2,727
7,271
3,505
790
12,087
681
914
3,018
232
5,239
3,932
10,417
638
4,187
720
11,174
5,523
518
6,364
3,692
211
15,173
847
444
4,339
1,924
3,294
1,317
5,327
6,414
4,972
2,185
61,903
2,507
..
5,893
598
1,206
..
160,367
16,564
1,668
14,318
1,479
8,565
4,089
4,431
301,162
69,565
118,749
41,511
47,201
24,136
731,462

457,294
288,086
222,229
17,707
2,839
7,643
3,698
830
12,476
750
949
3,024
234
5,505
4,173
10,488
669
4,239
713
12,384
5,588
552
6,771
3,784
215
16,132
902
479
4,557
2,072
3,469
1,573
5,537
6,971
5,324
2,312
65,740
2,737
..
6,042
647
1,294
..
169,354
18,434
1,715
15,282
1,537
9,489
4,342
4,284
318,159
70,956
126,876
43,960
50,863
25,503
775,424

2007

2008

2009a

486,811
308,333
238,231
21,298
2,970
8,010
3,831
860
12,913
815
984
3,030
236
5,849
4,107
10,668
703
5,148
722
13,803
5,899
587
7,209
3,851
216
17,263
924
524
4,842
2,192
3,618
1,483
5,842
7,478
5,610
2,388
69,981
2,888
..
6,335
710
1,377
..
178,644
20,308
1,776
16,375
1,566
10,287
4,611
4,127
334,909
73,085
135,869
46,598
52,240
27,118
821,680

511,548
326,524
252,216
24,136
3,121
8,260
4,023
899
13,287
867
1,005
3,018
238
6,212
4,335
10,904
744
5,730
652
15,291
6,035
623
7,817
4,041
224
17,531
965
561
5,187
2,381
3,795
1,537
6,140
7,982
5,851
2,615
74,179
3,211
..
6,546
704
1,454
..
185,216
21,697
1,818
17,593
1,594
11,183
4,880
3,415
352,333
74,839
145,592
48,368
55,158
28,376
863,841

520,086
338,402
259,922
24,295
3,240
7,959
4,164
930
13,553
891
1,029
2,970
242
6,379
4,665
11,296
781
5,418
675
16,623
5,978
651
8,181
4,030
230
17,985
973
587
4,997
2,562
3,958
1,521
6,271
8,488
5,804
2,641
78,333
3,343
..
6,691
650
1,512
..
181,923
22,678
1,840
18,652
1,634
11,973
5,192
3,609
365,307
76,411
152,360
49,384
57,888
29,265
885,368

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

1.8
2.1
2.6
..
2.7
10.9
4.0
4.5
4.5
6.3
1.6
6.7
2.9
2.1
3.8
0.7
..
..
..
2.1
0.5
3.5
2.6
..
3.8
4.1
2.3
–3.3
0.8
2.4
0.5
1.9
6.1
–0.9
1.1
–0.4
0.8
2.5
..
2.7
3.1
0.5
..
1.4
2.4
7.4
..
1.5
2.3
1.0
3.3
4.2
2.9
5.5
..
4.2
3.2
2.6

2.4
2.7
2.8
1.0
4.7
4.8
5.5
–3.2
1.3
5.9
1.8
2.3
1.2
–5.0
0.8
3.5
–2.3
20.7
7.9
3.7
2.9
2.7
4.3
4.4
1.4
2.2
4.0
0.2
1.7
3.8
3.9
2.9
5.0
6.0
4.0
2.4
2.4
–1.6
..
2.8
4.5
–5.3
..
2.0
5.4
3.1
2.8
3.6
7.4
0.2
2.7
3.2
1.7
4.3
..
2.4
4.6
2.7

5.1
5.8
5.5
13.1
4.0
4.4
5.4
3.0
3.3
6.4
0.8
10.2
1.9
5.2
4.0
0.8
4.0
16.8
0.2
8.5
2.1
5.2
5.8
3.0
1.0
4.4
3.1
0.0
3.6
4.8
5.3
4.7
3.7
7.9
5.3
4.3
6.6
7.6
..
4.3
1.7
9.5
..
4.1
7.3
2.6
7.1
2.5
7.8
5.4
–7.5
4.8
4.0
4.9
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.0

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

9

Table

2.3

Gross domestic product growth

Annual growth
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

4.0
1.7
0.7
..
6.8
12.0
0.8
1.0
–2.0
..
–4.5
–6.0
..
2.2
17.6
–11.0
..
..
..
..
2.6
6.3
0.5
..
–16.0
5.6
–2.7
–4.1
0.8
0.4
–4.3
3.4
–10.1
..
..
–2.2
4.2
9.0
..
–3.3
–4.2
4.8
..
6.6
1.5
12.4
..
14.6
..
3.0
14.4
5.2
0.8
10.0
..
3.6
7.4
4.4

1.1
2.1
0.6
–0.3
3.2
6.8
–0.6
3.5
–6.1
0.7
–2.1
–4.2
5.1
–6.6
1.0
–1.1
..
3.3
..
2.7
5.2
3.6
3.3
4.3
6.1
4.2
6.5
–51.0
3.1
5.7
–1.9
–1.8
7.2
1.0
2.5
–1.3
8.2
–2.4
..
–0.7
7.0
3.4
..
–0.3
–5.5
9.8
7.0
–0.2
6.5
–0.5
7.0
4.0
0.8
5.7
..
4.0
7.9
2.2

4.2
5.0
3.5
3.3
3.9
6.3
8.0
–1.2
4.0
6.2
–7.6
14.7
2.5
5.8
0.8
–1.6
3.2
14.0
–2.7
–2.2
2.5
6.9
5.2
5.4
–2.9
2.9
4.3
–31.3
9.8
5.5
7.4
5.6
3.7
6.0
4.2
5.3
10.3
2.2
..
6.7
–5.9
9.3
..
2.9
7.1
3.9
6.9
2.7
6.5
5.1
–17.2
5.9
6.9
3.2
13.0
6.3
5.6
4.9

6.2
7.3
6.3
11.2
3.1
6.0
4.6
4.8
3.7
–0.7
1.0
33.6
–0.2
6.6
3.5
1.8
3.8
38.0
1.5
13.6
1.3
7.1
5.6
2.3
3.1
5.1
2.3
2.6
5.3
5.5
2.2
5.2
5.7
7.9
12.3
0.1
10.6
7.4
..
5.9
–2.9
7.5
..
4.6
5.1
2.5
7.8
3.0
6.8
5.4
–6.9
4.7
5.2
4.1
4.4
4.8
6.0
5.6

5.7
6.0
6.2
20.6
2.9
1.6
6.4
0.9
2.3
11.9
2.4
17.3
4.2
6.5
7.8
1.3
3.2
9.7
2.6
11.8
3.0
5.1
5.9
3.0
5.0
5.9
1.1
5.3
4.6
2.6
6.1
5.4
1.2
8.4
2.5
4.5
5.4
9.3
..
5.6
7.5
7.2
..
5.3
6.3
2.2
7.4
1.2
6.3
5.2
–6.1
5.1
5.1
4.5
9.9
3.0
4.0
5.4

6.3
6.7
6.8
18.6
4.1
5.1
5.5
5.1
3.2
10.1
3.8
0.2
1.2
5.1
6.1
0.7
4.8
1.3
–1.0
10.8
1.2
6.6
6.4
2.5
2.2
6.3
6.5
7.8
5.0
7.7
5.3
19.4
3.9
8.7
7.1
5.8
6.2
9.2
..
2.5
8.3
7.3
..
5.6
11.3
2.9
6.7
3.9
10.8
6.2
–3.3
5.6
2.0
6.8
5.9
7.8
5.7
6.0

6.5
7.0
7.2
20.3
4.6
4.8
3.6
3.6
3.5
8.6
3.7
0.2
0.5
6.3
–1.6
1.7
5.1
21.4
1.3
11.5
5.6
6.3
6.5
1.8
0.3
7.0
2.4
9.4
6.2
5.8
4.3
–5.7
5.5
7.3
5.4
3.3
6.4
5.5
..
4.9
9.7
6.4
..
5.5
10.2
3.5
7.1
1.9
8.4
6.2
–3.7
5.3
3.0
7.1
6.0
2.7
6.3
6.0

5.1
5.9
5.9
13.3
5.1
3.1
5.0
4.5
2.9
6.5
2.2
–0.4
1.0
6.2
5.6
2.2
5.8
11.3
–9.8
10.8
2.3
6.1
8.4
4.9
3.5
1.6
4.5
7.1
7.1
8.6
4.9
3.7
5.1
6.7
4.3
9.5
6.0
11.2
..
3.3
–0.9
5.5
..
3.7
6.8
2.4
7.4
1.8
8.7
5.8
–17.3
5.2
2.4
7.2
3.8
5.6
4.6
5.1

2009a

1.7
3.6
3.1
0.7
3.8
–3.7
3.5
3.5
2.0
2.8
2.4
–1.6
1.8
2.7
7.6
3.6
5.0
–5.4
3.6
8.7
–1.0
4.6
4.7
–0.3
3.0
2.6
0.9
4.6
–3.7
7.6
4.3
–1.1
2.1
6.3
–0.8
1.0
5.6
4.1
..
2.2
–7.6
4.0
..
–1.8
4.5
1.2
6.0
2.5
7.1
6.4
5.7
3.7
2.1
4.6
2.1
4.9
3.1
2.5

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

2.2
2.1
2.5
4.2
3.1
11.5
3.7
4.3
4.0
6.4
0.9
5.4
2.7
1.8
6.8
–0.2
..
0.9
..
2.4
1.9
3.9
2.0
4.5
2.9
4.2
2.1
–4.5
0.4
1.7
0.6
2.2
4.3
0.4
1.1
0.0
0.9
3.2
..
2.4
2.1
1.1
..
2.2
3.4
8.6
3.8
2.6
3.0
1.4
5.2
4.3
2.8
5.9
..
3.9
3.6
2.9

2.1
2.5
2.4
1.0
4.5
5.3
5.1
–1.4
0.4
5.2
1.3
2.2
1.6
–5.5
0.8
2.6
–2.0
20.2
8.1
2.7
2.5
3.1
4.3
4.3
2.0
2.2
4.1
1.2
1.6
4.1
3.6
2.6
5.2
5.5
4.1
1.9
3.1
2.1
..
2.7
4.9
–4.3
..
1.4
4.4
3.7
3.3
2.6
7.1
0.4
2.6
3.3
1.6
4.3
..
2.8
5.1
2.5

4.6
5.2
5.0
10.9
4.3
4.2
5.0
2.7
3.4
6.0
1.0
8.3
2.0
3.4
4.6
0.5
3.6
18.5
–0.6
8.1
1.5
5.1
5.5
2.8
1.5
3.6
3.3
3.8
3.2
4.2
5.4
3.8
4.1
7.3
4.4
3.8
6.1
7.7
..
4.0
1.1
9.7
..
3.6
7.1
3.1
6.8
2.0
7.2
5.2
–5.9
4.5
3.6
4.9
4.3
4.8
4.7
4.6

a. Provisional.

10

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.4

Gross domestic product per capita, real

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

587
367
347
..
305
1,227
160
135
698
..
324
144
405
258
962
918
..
..
..
..
5,274
346
239
..
137
435
293
728
360
161
214
454
1,573
203
2,262
257
422
263
..
476
4,532
285
..
3,463
269
780
..
346
..
473
508
1,290
1,876
867
..
1,027
1,351
727

530
338
332
794
294
2,512
177
152
719
854
278
181
416
207
1,143
658
1,178
547
..
129
4,640
340
218
340
182
450
315
200
290
132
188
410
2,579
185
1,828
191
359
234
..
460
5,645
248
..
3,152
261
1,196
297
273
181
383
544
1,480
1,834
1,135
..
1,182
1,501
712

528
350
338
712
349
3,764
245
107
670
1,325
223
206
387
83
1,081
548
767
4,796
167
124
4,020
321
272
395
139
401
419
131
237
138
270
420
4,069
277
2,233
171
396
246
..
492
6,913
221
..
3,159
399
1,437
335
249
281
329
405
1,808
1,973
1,470
6,364
1,467
2,225
749

Constant prices
(2000 $)
2004
2005
2006

547
365
350
767
348
3,941
248
109
678
1,294
222
265
378
86
1,092
546
782
6,439
163
137
3,993
333
280
397
140
411
424
131
242
141
269
430
4,266
291
2,460
166
427
260
..
508
6,740
229
..
3,264
411
1,463
351
250
290
339
378
1,862
2,045
1,501
6,509
1,520
2,337
773

564
378
362
899
347
3,954
255
107
678
1,426
223
301
386
89
1,151
541
793
6,877
161
150
4,034
340
290
400
143
424
424
133
246
141
278
441
4,284
308
2,475
167
439
279
..
522
7,209
236
..
3,398
428
1,483
367
247
298
348
355
1,925
2,117
1,539
7,009
1,548
2,407
796

585
393
377
1,036
349
4,099
260
109
684
1,547
227
293
382
91
1,197
533
816
6,779
154
162
4,004
351
302
402
143
439
448
138
252
148
286
514
4,419
326
2,599
170
456
297
..
522
7,651
246
..
3,548
466
1,509
381
250
320
361
344
2,001
2,128
1,614
7,272
1,649
2,518
825

2007

2008

2009a

608
410
394
1,213
354
4,233
260
110
692
1,657
231
285
375
94
1,157
530
843
8,017
151
176
4,148
363
315
401
140
457
455
144
260
152
292
472
4,634
342
2,686
169
474
306
..
533
8,350
254
..
3,702
502
1,542
397
249
336
375
332
2,073
2,159
1,697
7,554
1,673
2,652
854

623
423
406
1,339
360
4,300
264
111
696
1,739
232
277
370
97
1,199
530
876
8,692
132
189
4,168
375
335
411
142
452
471
148
271
160
299
478
4,839
357
2,747
178
491
330
..
536
8,092
261
..
3,796
525
1,557
414
247
353
387
274
2,147
2,177
1,786
7,685
1,745
2,748
877

618
428
408
1,313
363
4,082
264
112
694
1,763
233
265
367
97
1,267
536
904
8,011
133
201
4,054
382
343
400
143
452
471
148
255
168
304
462
4,917
371
2,673
173
506
334
..
534
7,389
265
..
3,689
537
1,553
426
247
366
401
288
2,191
2,190
1,836
7,692
1,809
2,805
879

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

–0.9
–0.8
–0.2
..
–0.4
7.6
1.4
1.2
1.4
..
–1.2
3.4
0.0
–1.3
2.1
–3.2
..
..
..
..
–1.6
–0.2
–1.1
..
2.8
0.3
0.3
–6.7
–2.4
–2.4
–1.0
–0.6
4.8
–1.0
–2.2
–2.8
–2.4
–1.1
..
0.0
1.8
–1.7
..
–0.8
0.5
4.1
..
–2.3
..
–2.0
0.3
1.3
–0.1
2.6
..
1.3
0.6
–0.2

–0.6
–0.2
–0.3
–2.4
1.3
2.5
2.8
–3.4
–1.6
3.4
–0.9
–0.6
–1.1
–8.8
–1.4
–0.3
–4.7
15.2
..
–0.7
–0.9
–0.8
1.6
1.0
–1.6
–1.0
2.1
–1.9
–1.7
1.4
2.1
0.2
3.6
2.8
1.6
–1.2
0.0
–0.9
..
0.3
2.9
–5.7
..
–0.7
2.8
0.7
–0.2
–0.4
3.7
–2.5
0.1
1.3
–0.3
2.1
..
0.9
3.0
0.0

2.6
3.1
2.8
9.9
0.6
3.0
1.9
0.2
1.0
4.8
–1.0
6.7
–0.3
2.1
1.8
–1.3
2.1
13.6
–3.4
5.7
0.1
2.1
3.5
1.0
–1.4
1.7
2.1
–3.5
0.8
1.9
2.8
2.0
2.9
5.2
3.3
0.5
4.0
5.1
..
1.6
0.9
5.8
..
2.8
5.0
1.6
4.2
–0.1
4.3
3.0
–7.4
3.1
2.5
3.0
3.3
3.8
3.9
2.6

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

11

Table

2.5

Gross domestic product per capita growth

Annual growth
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

1.0
–1.3
–2.3
..
3.8
8.0
–1.4
–1.9
–4.8
..
–7.0
–8.0
..
–0.7
14.0
–15.0
..
..
..
..
–0.3
2.7
–1.9
..
–18.5
1.7
–5.2
–7.3
–1.8
–2.6
–6.0
0.5
–11.4
..
..
–5.1
1.2
5.4
..
–6.0
–5.4
2.6
–9.0
4.2
–1.7
9.1
..
11.1
..
–0.3
10.4
2.4
–2.5
7.4
..
1.0
4.6
1.4

–1.6
–0.7
–2.3
–3.1
–0.1
3.7
–3.3
0.9
–8.9
–1.5
–4.4
–7.2
2.4
–9.9
–1.8
–4.6
..
–0.1
..
–0.6
1.9
–0.5
0.5
0.6
3.6
0.7
4.9
–50.0
0.1
1.8
–3.8
–4.3
6.4
–0.3
–1.3
–4.3
5.4
–2.0
..
–3.5
6.1
2.1
–1.9
–2.3
–7.7
6.0
3.7
–3.0
2.7
–3.4
3.9
1.6
–1.7
3.2
..
2.1
5.4
–0.6

1.6
2.3
0.9
0.1
0.4
5.0
4.6
–3.9
1.6
4.4
–9.2
10.6
0.3
2.5
–1.7
–3.6
1.3
10.8
–6.7
–4.7
0.4
3.5
2.8
3.5
–5.3
0.3
3.3
–33.1
6.7
2.6
4.9
2.7
2.6
3.2
2.3
1.8
7.7
0.5
3.6
3.9
–4.9
4.8
..
1.6
5.0
3.3
4.1
0.1
3.1
2.8
–17.1
4.3
5.3
1.2
10.7
5.2
4.9
2.5

3.6
4.6
3.6
7.8
–0.3
4.7
1.2
1.8
1.3
–2.3
–0.8
29.1
–2.3
3.4
1.0
–0.3
2.0
34.2
–2.6
10.7
–0.7
3.8
3.2
0.4
0.6
2.4
1.3
–0.2
2.3
2.6
–0.2
2.4
4.8
5.1
10.2
–3.3
8.0
5.8
4.8
3.2
–2.5
3.3
..
3.3
3.0
1.9
4.9
0.4
3.4
3.1
–6.7
3.0
3.6
2.1
2.3
3.7
5.1
3.1

3.2
3.3
3.5
17.1
–0.5
0.3
2.8
–2.1
0.0
10.2
0.6
13.6
2.1
3.3
5.4
–0.9
1.4
6.8
–1.2
9.0
1.0
2.0
3.6
1.0
2.6
3.2
0.1
1.8
1.7
–0.2
3.6
2.7
0.4
5.7
0.6
0.8
2.9
7.2
3.9
2.9
7.0
3.4
..
4.1
4.1
1.4
4.4
–1.3
2.9
2.8
–6.0
3.4
3.5
2.5
7.7
1.8
3.0
3.0

3.7
4.0
4.1
15.3
0.8
3.7
2.0
2.0
0.9
8.5
1.9
–2.8
–0.9
2.1
4.0
–1.5
2.9
–1.4
–4.3
8.0
–0.7
3.5
4.1
0.4
–0.1
3.6
5.5
3.6
2.2
4.7
2.8
16.4
3.1
6.0
5.0
1.9
3.7
6.6
5.0
–0.1
6.1
3.9
..
4.4
8.9
1.8
3.8
1.3
7.2
3.7
–3.2
4.0
0.5
4.9
3.8
6.5
4.6
3.6

3.9
4.3
4.5
17.1
1.3
3.3
0.1
0.5
1.2
7.1
1.8
–2.6
–1.9
3.3
–3.4
–0.6
3.2
18.3
–1.9
8.6
3.6
3.4
4.2
–0.4
–1.9
4.2
1.5
4.7
3.4
2.9
1.9
–8.0
4.9
4.8
3.3
–0.6
4.0
2.8
4.3
2.1
9.1
3.5
..
4.3
7.7
2.2
4.1
–0.6
4.9
3.7
–3.6
3.6
1.5
5.1
3.9
1.5
5.3
3.5

2.5
3.3
3.2
10.4
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
0.6
5.0
0.3
–3.1
–1.4
3.3
3.7
–0.1
3.9
8.4
–12.5
7.9
0.5
3.2
6.2
2.6
1.2
–1.1
3.6
2.4
4.3
5.6
2.4
1.2
4.4
4.3
2.3
5.3
3.6
8.2
4.1
0.6
–3.1
2.9
..
2.5
4.5
1.0
4.4
–0.7
5.2
3.3
–17.3
3.5
0.9
5.2
1.7
4.3
3.6
2.7

–0.8
1.1
0.4
–1.9
0.6
–5.1
0.1
0.6
–0.3
1.4
0.5
–4.2
–0.6
0.0
5.6
1.2
3.2
–7.8
0.6
5.9
–2.7
1.8
2.5
–2.6
0.7
–0.1
0.0
0.3
–6.2
4.7
1.9
–3.3
1.6
4.0
–2.7
–2.9
3.2
1.2
2.4
–0.4
–8.7
1.5
..
–2.8
2.2
–0.3
3.0
0.0
3.6
3.8
5.2
2.1
0.6
2.8
0.1
3.7
2.1
0.2

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

–0.7
–0.9
–0.4
1.5
0.2
7.9
1.2
1.0
1.0
4.2
–1.6
2.6
0.1
–1.2
3.6
–4.3
..
–2.9
..
–0.8
–1.2
0.2
–1.0
1.4
0.8
0.4
–0.1
–6.2
–2.3
–2.4
–1.3
–0.5
3.3
–0.6
–2.2
–2.8
–1.8
–0.4
..
–0.5
1.2
–1.2
0.9
–0.3
0.5
4.8
0.6
–0.9
–0.5
–1.7
1.4
1.5
–0.3
3.2
..
1.4
1.0
0.0

–0.6
–0.2
–0.4
–1.9
1.1
3.2
2.2
–2.8
–2.2
3.0
–1.2
–1.0
–0.7
–8.5
–1.4
–0.7
–4.5
16.3
6.5
–0.5
–0.5
–0.7
1.5
1.0
–0.5
–0.8
2.4
–2.3
–1.4
1.8
1.6
–0.1
4.0
2.6
1.4
–1.4
0.5
1.3
..
–0.1
3.3
–4.5
–1.9
–0.8
1.8
1.2
0.2
–0.3
4.1
–2.4
0.6
1.3
–0.4
2.3
..
1.2
3.3
–0.1

2.1
2.6
2.3
7.7
0.9
2.7
1.6
0.0
1.1
4.4
–0.9
4.9
–0.2
0.4
2.4
–1.8
1.6
15.3
–4.1
5.3
–0.5
1.9
3.2
0.8
–0.9
1.0
2.2
–0.4
0.4
1.2
3.0
1.1
3.3
4.6
2.4
0.1
3.6
4.5
4.7
1.3
0.2
6.2
..
2.2
4.9
2.0
3.9
–0.6
3.8
2.7
–6.0
2.8
2.1
2.9
2.2
3.5
3.6
2.2

a. Provisional.

12

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.6

Gross national income, nominal

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

261,499
186,001
120,669
..
1,402
1,028
1,924
922
5,618
..
800
1,038
124
14,102
1,544
9,680
..
..
..
..
3,856
237
4,426
..
105
7,043
695
930
4,024
1,138
1,768
672
1,113
3,550
1,818
2,476
61,079
1,165
..
3,403
142
1,071
603
77,378
7,570
..
..
1,096
1,237
3,594
6,530
103,183
41,147
21,453
..
18,402
8,450
369,585

284,576
176,977
151,469
8,214
1,806
3,686
3,094
1,117
10,674
340
1,465
1,721
249
8,579
2,324
9,209
..
124
..
12,016
5,336
291
5,774
2,518
233
8,224
902
..
2,958
1,837
2,405
1,076
2,631
2,320
2,388
2,423
25,585
2,572
..
5,520
355
580
835
107,746
11,409
1,174
4,072
1,598
4,227
3,008
8,512
159,989
59,955
42,025
..
24,835
11,882
448,242

425,226
261,709
201,604
12,230
3,515
7,368
4,269
577
13,097
781
1,137
2,279
322
5,485
2,580
13,018
673
1,392
761
8,473
5,342
336
7,459
3,201
463
14,738
1,202
350
5,394
2,385
4,203
1,343
5,580
4,469
5,163
2,718
59,996
1,816
..
6,766
663
958
..
163,610
16,428
1,754
11,601
1,736
6,219
4,231
5,439
257,561
65,319
82,816
24,603
48,783
23,957
684,475

Current prices
($ millions)
2004
2005

529,902
315,160
236,870
17,295
4,006
9,089
5,102
646
15,374
907
1,268
3,720
360
6,276
3,159
14,763
731
2,312
923
9,971
5,987
366
8,674
3,391
524
15,955
1,515
373
4,285
2,582
4,679
1,613
6,371
5,398
6,689
3,039
78,110
2,055
..
7,949
666
1,034
..
214,782
19,990
2,284
12,775
2,033
8,338
5,026
5,388
289,635
81,414
78,638
33,139
55,961
26,895
822,420

2006

2007

2008

2009a

616,553 728,169
827,908
947,512 909,888
374,531 472,616
551,831
680,851 631,533
275,384 330,873
397,306
485,559 468,215
26,601
39,679
50,485
69,675
67,478
4,259
4,623
5,428
6,672
6,646
9,420
10,482
11,647
12,843
11,341
5,411
5,756
6,752
7,932
8,019
776
910
974
1,165
1,331
16,126
17,706
20,608
23,407
22,059
966
1,063
1,305
1,484
1,499
1,348
1,473
1,702
1,966
1,983
4,277
4,888
5,817
6,687
6,124
386
404
467
530
535
6,760
8,143
9,621
10,266
9,831
4,039
5,105
5,747
8,728
6,869
15,643
16,589
18,911
22,438
22,406
776
854
936
1,073
1,120
4,173
5,163
6,674
11,868
6,715
1,162
1,272
1,365
1,642
1,856
12,250
15,095
19,196
25,931
28,489
7,708
7,902
10,044
12,364
9,549
418
460
597
776
690
10,590
20,261
24,494
28,268
25,871
2,658
2,496
3,819
3,321
3,692
579
588
681
834
826
18,732
22,540
27,208
30,134
29,311
1,619
1,797
1,995
2,014
1,934
417
444
560
673
645
4,960
5,435
7,288
9,372
8,498
2,714
3,078
3,437
4,051
4,656
5,099
5,524
7,146
8,722
8,996
1,922
2,334
2,828
3,619
3,041
6,276
6,559
7,746
9,482
8,874
6,219
6,472
7,445
9,239
9,696
7,149
7,928
8,629
8,752
9,174
3,397
3,645
4,246
5,338
5,281
98,881
141,275
154,068
194,690 162,901
2,554
3,083
3,724
4,656
5,179
111
127
151
178
194
8,546
9,290
11,238
13,127
12,778
844
924
954
823
655
1,176
1,364
1,629
1,916
1,901
..
..
..
..
..
242,122 255,872
276,534
267,509 279,023
25,397
33,503
41,985
52,236
49,255
2,702
2,684
2,991
2,833
2,874
14,114
14,331
16,839
20,731
21,385
2,073
2,180
2,478
2,892
2,850
8,771
9,679
11,664
14,161
15,711
6,761
9,506
10,026
12,982
11,444
5,308
4,890
4,654
3,879
5,213
332,058 390,836
469,628
580,537 542,401
97,259 112,669
134,004
169,689 139,577
89,432 108,015
131,650
164,196 188,575
43,719
57,559
74,070
93,533
61,985
58,760
64,703
74,246
87,411
89,489
27,309
29,553
33,625
38,471
37,328
952,088 1,123,145 1,301,612 1,531,638 1,456,113

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

0.9
–1.0
2.8
..
2.1
10.8
4.8
1.9
9.0
..
7.8
5.5
7.9
–6.8
1.9
1.3
..
..
..
5.8
–0.1
1.6
2.9
..
3.4
2.6
–0.2
–3.2
–6.0
2.2
2.8
4.8
9.1
–5.6
0.2
0.1
–12.5
8.5
..
6.1
8.9
–4.8
5.5
4.2
9.7
..
..
4.6
20.7
–4.1
–0.2
4.9
4.5
7.5
..
3.3
2.0
2.1

1.8
1.5
1.1
–2.4
3.7
4.2
0.0
–3.3
–2.4
6.2
–4.3
–1.2
–2.0
–7.0
–5.2
3.3
1.3
16.9
7.3
–5.8
–1.9
3.7
2.6
3.3
–0.7
8.3
1.5
..
3.8
0.2
0.1
1.8
5.7
8.6
4.5
–1.7
3.7
–2.0
..
–1.6
5.9
1.5
..
2.2
1.9
4.5
10.6
–0.1
9.1
0.7
–1.7
5.4
–1.3
11.2
..
5.3
6.0
3.0

15.1
16.7
15.4
33.5
13.8
11.0
14.2
8.5
12.0
13.8
9.5
20.7
12.0
12.0
18.1
10.7
8.4
35.3
13.7
17.0
13.2
8.5
25.3
1.9
20.2
12.0
11.5
6.3
9.6
11.1
17.0
15.3
8.9
11.9
12.8
13.8
20.8
15.1
..
13.6
4.0
13.3
..
12.2
20.9
10.7
9.3
10.2
12.5
19.2
–4.0
11.8
15.1
7.6
22.8
11.7
9.1
13.9

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

13

Table

2.7

Gross national income,
World Bank Atlas method

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

248,179
183,411
122,461
..
1,433
860
2,016
897
4,613
..
785
929
..
14,859
1,471
9,319
..
..
..
..
3,337
243
4,643
..
115
7,446
502
849
4,018
1,169
1,752
719
1,203
..
..
2,442
55,754
1,298
..
2,977
134
1,074
656
69,282
7,909
..
..
1,137
..
3,610
6,692
101,468
38,814
21,726
..
18,734
8,689
353,620

296,836
177,652
152,211
7,700
1,723
3,311
2,923
1,187
10,553
334
1,384
1,504
234
7,912
2,185
9,253
..
124
..
11,542
4,577
292
5,847
2,588
219
8,848
879
..
2,785
1,723
2,270
1,102
2,579
2,338
2,300
2,368
25,520
2,546
..
5,046
351
768
959
119,309
12,988
940
4,836
1,516
5,396
3,491
9,014
161,543
61,138
42,481
..
24,777
11,649
462,592

372,146
240,847
184,869
10,678
2,985
6,616
3,684
623
11,393
678
1,003
1,999
270
5,455
2,365
11,191
675
1,232
707
8,162
4,727
369
6,549
3,096
235
14,032
987
342
4,858
2,290
3,477
1,310
5,164
4,491
4,292
2,382
55,622
1,806
..
5,878
620
1,026
..
131,765
15,277
1,418
11,853
1,561
6,548
4,007
5,186
255,081
62,070
92,987
26,540
44,364
22,258
627,017

Current prices
($ millions)
2004
2005

464,775
296,269
222,371
14,638
3,708
7,991
4,634
666
14,184
807
1,187
3,254
326
6,365
2,687
13,655
754
1,928
818
9,942
5,357
392
8,144
3,424
358
16,078
1,211
365
5,184
2,813
4,366
1,532
6,158
5,186
5,537
2,812
73,423
2,037
..
7,378
680
1,086
..
169,056
18,512
1,804
13,314
1,877
7,692
4,593
5,289
279,856
73,991
90,595
28,216
53,199
26,325
744,930

2006

2007

2008

2009a

582,430
688,914 784,038 902,495 950,647
354,076
428,060 506,838
617,236
667,916
265,832
307,548 363,836 439,072 482,054
21,938
32,662
45,510
60,022
69,373
4,316
4,606
5,091
6,062
6,715
9,506
10,640
11,477
12,592
12,211
5,527
5,990
6,399
7,242
8,036
723
843
956
1,093
1,232
16,293
17,783
19,489
21,731
23,189
1,001
1,119
1,257
1,411
1,520
1,358
1,470
1,602
1,799
1,975
4,218
4,625
5,213
5,845
6,692
390
411
435
483
531
6,950
7,741
8,899
9,702
10,609
3,456
4,414
5,238
7,158
7,671
15,689
16,521
17,770
20,252
22,545
803
864
925
1,029
1,106
3,170
4,296
6,236
9,874
8,398
1,019
1,163
1,312
1,368
1,620
12,172
14,272
17,525
22,441
27,149
7,009
7,398
9,175
10,606
10,869
417
456
537
668
743
10,018
13,302
18,374
26,845
28,383
3,272
2,921
3,090
3,328
3,771
580
609
641
732
826
18,607
21,046
24,831
28,305
30,269
1,523
1,819
1,941
2,075
2,036
407
431
531
645
651
5,377
5,353
6,359
7,911
8,533
2,828
3,094
3,382
3,913
4,433
5,194
5,546
6,534
7,723
8,862
1,797
2,043
2,532
3,153
3,250
6,658
6,935
7,535
8,523
9,243
6,107
6,663
7,437
8,552
9,964
6,863
7,966
8,567
9,071
9,264
3,347
3,703
4,029
4,821
5,199
87,677
119,729
142,074 177,005 184,656
2,469
2,896
3,403
4,252
4,896
117
130
145
164
185
8,684
9,327
10,368
11,960
13,062
803
909
1,004
915
746
1,200
1,341
1,543
1,788
1,938
..
..
..
..
..
228,919
261,586
278,167 286,605 284,270
22,943
29,254
36,800
46,260
51,524
2,542
2,685
2,930
2,991
2,932
14,699
15,366
16,636
18,992
21,411
2,104
2,253
2,382
2,652
2,883
8,678
10,153
11,280
13,163
15,200
5,847
7,222
9,117
11,929
12,473
5,357
5,157
4,858
3,958
4,564
316,979
362,189 420,732 502,217 546,929
89,341
104,132 122,798 146,510 154,202
92,761
101,678 120,059 146,909
172,048
37,258
49,554
63,057
77,898
77,185
60,341
66,321
70,682
80,878
89,933
28,750
30,761
32,816
36,510
38,845
900,271 1,052,308 1,206,017 1,405,886 1,498,551

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

0.8
–1.2
2.1
..
1.1
9.4
3.4
3.6
8.7
..
6.9
4.5
10.5
–8.4
2.2
0.8
..
..
..
6.4
0.3
0.7
4.0
..
3.4
2.4
2.5
–3.2
–4.3
2.0
1.2
4.8
7.6
–2.2
0.2
–0.3
–10.9
8.2
..
5.0
9.5
–6.6
5.9
4.5
10.0
..
..
3.2
21.2
–6.1
0.1
5.8
6.3
8.6
..
1.9
2.0
2.4

1.6
1.1
0.8
–2.3
3.2
5.1
–1.1
–4.1
–1.5
6.3
–4.1
–0.6
–1.7
–5.7
–5.8
2.9
0.6
15.5
4.2
–4.9
–1.4
3.5
1.9
4.1
–1.1
5.7
2.4
..
4.1
0.7
0.6
3.1
6.3
6.6
5.4
–2.4
2.7
–3.5
..
–1.0
5.9
0.6
..
2.3
0.4
7.3
7.2
–0.3
6.3
–0.2
–2.3
4.2
–2.5
9.5
..
4.7
6.2
2.5

15.0
16.5
14.6
34.9
13.3
11.3
13.6
6.0
11.6
13.4
8.8
20.4
11.7
12.2
18.8
9.9
8.5
37.4
11.9
14.9
13.8
6.8
21.7
0.8
20.4
11.2
11.1
5.8
9.1
11.7
16.2
13.7
8.7
10.7
13.5
13.1
22.8
11.9
..
12.3
5.6
12.5
..
12.2
20.5
10.0
8.8
9.4
11.1
18.7
–4.0
10.6
15.2
5.7
20.7
11.0
8.8
13.3

a. Provisional.

14

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.8

Gross national income per capita,
World Bank Atlas method

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

640
509
429
..
400
870
290
220
510
..
350
200
..
550
810
1,110
..
..
..
..
4,900
390
420
..
140
460
390
440
470
190
240
470
1,250
..
..
410
750
250
..
530
2,080
330
100
2,510
390
..
..
410
..
630
920
1,100
2,060
490
..
960
1,360
737

576
370
397
720
360
2,450
330
210
860
940
470
250
540
210
890
730
..
330
..
240
4,940
330
390
420
210
380
550
..
250
180
260
550
2,440
170
1,620
300
260
360
..
670
5,020
190
150
3,390
480
1,090
190
390
300
440
860
1,342
2,420
740
..
1,000
1,430
727

513
354
339
680
410
3,690
290
90
670
1,470
250
210
470
100
730
610
870
2,140
170
120
3,590
260
310
350
170
410
500
110
290
180
310
460
4,220
230
2,220
200
410
210
..
550
7,490
220
..
2,860
410
1,280
320
270
240
360
410
1,683
1,950
1,250
4,670
1,490
2,260
715

Current prices
($)
2004
2005

625
425
397
910
490
4,400
350
90
810
1,720
290
340
550
110
800
720
950
3,250
190
140
3,990
260
380
380
250
460
610
110
300
210
380
530
4,990
260
2,810
220
530
230
..
670
8,240
220
..
3,620
490
1,620
350
320
280
400
420
1,818
2,290
1,200
4,860
1,760
2,650
830

764
495
463
1,320
550
5,170
400
100
910
2,100
330
420
650
120
1,010
820
1,000
5,210
230
160
5,120
270
460
350
390
520
760
120
310
210
440
600
5,350
290
3,420
260
620
270
760
770
9,680
240
..
4,850
590
2,260
380
350
300
500
430
2,026
2,720
1,200
6,290
1,980
2,870
980

2006

2007

2008

2009a

882
583
522
1,910
570
5,710
420
110
980
2,310
350
450
670
130
1,270
840
1,050
6,870
250
190
5,300
290
590
310
400
570
900
120
300
220
460
670
5,540
310
3,890
270
830
310
840
810
10,740
250
..
5,480
740
2,360
380
370
340
600
410
2,278
3,120
1,290
8,200
2,150
3,040
1,119

979
673
602
2,590
610
6,060
430
120
1,040
2,560
380
490
690
140
1,470
880
1,110
9,710
270
220
6,450
330
800
320
420
660
960
150
340
230
530
810
5,980
340
4,100
280
960
360
920
870
11,800
280
..
5,760
910
2,540
400
380
370
740
390
2,605
3,630
1,500
10,220
2,260
3,210
1,253

1,100
800
707
3,330
700
6,550
480
140
1,140
2,830
410
540
750
150
1,980
980
1,210
14,980
280
280
7,320
400
1,150
340
460
730
1,010
170
410
260
610
980
6,720
380
4,260
330
1,170
440
1,020
980
10,530
320
..
5,870
1,120
2,560
450
410
420
950
320
3,060
4,260
1,800
12,380
2,560
3,540
1,428

1,130
844
757
3,750
750
6,260
510
150
1,190
3,010
450
600
810
160
2,080
1,070
1,280
12,420
320
330
7,370
440
1,190
370
510
760
980
160
430
290
680
990
7,250
440
4,270
340
1,190
490
1,130
1,040
8,480
340
..
5,760
1,220
2,470
490
440
460
960
360
3,280
4,420
2,070
12,020
2,810
3,720
1,487

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

–2.0
–4.0
–0.8
..
–1.9
6.0
1.0
0.3
5.4
..
4.2
1.7
7.4
–11.1
–0.8
–3.3
..
..
..
3.3
–2.7
–3.1
0.9
..
1.3
–1.3
0.3
–4.8
–6.8
–2.5
–0.6
2.1
6.7
–2.7
–3.5
–3.0
–13.2
4.3
..
1.9
8.6
–8.8
6.0
1.9
6.8
..
..
–0.5
17.0
–9.0
–3.6
3.0
3.2
5.7
..
–0.6
–0.5
–0.5

–1.1
–1.6
–1.9
–5.0
–0.2
2.5
–3.9
–5.3
–4.1
4.0
–6.4
–3.6
–3.9
–8.5
–7.8
–0.3
–2.1
11.5
1.7
–7.6
–4.2
–0.4
–0.9
0.8
–3.3
2.5
0.7
..
1.0
–1.3
–1.4
0.4
5.0
3.5
2.8
–5.5
0.1
–3.6
..
–3.6
4.3
0.8
..
0.0
–2.2
4.9
4.1
–3.0
3.1
–3.0
–4.1
2.3
–4.4
7.4
..
3.1
4.5
–0.1

12.2
13.6
11.7
31.1
9.7
9.8
9.8
3.3
9.1
11.6
6.9
16.6
9.3
9.1
16.2
7.6
6.5
33.7
7.8
11.7
11.5
3.5
19.0
–1.2
17.2
8.4
10.1
1.8
6.0
8.2
13.3
10.9
7.9
7.9
11.3
9.1
19.9
9.3
..
9.4
4.7
8.8
..
10.9
18.0
8.9
5.9
6.7
7.5
15.8
–4.0
8.8
13.5
3.7
18.2
9.7
7.7
10.7

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

15

Table

2.9

Gross domestic product deflator (local currency series)

Index
(2000 = 100)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

20
20
20
..
38
14
52
21
34
..
32
46
36
0
29
39
..
..
..
..
35
15
0
..
0
10
13
2
4
2
35
20
22
0
11
49
2
20
..
39
56
0
..
9
0
13
..
35
..
0
181
21
6
13
..
35
30
20

40
41
42
0
50
43
76
31
58
66
70
60
70
0
38
50
69
24
..
49
53
64
11
48
6
24
40
2
21
7
57
42
55
6
34
63
7
33
..
63
87
5
..
38
1
40
14
58
29
1
154
54
16
43
..
68
64
42

118
117
117
931
113
116
111
120
106
106
105
116
119
722
81
111
104
87
161
102
93
170
213
112
199
109
126
145
127
223
117
119
120
131
124
107
162
119
..
107
117
106
..
126
122
123
122
101
109
180
112
111
111
112
166
103
107
117

127
127
127
1,329
113
129
115
130
107
113
106
127
121
766
95
112
108
102
192
106
99
191
244
130
198
117
134
146
145
256
116
133
127
141
127
108
195
135
..
107
121
126
..
134
140
130
131
105
126
214
120
123
123
125
224
104
110
127

140
139
139
1,780
116
141
115
151
110
109
109
130
124
931
115
116
111
145
260
117
116
199
280
166
208
122
142
166
172
285
119
157
133
153
134
115
234
147
..
110
142
142
..
141
157
139
139
106
124
251
126
133
143
133
279
105
114
139

149
148
147
2,041
122
168
115
158
115
109
114
148
126
1,053
136
122
115
166
287
130
125
202
506
228
203
132
153
181
192
344
124
193
142
167
146
116
280
161
..
114
144
156
..
150
167
152
147
106
127
285
121
143
159
143
321
107
118
148

164
164
162
2,126
126
186
119
171
117
110
117
156
133
1,276
137
125
121
164
304
153
132
216
589
258
215
139
174
210
210
371
133
207
154
180
159
120
293
182
..
121
170
172
..
163
180
169
160
107
136
318
122
161
171
161
367
111
123
163

189
192
189
2,606
135
217
126
214
122
111
124
174
140
1,523
171
135
132
203
406
200
151
229
708
294
238
155
197
232
229
404
145
233
164
194
182
129
325
205
..
128
218
192
..
178
217
186
176
114
145
355
124
181
196
181
460
118
129
186

195
196
195
2,455
136
205
130
243
118
115
129
153
147
1,983
136
137
134
135
443
248
123
234
826
310
241
166
204
249
248
437
151
218
167
201
194
135
323
228
..
127
280
204
..
191
216
196
189
116
169
400
156
178
178
200
309
120
133
194

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

26
27
27
0
47
23
67
24
50
60
54
55
54
0
39
50
..
26
..
42
44
31
3
31
1
16
22
2
10
3
50
29
34
1
19
63
3
25
..
55
70
1
..
18
0
19
10
49
4
0
161
33
9
20
..
50
46
26

67
68
69
3
73
66
84
51
79
81
83
78
82
2
50
75
85
41
66
79
63
82
37
77
47
57
68
22
54
29
79
75
76
45
55
78
41
70
..
81
92
41
..
65
35
69
46
78
70
32
122
77
50
73
84
84
82
69

140
140
139
1,404
118
150
114
150
110
108
112
133
123
948
114
117
113
128
241
134
113
179
377
180
180
124
146
168
165
275
122
158
133
151
140
114
217
147
..
112
151
140
..
141
151
142
138
106
124
238
118
134
138
136
248
107
114
139

a. Provisional.

16

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.10

Gross domestic product deflator
(U.S. dollar series)

Index
(2000 = 100)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

120
146
126
..
130
88
175
164
106
..
108
155
91
205
98
132
..
..
..
..
119
113
168
..
97
103
114
69
130
124
116
102
75
143
95
165
204
85
..
131
50
119
..
85
138
115
..
118
..
142
181
94
120
60
..
94
101
111

110
116
126
121
131
112
199
131
127
112
183
157
138
122
100
130
69
64
..
194
138
104
180
128
131
81
107
89
94
151
149
125
97
99
91
165
81
154
..
165
93
64
..
101
176
108
56
152
134
109
154
97
134
66
..
88
100
104

117
118
115
125
138
120
136
80
120
130
129
142
146
123
99
136
104
107
111
97
114
80
134
98
244
109
116
100
139
136
144
108
113
85
114
131
127
86
..
130
123
95
..
115
120
113
94
124
84
119
112
91
108
76
67
114
114
106

137
133
129
160
153
140
155
85
134
152
142
172
163
134
127
150
108
137
134
100
134
81
148
102
267
112
144
109
105
140
157
124
121
96
136
146
150
91
..
144
126
97
..
144
139
140
96
141
105
140
120
98
128
69
88
124
121
121

152
151
141
205
157
141
155
101
137
147
148
176
167
136
155
157
111
196
163
110
157
89
168
80
280
123
155
119
116
143
161
141
118
103
146
156
181
103
..
148
148
103
..
154
165
151
99
143
105
175
126
108
147
76
106
126
120
134

167
175
160
255
167
147
156
111
144
148
156
202
172
155
185
166
115
227
180
122
171
92
301
75
277
139
157
128
121
150
169
172
118
102
150
158
223
114
..
155
150
110
..
154
197
156
94
144
105
246
121
119
165
85
128
129
121
147

181
193
179
278
187
155
177
114
160
163
174
232
197
171
203
186
121
244
190
139
196
111
342
109
320
157
171
140
152
158
198
191
129
107
157
178
237
130
..
179
145
121
..
160
229
166
103
160
116
247
122
134
186
96
154
144
131
162

197
225
209
349
214
164
200
130
179
177
198
277
223
187
272
215
132
323
254
169
241
132
365
93
379
171
165
150
182
171
230
233
152
124
153
205
279
146
..
201
132
134
..
149
267
156
118
182
129
295
124
158
228
112
193
161
144
181

184
198
191
311
205
149
196
142
164
174
195
230
221
166
205
206
134
192
278
172
185
113
320
102
363
163
162
149
172
185
227
199
137
115
160
204
221
156
..
192
118
128
..
157
241
163
115
175
134
247
156
143
184
124
126
158
135
167

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

106
119
116
95
103
77
147
153
102
95
117
121
89
133
84
108
..
54
..
167
96
91
177
117
105
86
95
76
108
118
108
108
72
157
79
137
127
112
..
120
65
98
..
88
196
87
69
106
157
111
161
91
128
62
..
72
89
100

109
105
113
91
116
110
135
123
125
117
143
129
125
126
81
123
85
65
99
151
104
109
166
136
116
86
120
101
101
132
132
140
106
93
97
127
76
123
..
136
103
99
..
115
122
123
72
131
109
111
122
93
101
76
93
99
111
102

142
150
142
198
154
132
149
104
133
140
145
176
161
141
152
153
113
170
160
119
148
98
209
94
242
127
134
118
132
145
160
147
118
100
129
149
174
109
..
146
126
109
..
130
167
131
101
137
105
178
118
113
144
91
111
125
119
130

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

17

Table

2.11

Consumer price index

Annual growth
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

..
..
..
13.6
12.2
2.5
9.6
..
..
..
..
46.6
..
14.7
12.1
..
..
4.5
12.3
6.8
50.1
..
..
13.9
16.3
14.7
18.2
..
..
..
42.0
..
..
10.3
10.0
7.2
..
8.7
13.6
..
..
13.7
25.4
18.7
30.2
12.3
..
..
5.4
..
9.5
20.8
9.7
9.4
..
..

..
..
..
11.4
–0.5
7.0
1.1
10.7
0.0
–0.7
..
81.3
2.9
–0.8
..
0.9
..
5.2
7.7
12.2
37.3
..
33.0
17.8
11.6
..
11.8
11.8
0.6
6.6
13.5
47.0
..
–0.8
7.4
4.2
..
0.3
3.9
..
..
14.3
65.2
13.1
35.8
1.0
33.1
107.0
17.4
..
16.7
16.8
8.5
6.8
6.5
..

..
98.2
1.5
9.2
2.0
10.8
0.6
1.2
4.1
–1.8
..
12.9
–0.6
3.3
2.0
7.3
..
17.8
2.2
17.0
26.7
..
–3.5
9.8
6.7
..
–1.2
9.6
–1.3
5.2
3.9
13.4
7.2
–1.6
14.0
7.4
..
0.0
3.3
..
..
5.9
7.7
7.3
5.3
–1.0
8.7
21.4
431.7
..
2.6
4.5
–2.2
1.2
2.7
..

..
43.5
0.9
6.9
–0.4
7.9
0.2
–1.9
–2.1
–5.4
..
4.0
2.4
1.4
3.1
4.2
..
3.3
0.4
14.2
12.6
..
0.9
11.6
5.0
..
13.8
11.4
–3.1
10.4
4.7
12.7
4.1
0.3
15.0
12.3
..
0.5
3.9
..
..
1.4
8.4
3.4
4.7
0.4
3.7
18.0
282.4
..
3.6
11.3
–2.2
1.5
3.6
..

..
23.0
5.4
8.6
6.4
13.5
2.0
0.4
2.9
7.9
..
21.3
3.1
3.9
3.1
5.6
..
11.6
3.7
4.8
15.1
..
3.3
10.3
3.4
..
18.5
15.4
6.4
12.1
4.9
7.2
2.3
7.8
17.9
9.0
..
1.7
0.9
..
..
3.4
8.5
4.8
5.0
6.8
8.4
18.3
302.1
..
1.6
4.9
2.7
1.0
2.0
..

..
13.3
3.8
11.6
2.3
2.8
5.1
5.4
6.7
8.0
..
13.1
6.5
2.5
3.5
4.4
..
12.3
–1.4
2.1
10.9
..
2.0
14.5
6.0
..
10.8
14.0
1.5
6.2
8.9
13.2
5.1
0.0
8.2
8.9
..
2.1
–0.4
..
..
4.6
7.2
5.3
7.3
2.2
7.3
9.0
1,096.7
..
2.5
7.6
1.5
3.3
4.5
..

..
12.2
1.3
7.1
–0.2
8.3
0.9
4.4
0.9
–9.0
..
16.9
2.7
1.9
5.0
2.8
..
17.2
5.0
5.4
10.7
..
4.6
9.8
8.0
..
10.3
8.0
1.4
7.3
8.8
8.2
6.7
0.1
5.4
9.1
..
5.9
5.3
11.6
..
7.1
8.0
9.5
7.0
1.0
6.1
10.7
24,411.0
..
3.5
9.3
6.3
2.0
3.1
..

2008

..
12.5
7.9
12.7
10.7
24.1
5.3
6.8
9.3
10.3
..
17.3
7.3
6.3
12.0
6.6
..
44.4
5.3
4.5
16.5
18.4
10.5
26.2
10.7
..
9.2
8.7
9.2
7.3
9.7
10.3
10.4
11.3
11.6
15.4
..
5.8
37.0
14.8
..
11.5
14.3
13.4
10.3
8.7
11.6
12.4
..
..
4.4
18.3
10.4
3.7
4.9
..

2009a

..
13.7
2.2
8.0
2.6
11.0
3.0
1.0
3.5
10.0
..
..
5.0
1.0
1.7
..
..
8.5
1.9
4.6
19.3
4.7
–1.7
9.2
7.2
..
9.0
8.4
2.2
2.2
2.5
3.3
8.8
4.3
11.5
10.4
..
–1.1
31.8
9.3
..
7.1
11.2
7.3
12.1
2.0
13.4
13.4
..
..
5.7
11.8
2.5
1.0
3.8
..

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

..
..
..
10.8
5.0
7.2
9.1
6.7
3.6
3.0
..
57.0
1.0
6.7
5.3
–5.5
..
4.6
6.5
17.5
48.3
..
70.5
11.8
13.9
5.6
18.6
16.8
–0.1
7.5
11.2
–3.2
..
3.6
20.9
4.7
..
6.9
4.0
..
..
14.6
36.2
15.0
30.1
5.0
111.2
69.3
12.8
..
9.0
17.4
7.9
7.6
7.6
..

..
1,122.5
9.7
10.8
4.5
13.5
5.6
6.4
3.9
5.5
..
3,367.2
–3.5
6.0
..
6.6
..
8.0
3.7
5.4
27.6
..
37.5
17.4
–1.7
..
17.3
31.0
4.2
6.4
7.6
34.5
..
4.3
30.6
–3.4
..
4.5
2.0
..
..
9.9
80.4
9.5
23.1
7.1
13.0
76.2
28.6
..
18.6
10.5
6.7
4.4
4.9
..

..
80.3
3.4
8.7
3.0
11.1
2.6
2.0
3.5
4.2
..
110.1
3.0
3.0
3.6
5.8
..
10.9
2.0
6.6
18.5
11.5
3.1
10.9
7.7
..
10.5
14.3
2.6
6.3
6.0
10.7
6.4
3.2
12.2
8.2
..
2.1
9.4
11.9
..
6.1
8.7
8.1
6.8
2.9
6.4
17.3
3,349.6
..
3.0
7.5
–0.3
1.9
3.2
..

a. Provisional.

18

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.12

Price indexes

Inflation, GDP deflator
(annual %)
2008
2009a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

10.6
10.8
10.6
22.6
7.1
17.0
5.8
25.1
4.2
1.0
6.2
11.9
5.5
19.4
25.1
8.1
9.5
23.7
33.4
30.5
14.7
6.2
20.2
14.1
10.6
11.9
13.4
10.4
9.2
8.9
8.7
12.4
7.0
8.2
14.3
7.7
11.0
12.7
23.1
5.9
28.5
11.2
..
9.2
21.0
10.1
10.1
6.5
6.5
11.5
2.3
12.2
14.6
12.2
25.4
5.9
5.4
10.8

4.3
4.1
4.3
–5.8
1.2
–5.7
3.1
13.6
–3.4
3.8
3.9
–12.4
4.6
30.2
–20.4
1.3
1.7
–33.5
9.3
24.4
–19.0
2.4
16.7
5.2
1.1
6.7
3.4
7.4
8.3
8.4
4.3
–6.2
1.5
3.3
6.5
4.9
–0.6
11.0
15.6
–0.5
28.6
6.3
..
7.3
–0.8
5.5
7.4
1.3
16.5
12.7
25.3
1.8
–9.4
10.8
–32.8
1.8
2.9
3.8

Consumer price index
(2000 = 100)
2008
2009a

126.6
126.7
126.6
143.0
113.5
134.6
113.0
138.2
111.7
117.5
117.7
108.5
..
155.1
117.4
111.0
121.6
114.4
..
190.1
109.0
112.3
143.1
118.4
117.8
158.6
126.8
..
133.5
133.8
112.4
122.3
130.1
135.1
123.7
111.4
127.3
137.1
1,171.2
114.3
143.8
128.2
..
125.0
132.3
130.7
126.6
112.2
127.2
135.7
..
113.1
110.9
139.2
119.0
109.3
113.1
124.4

134.2
134.6
134.0
162.7
115.9
145.4
115.9
153.4
115.2
118.6
121.8
119.3
..
..
123.3
112.1
123.6
..
..
206.2
111.1
117.4
170.7
123.9
115.9
173.2
135.9
..
145.4
145.0
114.9
125.0
133.4
139.5
134.6
116.2
142.0
151.3
..
113.1
189.4
140.1
..
133.9
147.2
140.3
142.0
114.4
144.3
153.8
..
117.4
117.2
155.6
121.9
110.4
117.4
133.4

Exports of goods and
services price index
(2000 = 100)
2008
2009a

..
..
..
..
..
138.8
..
..
338.8
74.2
..
..
..
179.4
..
194.2
..
..
..
145.0
330.3
121.3
..
139.1
..
174.8
130.4
..
151.0
..
..
..
142.7
113.8
175.5
..
..
..
..
183.3
96.9
..
..
196.5
255.0
97.2
137.4
..
108.0
..
187.3
..
292.8
92.2
..
176.3
198.7
..

..
..
..
..
..
135.2
..
..
271.8
70.4
..
..
..
64.1
..
158.6
..
..
..
138.4
207.2
108.5
..
179.2
..
168.1
136.0
..
135.3
..
..
..
126.6
85.5
184.1
..
..
..
..
178.1
73.1
..
..
194.1
..
103.4
125.9
..
99.5
..
201.5
..
216.7
94.6
..
159.2
168.9
..

Imports of goods and
services price index
(2000 = 100)
2008
2009a

173.0
..
178.1
..
..
159.8
..
..
296.7
126.5
..
..
..
127.8
..
211.5
..
..
..
135.4
204.3
170.5
..
165.7
..
163.6
87.1
..
164.0
..
..
..
185.1
211.2
136.1
..
..
..
..
198.8
96.9
..
..
168.0
254.3
97.2
129.7
..
153.9
..
217.9
160.1
188.8
90.9
..
188.5
204.5
167.6

153.9
..
..
..
..
163.5
..
..
254.4
120.0
..
..
..
74.6
..
165.0
..
..
..
120.1
166.6
152.1
..
181.3
..
146.8
86.5
..
153.3
..
..
..
156.4
173.3
133.2
..
..
..
..
193.8
73.1
..
..
153.7
..
103.4
105.5
..
148.0
..
196.2
152.8
209.7
105.6
..
160.0
159.4
153.4

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

19

Table

2.13

Gross domestic savings

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeriab
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

25.3
..
11.7
..
–6.3
26.7
–7.2
–0.6
21.7
..
–8.9
..
–10.1
10.1
35.7
20.4
..
..
..
..
60.6
5.8
4.9
..
–1.0
18.1
–52.0
14.8
–1.4
10.8
1.1
–3.5
10.4
–8.9
38.4
14.6
..
4.2
..
2.1
27.1
0.9
–12.9
37.9
2.1
1.2
..
23.2
–0.4
19.3
13.8
22.8
43.1
15.2
..
14.9
24.0
24.2

17.1
11.7
11.7
29.7
2.2
42.6
5.4
–5.4
20.7
–8.1
–0.6
–7.7
–3.2
9.3
23.8
11.3
–10.4
–20.1
..
9.6
36.9
10.7
5.5
22.2
2.8
18.5
–49.1
..
5.5
13.4
6.4
4.9
23.0
–5.8
18.2
1.2
..
6.2
..
2.4
20.3
8.7
–12.5
23.2
8.2
5.3
1.3
14.7
0.6
16.6
17.5
20.8
27.1
16.1
27.2
19.9
20.0
18.8

16.0
13.4
13.4
19.2
6.0
41.0
4.5
–8.7
17.8
–15.8
1.6
18.0
–3.4
5.0
30.9
21.0
5.3
80.1
–40.9
7.7
48.2
11.1
7.0
21.5
..
10.5
–25.9
–3.2
8.9
3.2
13.3
–5.0
24.9
3.5
10.3
5.0
..
0.4
..
8.8
21.5
–3.7
..
19.0
15.7
18.1
16.1
5.3
7.2
13.0
2.3
27.2
44.9
14.3
46.8
24.5
21.2
21.0

15.9
14.2
14.2
25.1
5.5
40.5
1.8
–11.0
18.5
–1.5
0.0
24.5
–8.5
4.0
52.2
20.0
4.3
78.9
–41.5
8.8
54.6
8.9
7.3
18.4
..
10.8
–25.7
–0.7
8.5
0.0
8.6
–3.1
22.0
7.7
16.8
3.9
..
1.4
..
7.9
14.7
–0.4
..
17.8
18.7
13.5
15.2
4.5
10.1
19.9
–2.8
27.7
47.7
15.6
42.7
24.2
21.2
21.2

15.7
14.2
14.2
37.9
6.9
43.1
4.8
–23.1
18.1
4.4
0.1
35.1
–12.3
5.9
52.0
17.2
8.6
83.7
–27.2
2.6
58.3
4.0
3.7
18.3
..
9.5
–27.9
2.4
4.9
–5.5
11.0
–15.0
16.5
6.5
19.8
13.4
..
2.0
..
14.1
3.1
4.1
..
17.5
19.0
11.2
14.0
1.5
11.7
21.8
–7.6
29.9
54.9
15.7
48.1
23.2
21.4
22.1

15.9
14.6
14.6
49.1
6.9
40.4
2.8
–19.9
18.9
5.0
1.4
36.4
–14.8
–0.6
43.3
19.6
12.1
86.1
–17.2
1.5
56.0
11.2
6.1
13.9
..
8.1
–23.6
–34.6
9.3
1.2
14.8
18.6
15.3
8.8
20.6
..
..
1.8
..
10.7
8.1
7.6
..
17.2
18.6
11.5
11.0
..
8.1
31.5
–9.8
33.5
56.6
17.1
66.8
24.0
21.5
23.8

16.7
15.2
15.2
45.0
6.1
37.8
..
..
18.5
5.8
1.5
20.5
–15.4
8.8
49.6
14.6
17.4
86.9
–17.7
4.2
55.3
6.6
3.8
9.7
..
8.0
–27.1
–142.5
10.6
18.9
13.0
8.0
16.6
6.3
22.4
..
..
3.5
..
8.6
–1.7
6.1
..
18.3
26.7
12.7
12.6
..
8.8
30.5
–1.6
32.8
57.5
16.3
63.6
23.4
22.0
24.0

16.1
13.3
13.3
41.1
7.1
32.3
..
..
..
9.2
–1.0
27.4
–20.1
8.6
48.4
17.9
..
72.8
..
0.4
58.9
6.1
2.0
10.3
..
6.1
–25.3
–121.5
9.9
8.9
..
5.6
12.5
1.6
21.4
..
..
7.0
..
3.6
6.0
1.7
..
18.9
26.8
–0.2
10.3
..
15.3
25.1
–22.6
33.7
56.7
16.8
67.8
24.7
22.4
24.3

15.5
12.5
12.5
20.8
10.7
13.0
..
..
..
12.0
2.7
5.9
–21.1
17.7
45.5
19.2
..
72.2
..
4.1
47.3
6.3
8.7
16.9
..
7.8
–29.1
..
8.9
17.2
..
7.4
10.8
2.2
13.9
..
..
4.2
..
8.0
15.9
2.3
..
18.6
19.4
0.2
17.9
..
12.5
25.6
–26.9
23.8
45.5
12.4
..
25.1
23.5
19.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

20.1
11.9
11.8
24.0
–2.4
35.3
–1.6
3.1
24.2
–2.2
–1.1
–8.1
–4.5
10.9
31.9
19.6
..
..
..
10.5
44.3
6.5
4.8
16.6
–0.9
18.3
–69.5
2.2
2.9
12.7
–0.4
3.1
20.3
–6.2
10.8
7.3
..
5.0
..
4.3
24.1
9.1
–6.3
28.5
4.2
3.7
..
12.3
2.3
14.0
16.5
20.3
31.5
15.5
..
16.7
22.7
20.2

15.4
11.7
11.7
22.0
3.8
38.8
9.0
–5.2
18.5
–5.6
3.7
–0.5
–4.9
8.8
28.8
17.8
–6.4
13.7
–29.7
9.7
43.6
7.4
7.5
18.3
1.5
14.6
–37.6
..
4.2
3.4
7.6
2.4
24.1
–2.9
12.7
2.7
..
–5.5
..
5.4
21.7
2.8
–12.5
19.4
9.6
2.0
2.9
6.7
4.3
9.0
17.1
19.2
30.1
14.2
17.6
17.8
22.3
17.1

16.0
13.7
13.7
31.9
6.5
36.5
2.6
–12.3
18.8
–2.6
2.0
13.8
–11.1
6.1
48.3
19.4
5.7
79.5
–29.2
5.7
53.2
8.8
5.9
15.1
–13.2
8.7
–26.4
–38.4
9.2
5.4
12.2
0.9
19.6
6.0
17.1
5.9
..
2.4
..
8.9
13.3
–1.6
..
18.5
18.4
9.4
13.7
1.8
9.5
18.1
–3.9
27.9
49.1
14.8
46.6
23.7
22.2
21.4

a. Provisional.
b. For 1994–2000 Nigeria’s values were distorted because the official exchange rate used by the government for oil exports and oil value added was significantly overvalued.

20

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.14

Gross national savings

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeriab
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

23.4
..
10.9
..
4.2
28.7
9.3
..
5.2
..
1.6
..
–0.4
..
26.1
8.6
..
..
..
..
47.8
16.4
6.3
..
..
17.2
49.6
13.1
–0.7
7.8
8.4
3.9
10.4
–6.6
..
17.1
..
14.0
..
2.7
32.4
2.9
20.1
33.9
4.5
..
..
27.2
1.9
7.8
12.0
25.9
41.0
21.0
..
18.6
25.3
24.5

15.8
12.8
12.8
9.0
5.3
41.6
15.9
8.7
16.2
17.8
6.2
2.3
14.4
..
6.9
–5.1
..
2.1
..
12.8
24.3
21.9
10.5
19.2
14.5
18.5
70.5
..
9.1
16.4
15.0
18.8
25.8
6.6
34.8
–0.6
..
11.3
..
1.6
21.7
–1.0
..
19.1
1.2
19.7
10.1
21.0
5.6
19.6
15.6
27.6
24.3
31.1
..
25.1
23.4
20.8

16.0
16.3
16.3
7.6
6.7
35.7
9.4
9.1
14.9
9.3
..
..
..
..
4.2
12.3
24.6
..
..
21.4
33.4
17.1
21.1
18.3
..
15.2
18.9
..
13.0
..
14.4
..
25.3
4.1
24.3
7.2
..
11.0
..
15.0
17.2
9.1
..
15.7
12.2
24.1
20.0
11.3
17.6
10.8
..
25.2
..
18.5
42.2
30.7
21.8
19.7

16.4
17.8
17.8
12.6
6.8
36.2
5.4
9.5
17.0
22.0
..
..
..
..
19.7
12.4
24.4
..
..
22.1
35.4
16.7
22.9
11.4
..
16.2
20.6
142.2
14.1
..
8.6
..
22.6
8.0
28.2
6.9
..
14.8
..
14.6
12.4
4.8
..
15.0
16.0
18.3
19.4
11.4
20.4
13.1
..
25.3
..
21.1
34.4
31.0
21.7
20.0

16.4
18.3
18.3
24.8
10.1
41.5
8.8
4.5
16.7
29.1
..
..
..
..
18.9
10.0
28.3
..
..
13.7
44.2
10.2
19.2
..
..
16.1
18.0
128.1
8.0
..
11.4
..
17.4
7.1
27.5
18.5
..
15.1
..
21.0
2.1
10.0
..
14.5
17.0
22.1
17.3
8.7
20.7
17.7
..
27.4
..
21.8
46.0
30.9
20.2
20.9

16.1
..
18.0
36.5
10.0
41.2
7.0
4.1
19.2
27.1
..
..
..
..
9.0
12.1
33.4
..
..
9.7
..
18.9
16.5
..
..
16.2
30.7
134.1
..
..
14.5
..
17.1
7.1
31.7
..
..
10.4
..
18.7
8.2
9.0
..
14.4
13.9
17.0
15.2
..
16.9
23.9
..
32.5
..
23.0
69.8
32.2
21.7
23.0

15.9
..
18.0
29.9
8.8
40.8
..
..
20.3
26.5
..
..
..
..
18.0
8.4
37.1
..
..
21.9
..
17.3
11.5
–1.6
..
16.0
39.0
–11.4
..
..
18.6
..
21.3
6.6
31.8
..
..
14.1
..
19.1
–3.9
10.3
..
14.1
17.8
20.6
16.6
..
16.2
23.1
..
32.2
..
23.6
66.5
32.3
21.0
22.7

15.5
..
16.2
23.6
10.6
34.8
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
..
..
..
12.3
..
..
..
17.1
..
10.4
8.8
1.4
..
14.2
33.5
–2.1
..
..
..
..
16.7
3.8
31.6
..
..
17.3
..
16.1
1.6
5.3
..
14.9
17.4
6.9
13.3
..
21.9
19.2
..
32.5
..
23.6
67.1
32.9
21.3
22.8

15.4
..
..
9.7
..
16.4
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
..
..
16.1
..
18.8
15.5
7.7
..
15.4
28.1
..
..
..
..
..
16.7
9.1
26.5
..
..
15.1
..
..
9.2
7.8
..
15.4
12.2
2.4
21.2
..
17.5
19.0
..
..
..
16.7
..
31.2
22.8
17.6

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

18.6
13.0
12.4
13.8
4.6
33.8
14.6
11.2
18.8
24.3
6.1
6.2
15.0
..
25.5
6.8
..
..
..
13.4
33.7
16.9
7.3
12.4
1.8
18.0
42.0
–3.5
3.0
12.5
6.1
12.2
20.2
–2.2
..
8.8
..
12.0
..
4.2
27.3
7.7
19.2
24.4
3.7
..
..
16.8
5.5
3.2
14.6
23.6
29.4
21.8
..
20.5
23.7
20.8

15.2
13.9
13.9
1.6
7.8
40.5
21.5
6.2
13.4
21.8
8.1
4.6
15.4
..
5.3
6.0
11.4
14.7
32.8
15.5
29.3
16.9
13.5
18.7
9.0
21.8
49.5
..
5.1
8.1
14.7
10.5
26.5
6.0
27.5
3.6
..
14.2
..
6.3
21.5
0.8
..
16.6
4.0
16.2
8.7
10.8
14.4
7.1
15.7
28.3
28.6
24.7
..
21.6
22.2
18.4

15.8
16.3
16.7
17.7
9.3
35.4
6.8
5.8
16.5
19.8
..
..
..
..
18.0
11.7
22.3
..
4.4
17.8
37.1
15.6
17.4
9.9
–7.3
15.1
24.9
78.2
11.8
8.9
13.1
..
21.9
7.8
27.8
8.6
..
13.4
..
16.0
10.0
5.7
..
15.2
13.0
17.1
16.9
7.0
17.6
13.0
..
28.1
..
20.3
49.7
30.6
21.9
20.0

a. Provisional.
b. For 1994–2000 Nigeria’s values were distorted because the official exchange rate used by the government for oil exports and oil value added was significantly overvalued.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

21

Table

2.15

General government final
consumption expenditure

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

15.1
..
16.1
..
8.6
21.3
9.2
9.2
9.7
..
15.1
..
30.9
8.4
17.6
16.9
..
..
..
..
13.2
31.2
11.2
..
27.6
19.8
21.8
19.1
12.1
19.3
11.6
45.3
14.0
12.2
17.4
10.4
..
12.5
..
24.8
28.7
8.4
15.6
14.3
16.0
27.0
..
22.4
..
25.5
18.5
15.9
15.2
15.7
..
18.3
14.5
15.5

17.5
15.6
15.6
34.5
11.0
24.1
21.1
10.8
12.8
14.7
14.9
10.0
24.5
11.5
13.8
16.8
31.5
39.7
..
13.2
13.4
13.7
9.3
11.0
10.3
18.6
25.8
..
8.0
15.1
13.8
25.9
13.6
13.5
30.6
15.0
..
10.1
..
18.4
27.7
7.8
..
19.7
5.8
14.3
17.8
14.2
7.5
19.0
19.4
15.1
16.1
11.3
24.4
15.5
16.4
16.4

16.4
13.8
13.8
..
13.3
22.3
22.2
22.7
10.0
14.7
11.0
7.6
14.7
6.3
17.4
8.2
29.5
3.8
50.3
13.4
10.1
11.0
11.5
8.2
..
18.1
37.4
8.5
9.2
12.4
8.4
30.1
14.2
10.2
22.2
11.3
..
13.8
..
13.3
25.5
15.6
..
19.2
10.8
15.3
15.4
9.8
15.7
14.4
17.9
14.3
14.8
12.7
13.6
18.1
15.7
15.5

16.6
14.1
14.1
..
13.6
21.1
21.6
26.1
10.2
20.6
10.5
4.9
14.3
8.2
15.0
8.3
29.7
2.9
52.9
13.1
9.3
16.9
12.2
6.9
..
17.9
37.4
10.4
6.9
12.5
10.0
21.9
14.3
10.8
20.4
12.5
..
18.4
..
13.7
28.3
13.3
..
19.4
11.8
16.0
16.9
9.7
13.9
18.1
21.0
14.1
13.8
12.8
13.1
18.7
15.4
15.5

16.7
14.2
14.2
..
15.0
22.4
22.3
26.5
10.0
20.4
13.3
5.1
13.5
8.3
13.0
8.3
27.1
2.7
37.2
12.3
8.3
18.4
15.3
7.0
..
17.4
39.2
11.1
9.0
14.3
9.9
22.7
14.8
10.4
19.3
11.5
..
18.2
..
9.6
21.3
13.8
..
19.5
18.2
15.6
17.6
11.5
14.5
9.7
15.7
13.6
11.5
12.7
11.8
19.4
15.4
15.3

16.4
13.4
13.4
..
..
19.0
22.0
28.8
9.6
22.1
11.1
4.9
14.2
7.8
13.9
8.3
28.0
2.6
35.9
12.1
8.4
18.1
11.3
8.1
..
17.5
40.4
11.5
8.7
14.6
9.9
17.5
14.2
10.7
19.5
..
..
18.1
..
9.7
19.8
13.8
..
19.7
17.3
15.3
17.5
11.3
14.1
10.2
6.2
13.0
11.2
12.3
10.7
18.5
14.7
14.9

16.0
13.1
13.1
..
..
19.4
..
..
9.2
22.4
2.7
10.3
14.3
10.4
17.1
8.7
25.1
2.3
31.4
10.4
8.9
16.0
11.6
6.8
..
17.9
38.7
14.6
12.3
14.1
10.3
21.6
13.1
11.8
20.7
..
..
16.5
..
10.0
16.0
11.8
..
19.0
15.5
14.6
19.3
9.3
12.9
10.4
3.4
12.6
11.3
11.3
11.6
18.2
14.1
14.4

16.3
..
13.2
..
..
19.8
..
..
..
20.7
6.6
12.4
15.3
11.0
12.0
8.6
..
2.6
..
9.7
8.2
15.6
11.2
9.3
..
16.7
44.0
19.3
11.2
17.3
..
18.8
13.2
12.1
20.5
..
..
14.7
..
9.7
13.3
12.5
..
19.1
15.8
23.6
20.0
..
11.2
9.0
2.1
12.3
12.9
10.9
9.3
17.1
14.4
14.4

17.6
..
13.9
..
..
24.2
..
..
..
20.8
4.5
15.6
15.3
7.9
12.2
8.6
..
3.4
..
8.2
11.6
15.9
9.6
8.0
..
16.3
50.4
..
11.5
20.9
..
20.6
14.6
13.4
24.2
..
..
14.6
..
8.7
12.2
13.8
..
21.0
13.9
27.0
19.8
..
11.4
13.1
13.8
13.3
13.9
11.4
..
18.0
13.1
15.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

16.5
15.6
15.6
31.5
12.7
24.3
15.6
9.3
10.0
13.1
15.6
11.3
28.6
9.0
17.7
16.5
..
27.4
..
11.2
18.3
29.1
9.0
11.6
18.9
18.3
23.3
22.0
9.8
17.5
12.3
30.6
12.6
13.8
27.9
11.9
..
13.0
..
19.3
33.1
7.7
17.6
17.4
11.1
21.5
..
16.9
9.9
23.0
20.1
16.6
17.2
16.2
..
16.6
16.5
16.5

16.8
14.4
14.4
40.7
10.5
26.7
22.5
17.0
10.6
17.0
13.9
8.1
20.3
9.9
18.1
11.9
31.8
25.1
39.7
9.8
13.2
13.8
11.7
8.2
8.4
15.8
33.6
..
7.9
16.6
12.7
14.5
14.0
9.7
31.0
14.6
..
11.5
..
15.0
29.0
10.6
..
19.4
6.1
17.2
14.8
12.8
11.1
17.7
17.6
15.2
16.6
10.9
24.3
17.0
16.0
16.1

16.3
13.5
13.5
..
12.9
21.4
22.3
22.9
9.9
18.6
9.8
8.4
14.7
7.9
14.5
8.1
28.0
3.3
45.4
12.6
9.7
15.3
11.2
7.6
13.1
17.0
40.2
12.9
9.5
15.0
9.4
22.5
14.0
10.7
21.5
12.2
..
15.0
..
11.3
20.8
14.3
..
19.2
13.0
18.1
16.3
10.0
14.1
11.6
14.0
13.8
13.3
11.9
14.4
18.3
15.0
15.1

a. Provisional.

22

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.16

Household final consumption
expenditure

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

58.9
..
71.6
..
97.7
52.0
98.0
91.4
68.6
..
93.7
..
79.2
81.5
46.8
62.8
..
..
..
..
26.1
63.0
83.9
..
73.3
62.1
130.2
66.1
89.3
69.9
87.4
58.2
75.6
96.7
44.2
75.1
..
83.3
..
73.1
44.2
90.7
97.3
47.8
81.9
71.8
..
54.5
..
55.2
67.7
61.3
41.7
69.2
..
66.8
61.5
60.0

65.3
72.5
72.5
35.8
86.8
33.2
73.5
94.5
66.6
93.4
85.7
97.6
78.7
79.1
62.4
71.9
78.9
80.3
..
77.2
49.7
75.6
85.2
66.9
86.9
62.8
123.3
..
86.4
71.5
79.8
69.2
63.4
92.3
51.2
83.8
..
83.7
..
79.2
52.0
83.5
..
57.1
86.1
80.4
80.9
71.1
91.9
64.4
63.1
64.1
56.8
72.6
48.4
64.6
63.6
64.7

67.7
73.0
73.0
..
80.7
36.7
73.3
85.9
72.2
101.1
87.4
74.4
88.7
88.7
51.8
70.8
65.2
16.1
90.6
78.8
41.7
78.0
81.5
70.3
..
71.3
88.6
94.7
81.9
84.4
78.3
74.9
60.9
86.3
67.5
83.7
..
85.8
..
77.9
52.9
88.1
..
61.8
73.5
66.6
68.6
84.8
77.1
72.6
79.8
58.5
40.4
73.0
39.5
57.3
63.1
63.5

67.7
72.1
72.1
..
80.9
38.4
76.6
84.9
71.4
80.9
89.5
70.6
94.2
87.8
32.8
71.7
66.0
18.2
88.6
78.2
36.2
74.2
80.5
74.6
..
71.3
88.3
90.3
84.5
87.5
81.4
81.2
63.7
81.4
62.8
83.6
..
80.3
..
78.4
57.0
87.2
..
62.9
69.5
70.5
67.9
85.8
76.0
62.0
81.8
58.1
38.5
71.7
44.2
57.1
63.4
63.4

68.0
72.6
72.6
..
78.1
34.5
72.8
96.6
72.0
75.2
86.6
59.8
98.8
85.8
35.0
74.5
64.2
13.6
90.0
85.1
33.3
77.6
81.0
74.8
..
73.2
88.7
86.4
86.2
91.1
79.1
92.3
68.7
83.2
60.9
75.1
..
79.8
..
76.3
75.6
82.2
..
63.1
62.8
73.2
68.4
87.0
73.7
68.5
92.0
56.5
33.6
71.6
40.2
57.5
63.3
62.8

68.3
73.3
73.3
..
..
40.7
75.2
91.1
71.5
72.9
87.5
58.7
100.6
92.8
42.8
72.0
59.9
11.3
81.3
86.4
35.6
70.7
82.6
78.0
..
74.5
83.2
123.1
82.0
84.2
75.3
63.9
70.5
80.5
60.0
..
..
80.1
..
79.6
72.1
78.6
..
63.1
64.1
73.2
71.4
..
77.8
58.3
103.6
53.5
32.2
70.6
22.5
57.5
63.7
61.5

67.8
72.8
72.8
..
..
42.8
..
..
72.2
71.8
95.9
69.2
101.2
80.9
33.3
76.8
57.5
10.8
86.2
85.5
35.9
77.4
84.6
83.6
..
74.0
88.4
228.0
77.1
67.0
76.8
70.4
70.3
81.9
56.9
..
..
80.0
..
81.4
85.7
82.0
..
62.7
57.8
72.7
68.1
..
78.3
59.0
98.2
54.5
31.2
72.4
24.8
58.4
63.8
61.7

68.1
..
74.7
..
..
47.9
..
..
..
70.0
94.4
60.2
104.8
80.4
39.6
73.6
..
24.5
..
89.9
32.9
78.4
86.8
80.5
..
77.2
81.3
202.3
78.8
73.8
..
75.6
74.3
86.3
58.1
..
..
78.3
..
86.7
80.7
85.8
..
61.9
57.4
76.6
69.7
..
73.5
65.9
120.5
54.0
30.4
72.3
22.9
58.1
63.2
61.4

66.9
..
74.0
..
..
62.8
..
..
..
67.2
92.9
78.5
105.8
74.4
42.2
72.2
..
24.3
..
87.7
41.1
77.8
81.7
75.2
..
75.9
78.8
..
79.7
61.9
..
72.1
74.6
84.4
61.9
..
..
81.1
..
83.3
71.9
84.0
..
60.4
66.7
72.8
62.3
..
76.1
61.3
113.1
62.9
40.6
76.2
..
57.0
63.4
65.2

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

63.3
72.5
72.4
44.5
89.7
40.4
86.0
87.5
65.8
89.1
85.5
96.8
75.9
80.0
50.3
63.9
..
..
..
78.4
37.4
64.4
86.2
71.8
82.0
63.3
146.2
75.8
87.2
69.8
88.1
66.3
67.1
92.3
61.3
80.8
..
82.0
..
76.4
42.7
83.2
100.6
54.2
84.8
74.7
..
70.8
87.2
62.9
63.4
63.1
51.3
68.3
..
66.7
60.8
63.2

68.0
74.1
74.1
42.6
85.7
34.5
68.5
88.3
70.9
88.6
82.4
92.5
84.6
81.3
53.1
70.3
73.8
61.2
90.0
80.5
43.2
78.8
80.8
73.5
90.1
69.6
104.0
..
87.9
80.0
79.7
83.0
61.9
93.2
56.3
82.7
..
94.0
..
79.6
49.3
86.6
..
61.2
84.3
80.8
82.3
80.5
84.6
73.3
65.2
65.6
53.3
75.0
58.1
65.3
61.7
66.9

68.0
73.2
73.4
..
81.3
42.1
75.2
89.4
71.4
84.0
88.2
77.9
96.4
86.0
37.3
72.5
66.3
17.1
83.8
81.6
37.1
76.0
82.9
77.3
100.1
74.4
86.1
125.4
81.3
79.5
78.4
76.6
66.4
83.3
61.5
81.9
..
82.6
..
79.8
65.9
87.4
..
62.3
68.7
72.6
70.0
88.3
76.4
70.3
89.9
58.3
37.5
73.3
39.0
58.0
62.8
63.5

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

23

Table

2.17

Final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

74.7
..
88.3
..
106.3
73.3
107.2
100.6
78.3
..
108.9
..
110.1
89.9
64.3
79.6
..
..
..
..
39.4
94.2
95.1
..
101.0
81.9
152.0
85.2
101.4
89.2
98.9
103.5
89.6
108.9
61.6
85.4
..
95.8
..
97.9
72.9
99.1
112.9
62.1
97.9
98.8
..
76.8
100.4
80.7
86.2
77.2
56.9
84.8
..
85.1
76.0
75.8

82.9
88.3
88.3
70.3
97.8
57.4
94.6
105.4
79.3
108.1
100.6
107.7
103.2
90.7
76.2
88.7
110.4
120.1
..
90.4
63.1
89.3
94.5
77.8
97.2
81.5
149.1
..
94.5
86.6
93.6
95.1
77.0
105.8
81.8
98.8
..
93.8
..
97.6
79.7
91.3
112.5
76.8
91.8
94.7
98.7
85.3
99.4
83.4
82.5
79.2
72.9
83.9
72.8
80.1
80.0
81.2

84.0
86.6
86.6
80.8
94.0
59.0
95.5
108.7
82.2
115.8
98.4
82.0
103.4
95.0
69.1
79.0
94.7
19.9
140.9
92.3
51.8
88.9
93.0
78.5
..
89.5
125.9
103.2
91.1
96.8
86.7
105.0
75.1
96.5
89.7
95.0
..
99.6
..
91.2
78.5
103.7
..
81.0
84.3
81.9
83.9
94.7
92.8
87.0
97.7
72.8
55.1
85.7
53.2
75.5
78.8
79.0

84.1
85.8
85.8
74.9
94.5
59.5
98.2
111.0
81.5
101.5
100.0
75.5
108.5
96.0
47.8
80.0
95.7
21.1
141.5
91.2
45.4
91.1
92.7
81.6
..
89.2
125.7
100.7
91.5
100.0
91.4
103.1
78.0
92.3
83.2
96.1
..
98.6
..
92.1
85.3
100.4
..
82.2
81.3
86.5
84.8
95.5
89.9
80.1
102.8
72.3
52.3
84.4
57.3
75.8
78.8
78.8

84.3
85.8
85.8
62.1
93.1
56.9
95.2
123.1
81.9
95.6
99.9
64.9
112.3
94.1
48.0
82.8
91.4
16.3
127.2
97.4
41.7
96.0
96.3
81.7
..
90.5
127.9
97.6
95.1
105.5
89.0
115.0
83.5
93.5
80.2
86.6
..
98.0
..
85.9
96.9
95.9
..
82.5
81.0
88.8
86.0
98.5
88.3
78.2
107.6
70.1
45.1
84.3
51.9
76.8
78.6
77.9

84.1
85.4
85.4
50.9
93.1
59.6
97.2
119.9
81.1
95.0
98.6
63.6
114.8
100.6
56.7
80.4
87.9
13.9
117.2
98.5
44.0
88.8
93.9
86.1
..
91.9
123.6
134.6
90.7
98.8
85.2
81.4
84.7
91.2
79.4
..
..
98.2
..
89.3
91.9
92.4
..
82.8
81.4
88.5
89.0
..
91.9
68.5
109.8
66.5
43.4
82.9
33.2
76.0
78.5
76.2

83.3
84.8
84.8
55.0
93.9
62.2
..
..
81.5
94.2
98.5
79.5
115.4
91.2
50.4
85.4
82.6
13.1
117.7
95.8
44.7
93.4
96.2
90.3
..
92.0
127.1
242.5
89.4
81.1
87.0
92.0
83.4
93.7
77.6
..
..
96.5
..
91.4
101.7
93.9
..
81.7
73.3
87.3
87.4
..
91.2
69.5
101.6
67.2
42.5
83.7
36.4
76.6
78.0
76.0

83.9
86.7
86.7
58.9
92.9
67.7
..
..
..
90.8
101.0
72.6
120.1
91.4
51.6
82.1
..
27.2
..
99.6
41.1
93.9
98.0
89.7
..
93.9
125.3
221.5
90.1
91.1
..
94.4
87.5
98.4
78.6
..
..
93.0
..
96.4
94.0
98.3
..
81.1
73.2
100.2
89.7
..
84.7
74.9
122.6
66.3
43.3
83.2
32.2
75.3
77.6
75.7

84.5
87.5
87.5
79.2
89.3
87.0
..
..
..
88.0
97.3
94.1
121.1
82.3
54.5
80.8
..
27.8
..
95.9
52.7
93.7
91.3
83.1
..
92.2
129.1
..
91.1
82.8
..
92.6
89.2
97.8
86.1
..
..
95.8
..
92.0
84.1
97.7
..
81.4
80.6
99.8
82.1
..
87.5
74.4
126.9
76.2
54.5
87.6
..
74.9
76.5
80.9

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

79.9
88.1
88.2
76.0
102.4
64.7
101.6
96.9
75.8
102.2
101.1
108.1
104.5
89.1
68.1
80.4
..
..
..
89.5
55.7
93.5
95.2
83.4
100.9
81.7
169.5
97.8
97.1
87.3
100.4
96.9
79.7
106.2
89.2
92.7
..
95.0
..
95.7
75.9
90.9
106.3
71.5
95.8
96.3
..
87.7
97.7
86.0
83.5
79.7
68.5
84.5
..
83.3
77.3
79.8

84.6
88.3
88.3
78.0
96.2
61.2
91.0
105.2
81.5
105.6
96.3
100.5
104.9
91.2
71.2
82.2
106.4
86.3
129.7
90.3
56.4
92.6
92.5
81.7
98.5
85.4
137.6
..
95.8
96.6
92.4
97.6
75.9
102.9
87.3
97.3
..
105.5
..
94.6
78.3
97.2
112.5
80.6
90.4
98.0
97.1
93.3
95.7
91.0
82.9
80.8
69.9
85.8
82.4
82.2
77.7
82.9

84.0
86.3
86.3
68.1
93.5
63.5
97.4
112.3
81.2
102.6
98.0
86.2
111.1
93.9
51.7
80.6
94.3
20.5
129.2
94.3
46.8
91.2
94.1
84.9
113.2
91.3
126.4
138.4
90.8
94.6
87.8
99.1
80.4
94.0
82.9
94.1
..
97.6
..
91.1
86.7
101.6
..
81.5
81.6
90.6
86.3
98.2
90.5
81.9
103.9
72.1
50.9
85.2
53.4
76.3
77.8
78.6

a. Provisional.

24

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.18

Final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy per capita

Current prices
($)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

450
362
375
..
420
790
301
224
581
..
382
..
406
476
605
962
..
..
..
..
2,472
368
383
..
134
366
506
425
477
178
246
481
1,054
316
1,319
362
..
214
..
608
1,667
335
106
1,818
364
889
..
314
99
543
791
853
1,281
438
..
819
1,041
522

490
355
365
677
376
1,609
333
210
723
1,034
511
307
593
229
872
760
892
418
..
226
4,057
316
372
338
232
299
503
..
258
172
262
488
1,933
193
1,357
310
..
339
..
741
4,196
145
156
2,444
421
1,222
165
354
241
347
693
1,104
1,789
626
4,823
834
1,206
601

487
323
330
721
455
2,661
317
93
658
1,997
283
240
583
97
741
588
758
1,019
263
111
2,383
227
338
305
..
392
609
135
299
182
335
477
3,446
228
2,288
213
..
212
..
586
6,688
217
..
2,955
404
1,328
265
292
219
339
442
1,179
1,176
957
2,250
1,261
2,001
600

584
364
372
918
503
3,294
378
103
738
1,996
315
344
669
110
665
657
806
1,869
308
126
2,429
247
384
331
..
411
767
144
233
198
386
549
4,036
259
2,788
232
..
234
..
674
7,234
224
..
3,860
465
1,770
287
337
274
379
467
1,270
1,374
879
3,298
1,432
2,231
692

646
404
412
1,144
507
3,174
376
133
763
2,001
329
343
724
113
855
704
805
2,204
333
160
2,636
290
471
260
..
474
843
155
272
213
399
716
4,219
295
2,898
225
..
281
..
663
10,330
233
..
4,319
573
1,994
312
347
277
477
482
1,362
1,405
980
3,859
1,499
2,271
757

709
466
475
1,346
543
3,599
394
145
799
2,171
349
376
754
141
1,258
710
825
2,129
324
195
3,010
287
855
258
..
563
870
237
276
219
413
718
4,401
303
3,095
..
..
332
..
723
10,510
249
..
4,526
750
2,078
318
..
308
609
458
1,465
1,525
1,133
3,099
1,618
2,398
824

792
543
554
1,855
621
4,068
..
..
903
2,550
396
525
854
146
1,184
841
839
2,569
338
234
3,640
376
1,036
395
..
662
987
491
353
194
501
832
4,973
344
3,271
..
..
382
..
871
12,276
288
..
4,845
843
2,238
356
..
354
644
409
1,724
1,703
1,365
4,236
1,846
2,716
936

867
663
676
2,753
717
4,774
..
..
..
2,788
463
556
989
165
1,683
934
..
7,637
..
320
4,121
465
1,197
345
..
727
974
492
444
250
..
1,054
6,422
434
3,309
..
..
449
..
1,040
10,010
346
..
4,593
1,028
2,436
437
..
387
854
418
2,060
2,152
1,662
4,764
2,117
3,070
1,055

864
654
666
3,232
666
5,273
..
..
..
2,696
441
574
984
132
1,417
894
..
4,274
..
330
3,954
403
1,002
339
..
680
986
..
399
256
..
852
6,009
418
3,675
..
..
500
..
941
7,305
333
..
4,711
1,043
2,527
401
..
429
737
570
2,240
2,197
1,988
..
2,140
2,902
1,082

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

449
335
345
581
332
830
260
215
663
809
360
221
394
296
681
681
..
..
..
200
2,570
290
350
323
171
299
458
437
320
150
205
450
1,103
275
1,435
274
..
270
..
550
2,170
248
138
2,094
496
753
..
271
231
418
704
957
1,697
529
..
641
961
541

469
306
314
469
343
1,844
238
170
631
1,201
352
232
508
155
620
630
834
410
240
160
2,723
324
358
382
208
313
581
..
245
179
244
560
2,486
187
1,691
216
..
283
..
580
5,142
188
156
2,782
325
1,469
197
308
220
340
543
1,132
1,217
809
5,111
986
1,467
586

612
424
432
1,343
503
3,306
311
114
672
2,057
332
361
684
117
915
677
793
2,371
281
180
2,785
310
605
315
175
501
740
254
301
200
340
648
4,210
290
2,626
194
..
299
..
683
8,277
249
..
3,635
610
1,770
315
290
292
498
466
1,497
1,463
1,242
3,590
1,497
2,242
756

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

25

Table

2.19

Gross fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

22.6
..
18.8
..
..
34.5
14.1
13.9
20.0
..
6.9
..
28.5
8.8
35.8
24.4
..
..
..
..
26.7
..
6.1
..
28.2
18.3
35.6
..
14.4
22.2
15.5
..
23.2
7.6
27.2
25.5
..
12.2
..
14.6
36.5
14.9
43.1
25.9
10.8
35.0
..
28.2
..
18.2
14.1
26.8
33.8
24.6
..
22.2
28.3
24.5

18.2
17.4
17.4
11.1
13.4
32.4
17.7
15.2
17.3
22.9
11.4
4.8
11.9
12.8
17.2
8.5
14.1
17.4
..
12.9
21.4
22.3
14.4
22.9
29.9
20.6
57.0
..
14.8
20.1
23.0
20.0
30.6
22.1
21.2
11.4
..
14.6
..
18.0
23.0
9.6
14.9
19.1
10.4
14.5
25.8
25.3
12.7
13.5
18.2
24.5
27.0
26.9
13.9
24.0
24.4
21.1

17.1
18.5
18.5
12.7
18.1
26.0
17.5
10.6
18.1
18.7
6.1
48.6
10.3
12.2
25.5
9.7
14.4
41.6
28.1
21.8
24.0
19.2
22.9
19.8
..
15.8
34.0
9.4
17.9
14.1
24.2
25.9
22.7
22.3
19.1
14.0
..
17.9
..
21.2
10.4
13.9
..
15.5
14.1
19.1
20.0
20.9
20.7
24.1
13.8
19.0
24.0
16.3
9.8
25.1
23.4
17.9

17.4
18.6
18.6
9.1
17.5
24.8
19.3
13.0
18.3
37.4
6.2
22.7
9.4
12.8
21.9
9.8
21.5
40.5
22.3
25.5
24.4
24.8
28.4
19.7
..
16.3
27.2
13.2
23.4
16.2
21.0
46.4
21.6
18.6
18.6
15.8
..
15.0
..
22.7
12.7
10.5
..
16.0
17.2
16.2
21.2
21.2
20.0
23.1
5.1
19.7
24.1
16.4
13.9
26.3
22.6
18.4

18.2
19.4
19.4
8.1
18.9
24.5
19.4
10.5
17.7
37.3
8.9
16.7
9.3
14.2
21.9
9.7
19.0
37.6
18.5
23.0
21.3
..
29.0
18.6
..
18.7
25.7
16.4
22.2
20.2
22.6
44.8
21.4
18.7
18.6
18.5
..
15.8
..
29.7
24.7
17.0
..
16.8
24.0
15.4
22.5
22.3
22.2
22.5
2.1
20.4
22.3
17.9
15.8
27.5
22.2
19.2

18.9
19.3
19.3
11.3
18.2
21.6
20.8
16.4
16.7
40.6
9.2
13.2
9.6
13.0
24.4
9.3
29.6
31.4
12.6
24.2
25.9
..
21.6
16.6
..
19.1
24.8
..
25.3
22.7
22.9
29.5
24.3
17.7
21.6
..
..
16.0
..
28.2
26.1
15.2
..
18.3
25.1
14.1
23.8
..
21.0
22.6
2.3
21.7
22.9
18.7
20.7
28.1
23.5
20.1

20.3
20.4
20.4
14.0
21.4
23.9
..
..
17.1
43.8
8.9
17.0
11.2
19.5
26.0
8.7
37.5
33.3
10.6
23.5
25.9
..
20.1
13.9
..
19.4
25.8
..
32.4
24.0
22.4
22.4
25.1
16.1
23.7
..
..
18.0
..
30.9
29.5
13.2
..
20.2
26.5
14.0
25.0
..
21.9
24.1
5.4
24.2
26.0
20.9
25.0
31.2
23.2
22.1

21.7
21.0
21.0
16.0
20.7
23.3
..
..
..
48.4
11.6
23.9
14.3
23.9
21.8
10.1
..
28.2
..
19.8
24.4
..
21.5
15.6
..
19.7
28.8
..
40.3
23.3
..
27.8
24.6
15.7
25.7
..
..
22.8
..
30.2
25.4
14.7
..
22.5
22.7
15.3
26.3
..
22.7
22.6
3.8
25.7
26.3
22.3
27.9
33.0
25.0
23.6

22.3
22.0
22.0
14.8
25.0
28.2
..
..
..
53.8
10.6
32.7
12.4
29.8
24.3
11.2
..
36.6
..
22.4
28.4
..
19.6
21.6
..
20.1
31.5
..
32.6
21.8
..
25.2
26.2
21.0
24.7
..
..
21.8
..
27.9
24.2
15.1
..
22.6
21.8
16.9
29.3
..
23.5
22.1
2.5
25.1
33.0
19.0
..
30.7
25.9
23.5

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

20.1
16.6
17.1
14.2
14.8
29.0
17.4
16.1
21.1
26.9
10.2
4.4
24.3
11.4
32.5
15.8
..
..
..
15.7
33.8
18.9
7.9
16.4
32.0
18.8
40.3
..
10.8
15.8
17.2
26.6
21.2
12.2
18.6
14.2
..
14.4
..
17.4
25.6
11.4
26.9
23.1
12.4
25.4
..
19.0
9.3
12.4
16.0
27.9
31.9
27.8
..
23.1
27.5
23.5

17.1
17.8
17.8
23.2
15.7
27.2
21.2
9.0
14.5
29.6
11.2
11.0
14.6
8.0
24.9
11.4
11.1
59.5
26.1
16.5
25.4
20.1
19.7
20.0
25.9
17.6
64.4
..
12.4
15.2
22.5
13.6
26.9
20.7
21.0
9.0
..
14.5
..
19.9
29.2
7.2
14.9
16.3
10.6
16.7
21.5
15.6
15.9
12.4
19.0
21.3
26.2
20.4
12.7
22.2
25.3
19.0

18.5
19.3
19.3
12.7
19.6
24.6
18.2
9.9
18.0
33.9
8.8
29.2
10.8
14.3
23.5
10.1
18.6
41.5
22.8
22.6
24.6
20.0
23.2
17.4
12.0
18.1
31.2
9.7
24.2
18.7
23.4
28.4
23.3
21.1
20.9
14.2
..
18.2
..
26.1
24.5
12.3
..
17.7
18.8
17.1
22.0
20.4
21.0
21.5
6.9
21.6
24.6
18.6
16.9
27.8
24.3
19.9

a. Provisional.

26

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.20

Gross general government fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

6.6
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
12.8
4.4
..
3.7
..
23.2
5.1
..
11.4
..
..
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
..
0.0
9.9
..
..
17.5
..
..
8.4
7.6
15.7
20.4
..
12.2
..
4.7
..
5.3
..
6.4
6.9
11.9
..
20.2
..
..
1.8
..
11.0
..
..
..
15.0
..

5.6
7.2
7.2
..
7.4
8.6
9.7
12.5
5.5
10.3
4.7
..
5.2
4.0
5.6
3.6
9.1
10.5
..
4.0
3.9
7.4
7.5
9.7
27.4
9.7
26.2
..
7.9
7.7
10.5
6.2
11.4
12.0
8.2
7.4
..
5.9
..
4.1
8.2
3.9
..
3.9
..
4.5
10.5
7.3
6.2
6.2
3.4
10.8
8.2
14.7
..
4.8
8.7
7.8

5.2
6.0
6.0
7.6
6.1
10.6
6.3
8.3
2.3
9.8
2.2
12.5
5.4
2.7
6.7
2.7
6.7
9.9
20.4
12.8
3.7
5.7
8.9
3.9
..
4.2
9.6
0.0
7.8
..
6.9
12.0
8.9
10.5
6.4
8.3
..
5.1
..
6.2
1.7
4.8
..
4.3
2.9
13.0
5.1
3.7
5.1
11.4
2.1
8.1
10.8
8.3
7.9
3.8
..
6.4

5.4
6.5
6.5
4.9
5.4
8.5
7.2
10.7
2.6
7.7
2.0
7.8
4.4
2.8
6.5
2.8
7.7
13.1
17.0
15.7
4.2
10.9
12.4
3.7
..
4.3
8.1
0.0
10.0
..
7.5
9.1
6.6
10.7
6.3
5.1
..
8.9
..
6.7
3.1
4.5
..
4.3
5.0
10.7
7.1
5.3
4.9
8.7
5.1
8.9
10.5
8.7
12.3
3.8
..
6.9

5.4
6.3
6.3
5.0
6.7
7.3
7.4
8.8
2.5
9.0
4.0
7.8
4.5
3.7
6.2
2.7
9.3
10.3
16.8
14.7
4.2
9.0
12.0
2.8
..
3.8
8.1
0.0
8.7
..
7.7
8.1
6.3
8.6
6.4
6.3
..
8.7
..
10.0
4.6
5.7
..
4.3
5.8
9.8
8.1
2.8
5.0
7.0
2.1
9.5
10.8
9.3
14.1
3.7
9.8
7.2

5.8
6.6
6.6
8.9
4.6
6.1
8.0
..
2.4
9.3
3.7
8.1
5.0
3.1
9.5
3.1
7.5
15.1
11.5
16.7
4.8
7.9
8.8
2.6
..
4.9
7.6
..
10.5
..
8.6
..
7.7
11.8
6.8
..
..
7.5
..
9.7
8.1
5.1
..
5.0
6.7
8.7
7.5
3.6
4.6
4.1
2.3
9.5
12.0
8.0
16.7
3.6
..
7.4

6.5
6.8
6.8
11.7
7.5
7.8
..
..
2.4
10.9
2.7
7.3
6.1
8.8
10.4
2.6
12.2
16.9
9.4
16.8
4.5
3.7
8.5
2.3
..
3.9
10.4
..
7.0
..
8.4
..
5.5
11.7
2.9
..
..
8.7
..
11.2
4.5
3.5
..
6.1
9.5
8.0
7.5
2.0
4.9
4.1
1.4
10.9
16.5
7.8
19.8
3.6
..
8.4

7.6
7.3
7.3
14.1
5.8
12.5
..
..
..
10.4
4.5
7.9
9.3
12.6
8.9
3.0
..
16.8
..
14.0
4.6
..
9.4
3.5
6.5
4.4
11.0
..
7.1
..
..
..
4.2
11.6
3.4
..
..
11.0
..
10.0
3.3
6.2
..
7.9
6.5
9.8
8.0
..
4.4
5.2
0.3
11.3
16.1
7.9
22.0
4.6
..
9.2

8.7
8.3
8.3
12.4
9.6
15.1
..
..
..
11.0
3.7
10.9
4.7
23.8
10.7
3.0
..
20.6
..
16.5
5.2
..
8.0
4.6
9.6
5.6
14.2
..
3.1
..
..
..
6.7
13.1
5.3
..
..
11.1
..
10.1
3.3
7.7
..
9.2
5.5
10.6
8.8
..
6.1
4.3
0.8
5.5
0.0
8.0
..
5.9
..
7.4

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

6.1
6.6
6.3
..
9.1
9.7
10.4
13.8
6.9
19.3
5.5
3.8
18.7
4.4
11.1
7.1
..
..
..
4.9
6.7
10.4
6.3
7.5
33.3
0.8
17.2
..
6.9
9.5
10.2
7.6
7.4
9.5
10.7
11.2
..
12.1
..
3.7
12.0
4.0
..
5.7
4.3
8.0
..
11.2
4.4
..
2.9
13.0
13.8
16.9
..
7.1
14.1
8.9

4.8
6.5
6.5
7.8
7.5
11.7
10.5
9.3
2.9
20.3
6.2
7.4
7.0
1.7
6.4
5.6
6.1
6.9
17.6
6.6
6.5
7.8
11.1
6.1
20.2
7.0
18.7
..
6.9
9.2
10.1
5.0
9.2
12.1
8.2
5.6
..
7.2
..
4.5
9.9
3.8
..
2.8
0.7
5.4
6.0
3.7
5.6
6.8
3.0
10.6
7.2
14.5
..
4.2
11.5
7.2

5.8
6.5
6.5
8.4
6.8
10.0
7.0
6.9
2.3
10.4
3.6
9.2
5.3
5.9
8.5
2.8
6.6
12.4
17.5
14.7
4.3
7.6
9.8
3.8
9.8
4.4
10.1
0.0
7.3
10.2
7.7
9.1
6.6
11.3
5.6
7.0
..
7.9
..
7.9
7.2
5.1
..
5.0
5.0
9.9
6.3
3.0
5.3
7.8
1.9
8.9
10.3
8.6
14.9
4.3
11.1
7.2

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

27

Table

2.21

Private sector fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

16.4
..
..
..
..
34.5
..
1.1
15.6
..
3.2
..
5.3
3.7
..
13.0
..
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
8.2
25.7
..
..
4.7
..
..
14.9
0.0
11.4
5.1
..
..
..
9.9
..
9.5
..
19.5
3.8
23.1
..
8.0
..
..
12.3
..
22.8
..
..
16.7
13.3
..

12.9
10.7
10.7
1.7
6.0
23.8
8.0
2.7
11.9
12.6
6.7
..
6.7
8.9
11.6
4.9
5.1
6.9
..
8.9
17.6
14.9
6.9
8.8
8.4
10.9
30.8
..
6.9
12.4
12.4
13.7
19.2
10.1
13.0
4.0
..
8.7
..
13.9
14.8
5.7
..
15.3
..
10.1
15.3
18.0
6.5
7.2
14.8
15.4
18.8
12.3
..
19.2
15.6
14.0

11.8
12.4
12.4
5.1
12.0
15.4
11.1
2.3
15.8
8.9
3.9
36.1
4.9
9.5
18.8
7.0
7.7
31.7
7.7
9.0
20.2
13.5
14.0
15.9
..
7.8
24.4
4.8
10.1
7.4
17.3
13.9
13.9
11.8
20.1
5.7
..
12.8
..
15.0
8.7
9.0
..
11.2
11.2
6.0
14.9
17.2
15.6
12.7
11.7
10.5
13.2
8.1
1.9
21.3
..
11.3

11.8
11.9
11.9
4.2
12.1
16.3
..
2.3
15.7
29.7
4.1
14.9
5.0
10.0
15.4
7.1
13.8
27.4
5.3
9.7
20.2
13.9
16.0
16.1
..
7.5
19.2
4.2
13.4
7.1
13.5
37.3
15.0
8.0
15.7
10.7
..
6.2
..
16.0
9.7
5.9
..
11.7
12.2
5.5
14.2
15.9
15.1
14.3
0.0
10.5
13.6
7.7
1.6
22.4
..
11.3

12.5
12.5
12.5
3.0
12.2
17.3
..
1.7
15.2
28.4
4.9
8.9
4.8
10.5
15.7
7.0
9.7
27.4
1.8
8.3
17.1
..
17.0
15.8
..
6.7
17.5
4.3
13.5
13.0
15.0
36.7
15.1
10.1
16.2
12.2
..
7.0
..
19.7
20.1
11.3
..
12.5
18.2
5.6
14.4
19.5
17.3
15.5
0.0
10.9
11.5
8.6
1.7
23.8
12.3
11.8

13.5
13.6
13.6
2.4
13.6
15.5
..
..
14.3
31.3
5.6
5.1
4.7
9.9
14.9
6.3
22.0
16.2
1.1
7.6
21.1
..
12.8
14.0
..
25.4
17.3
..
14.7
15.0
14.3
..
16.6
5.8
18.4
..
..
8.5
..
18.5
18.1
10.1
..
13.4
18.4
6.7
16.3
..
16.4
18.5
0.0
12.1
11.0
10.7
4.0
24.5
..
12.9

13.7
13.3
13.3
2.3
13.9
16.1
..
..
14.7
32.9
6.2
9.7
5.0
10.7
15.6
6.1
25.2
16.4
1.2
6.7
21.5
..
11.6
11.5
..
15.5
15.5
..
25.4
9.2
14.0
..
19.6
4.4
16.1
..
..
9.3
..
19.7
25.0
9.7
..
14.1
17.0
6.0
17.5
..
16.9
20.0
4.0
13.5
9.5
13.1
5.2
27.6
..
13.6

14.2
13.7
13.7
1.9
14.9
21.3
..
..
12.5
38.0
7.1
16.0
5.0
11.3
12.9
7.1
..
11.4
..
5.9
19.8
..
12.1
12.1
..
15.3
17.8
..
33.2
13.9
..
..
20.4
4.1
14.7
..
..
11.8
..
20.2
22.2
8.6
..
14.6
16.2
5.6
18.3
..
18.3
17.4
3.5
14.5
10.2
14.4
5.9
28.4
..
14.3

13.4
13.3
13.3
2.4
15.4
8.9
..
..
12.4
42.7
6.9
21.8
7.7
6.1
13.5
8.3
..
16.1
..
5.9
23.2
..
11.6
17.0
..
14.5
17.3
..
29.4
14.9
..
..
19.5
7.9
15.6
..
..
10.6
..
17.8
20.9
7.4
..
13.4
16.3
3.0
20.5
..
17.5
17.8
1.7
19.9
33.0
10.9
..
24.8
23.2
16.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

14.4
9.8
9.8
9.2
4.5
19.4
8.8
2.3
14.2
7.6
4.7
0.6
5.5
7.1
11.4
8.7
..
..
..
12.8
27.2
8.6
3.8
8.9
10.0
10.7
23.1
..
3.6
6.3
9.9
19.0
13.8
2.7
7.8
3.0
..
7.8
..
13.7
10.1
7.3
..
17.4
8.9
17.3
..
7.8
5.4
4.9
13.1
12.8
18.1
9.3
..
16.1
13.5
13.3

12.4
11.5
11.5
16.5
8.3
15.5
10.8
–0.3
11.7
9.3
5.0
4.3
7.7
6.3
18.5
6.2
5.8
52.6
8.6
9.9
18.9
12.3
8.6
11.7
7.7
9.8
46.8
..
5.5
6.0
12.4
13.9
17.7
8.6
12.8
3.4
..
7.2
..
15.4
19.3
3.3
..
13.5
9.9
11.3
15.6
11.8
10.3
5.7
16.0
12.0
19.0
5.9
..
18.0
13.8
12.2

12.6
12.6
12.6
4.3
12.8
15.3
10.4
1.9
15.0
23.5
5.3
20.0
5.4
8.4
15.1
7.3
11.9
29.1
5.3
7.9
20.4
11.9
13.4
13.6
1.1
11.5
21.1
3.5
16.9
9.6
15.7
22.9
16.7
9.8
15.4
7.2
..
10.3
..
18.2
17.2
7.2
..
12.7
13.8
7.0
15.7
17.3
15.8
13.7
5.0
12.8
14.4
10.0
3.2
23.5
16.4
12.7

a. Provisional.

28

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.22

External trade balance (exports minus imports)

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeriab
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

1.2
–4.6
–8.6
..
–21.5
–13.4
–22.3
–14.5
0.8
..
–15.9
–11.9
–43.2
0.1
–0.1
–6.2
..
..
..
..
33.1
–20.9
–0.7
..
–29.2
–6.4
–89.1
–0.1
–16.4
–14.0
–14.4
–29.8
–10.2
–16.5
7.8
–13.5
10.2
–11.9
..
–14.5
–11.2
–15.4
–55.3
8.0
–12.6
–39.4
..
–5.3
–6.6
–4.0
–3.2
–7.2
4.0
–12.4
..
–9.4
–5.4
–2.2

0.8
–2.5
–6.3
18.0
–12.0
5.3
–13.5
–19.9
2.9
–31.0
–12.9
–14.4
–22.9
0.3
7.9
4.6
–24.6
–37.4
..
–3.3
15.2
–11.7
–9.0
–2.4
–27.1
–5.6
–105.1
..
–11.4
–9.6
–16.6
–15.1
–7.2
–27.9
–15.5
–6.9
14.6
–8.5
..
–6.8
–4.3
–1.3
–28.0
5.5
–3.0
–9.9
–24.8
–11.9
–12.1
–0.7
0.1
–5.9
–1.5
–12.7
8.6
–5.4
–7.0
–2.0

–1.5
–4.3
–5.7
6.6
–12.8
11.0
–12.9
–19.3
0.3
–34.5
–4.5
–34.1
–13.7
–7.2
4.8
10.9
–9.2
20.4
–69.0
–14.1
24.3
–9.2
–15.9
–0.1
..
–6.0
–58.3
–12.6
–9.0
–13.9
–10.9
–30.9
1.3
–18.7
–9.1
–9.2
2.3
–17.6
..
–12.1
11.2
–17.6
..
2.3
–4.2
–1.0
–4.2
–13.6
–13.8
–12.4
–5.7
4.6
14.4
–2.6
25.7
–2.8
–3.9
1.1

–1.3
–2.0
–5.3
16.0
–12.7
7.3
–13.5
–24.3
–0.4
–38.9
–6.2
0.2
–17.9
–8.8
29.7
9.2
–17.2
35.1
–63.8
–16.7
30.2
–21.1
–21.1
–2.3
..
–6.3
–52.2
–13.9
–14.8
–18.2
–12.4
–49.4
–2.4
–10.9
–2.3
–10.0
12.9
–13.6
..
–12.9
2.0
–10.9
..
–0.3
–3.8
–2.7
–6.4
–13.5
–10.1
–4.4
–7.3
5.6
14.4
–1.4
31.1
–5.0
–2.9
1.6

–1.3
–1.9
–5.8
29.8
–12.6
16.8
–15.6
–33.9
–1.0
–32.9
–8.8
17.2
–21.6
–8.2
29.7
7.5
–10.3
43.8
–45.7
–20.4
37.0
–22.8
–25.3
–1.3
..
–7.5
–53.8
–14.0
–17.3
–28.1
–11.7
–59.8
–6.0
–12.2
0.1
–9.2
15.5
–13.8
..
–15.6
–21.6
–12.9
..
–0.5
–9.9
–4.2
–8.9
–16.9
–10.7
–2.1
–9.2
8.2
23.4
–2.3
38.1
–5.6
–0.4
2.7

–1.9
–1.6
–5.3
37.8
–11.3
16.4
–15.3
–36.2
2.1
–35.6
–7.9
22.0
–24.4
–13.7
18.5
10.3
–17.4
53.7
–29.7
–22.7
30.1
–17.2
–15.5
–3.3
..
–9.9
–49.6
–54.6
–16.0
–24.5
–8.1
–11.0
–11.3
–8.9
–1.7
..
15.1
–14.2
..
–17.5
–18.0
–7.6
..
–2.4
–10.9
–2.6
–13.1
–19.5
–13.1
8.4
–11.4
10.1
27.1
–1.6
45.8
–5.5
–2.3
3.1

–2.4
–2.0
–5.9
31.1
–15.3
12.0
..
..
0.8
–38.0
–7.4
2.5
–26.6
–10.8
23.2
5.9
–20.1
51.6
–28.2
–19.3
29.4
–16.3
–16.3
–4.6
..
–11.0
–52.8
–162.5
–21.7
–8.1
–9.4
–14.3
–10.3
–9.8
–1.3
..
15.1
–14.6
..
–22.3
–31.2
–7.0
..
–2.9
–3.8
–1.3
–12.8
–20.5
–13.3
6.4
–9.1
6.5
23.3
–4.6
38.2
–9.1
–2.4
1.4

–3.8
–4.4
–8.4
25.1
–13.6
–0.1
..
..
–3.0
–39.2
–12.6
2.6
–34.4
–15.2
26.3
7.7
..
46.1
–18.1
–19.4
34.6
–18.6
–19.5
–5.3
..
–14.2
–54.0
–141.5
–30.3
–17.4
..
–22.2
–14.7
–14.1
–6.7
..
12.3
–15.8
..
–26.6
–19.4
–13.0
..
–3.0
0.8
–15.5
–16.4
..
–7.7
2.5
–28.3
5.5
23.4
–5.6
39.9
–13.4
–4.2
0.2

–3.7
–5.9
–9.4
6.0
–14.3
–11.0
..
..
–4.3
–41.8
–7.9
–28.0
–33.5
–12.1
21.0
8.0
..
32.5
–15.8
–18.3
18.9
–19.7
–10.8
–4.7
..
–13.1
–60.5
..
–23.7
–7.7
..
–17.8
–10.6
–18.7
–13.3
..
8.7
–17.5
..
–19.9
–8.3
–12.8
..
–0.9
–5.8
–16.7
–11.9
..
–11.2
3.4
–29.1
–4.5
4.3
–6.8
..
–10.9
–3.4
–4.0

–0.4
–4.7
–6.1
9.1
–17.5
5.3
–19.6
–13.5
0.4
–29.0
–12.1
–13.5
–33.3
–0.8
–0.5
3.2
..
–28.6
..
–5.3
9.7
–13.2
–3.1
0.3
–32.9
–4.9
–110.0
2.9
–7.7
–6.7
–17.6
–24.4
–3.3
–18.4
–7.6
–8.0
1.1
–10.3
..
–12.1
–2.3
–3.1
–35.1
5.1
–8.3
–23.5
..
–7.2
–6.2
–2.1
–0.8
–8.9
–2.5
–13.2
..
–7.4
–6.1
–3.8

–1.5
–4.6
–6.6
2.2
–12.5
9.8
–13.5
–14.4
3.7
–35.2
–7.7
–13.6
–23.0
1.2
2.9
6.5
–17.5
–45.8
–55.8
–6.8
17.7
–12.6
–12.4
–3.0
–24.5
–3.7
–101.9
–39.6
–8.2
–14.3
–14.9
–11.2
–4.1
–23.6
–10.0
–6.2
4.1
–19.9
..
–7.1
–8.6
–4.5
–28.0
2.8
–6.7
–15.2
–19.0
–9.6
–11.7
–5.6
–2.3
–3.1
1.6
–6.7
3.6
–4.9
–4.3
–2.2

–1.5
–2.9
–6.1
19.2
–13.2
8.4
–14.2
–22.3
–0.4
–36.5
–6.9
–17.1
–21.8
–8.2
24.2
9.2
–12.9
35.3
–44.9
–16.9
28.6
–14.8
–17.5
–3.0
–25.2
–9.3
–57.5
–46.7
–15.0
–15.2
–11.2
–27.5
–4.6
–15.0
–4.6
–8.8
11.4
–15.8
..
–15.6
–11.1
–14.0
..
0.3
–5.4
–7.7
–8.7
–17.7
–11.8
–4.3
–9.9
4.2
17.4
–4.1
29.1
–6.2
–3.2
0.9

a. Provisional.
b. For 1994–2000 Nigeria’s values were distorted because the official exchange rate used by the government for oil exports and oil value added was significantly overvalued.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

29

Table

2.23

Exports of goods and services, nominal

Current prices
($ millions)
1980

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 82,540
Excluding South Africa
54,029
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
33,788
Angola
..
Benin
222
Botswana
563
Burkina Faso
173
Burundi
81
Cameroon
1,880
Cape Verde
..
Central African Republic
201
Chad
175
Comoros
11
Congo, Dem. Rep.
2,372
Congo, Rep.
1,024
Côte d’Ivoire
3,561
Djibouti
..
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
2,770
Gambia, The
103
Ghana
376
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
14
Kenya
2,144
Lesotho
91
Liberia
613
Madagascar
539
Malawi
307
Mali
263
Mauritania
261
Mauritius
579
Mozambique
383
Namibia
1,712
Niger
617
Nigeria
18,859
Rwanda
168
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
837
Seychelles
100
Sierra Leone
252
Somalia
200
South Africa
28,555
Sudan
806
Swaziland
405
Tanzania
..
Togo
580
Uganda
242
Zambia
1,608
Zimbabwe
1,561
NORTH AFRICA
37,505
Algeria
14,541
Egypt, Arab Rep.
6,992
Libya
..
Morocco
3,273
Tunisia
3,518
ALL AFRICA
121,315

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

79,795
52,368
40,438
3,992
264
2,087
340
89
2,251
43
220
234
36
2,759
1,502
3,421
244
42
..
672
2,740
190
993
829
24
2,207
98
..
512
447
415
465
1,724
201
1,220
372
12,366
145
..
1,453
230
146
90
27,149
499
658
538
545
312
1,180
2,009
46,844
14,546
8,647
11,468
6,830
5,353
126,751

145,376
98,474
69,589
9,716
487
3,668
376
50
2,757
253
154
674
57
1,483
2,825
6,297
248
2,859
56
1,137
3,350
158
3,101
865
..
3,590
520
133
1,264
647
1,153
356
3,180
1,348
2,141
438
28,891
139
..
1,830
671
230
..
46,900
2,613
1,872
2,164
595
722
1,256
1,856
84,346
26,028
18,074
15,011
14,282
10,950
229,724

185,542
127,656
89,049
13,780
539
4,444
549
64
3,061
138
168
2,252
55
1,994
3,744
7,517
246
4,724
64
1,495
4,465
184
3,487
862
..
4,283
721
171
1,424
655
1,237
473
3,450
1,759
2,630
491
38,609
232
..
2,126
684
247
..
57,890
3,822
2,056
2,520
691
1,077
2,079
2,001
107,367
34,067
22,258
21,117
16,726
13,199
292,911

234,188
166,562
114,319
24,286
577
5,256
542
91
3,393
171
170
3,234
55
2,450
5,123
8,354
288
7,183
68
1,855
5,610
185
3,907
994
..
5,342
703
201
1,422
663
1,359
667
3,761
2,087
2,937
512
52,238
295
..
2,344
717
292
..
67,647
4,992
2,250
2,945
850
1,278
2,482
1,931
138,842
48,761
27,214
29,230
19,234
14,402
373,037

278,709
200,430
137,465
33,343
538
5,292
665
99
4,131
229
207
3,852
57
2,621
6,507
9,144
307
8,332
84
2,101
5,912
203
5,136
1,108
..
5,945
759
175
1,640
705
1,884
1,366
4,009
2,722
3,180
..
62,959
344
..
2,401
860
355
..
78,318
6,015
2,259
3,233
938
1,519
4,120
1,957
167,469
56,953
32,191
40,275
22,449
15,600
446,193

323,596
234,106
166,118
44,707
900
5,877
..
..
4,563
285
254
3,845
68
2,711
6,402
9,465
484
10,299
86
2,442
7,203
214
6,041
1,267
..
7,062
880
208
2,227
936
1,871
1,548
4,422
2,839
4,468
..
68,061
410
..
2,875
993
346
..
89,549
9,287
2,311
4,093
1,048
1,991
4,802
2,000
197,126
63,297
39,469
48,510
26,892
18,958
520,752

396,735
299,097
212,813
64,243
1,019
5,660
..
..
7,718
345
215
4,413
74
2,701
8,642
10,890
..
14,498
61
2,950
9,675
244
7,140
1,259
..
8,291
936
262
2,498
1,203
..
1,952
4,926
3,192
4,787
..
86,396
680
..
3,477
1,091
319
..
98,005
12,974
1,795
4,689
..
3,506
5,267
1,802
253,603
79,123
53,800
62,780
33,312
24,588
650,506

298,039
220,322
158,411
39,432
922
3,971
..
..
5,896
366
290
2,879
79
1,017
6,884
9,722
..
7,713
84
3,011
5,773
223
7,982
1,671
..
7,413
809
..
2,447
1,420
..
1,504
4,161
2,454
4,319
..
62,054
610
..
3,082
912
305
..
77,883
8,230
1,794
4,963
..
3,753
4,560
2,040
200,244
56,798
47,185
..
26,121
20,568
496,886

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

65,089
38,654
31,094
2,613
214
999
189
111
2,240
41
181
153
22
2,016
1,092
3,142
..
32
..
608
1,964
108
554
660
15
1,805
67
519
414
295
255
387
807
215
1,139
420
7,725
173
..
989
123
187
119
26,088
841
394
..
464
371
1,060
1,530
34,399
12,221
6,654
..
3,790
3,312
100,090

87,615
55,868
43,640
4,265
327
2,378
286
89
2,198
79
185
254
40
1,595
1,393
4,129
210
160
132
715
2,728
195
1,684
798
32
2,594
187
43
673
465
514
465
2,257
373
1,543
325
12,563
107
..
1,347
298
155
90
31,523
579
886
949
441
500
1,099
2,467
48,912
12,420
12,435
8,527
8,363
7,168
136,561

220,178
157,694
111,379
25,294
606
4,268
417
63
3,813
229
197
2,189
55
1,799
4,734
7,576
276
6,074
77
1,794
5,091
192
4,425
1,036
62
5,092
629
168
1,613
771
1,262
913
3,677
1,920
2,907
403
46,350
315
..
2,237
750
250
..
62,550
5,353
1,779
2,963
681
1,587
2,749
2,053
135,256
42,760
28,952
27,469
19,266
14,598
355,318

a. Provisional.

30

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.24

Imports of goods and services, nominal

Current prices
($ millions)
1980

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 75,861
Excluding South Africa
53,970
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
40,777
Angola
..
Benin
524
Botswana
705
Burkina Faso
603
Burundi
214
Cameroon
1,829
Cape Verde
..
Central African Republic
327
Chad
298
Comoros
64
Congo, Dem. Rep.
2,354
Congo, Rep.
1,026
Côte d’Ivoire
4,190
Djibouti
..
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
1,354
Gambia, The
153
Ghana
407
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
46
Kenya
2,608
Lesotho
475
Liberia
614
Madagascar
1,202
Malawi
480
Mali
520
Mauritania
473
Mauritius
695
Mozambique
965
Namibia
1,542
Niger
957
Nigeria
12,324
Rwanda
307
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
1,344
Seychelles
117
Sierra Leone
421
Somalia
534
South Africa
22,073
Sudan
1,763
Swaziland
619
Tanzania
..
Togo
640
Uganda
324
Zambia
1,764
Zimbabwe
1,771
NORTH AFRICA
38,163
Algeria
12,847
Egypt, Arab Rep.
9,822
Libya
..
Morocco
5,033
Tunisia
3,987
ALL AFRICA
115,055

1990

74,537
53,674
45,400
2,147
486
1,888
758
314
1,931
148
411
485
93
2,731
1,282
2,927
355
92
..
1,069
1,837
227
1,522
892
90
2,691
666
..
864
629
817
619
1,915
888
1,584
545
8,203
364
..
1,840
246
154
346
21,016
877
768
1,595
738
834
1,203
2,002
53,024
15,472
14,109
8,996
8,227
6,220
127,845

2003

149,688
106,770
79,350
8,801
944
2,780
928
165
2,712
529
205
1,608
101
1,892
2,659
4,796
305
2,256
588
2,341
1,882
192
4,316
868
..
4,478
1,072
184
1,756
984
1,630
753
3,107
2,222
2,589
688
27,360
464
..
2,662
593
404
..
42,967
3,367
1,889
2,660
833
1,597
1,796
2,180
72,890
16,239
20,219
8,823
15,691
11,918
222,549

2004

2005

2006

181,775
123,252
95,931
10,621
1,055
3,707
1,240
225
3,128
497
246
2,241
120
2,573
2,363
6,093
361
2,882
663
3,169
2,299
269
5,356
947
..
5,290
1,350
235
2,072
1,134
1,841
1,239
3,601
2,381
2,780
795
27,282
517
..
3,166
671
367
..
58,544
4,650
2,117
3,343
969
1,932
2,319
2,413
89,433
21,808
23,330
10,723
19,547
14,026
271,175

220,807
152,038
117,132
15,144
1,119
3,534
1,390
360
3,562
500
289
2,324
138
3,036
3,318
7,132
361
3,583
603
4,359
2,400
290
6,617
1,031
..
6,740
1,411
275
2,296
1,438
1,979
1,778
4,138
2,891
2,927
825
34,849
651
..
3,700
908
452
..
68,809
7,701
2,357
4,205
1,206
2,237
2,631
2,446
103,625
24,838
29,246
12,452
22,569
14,521
324,379

259,550
174,847
134,048
16,287
1,075
3,451
1,547
432
3,763
624
324
2,509
156
3,789
5,073
7,356
441
3,179
465
5,537
3,037
290
8,304
1,202
..
8,171
1,462
509
2,525
1,468
2,360
1,662
4,744
3,351
3,317
..
40,726
787
..
4,037
1,034
463
..
84,706
9,995
2,329
5,116
1,371
2,820
3,221
2,551
115,892
25,211
33,931
14,383
26,044
16,322
375,349

2007

306,358
208,464
165,502
26,304
1,750
4,386
..
..
4,395
791
381
3,670
192
3,785
4,464
8,302
654
3,809
474
6,143
3,805
320
10,057
1,460
..
10,059
1,713
1,403
3,823
1,215
2,542
1,955
5,193
3,626
4,583
..
43,039
955
..
5,407
1,313
462
..
97,946
11,041
2,350
6,250
1,561
3,577
4,068
2,455
151,699
31,633
45,443
21,074
33,750
19,799
458,104

2008

384,534
279,044
217,932
43,121
1,928
5,679
..
..
8,435
945
464
4,195
256
4,468
5,541
9,085
..
5,953
361
7,976
4,652
397
12,690
1,460
..
12,563
1,796
1,454
5,357
1,911
..
2,747
6,295
4,585
5,387
..
61,006
1,423
..
6,976
1,271
575
..
106,345
12,537
2,234
8,090
..
4,618
4,909
3,005
199,201
39,171
62,909
25,589
45,214
26,317
583,978

2009a

317,933
238,718
191,987
34,901
1,875
5,273
..
..
6,856
1,013
449
4,794
258
2,298
4,876
7,866
..
4,328
379
8,229
3,685
368
10,820
1,865
..
11,253
1,764
..
4,484
1,783
..
2,043
5,074
4,287
5,548
..
46,999
1,524
..
5,637
975
554
..
80,328
11,391
2,295
7,511
..
5,557
4,118
3,678
193,682
50,772
60,048
..
36,088
21,894
509,907

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

66,471
44,946
37,295
1,895
447
842
567
254
2,219
118
292
305
67
2,107
1,093
2,906
..
61
..
1,093
1,586
137
709
658
67
2,154
496
491
668
384
536
576
853
773
1,284
583
7,362
354
..
1,408
123
225
403
21,441
1,744
515
..
542
619
1,148
1,598
40,285
13,875
10,787
..
4,955
3,834
107,382

90,422
62,531
51,235
4,032
579
1,916
640
234
1,816
237
282
469
93
1,537
1,309
3,406
295
270
482
1,330
1,823
242
2,509
905
91
3,071
926
180
942
716
882
607
2,400
1,001
1,844
448
11,214
405
..
1,719
344
191
346
27,961
1,289
1,109
1,986
586
1,039
1,283
2,644
53,422
11,636
16,572
7,464
9,907
7,842
143,939

215,193
151,820
118,742
17,472
1,181
3,542
1,016
229
3,931
600
300
2,493
143
2,518
3,282
6,147
365
2,978
498
4,373
2,667
273
6,833
1,140
114
7,085
1,287
504
2,624
1,213
1,742
1,422
4,063
2,853
3,218
629
33,073
762
..
3,725
850
414
..
63,596
6,856
1,948
4,358
1,007
2,664
2,757
2,558
111,461
24,778
33,962
12,328
23,634
15,503
326,492

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

31

Table

2.25

Exports of goods and services
as a share of GDP

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

31.9
29.1
29.0
..
15.8
53.1
9.0
8.8
27.9
..
25.2
16.9
8.7
16.5
60.0
35.0
..
..
..
..
64.7
42.7
8.5
..
12.7
29.5
21.0
64.3
13.3
24.8
14.7
36.8
51.0
10.9
78.9
24.6
29.4
14.4
..
23.9
68.0
22.9
33.2
35.4
10.6
74.6
..
51.1
19.4
41.4
23.4
30.2
34.3
30.5
..
17.4
40.2
31.2

26.4
28.0
24.6
38.9
14.3
55.1
11.0
7.9
20.2
12.7
14.8
13.5
14.3
29.5
53.7
31.7
53.8
32.2
..
5.6
46.0
59.9
16.9
31.1
9.9
25.7
18.1
..
16.6
23.8
17.1
45.6
65.0
8.2
51.9
15.0
43.4
5.6
..
25.4
62.5
22.4
9.8
24.2
4.0
59.0
12.6
33.5
7.2
35.9
22.9
26.4
23.4
20.0
39.7
26.5
43.6
26.4

31.0
33.2
31.1
69.6
13.7
45.4
8.8
8.4
20.2
31.7
13.5
24.6
17.5
26.1
80.8
45.8
39.9
96.8
7.3
13.3
55.3
43.1
40.7
25.1
..
24.1
54.9
32.4
23.1
26.7
26.4
27.7
56.7
28.9
43.4
16.0
42.7
7.6
..
26.6
95.1
23.2
..
27.9
14.7
104.2
18.6
33.8
11.4
28.7
32.8
33.6
38.3
21.8
62.4
28.7
43.8
32.1

31.2
34.6
32.6
69.7
13.3
44.2
10.7
9.6
19.4
14.9
13.2
51.0
15.1
30.4
80.5
48.6
37.0
90.1
6.8
14.9
62.2
46.0
39.3
23.5
..
26.6
59.8
37.3
32.6
25.0
25.4
30.6
54.0
30.9
39.8
16.1
44.0
11.1
..
26.4
97.8
22.5
..
26.4
17.6
90.1
19.7
33.5
12.7
38.3
35.3
37.2
40.1
28.2
63.3
29.4
46.9
33.7

32.6
36.4
34.1
79.3
13.5
51.2
10.0
11.4
20.5
17.1
12.6
61.0
14.1
34.5
84.2
51.1
40.6
87.4
5.8
15.1
64.7
40.0
36.4
33.8
..
28.5
53.4
37.9
28.2
24.0
25.6
35.9
59.9
31.7
40.5
15.0
46.5
11.4
..
26.9
81.1
23.6
..
27.4
18.2
89.1
20.8
40.3
14.2
34.7
34.6
40.8
47.6
30.3
66.4
32.3
49.7
36.1

33.3
35.8
34.2
73.8
11.4
47.0
11.5
10.7
23.0
20.7
14.0
63.2
14.2
30.7
84.2
52.7
39.9
86.8
6.5
13.9
61.9
39.8
25.2
39.3
..
26.4
53.6
28.6
29.7
22.6
32.1
50.6
61.6
38.4
39.9
..
42.9
11.1
..
25.6
88.8
24.9
..
30.0
16.5
84.6
22.6
42.3
15.3
38.6
37.6
41.8
48.6
29.9
71.3
34.2
50.4
36.9

33.8
35.8
34.5
75.4
16.2
47.5
..
..
22.1
21.4
14.8
54.8
14.7
27.2
76.7
47.8
57.1
81.9
6.3
12.7
62.2
32.9
24.5
30.1
..
26.0
55.8
28.3
30.3
27.1
26.2
54.5
58.8
35.4
50.7
..
41.0
11.0
..
25.4
96.7
20.8
..
31.3
20.0
78.3
24.3
41.9
16.7
42.1
39.8
41.5
46.6
30.3
67.6
35.7
53.2
37.1

36.0
36.3
35.1
76.3
15.2
41.8
..
..
32.5
22.5
10.8
52.8
13.9
23.3
73.3
46.5
..
78.3
3.7
11.4
66.6
29.6
25.0
33.3
..
27.6
58.7
31.1
26.5
29.5
..
54.4
52.9
32.3
53.4
..
41.7
14.5
..
26.4
117.8
16.3
..
35.5
22.4
63.2
22.6
..
24.3
36.6
42.4
43.4
46.3
33.0
67.4
37.5
60.2
39.2

29.8
31.7
30.7
52.2
13.8
33.6
..
..
26.6
23.6
14.5
42.1
14.7
9.6
71.9
41.7
..
74.1
4.5
10.6
52.2
30.4
30.5
40.7
..
25.2
51.2
..
28.5
30.0
..
49.7
48.4
25.1
46.6
..
35.9
11.7
..
24.0
119.3
15.7
..
27.3
15.1
59.8
23.2
..
23.4
35.6
36.3
32.1
40.4
25.0
..
28.6
52.0
30.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

26.9
25.4
26.4
34.8
16.6
62.0
9.5
10.4
25.7
15.5
20.5
14.3
14.7
21.4
52.0
37.1
..
35.9
..
6.6
53.3
47.8
11.2
30.2
9.9
25.7
16.9
55.3
13.6
23.7
15.8
47.9
54.4
6.8
61.2
21.0
21.4
10.4
..
27.4
62.1
19.5
15.5
28.8
7.4
70.2
..
46.1
11.6
34.4
21.4
24.1
23.8
22.2
..
22.2
36.9
25.8

27.2
29.9
27.3
63.4
16.4
51.5
11.1
9.0
20.9
16.9
16.2
16.1
17.3
23.1
60.2
36.8
43.2
52.9
22.0
8.1
54.0
52.6
25.2
23.8
13.3
27.6
25.0
11.4
20.1
25.1
20.8
36.7
61.5
12.8
49.7
16.2
42.0
6.0
..
26.4
59.9
19.8
9.8
23.5
5.4
61.1
15.9
30.2
9.8
32.8
33.3
26.0
25.8
21.8
28.7
25.9
42.5
26.7

32.4
34.4
32.6
73.6
14.1
45.5
9.7
8.7
22.9
24.1
14.5
39.4
15.2
24.4
79.1
46.6
40.7
89.5
8.1
12.9
60.7
38.8
35.8
30.3
30.1
25.4
52.9
28.9
27.5
25.9
28.5
41.7
58.4
29.0
44.2
16.2
42.3
10.4
..
26.7
94.0
19.9
..
29.7
16.6
83.5
20.0
36.0
15.1
33.8
36.5
35.6
42.0
25.1
56.9
31.4
49.4
33.8

a. Provisional.

32

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.26

Imports of goods and services
as a share of GDP

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

30.8
33.6
37.5
..
37.3
66.4
31.3
23.3
27.1
..
41.1
28.9
51.9
16.4
60.1
41.2
..
..
..
..
31.6
63.6
9.2
..
41.8
35.9
110.1
64.4
29.7
38.8
29.1
66.7
61.2
27.4
71.1
38.1
19.2
26.4
..
38.4
79.1
38.2
88.5
27.3
23.1
114.0
..
56.4
26.0
45.4
26.5
37.3
30.3
42.9
..
26.7
45.6
33.4

25.6
30.5
30.8
20.9
26.3
49.8
24.5
27.8
17.3
43.7
27.6
27.9
37.1
29.2
45.8
27.1
78.4
69.6
..
8.8
30.9
71.6
25.9
33.4
37.0
31.3
123.2
..
28.0
33.4
33.7
60.7
72.2
36.1
67.4
22.0
28.8
14.1
..
32.2
66.7
23.8
37.7
18.8
7.1
68.9
37.5
45.3
19.4
36.6
22.8
32.3
24.9
32.7
31.1
31.9
50.6
28.4

32.5
37.4
36.8
63.1
26.5
34.4
21.7
27.7
19.9
66.3
18.0
58.7
31.2
33.3
76.0
34.9
49.1
76.4
76.3
27.4
31.1
52.3
56.6
25.2
..
30.0
113.2
44.9
32.1
40.6
37.4
58.6
55.4
47.6
52.5
25.2
40.4
25.1
..
38.7
84.0
40.8
..
25.5
18.9
105.2
22.8
47.4
25.2
41.1
38.5
29.0
23.9
24.4
36.7
31.5
47.7
31.0

32.5
36.6
37.8
53.7
26.1
36.9
24.3
33.9
19.8
53.8
19.4
50.8
33.0
39.2
50.8
39.4
54.2
55.0
70.7
31.6
32.0
67.1
60.4
25.8
..
32.9
112.0
51.2
47.5
43.2
37.8
80.0
56.4
41.8
42.1
26.0
31.1
24.8
..
39.4
95.8
33.5
..
26.7
21.4
92.8
26.1
47.0
22.8
42.8
42.6
31.6
25.7
29.6
32.1
34.3
49.9
32.1

33.9
38.3
39.9
49.4
26.1
34.5
25.6
45.3
21.5
50.1
21.4
43.8
35.8
42.7
54.5
43.6
50.9
43.6
51.5
35.5
27.7
62.8
61.7
35.1
..
36.0
107.3
51.9
45.6
52.2
37.3
95.7
65.9
43.9
40.3
24.2
31.0
25.2
..
42.5
102.7
36.5
..
27.9
28.1
93.4
29.7
57.2
24.9
36.8
43.8
32.6
24.3
32.6
28.3
37.9
50.1
33.4

35.3
37.4
39.5
36.1
22.7
30.7
26.8
47.0
21.0
56.3
21.9
41.1
38.6
44.4
65.6
42.4
57.3
33.1
36.3
36.6
31.8
57.0
40.7
42.6
..
36.3
103.2
83.2
45.8
47.1
40.2
61.6
72.9
47.2
41.6
..
27.7
25.3
..
43.0
106.9
32.5
..
32.5
27.5
87.2
35.7
61.8
28.4
30.2
49.0
31.7
21.5
31.6
25.5
39.7
52.7
33.8

36.2
37.7
40.5
44.4
31.6
35.4
..
..
21.2
59.4
22.3
52.3
41.3
37.9
53.5
41.9
77.1
30.3
34.5
32.0
32.9
49.2
40.8
34.7
..
37.0
108.6
190.9
52.1
35.1
35.6
68.9
69.0
45.2
52.0
..
25.9
25.5
..
47.7
127.9
27.8
..
34.2
23.7
79.7
37.1
62.5
30.1
35.6
48.9
35.0
23.3
34.8
29.4
44.9
55.6
35.7

39.8
40.7
43.4
51.2
28.8
41.9
..
..
35.5
61.7
23.4
50.2
48.3
38.6
47.0
38.8
..
32.1
21.8
30.8
32.0
48.3
44.5
38.6
..
41.8
112.7
172.6
56.8
46.9
..
76.6
67.6
46.5
60.1
..
29.5
30.3
..
53.0
137.2
29.4
..
38.5
21.6
78.7
39.1
..
32.0
34.1
70.8
37.9
22.9
38.6
27.5
50.9
64.4
39.0

33.5
37.6
40.1
46.2
28.2
44.6
..
..
30.9
65.4
22.4
70.1
48.2
21.7
50.9
33.8
..
41.6
20.3
28.8
33.3
50.1
41.3
45.4
..
38.3
111.7
..
52.2
37.7
..
67.6
59.1
43.8
59.9
..
27.2
29.2
..
44.0
127.6
28.5
..
28.1
20.8
76.5
35.2
..
34.6
32.2
65.4
36.6
36.1
31.9
..
39.5
55.3
34.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

27.3
30.1
32.5
25.6
34.1
56.7
29.2
23.8
25.3
44.6
32.5
27.7
47.9
22.2
52.6
33.9
..
64.5
..
11.9
43.6
61.0
14.3
29.9
42.8
30.6
126.9
52.4
21.3
30.4
33.4
72.2
57.6
25.1
68.7
29.0
20.3
20.7
..
39.6
64.4
22.5
50.6
23.8
15.7
93.7
..
53.3
17.8
36.5
22.2
33.0
26.3
35.4
..
29.6
43.0
29.6

28.8
34.6
33.8
61.3
28.9
41.7
24.6
23.4
17.2
52.1
24.0
29.7
40.2
21.9
57.3
30.3
60.7
98.6
77.8
14.9
36.3
65.3
37.6
26.9
37.7
31.3
126.9
51.0
28.3
39.4
35.7
47.9
65.6
36.4
59.7
22.4
37.8
26.0
..
33.5
68.4
24.2
37.7
20.7
12.1
76.3
34.9
39.8
21.5
38.4
35.6
29.1
24.2
28.5
25.1
30.9
46.8
28.9

33.9
37.3
38.7
54.4
27.3
37.0
24.0
31.0
23.3
60.6
21.4
56.5
37.0
32.6
54.9
37.5
53.6
54.2
53.0
29.7
32.1
53.6
53.3
33.3
55.3
34.7
110.4
75.6
42.5
41.1
39.6
69.2
63.0
44.0
48.9
25.0
31.0
26.3
..
42.2
105.2
33.8
..
29.3
22.0
91.2
28.7
53.7
26.9
38.0
46.4
31.4
24.6
29.1
27.8
37.6
52.6
32.9

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

33

Table

2.27

Balance of payments
and current account

Exports of goods and services
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

298,039
220,322
158,411
39,432
922
3,971
..
..
5,896
366
290
2,879
79
1,017
6,884
9,722
..
7,713
84
3,011
5,773
223
7,982
1,671
..
7,413
809
..
2,447
1,420
..
1,504
4,161
2,454
4,319
..
62,054
610
..
3,082
912
305
..
77,883
8,230
1,794
4,963
..
3,753
4,560
2,040
200,244
56,798
47,185
..
26,121
20,568
496,886

29.8
31.7
30.7
52.2
13.8
33.6
..
..
26.6
23.6
14.5
42.1
14.7
9.6
71.9
41.7
..
74.1
4.5
10.6
52.2
30.4
30.5
40.7
..
25.2
51.2
..
28.5
30.0
..
49.7
48.4
25.1
46.6
..
35.9
11.7
..
24.0
119.3
15.7
..
27.3
15.1
59.8
23.2
..
23.4
35.6
36.3
32.1
40.4
25.0
..
28.6
52.0
30.7

Imports of goods and services
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

317,933
238,718
191,987
34,901
1,875
5,273
..
..
6,856
1,013
449
4,794
258
2,298
4,876
7,866
..
4,328
379
8,229
3,685
368
10,820
1,865
..
11,253
1,764
..
4,484
1,783
..
2,043
5,074
4,287
5,548
..
46,999
1,524
..
5,637
975
554
..
80,328
11,391
2,295
7,511
..
5,557
4,118
3,678
193,682
50,772
60,048
..
36,088
21,894
509,907

33.5
37.6
40.1
46.2
28.2
44.6
..
..
30.9
65.4
22.4
70.1
48.2
21.7
50.9
33.8
..
41.6
20.3
28.8
33.3
50.1
41.3
45.4
..
38.3
111.7
..
52.2
37.7
..
67.6
59.1
43.8
59.9
..
27.2
29.2
..
44.0
127.6
28.5
..
28.1
20.8
76.5
35.2
..
34.6
32.2
65.4
36.6
36.1
31.9
..
39.5
55.3
34.7

Total trade (exports and imports)
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

615,972
459,041
350,398
74,333
2,797
9,245
..
..
12,752
1,379
739
7,673
336
3,315
11,760
17,589
..
12,040
464
11,240
9,458
591
18,802
3,535
..
18,666
2,572
..
6,930
3,203
..
3,547
9,235
6,741
9,868
..
109,052
2,135
..
8,720
1,887
859
..
158,210
19,622
4,089
12,475
..
9,309
8,678
5,718
393,926
107,570
107,233
..
62,209
42,463
1,006,794

63.3
69.3
70.8
98.5
42.0
78.2
..
..
57.5
89.0
36.9
112.2
62.8
31.3
122.8
75.5
..
115.6
24.7
39.4
85.5
80.6
71.8
86.2
..
63.5
163.0
..
80.7
67.8
..
117.3
107.5
68.9
106.5
..
63.0
40.9
..
68.0
246.9
44.2
..
55.4
35.9
136.3
58.4
..
58.0
67.8
101.7
68.7
76.5
56.9
..
68.1
107.3
65.4

a. Provisional.

34

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Net income
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

..
..
..
–6,823
..
–452
..
–17
–303
–54
..
..
..
..
..
–890
22
..
..
–37
..
–8
–296
–168
..
–58
424
–128
..
..
..
..
27
–95
–70
..
–10,020
–37
0
..
–111
–36
..
–6,389
–2,402
–123
–175
..
–329
–1,363
..
..
..
–2,076
578
–1,495
–2,011
..

..
..
..
–9.0
..
–3.8
..
–1.3
–1.4
–3.5
..
..
..
..
..
–3.8
2.1
..
..
–0.1
..
–1.1
–1.1
–4.1
..
–0.2
26.8
–14.6
..
..
..
..
0.3
–1.0
–0.8
..
–5.8
–0.7
–0.1
..
–14.5
–1.8
..
–2.2
–4.4
–4.1
–0.8
..
–2.0
–10.6
..
..
..
–1.1
0.9
–1.6
–5.1
..

National and fiscal accounts

Net current transfers
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

..
..
..
–370
..
878
..
257
393
349
..
..
..
..
..
–115
86
..
..
3,459
..
135
2,078
34
..
2,297
547
1,101
..
..
..
..
224
764
1,261
..
17,977
604
5
..
58
148
..
–2,684
1,480
192
683
..
1,133
516
..
..
..
7,960
–1,572
7,451
1,951
..

..
..
..
–0.5
..
7.4
..
19.4
1.8
22.5
..
..
..
..
..
–0.5
8.2
..
..
12.1
..
18.4
7.9
0.8
..
7.8
34.7
125.6
..
..
..
..
2.6
7.8
13.6
..
10.4
11.6
2.4
..
7.5
7.6
..
–0.9
2.7
6.4
3.2
..
7.1
4.0
..
..
..
4.2
–2.5
8.2
4.9
..

Current account balance
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

–12,976
–1,649
–23,308
–7,572
..
–526
..
–164
–1,137
–154
..
..
..
..
..
1,670
–71
..
..
–2,191
..
63
–1,198
–403
..
–1,661
–32
–277
..
..
..
..
–675
–1,171
120
..
21,659
–379
–79
..
–284
–193
..
–11,327
–3,908
–414
–1,816
..
–451
–406
..
–174
..
–3,349
9,381
–4,971
–1,234
–13,150

–1.6
–0.3
–6.3
–10.0
..
–4.4
..
–12.3
–5.1
–9.9
..
..
..
..
..
7.2
–6.8
..
..
–7.7
..
8.6
–4.6
–9.8
..
–5.7
–2.0
–31.6
..
..
..
..
–7.9
–12.0
1.3
..
12.5
–7.3
–41.3
..
–37.2
–9.9
..
–4.0
–7.1
–13.8
–8.5
..
–2.8
–3.2
..
0.0
..
–1.8
15.0
–5.4
–3.1
–1.1

Total reserves including gold
Share of GDP
Current prices
(%)
($ millions)
a
2009
2009a

160,688
121,086
75,576
13,664
1,230
8,704
1,296
323
3,676
366
211
617
..
1,615
3,806
3,267
242
3,252
..
1,781
1,993
224
..
..
169
3,850
..
372
1,135
163
1,604
238
2,316
2,181
2,051
656
45,510
743
..
2,123
191
405
..
39,603
1,094
959
3,470
703
2,994
1,892
..
328,625
155,112
34,897
103,754
23,568
11,294
489,313

16.8
18.1
15.2
18.1
18.5
73.6
15.9
24.4
16.6
23.6
10.5
9.0
..
15.3
39.7
14.0
23.1
31.2
..
6.2
18.0
30.6
..
..
20.1
13.1
..
42.5
13.2
3.5
17.8
7.9
27.0
22.3
22.1
12.2
26.3
14.2
..
16.6
24.9
20.9
..
13.9
2.0
32.0
16.2
24.6
18.7
14.8
..
62.9
110.3
18.5
166.4
25.8
28.5
33.1

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

35

Table

2.28

Exchange rates and
purchasing power parity

Official exchange rate
(local currency units to $)
2007
2008
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

36

Purchasing power parity (PPP)
conversion factor
(local currency units to international $)
2007
2008
2009

Ratio of PPP conversion factor
to market exchange rate
2007
2008
2009

49.7
222.0
3.0
194.3
363.1
249.3
65.7
264.4
232.9
227.2
274.8
300.1
288.9
86.1
304.3
6.9
2.8
272.6
7.7
0.7
1,775.0
211.2
31.4
4.0
33.2
743.2
48.1
250.5
122.3
15.9
12.0
4.8
220.0
70.7
215.1
7,514.7
259.5
3.8
1,221.5
..
4.2
1.2
3.7
425.0
229.0
638.1
2,866.3
..

59.7
232.7
3.4
201.2
444.6
254.2
64.9
274.7
255.2
234.6
321.0
367.3
305.7
92.3
368.3
9.0
3.5
306.0
8.0
0.9
1,981.9
228.5
34.4
4.4
35.9
794.4
51.3
266.6
134.5
16.7
12.7
5.3
231.8
76.7
237.3
9,049.2
268.9
4.7
1,329.2
..
4.5
1.4
4.0
458.0
238.6
664.8
3,126.6
..

55.7
233.3
3.2
205.5
500.6
243.3
66.8
282.8
221.6
243.2
414.3
289.8
306.9
93.0
242.6
9.8
4.3
245.7
8.1
1.0
2,066.8
229.0
36.3
4.5
38.2
852.8
55.0
275.4
125.0
16.8
13.0
5.6
241.0
75.6
261.0
10,364.2
265.2
6.0
1,399.7
..
4.7
1.3
4.2
487.3
239.5
767.5
3,492.7
..

76.7
479.3
6.1
479.3
1,081.9
479.3
80.6
479.3
479.3
359.5
516.7
479.3
479.3
177.7
479.3
15.4
9.0
479.3
24.9
0.9
4,122.8
479.3
67.3
7.0
61.3
1,873.9
140.0
479.3
258.6
31.3
25.8
7.0
479.3
125.8
547.0
13,536.8
479.3
6.7
2,985.2
..
7.0
2.0
7.0
1,245.0
479.3
1,723.5
4,002.5
9,675.8

75.0
447.8
6.8
447.8
1,185.7
447.8
75.3
447.8
447.8
335.9
559.3
447.8
447.8
177.7
447.8
15.4
9.6
447.8
22.2
1.1
5,500.0
447.8
69.2
8.3
63.2
1,708.4
140.5
447.8
238.2
28.5
24.3
8.3
447.8
118.5
546.8
14,695.2
447.8
9.5
2,981.5
..
8.3
2.1
8.3
1,196.3
447.8
1,720.4
3,745.7
6,715,424,238.8

79.3
472.2
7.2
472.2
1,230.2
472.2
79.4
472.2
472.2
354.1
809.8
472.2
472.2
177.7
472.2
15.4
11.8
472.2
26.6
1.4
..
472.2
77.4
8.5
68.3
1,956.2
141.2
472.2
262.4
32.0
27.5
8.5
472.2
148.9
568.3
16,208.5
472.2
13.6
3,385.7
..
8.5
2.3
8.5
1,320.3
472.2
2,030.3
5,046.1
..

0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.4
..
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.7
..

0.8
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
..
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.8
..

0.7
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
..
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.7
..

35.6
1.8
0.9
4.8
0.6

39.9
2.0
1.1
5.0
0.6

35.8
2.2
0.7
5.0
0.6

69.3
5.6
1.3
8.2
1.3

64.6
5.4
1.2
7.8
1.2

72.6
5.5
1.3
8.1
1.4

0.5
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5

0.6
0.4
0.9
0.6
0.5

0.5
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.5

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Gross domestic product
Real effective exchange rate
(index: 2000 = 100)
2007
2008

101.5
102.0
101.5
..
..
..
..
96.7
102.5
..
105.3
..
..
106.7
..
101.0
..
106.4
..
..
101.0
108.3
104.6
..
..
..
96.5
..
..
95.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
104.9
..
..
..
..
96.2
..
90.4
..
..
..
98.9
101.5
120.5
..
98.5
98.5
..
..
99.7
96.1
101.0

104.5
105.0
104.5
..
..
..
..
99.3
105.6
..
113.4
..
..
106.3
..
105.8
..
115.5
..
..
104.5
114.8
99.5
..
..
..
87.7
..
..
97.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
116.5
..
..
..
..
102.8
..
80.4
..
..
..
104.3
103.6
138.8
..
100.1
103.7
..
..
100.1
82.2
104.0

National and fiscal accounts

2009

2007

PPP $ billions
2008

105.7
106.6
105.7
..
..
..
..
109.4
108.0
..
115.8
..
..
597.2
..
105.7
..
118.1
..
..
105.3
104.4
91.8
..
..
..
93.2
..
..
107.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
109.4
..
..
..
..
104.5
..
87.8
..
..
..
104.8
103.1
119.5
..
102.1
102.1
..
..
102.4
94.2
105.0

1,630.7
1,155.6
856.1
91.4
12.0
25.5
16.7
2.9
39.8
1.6
3.1
14.4
0.7
18.7
13.3
32.8
1.7
19.8
3.1
62.3
20.3
2.1
31.6
9.8
1.6
58.3
2.8
1.4
18.5
10.1
13.7
6.0
14.8
17.3
13.0
9.2
295.3
9.5
0.3
20.9
1.8
4.1
..
482.7
81.1
5.5
49.3
5.2
33.2
15.9
..
974.0
264.5
407.1
96.9
127.8
77.5
2,602.1

1,759.6
1,256.7
932.4
105.8
12.9
26.8
17.9
3.1
41.8
1.8
3.2
14.7
0.8
20.3
14.4
34.3
1.9
22.5
2.8
70.5
21.3
2.3
35.0
10.5
1.7
60.5
3.0
1.5
20.3
11.2
14.7
6.4
15.9
18.9
13.9
10.3
319.9
10.8
0.3
22.1
1.8
4.4
..
511.4
88.6
5.8
54.1
5.4
36.8
17.2
..
1,046.3
276.8
445.8
102.8
137.9
82.9
2,803.0

2009

1,812.9
1,315.6
969.7
107.5
13.5
26.1
18.7
3.3
43.0
1.8
3.3
14.6
0.8
21.1
15.6
35.9
2.0
21.5
2.9
77.4
21.3
2.4
37.0
10.5
1.7
62.6
3.0
1.6
19.7
12.1
15.4
6.3
16.4
20.3
13.9
10.5
340.9
11.4
0.3
22.8
1.7
4.6
..
506.9
93.4
5.9
57.9
5.6
39.8
18.5
..
1,094.3
285.2
470.8
105.9
146.1
86.3
2,904.5

2007

Per capita
PPP $
2008

2009

2,036.1
1,535.4
1,415.3
5,206.4
1,426.9
13,459.8
1,133.6
372.4
2,131.2
3,320.3
729.0
1,357.0
1,170.3
299.6
3,752.4
1,631.7
2,097.3
30,836.7
639.2
792.3
14,309.1
1,304.7
1,382.6
1,016.9
1,018.6
1,543.1
1,374.2
373.7
995.1
696.8
1,101.7
1,911.7
11,733.3
791.7
6,245.8
654.1
1,999.4
1,006.3
1,656.1
1,757.7
21,463.1
750.1
..
10,002.5
2,006.2
4,813.6
1,194.1
830.2
1,082.7
1,293.9
..
6,029.5
7,812.4
5,085.5
15,713.7
4,094.6
7,584.0
2,703.7

2,144.0
1,628.1
1,502.2
5,873.0
1,484.8
13,971.3
1,175.4
386.1
2,190.6
3,561.3
747.0
1,344.4
1,179.1
316.4
3,976.3
1,665.5
2,227.5
34,166.0
571.8
874.0
14,689.5
1,376.5
1,500.5
1,066.2
1,053.7
1,559.6
1,454.2
391.1
1,060.5
752.1
1,153.3
1,977.2
12,518.9
843.8
6,527.5
703.8
2,115.7
1,112.2
1,762.0
1,807.6
21,255.3
788.6
..
10,480.9
2,141.8
4,966.0
1,273.6
842.4
1,164.0
1,365.2
..
6,374.8
8,052.2
5,468.4
16,335.9
4,364.5
8,028.9
2,846.2

2,155.8
1,661.8
1,522.6
5,812.0
1,507.9
13,384.5
1,186.9
392.1
2,204.9
3,643.6
757.4
1,300.1
1,182.9
319.1
4,238.0
1,701.2
2,319.5
31,779.1
580.5
934.4
14,419.2
1,414.6
1,552.4
1,047.8
1,071.2
1,572.6
1,467.6
396.0
1,004.0
794.3
1,185.5
1,928.7
12,838.4
885.2
6,410.1
689.8
2,203.3
1,136.0
1,820.0
1,816.6
19,587.0
808.0
..
10,277.8
2,209.7
4,998.4
1,323.6
850.3
1,217.2
1,430.2
..
6,563.2
8,172.5
5,672.6
16,502.0
4,566.5
8,272.5
2,882.3

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

37

Table

2.29

Agriculture value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

18.5
31.6
31.6
..
35.4
14.7
29.4
62.2
31.3
..
40.0
45.1
34.0
26.8
11.7
25.9
..
..
..
..
6.8
30.8
60.1
..
44.3
32.6
24.6
35.9
30.1
43.7
48.3
30.4
13.1
37.1
11.2
43.1
..
45.8
..
20.1
6.8
33.0
68.4
6.2
32.9
22.7
..
27.5
72.0
15.1
15.7
15.5
8.5
18.3
..
18.5
14.1
17.2

18.9
31.3
31.3
17.9
36.1
4.9
28.8
55.9
24.6
14.4
47.6
29.3
41.4
31.0
12.9
32.5
3.1
61.5
..
54.3
7.3
29.0
45.1
23.8
60.8
29.5
24.9
54.4
28.6
45.0
45.5
29.6
12.9
37.1
11.7
35.3
..
32.5
..
19.9
4.8
46.9
65.5
4.6
40.6
10.4
46.0
33.8
56.6
20.6
16.5
16.9
11.4
19.4
..
18.3
15.7
18.0

18.6
29.6
26.7
8.3
32.1
2.5
35.6
40.1
21.7
6.8
59.7
33.6
50.5
51.0
6.3
25.6
3.6
5.5
14.7
41.9
6.1
31.1
40.2
22.3
..
29.0
10.2
71.6
29.2
35.7
38.8
27.5
6.3
28.0
10.9
39.6
42.7
37.0
21.1
17.6
3.0
46.7
..
3.4
38.8
9.6
32.5
40.8
26.1
22.6
16.8
13.3
10.5
16.3
4.3
17.3
12.1
16.4

17.1
27.3
25.7
8.6
32.1
2.0
32.9
40.1
20.5
9.7
55.3
23.5
50.9
47.3
5.5
23.2
3.6
4.1
13.9
44.2
5.6
33.7
41.5
25.1
..
28.0
10.1
68.2
28.8
34.6
36.4
25.6
6.4
27.4
9.7
..
34.2
38.6
22.6
15.9
3.0
44.9
..
3.1
35.2
8.9
33.3
41.2
22.9
23.0
20.1
12.5
10.2
15.2
3.0
16.3
12.7
15.1

16.5
26.6
25.2
7.7
32.2
1.8
34.1
34.8
19.5
9.2
54.4
12.3
51.0
45.5
4.5
22.8
3.5
2.6
22.6
46.7
4.9
32.1
40.9
24.2
..
27.2
8.6
65.8
28.3
32.6
36.6
23.7
6.0
27.0
11.3
..
32.8
38.4
16.8
16.7
2.5
51.6
..
2.7
32.0
8.5
31.8
43.7
26.7
23.3
19.2
11.4
8.2
14.9
2.3
14.7
11.2
14.4

15.9
25.6
24.1
8.9
..
1.8
33.3
..
19.9
9.4
55.0
11.7
45.2
45.7
4.0
22.9
3.5
2.8
24.6
47.9
4.9
30.3
30.4
23.8
..
26.7
9.8
56.9
27.5
31.2
36.9
14.6
5.6
27.9
10.5
..
32.0
38.4
..
14.8
2.4
51.1
..
2.9
30.1
7.5
30.4
..
25.6
22.4
21.3
11.3
8.0
14.1
2.0
16.9
10.8
13.9

15.5
24.7
22.8
8.0
..
2.1
..
..
19.5
9.2
53.9
12.5
45.3
42.5
4.4
23.9
3.9
2.7
24.3
46.2
4.8
28.7
29.0
25.3
..
20.1
8.2
55.0
25.7
30.3
36.5
18.8
4.9
27.7
9.4
..
32.7
35.6
..
13.4
2.1
49.9
..
3.4
28.1
7.3
30.0
..
23.6
21.8
22.8
10.8
8.0
14.1
2.1
13.7
10.2
13.5

12.7
22.4
22.4
6.6
..
1.9
..
..
..
9.1
52.9
13.6
45.8
40.2
3.7
25.0
..
2.0
14.4
43.8
4.1
28.5
31.0
24.9
..
21.0
7.8
61.3
24.8
30.1
..
18.9
4.4
30.5
9.3
..
..
32.5
..
15.5
2.1
50.2
..
3.2
26.2
7.3
29.7
..
22.7
18.9
20.2
10.3
6.9
13.2
1.9
14.6
9.8
11.6

13.1
23.5
23.5
10.2
..
3.1
..
..
..
9.2
55.5
..
46.3
42.9
4.5
24.4
..
3.5
14.4
50.7
5.1
27.5
31.7
17.2
..
22.6
8.4
..
29.1
30.5
..
20.6
4.3
31.5
9.4
..
..
34.2
..
16.6
2.0
51.4
..
3.0
29.7
7.3
28.8
..
24.7
21.6
17.9
13.1
11.7
13.7
..
16.4
7.8
13.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

18.4
31.1
31.1
15.2
33.8
8.7
29.8
58.1
25.7
16.6
44.3
36.9
36.3
30.4
10.0
27.1
3.3
65.8
..
56.5
7.7
34.0
52.5
24.0
48.6
32.4
24.7
35.8
34.3
44.2
44.4
30.4
14.9
39.7
11.2
38.6
..
40.2
..
22.0
6.1
40.0
66.5
5.5
35.4
19.5
..
31.8
57.6
15.9
16.2
16.2
9.9
19.8
..
16.4
13.8
17.4

18.3
30.7
30.7
11.3
36.1
4.2
33.8
50.8
24.3
12.9
48.4
36.7
40.2
47.0
10.5
27.2
3.4
41.5
22.9
58.4
7.7
28.7
42.6
20.1
56.3
30.8
19.3
67.2
28.6
37.3
46.7
33.9
10.2
34.7
11.3
39.4
..
40.6
..
19.7
3.9
47.9
65.5
4.1
42.1
12.1
44.5
37.4
47.9
21.1
17.0
15.5
11.2
17.2
..
17.8
14.0
17.1

16.2
26.6
25.2
8.0
33.7
2.2
33.8
39.2
20.9
9.0
54.9
25.6
48.4
47.6
5.0
24.2
3.6
4.6
17.8
46.2
5.4
31.1
36.3
22.8
55.0
26.8
9.9
66.6
28.2
34.0
37.4
23.0
5.8
27.4
10.4
39.3
37.2
36.5
20.0
16.4
2.6
49.9
..
3.3
34.7
9.1
31.5
39.3
25.6
22.0
18.8
12.4
9.3
15.1
3.0
15.8
10.9
14.6

a. Provisional.

38

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.30

Industry value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

36.9
24.6
24.6
..
12.3
50.7
20.5
12.6
25.6
..
20.1
8.9
13.2
35.0
46.6
19.7
..
..
..
..
60.4
14.9
12.3
..
19.7
20.8
26.5
28.1
16.1
22.5
13.2
26.0
26.2
34.4
55.8
22.9
..
21.5
..
20.1
15.6
21.9
8.0
48.4
14.1
30.2
..
24.8
4.5
42.1
29.0
40.3
57.7
36.8
..
31.0
31.1
38.4

32.1
25.1
25.1
40.8
13.2
61.0
21.0
19.0
29.5
21.4
19.7
17.7
8.3
29.0
40.6
23.2
22.0
10.6
..
11.1
43.0
13.1
16.9
33.3
18.6
19.0
34.4
16.8
12.8
28.9
15.9
28.8
32.8
18.4
38.0
16.2
..
24.6
..
22.2
16.3
19.2
..
40.1
15.3
43.2
17.7
22.5
11.1
51.3
33.1
34.3
48.2
28.7
..
33.4
29.8
33.0

29.9
28.7
26.9
67.4
13.7
49.5
21.6
18.9
30.7
19.7
15.7
24.4
12.7
21.5
61.2
21.6
16.2
89.2
24.5
14.1
52.0
14.0
27.8
31.5
..
17.6
33.9
10.6
15.4
19.4
23.6
23.6
30.3
26.1
28.3
17.1
36.8
12.3
17.8
24.3
27.4
24.7
..
31.7
22.0
47.9
22.5
22.2
24.2
26.5
21.6
43.0
54.8
35.2
75.1
27.9
28.3
35.4

30.9
30.7
28.2
66.1
13.3
51.0
23.2
18.9
30.7
15.2
14.0
47.1
12.2
24.5
65.9
23.1
16.6
92.1
25.6
14.1
55.3
13.2
27.1
33.7
..
18.2
33.9
13.4
15.9
17.4
23.9
28.1
29.1
27.4
29.4
..
42.1
13.9
21.0
24.9
28.2
24.2
..
31.3
25.8
46.7
22.3
22.8
22.1
27.8
27.1
43.0
56.4
36.5
68.6
28.5
28.2
36.0

31.7
32.1
29.5
72.6
13.4
50.6
22.7
20.0
30.4
16.8
14.1
60.4
11.0
26.9
71.9
25.9
16.6
94.4
20.5
13.0
61.4
13.3
27.5
38.9
..
19.1
35.1
15.7
15.8
17.0
24.2
29.3
27.6
25.3
29.2
..
43.5
14.1
20.5
23.8
21.9
23.6
..
31.2
28.3
45.6
22.7
24.0
25.0
31.6
29.6
44.8
61.3
35.9
75.5
28.2
28.9
37.2

32.0
32.6
30.4
69.7
..
54.3
22.4
..
31.4
17.4
14.2
60.6
11.8
27.7
75.5
25.9
16.4
94.4
18.2
12.7
61.2
14.3
20.8
43.4
..
18.5
36.7
17.1
16.1
17.0
24.0
56.3
27.6
26.4
34.6
..
41.9
13.8
..
23.0
20.5
23.2
..
31.2
29.2
48.5
22.9
..
24.2
35.3
33.9
46.3
62.3
38.4
78.5
27.2
29.2
38.1

31.9
32.4
30.4
67.9
..
53.1
..
..
30.6
17.8
14.2
54.3
11.9
28.4
73.1
25.3
16.9
94.6
19.2
13.3
60.3
14.8
20.7
43.4
..
14.9
39.0
18.9
16.3
16.3
24.2
38.3
28.0
25.9
35.6
..
40.7
13.9
..
23.6
20.2
24.3
..
31.2
31.2
49.4
23.3
..
26.6
38.5
34.9
45.0
61.3
36.3
76.4
27.3
29.1
37.5

31.7
31.0
31.0
67.5
..
52.9
..
..
..
18.8
14.2
48.8
12.0
28.0
77.3
26.1
..
95.7
22.3
13.0
64.3
15.1
20.4
46.7
..
15.1
37.9
16.8
16.2
16.1
..
40.6
29.2
23.7
37.8
..
..
14.9
..
21.7
20.2
23.5
..
32.5
34.0
49.4
23.1
..
27.4
41.4
32.4
46.6
62.1
37.5
78.2
30.3
32.1
38.7

29.6
28.0
28.0
59.0
..
39.6
..
..
..
20.1
14.6
..
12.1
24.0
71.1
25.2
..
91.9
22.2
10.7
53.8
15.5
18.9
53.0
..
15.3
34.1
..
16.0
16.1
..
34.7
29.1
23.6
32.7
..
..
14.5
..
21.7
19.7
22.1
..
31.1
26.0
49.4
24.3
..
25.8
34.1
29.0
39.3
54.5
37.3
..
28.5
30.0
33.8

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

34.2
24.7
24.7
39.4
14.0
57.5
21.0
15.1
31.8
19.0
16.2
13.5
12.5
30.1
45.1
20.8
20.6
8.9
..
11.6
53.7
13.7
13.8
33.6
15.7
19.4
27.7
27.8
13.8
22.7
14.8
27.0
28.9
24.8
44.2
19.8
..
21.0
..
20.7
16.5
15.9
8.0
43.8
15.2
32.3
..
22.0
9.4
45.5
30.2
36.3
52.1
30.6
..
33.2
31.5
35.1

29.6
24.9
24.9
56.9
13.7
54.8
21.1
18.7
30.3
19.7
20.2
13.7
11.4
20.6
45.4
22.2
16.6
38.5
18.4
10.2
48.2
13.7
24.5
30.0
12.5
17.8
42.3
11.0
12.1
22.7
17.0
26.6
32.1
17.1
30.6
17.4
..
19.5
..
23.5
21.5
32.4
..
35.0
13.5
43.5
16.4
21.0
14.9
39.2
30.6
35.9
49.7
31.8
..
32.0
28.8
32.2

30.6
29.7
28.6
67.5
13.7
51.5
22.1
19.0
31.8
17.5
14.8
37.3
11.8
24.3
69.7
24.5
16.2
91.5
22.0
13.0
56.7
14.1
24.8
39.1
13.0
17.0
35.0
13.5
15.5
17.2
24.3
33.4
29.4
25.2
31.9
17.2
39.2
13.9
18.7
23.6
24.5
24.4
..
31.7
25.8
47.6
22.1
20.4
24.5
31.2
27.7
42.4
57.8
35.8
74.1
28.2
29.3
35.7

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

39

Table

2.31

Services plus discrepancy value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

1980

1990

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009a

44.6
43.8
43.8
..
52.3
34.6
50.1
25.1
43.1
..
39.9
46.0
52.8
38.2
41.7
54.4
..
..
..
..
32.8
54.3
27.6
..
36.1
46.6
48.9
36.0
53.9
33.7
38.5
43.6
60.7
28.5
33.0
34.0
..
32.6
..
59.9
77.5
45.0
23.6
45.4
53.0
47.1
..
47.7
23.5
42.8
55.3
44.2
33.8
45.0
..
50.5
54.8
44.4

49.2
43.9
43.9
41.2
50.7
34.1
50.2
25.2
46.0
64.3
32.7
53.0
50.3
40.0
46.5
44.3
74.9
27.8
..
34.5
49.7
57.9
38.1
42.9
20.6
51.4
40.7
28.8
58.6
26.1
38.6
41.6
54.4
44.5
50.2
48.6
..
42.8
..
57.9
78.9
33.9
..
55.3
44.2
46.5
36.4
43.7
32.4
28.1
50.4
48.8
40.5
52.0
..
48.3
54.5
49.1

51.4
41.8
46.5
24.3
54.2
48.0
42.8
41.0
47.6
73.4
24.6
42.0
36.7
27.5
32.6
52.8
80.2
5.3
60.8
44.0
41.9
54.9
32.0
46.3
..
53.4
55.9
17.7
55.4
44.9
37.6
48.9
63.4
45.9
60.7
43.2
20.5
50.7
61.2
58.2
69.6
28.6
..
64.9
39.3
42.5
45.0
37.1
49.7
50.9
61.6
43.7
34.7
48.4
20.6
54.8
59.7
48.2

52.0
42.0
46.2
25.3
54.6
47.0
44.0
41.0
48.9
75.1
30.7
29.4
36.9
28.3
28.6
53.7
79.8
3.8
60.5
41.8
39.1
53.1
31.4
41.3
..
53.7
56.0
18.4
55.3
47.9
39.8
46.3
64.4
45.2
60.8
..
23.7
47.6
56.4
59.2
68.8
30.9
..
65.6
38.9
44.4
44.3
36.0
55.0
49.1
52.7
44.5
33.5
48.3
28.4
55.2
59.1
48.8

51.8
41.3
45.2
19.8
54.4
47.6
43.2
45.1
50.1
74.0
31.4
27.3
38.0
27.5
23.6
51.3
79.9
3.0
56.9
40.3
33.8
54.6
31.6
36.9
..
53.7
56.3
18.4
55.9
50.3
39.3
47.0
66.4
47.7
59.5
..
23.7
47.5
62.7
59.5
75.6
24.8
..
66.2
39.7
45.8
45.5
32.4
48.3
45.1
51.2
43.8
30.5
49.2
22.2
57.1
59.9
48.4

52.1
41.8
45.5
21.4
..
43.9
44.4
..
48.8
73.2
30.7
27.8
..
26.6
20.5
51.2
80.1
2.9
57.2
39.4
33.9
55.5
48.8
32.8
..
54.8
53.5
26.0
56.4
51.9
39.1
29.1
66.9
45.7
54.9
..
26.1
47.8
..
62.2
77.1
25.7
..
66.0
40.8
43.9
46.7
..
50.2
42.3
44.8
42.4
29.7
47.5
19.5
56.0
60.1
48.0

52.8
43.0
47.0
24.1
..
44.8
..
..
49.9
73.0
31.9
33.2
..
29.1
22.6
50.9
79.3
2.8
56.5
40.5
34.9
56.5
50.2
31.3
..
65.0
52.8
26.1
58.1
53.4
..
42.9
67.1
46.4
55.0
..
26.6
50.4
..
63.0
77.7
25.9
..
65.5
40.7
43.3
46.7
..
49.8
39.8
42.3
44.2
30.7
49.6
21.5
59.0
60.7
49.1

55.6
46.6
46.6
25.9
..
45.2
..
..
..
72.1
32.9
37.5
..
31.8
19.0
48.9
..
2.3
63.3
43.2
31.7
56.4
48.6
28.4
..
63.9
54.3
21.9
59.0
53.8
..
40.6
66.4
45.9
52.8
..
..
52.6
..
62.8
77.7
26.3
..
64.3
39.7
43.3
47.2
..
49.9
39.7
47.5
43.1
31.0
49.2
19.9
55.0
58.1
49.8

57.3
48.5
48.5
30.8
..
57.3
..
..
..
70.7
29.9
..
..
33.0
24.4
50.4
..
4.7
63.4
38.6
41.2
57.1
49.5
29.8
..
62.1
57.5
..
54.9
53.4
..
44.8
66.6
44.9
58.0
..
..
51.3
..
61.7
78.3
26.6
..
65.8
44.3
43.3
46.9
..
49.5
44.3
53.0
47.7
33.7
49.0
..
55.1
62.3
53.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–09

47.5
44.3
44.3
45.4
52.2
33.8
49.2
26.8
42.5
64.4
39.5
49.6
51.2
39.6
44.9
52.0
76.1
25.2
..
31.9
38.6
52.3
33.6
42.3
35.7
48.2
47.6
36.4
51.9
33.1
40.8
42.6
56.2
35.6
44.6
41.6
..
38.8
..
57.3
77.4
44.2
25.1
50.8
49.5
48.2
..
46.2
33.0
38.6
53.6
47.5
38.0
49.7
..
50.4
54.8
47.5

52.1
44.4
44.4
31.8
50.2
40.9
45.1
30.5
45.4
67.4
31.4
49.6
48.4
32.4
44.1
50.6
80.0
20.0
58.7
31.4
44.0
57.6
32.9
49.9
31.1
51.5
38.4
21.8
59.3
40.1
36.4
39.4
57.7
48.2
58.1
43.2
..
39.9
..
56.8
74.6
19.7
..
60.9
44.5
44.4
39.1
41.7
37.2
39.7
52.4
48.6
39.1
51.0
..
50.2
57.3
50.7

53.2
43.7
46.2
24.5
52.6
46.3
44.1
41.7
47.3
73.6
30.4
37.1
38.0
28.1
25.3
51.3
80.2
3.8
60.1
40.8
37.8
54.8
38.9
38.1
32.0
56.2
55.1
19.8
56.3
48.8
38.1
43.6
64.8
47.4
57.7
43.5
23.6
49.6
61.3
60.0
72.8
25.7
..
65.1
39.6
43.3
46.4
40.3
49.8
46.8
53.5
45.2
32.9
49.1
23.0
56.0
59.9
49.8

a. Provisional.

40

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.32

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoirea
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia a
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda a
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togoa
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriaa
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Morocco
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

Central government finances,
expense, and revenue

Revenue, excluding grants
1990
2000
2009

1990

Finances
Share of GDP
(%)
Expense
2000

..
..
..
..
..
50.8
..
..
14.3
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
..
12.4
..
19.4
12.5
..
..
..
44.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
10.8
..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.4
24.1

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
28.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.7
50.7
..
11.7
..
13.4
..
..
..
30.1
..
..
..
..
16.9
38.7
11.4
..
26.3
..
26.2
..
..
10.8
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.6
..
14.0
..
..
28.7
..
..
..
..
..
18.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.3
..
..
20.5
..
..
..
..
17.1
..
23.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.6
11.6
..
28.2
..
..
..
18.8
12.4
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
..
16.2
..
17.2
..
..
..
..
33.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.5

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.6
19.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.8
..
..
10.6
..
11.6
..
..
..
28.5
..
..
..
..
12.8
43.1
28.7
..
27.9
..
22.6
..
..
15.5
..
..

..
..
..
..
15.0
..
13.0
..
..
28.2
..
..
..
..
..
17.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.9
..
..
21.7
..
..
..
..
14.6
..
21.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.7
22.5
..
33.0
..
..
..
17.4
13.7
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
19.1
..
..
–5.6
..
..
..
..
–6.5
..
..
..
..
..
–6.6
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
–0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–2.6

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–4.0
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
–2.0
..
–3.4
..
..
..
–1.6
..
..
..
..
–0.9
–13.9
–9.3
..
–2.0
..
–0.8
..
..
–1.9
..
..

..
..
..
..
–4.5
..
–4.8
..
..
–3.8
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
–5.6
..
..
–5.5
..
..
..
..
–2.1
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.3
–3.1
..
–4.9
..
..
..
–0.6
–0.9
..
..

..
23.0
..
..
30.7

..
..
..
..
29.2

36.6
27.0
..
33.1
31.4

..
24.0
..
..
30.4

..
..
..
..
27.6

25.0
30.2
..
27.9
29.9

..
–2.0
..
..
–3.2

..
..
..
..
–2.7

–4.4
–6.6
..
1.0
–1.7

2009

1990

Cash surplus or deficit
2000
2009

(continued)

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

41

Table

2.32

Central government finances,
expense, and revenue (continued)
Finances
Share of GDP
(%)
Net incurrance of liabilities

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoirea
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda a
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togoa
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriaa
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia a
ALL AFRICA

42

1990

Domestic
2000

2009

1990

Foreign
2000

2009

1990

Total debt
2000

2009

..
..
..
..
..
–0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.5
..
..
..
..
..
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
–7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
..
–1.0
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
0.3
0.7
..
..
1.6
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
..

..
..
..
..
2.2
..
4.5
..
..
4.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.8
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
–4.4
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–6.0
..
..
7.0
..
..
..
2.7
1.5
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
5.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.7
..
3.0
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
0.5
13.1
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..

..
..
..
..
2.1
..
2.9
..
..
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.6
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–2.7
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
–0.5
1.8
..
..

..
5.8
4.7
3.2
2.0
2.8
1.1
3.7
4.6
1.7
2.0
0.7
0.4
3.7
18.6
11.7
2.4
..
..
2.0
3.0
11.9
6.2
6.3
3.5
9.2
4.3
0.8
7.2
7.1
2.8
14.3
5.7
3.2
..
4.0
11.7
0.8
..
5.7
5.8
3.3
1.2
..
0.4
4.0
4.2
5.3
3.4
6.1
5.4

..
4.6
4.8
18.7
3.3
1.2
1.8
3.1
5.5
3.0
1.5
1.8
1.6
0.6
1.4
9.8
2.4
..
0.5
1.7
6.9
5.1
7.8
5.0
2.4
4.7
8.2
0.1
3.0
3.6
3.8
7.7
9.9
2.3
..
1.4
4.0
2.1
..
4.8
3.4
7.3
..
2.9
2.0
2.1
1.6
2.2
1.2
5.7
6.4

..
1.5
2.0
4.6
0.6
0.4
0.5
1.5
1.8
2.1
1.6
1.1
2.2
6.6
1.7
4.7
2.8
..
1.2
0.4
4.2
3.5
0.9
3.1
1.2
1.3
2.4
7.3
0.5
0.8
0.9
2.6
1.5
0.4
..
0.8
0.3
0.5
1.8
1.6
8.2
0.4
..
2.7
0.9
1.5
0.8
1.9
0.4
1.3
1.8

..
..
..
..
3.6

..
..
..
..
0.6

5.9
9.9
..
0.1
0.3

..
..
..
..
1.8

..
..
..
..
–0.2

0.0
–0.2
..
1.7
0.0

14.2
7.1
..
6.9
11.6

8.2
1.8
..
7.3
9.8

0.7
1.6
..
3.7
5.3

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Goods and services
1990
2000
2009

Compensation of employees
1990
2000
2009

Expense
Share of expense
(%)
Interest payments
1990
2000
2009

Subsidies and other transfers
1990
2000
2009

1990

Other expenses
2000
2009

..
..
..
..
..
35.2
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
56.3
..
..
..
..
..
43.1
..
28.3
..
..
..
..
30.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.7

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
59.4
25.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.3
..
..
17.7
..
37.6
..
..
..
20.8
..
..
..
..
26.0
24.6
14.9
..
11.3
..
26.1
..
..
55.1
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.7
..
19.1
..
..
16.3
..
..
..
..
..
29.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
..
..
20.2
..
..
..
..
30.6
..
11.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.2
24.3
..
12.9
..
..
..
24.1
31.2
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
29.1
..
..
55.6
..
..
..
..
25.4
..
..
..
..
..
48.1
..
28.7
..
..
..
..
38.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
43.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.4
27.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
55.2
..
..
40.7
..
36.5
..
..
..
51.2
..
..
..
..
41.4
36.3
23.4
..
15.6
..
44.6
..
..
12.3
..
..

..
..
..
..
47.2
..
45.8
..
..
43.3
..
..
..
..
..
38.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.9
..
..
37.3
..
..
..
..
34.4
..
33.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.8
27.6
..
13.4
..
..
..
40.3
14.2
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
2.8
..
..
7.8
..
..
..
..
7.4
..
..
..
..
..
5.6
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
18.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.8

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.8
..
..
13.4
..
8.0
..
..
..
6.6
..
..
..
..
10.7
17.3
21.9
..
18.1
..
2.3
..
..
5.2
..
..

..
..
..
..
3.3
..
3.4
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
..
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.6
..
..
10.3
..
..
..
..
2.5
..
13.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.1
7.1
..
7.2
..
..
..
5.5
8.6
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
31.8
..
..
13.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
8.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.2
10.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.4
..
..
9.7
..
0.4
..
..
..
10.4
..
..
..
..
18.7
21.6
5.5
..
52.9
..
27.0
..
..
27.4
..
..

..
..
..
..
29.7
..
11.1
..
..
30.1
..
..
..
..
..
16.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.9
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.8
22.6
..
62.9
..
..
..
17.6
44.7
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
9.4
..
..
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
..
18.6
..
17.5
..
..
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
34.3
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
2.1
..
20.7
..
..
4.9
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
17.5
..
10.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
18.3
..
4.4
..
..
..
12.5
1.4
..
..

..
22.4
..
..
7.0

..
..
..
..
8.6

11.3
8.0
..
8.9
6.6

..
26.6
..
..
31.4

..
..
..
..
39.8

33.7
24.6
..
47.8
35.8

..
16.3
..
..
10.9

..
..
..
..
12.1

1.4
14.0
..
3.7
7.4

..
..
..
..
44.9

..
..
..
..
..

45.4
44.7
..
26.6
37.7

..
..
..
..
5.8

..
..
..
..
..

8.3
8.7
..
12.9
12.5
(continued)

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

43

Table

2.32

Central government finances,
expense, and revenue (continued)
Revenue
Share of revenue
(%)

Interest
payments
1990 2000 2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

..
..
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
37.8
..
..
..
..
..
14.3
..
32.4
34.7
..
..
..
43.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.3
..
..
20.5
..
..
..
38.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
17.1

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.4
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
41.4
..
39.6
..
11.3
..
..
..
35.1
..
..
..
..
29.5
41.0
29.4
..
3.0
..
49.9
..
..
21.8
..
..

..
..
12.9
..
..
..
..
..
27.5 10.7

..
..
..
..
18.4
..
11.6
..
..
12.0
..
..
..
..
..
32.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
9.9
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.8
14.4
..
2.7
..
..
..
18.3
9.6
..
..

Taxes on income,
profits, and
capital gains
1990 2000 2009

..
..
..
..
..
37.6
..
..
18.9
..
..
..
..
21.9
..
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
9.7
20.6
..
..
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.6
..
..
14.0
..
..
..
29.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.5
43.7

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.5
17.2
..
11.6
..
12.5
..
..
..
31.8
..
..
..
..
21.3
17.3
15.4
..
51.7
..
24.1
..
..
9.9
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.0
..
13.8
..
..
18.2
..
..
..
..
..
15.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
..
..
40.0
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
22.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.2
16.9
..
52.6
..
..
..
16.7
22.0
..
..

Taxes on
Taxes on goods
international trade
and services
1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009

..
..
..
..
..
1.8
..
..
22.2
..
..
..
..
15.1
..
..
..
..
..
24.3
..
28.3
26.8
..
..
..
16.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.9
..
..
27.1
..
..
..
22.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.4
25.6

4.5
..
.. 59.7
..
4.9 18.1
.. 27.8 12.8
..
..
..
..
..
6.0
..
.. 28.4
..
5.8 12.3 20.4 27.4 19.1

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.8
15.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.4
12.5
..
21.5
..
41.6
..
..
..
22.7
..
..
..
..
33.7
5.1
7.6
..
33.1
..
13.2
..
..
29.4
..
..

..
..
..
..
38.8
..
36.7
..
..
27.6
..
..
..
..
..
20.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
40.6
..
..
..
..
29.2
..
46.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.7
24.6
..
31.8
..
..
..
34.3
46.8
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
37.8
..
..
..
..
..
14.3
..
32.4
34.7
..
..
..
43.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.3
..
..
20.5
..
..
..
38.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
17.1

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.4
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
41.4
..
39.6
..
11.3
..
..
..
35.1
..
..
..
..
29.5
41.0
29.4
..
3.0
..
49.9
..
..
21.8
..
..

..
..
..
..
18.4
..
11.6
..
..
12.0
..
..
..
..
..
32.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
9.9
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.8
14.4
..
2.7
..
..
..
18.3
9.6
..
..

.. 28.0
..
..
.. 21.7 12.9
..
..
..
..
..
.. 31.4
..
..
37.1 31.3 27.5 10.7

4.5
4.9
..
6.0
5.8

Other
taxes
1990 2000 2009

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. 5.9
0.1
..
..
..
.. 2.0
..
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.1 25.7
..
.. 0.0
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. 0.5
1.0
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
.. 1.2
..
..
..
..
.. 5.0 10.0
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
0.9
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
.. 3.3
..
..
1.6
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
.. 2.8 2.4
..
..
..
..
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
.. 2.8
..
0.1
..
0.2
..
..
1.1
..
..
..
10.2
..
..
4.8

..
..
..
..
4.4

Social
contributions
1990 2000 2009

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. 0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. 0.5
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
.. 13.8
..
..
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
3.3
..

1.5
..
2.2 14.5
..
..
5.4
..
4.4 13.0

..
..
..
..
17.0

..
..
..
..
2.4
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Grants and
other revenue
1990 2000 2009

..
..
..
..
..
47.6
..
..
27.5
..
..
..
..
23.1
..
..
..
..
..
29.1
..
28.9
10.4
..
..
..
31.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
..
..
30.0
..
..
..
9.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
9.2

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
33.7
76.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.7
28.9
..
26.0
..
29.5
..
..
..
8.5
..
..
..
..
12.2
21.3
47.7
..
7.4
..
8.7
..
..
38.7
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.5
..
35.9
..
..
32.0
..
..
..
..
..
17.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
..
..
8.2
..
..
..
..
31.4
..
17.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.3
44.1
..
8.2
..
..
..
28.0
21.6
..
..

..
..
.. 6.3
.. 31.5
.. 43.4
..
..
..
..
12.1
..
.. 16.7
19.1 23.4 10.5 11.9

a. Data were reported on a cash basis and have been adjusted to the accrual framework.

44

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

National and fiscal accounts

Table

2.33

Structure of demand
Share of GDP (%)

Household final
consumption
expenditure
1990 2000 2009a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

65.3 68.5 66.9
72.5 73.5
..
72.5 73.5 74.0
35.8
..
..
86.8 82.4
..
33.2 30.8 62.8
73.5 78.5
..
94.5 88.5
..
66.6 70.2
..
93.4 92.9 67.2
85.7 80.8 92.9
97.6 86.8 78.5
78.7 94.0 105.8
79.1 88.0 74.4
62.4 29.1 42.2
71.9 74.9 72.2
78.9 76.8
..
80.3 20.9 24.3
.. 79.1
..
77.2 73.8
87.7
49.7 32.2
41.1
75.6 77.8 77.8
85.2 84.3 81.7
66.9
77.7 75.2
86.9 94.6
..
62.8
77.7 75.9
123.3 83.3 78.8
..
..
..
86.4 83.2 79.7
71.5 81.6 61.9
79.8 79.4
..
69.2 82.8 72.1
63.4 60.3 74.6
92.3 80.6 84.4
51.2 63.1 61.9
83.8 83.4
..
..
..
..
83.7
87.7
81.1
..
..
..
79.2 76.0 83.3
52.0 53.9 71.9
83.5 100.0 84.0
..
..
..
57.1 63.0 60.4
86.1 76.5 66.7
80.4 78.0 72.8
80.9 78.3 62.3
71.1 92.0
..
91.9 77.5 76.1
64.4
87.4 61.3
63.1 59.9 113.1
64.1 61.1 62.9
56.8 41.6 40.6
72.6 75.9 76.2
48.4 45.7
..
64.6 61.4
57.0
63.6 60.7 63.4
64.7 65.1 65.2

General government
final consumption
expenditure
1990 2000 2009a

Gross fixed capital
formation
1990 2000 2009a

Exports of goods
and services
1990 2000 2009a

17.5
15.6
15.6
34.5
11.0
24.1
21.1
10.8
12.8
14.7
14.9
10.0
24.5
11.5
13.8
16.8
31.5
39.7
..
13.2
13.4
13.7
9.3
11.0
10.3
18.6
25.8
..
8.0
15.1
13.8
25.9
13.6
13.5
30.6
15.0
..
10.1
..
18.4
27.7
7.8
..
19.7
5.8
14.3
17.8
14.2
7.5
19.0
19.4
15.1
16.1
11.3
24.4
15.5
16.4
16.4

18.2
17.4
17.4
11.1
13.4
32.4
17.7
15.2
17.3
22.9
11.4
4.8
11.9
12.8
17.2
8.5
14.1
17.4
..
12.9
21.4
22.3
14.4
22.9
29.9
20.6
57.0
..
14.8
20.1
23.0
20.0
30.6
22.1
21.2
11.4
..
14.6
..
18.0
23.0
9.6
14.9
19.1
10.4
14.5
25.8
25.3
12.7
13.5
18.2
24.5
27.0
26.9
13.9
24.0
24.4
21.1

26.4
28.0
24.6
38.9
14.3
55.1
11.0
7.9
20.2
12.7
14.8
13.5
14.3
29.5
53.7
31.7
53.8
32.2
..
5.6
46.0
59.9
16.9
31.1
9.9
25.7
18.1
..
16.6
23.8
17.1
45.6
65.0
8.2
51.9
15.0
43.4
5.6
..
25.4
62.5
22.4
9.8
24.2
4.0
59.0
12.6
33.5
7.2
35.9
22.9
26.4
23.4
20.0
39.7
26.5
43.6
26.4

15.7
13.4
13.4
..
11.6
25.4
20.8
17.5
9.5
21.3
14.0
7.7
11.7
7.5
11.6
7.2
29.7
4.6
63.8
17.9
9.6
13.7
10.2
6.8
14.0
15.1
41.7
..
9.0
14.6
8.6
25.8
14.1
9.0
23.5
13.0
..
11.0
..
12.8
24.2
14.3
..
18.1
7.6
18.7
11.7
10.2
14.5
9.5
24.3
14.4
13.6
11.2
20.8
18.4
15.6
15.1

17.6
..
13.9
..
..
24.2
..
..
..
20.8
4.5
15.6
15.3
7.9
12.2
8.6
..
3.4
..
8.2
11.6
15.9
9.6
8.0
..
16.3
50.4
..
11.5
20.9
..
20.6
14.6
13.4
24.2
..
..
14.6
..
8.7
12.2
13.8
..
21.0
13.9
27.0
19.8
..
11.4
13.1
13.8
13.3
13.9
11.4
..
18.0
13.1
15.7

16.3
17.4
17.4
15.1
18.9
25.8
18.7
6.1
16.0
19.7
9.5
20.9
10.1
3.5
20.9
11.2
8.8
61.3
23.8
20.3
21.9
17.4
23.1
18.9
11.3
16.7
42.5
..
15.0
12.3
24.6
19.4
22.9
31.0
16.6
11.2
..
18.3
..
22.4
25.2
6.9
..
15.1
12.1
17.4
16.4
17.8
19.2
16.0
11.8
20.2
20.7
18.9
13.1
26.0
26.0
18.1

22.3
22.0
22.0
14.8
25.0
28.2
..
..
..
53.8
10.6
32.7
12.4
29.8
24.3
11.2
..
36.6
..
22.4
28.4
..
19.6
21.6
..
20.1
31.5
..
32.6
21.8
..
25.2
26.2
21.0
24.7
..
..
21.8
..
27.9
24.2
15.1
..
22.6
21.8
16.9
29.3
..
23.5
22.1
2.5
25.1
33.0
19.0
..
30.7
25.9
23.5

Imports of goods
and services
1990 2000 2009a

32.4 29.8 25.6 30.8 33.5
35.7 31.7 30.5 35.1
37.6
31.7 30.7 30.8 35.8 40.1
89.6 52.2 20.9 62.8 46.2
15.2 13.8 26.3 28.1 28.2
53.3 33.6 49.8 41.2 44.6
9.1
.. 24.5 25.2
..
7.8
.. 27.8 19.9
..
23.3 26.6
17.3 19.7 30.9
27.5 23.6 43.7 61.4 65.4
19.8 14.5
27.6
24.1 22.4
16.9 42.1 27.9 34.7 70.1
16.7 14.7
37.1 32.5 48.2
22.4
9.6 29.2 21.4 21.7
80.3 71.9 45.8 43.6 50.9
40.4
41.7
27.1 33.3 33.8
35.1
.. 78.4 50.4
..
98.6
74.1 69.6 85.4 41.6
15.1
4.5
.. 81.8 20.3
12.0 10.6
8.8 24.0 28.8
69.0 52.2 30.9 32.7 33.3
48.0 30.4 71.6 56.8 50.1
48.8 30.5 25.9 67.2 41.3
23.6 40.7 33.4 27.9 45.4
31.8
..
37.0 51.6
..
21.6 25.2 31.3 31.7 38.3
34.2 51.2 123.2 103.4 111.7
21.5
..
.. 26.0
..
30.7 28.5 28.0 38.0 52.2
25.6 30.0 33.4 35.3
37.7
26.8
.. 33.7 39.4
..
46.2 49.7 60.7 74.2
67.6
61.4 48.4 72.2 61.9 59.1
16.5 25.1 36.1
37.0 43.8
40.9 46.6
67.4 44.5 59.9
17.8
.. 22.0 25.7
..
54.0 35.9 28.8 32.0 27.2
8.7
11.7
14.1 25.7 29.2
..
..
..
..
..
27.9 24.0 32.2 37.2 44.0
78.2 119.3 66.7 81.4 127.6
18.1 15.7 23.8 39.3 28.5
..
..
37.7
..
..
27.9 27.3 18.8 24.9 28.1
15.3
15.1
7.1
17.7 20.8
76.1 59.8 68.9 90.1 76.5
13.4 23.2 37.5 20.1 35.2
30.7
.. 45.3 50.7
..
10.7 23.4 19.4 22.1 34.6
27.1 35.6 36.6 41.5 32.2
38.6 36.3 22.8 36.4 65.4
28.3 32.1 32.3 25.3 36.6
41.2 40.4 24.9 21.4 36.1
16.2 25.0 32.7 22.8 31.9
35.6
..
31.1 15.5
..
28.0 28.6 31.9 33.4 39.5
44.5 52.0 50.6 48.2 55.3
30.7 30.7 28.4 28.5 34.7

Gross national
savings
1990 2000 2009a

15.8
12.8
12.8
9.0
5.3
41.6
15.9
8.7
16.2
17.8
6.2
2.3
14.4
..
6.9
–5.1
..
2.1
..
12.8
24.3
21.9
10.5
19.2
14.5
18.5
70.5
..
9.1
16.4
15.0
18.8
25.8
6.6
34.8
–0.6
..
11.3
..
1.6
21.7
–1.0
..
19.1
1.2
19.7
10.1
21.0
5.6
19.6
15.6
27.6
24.3
31.1
..
25.1
23.4
20.8

15.5
15.2
15.2
23.8
10.4
41.4
5.1
4.4
15.3
9.0
..
..
..
..
30.6
8.0
5.4
..
4.4
15.9
41.7
..
15.3
15.4
..
13.5
24.1
..
8.8
9.5
15.9
..
26.3
10.4
25.4
5.3
..
12.9
..
13.8
18.5
–3.7
..
15.8
9.3
12.4
12.7
0.8
14.4
–1.4
..
..
..
18.0
..
24.3
23.2
17.2

15.4
..
..
9.7
..
16.4
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
..
..
16.1
..
18.8
15.5
7.7
..
15.4
28.1
..
..
..
..
..
16.7
9.1
26.5
..
..
15.1
..
..
9.2
7.8
..
15.4
12.2
2.4
21.2
..
17.5
19.0
..
..
..
16.7
..
31.2
22.8
17.6

a. Provisional.

National and fiscal accounts

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

45

Table

3.1

Millennium Development Goal 1:
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of population
below PPP $1.25 a day
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99c
2000–09c

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

46

International poverty linea
Share of population
Poverty gap ratio
below PPP $2 a day
at PPP $1.25 a day
Surveys
Surveys
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99c
2000–09c
1990–99c
2000–09c

Poverty gap ratio
at PPP $2 a day
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99c
2000–09c

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

..
..
1994
1998
1998
1996
..
1992
..
..
..
..
1998
1996
..
..
1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
..
1997
1993
1994
1996
..
..
1995
..
1990
..
1995
..
1995
1992
..
1996
1998
..

..
..
31.2
70.0
86.4
51.5
..
83.2
..
..
..
..
24.1
4.8
..
..
60.5
..
66.7
39.1
36.8
52.1
19.6
46.2
..
82.3
83.1
86.1
23.4
..
81.3
49.1
78.2
68.5
..
..
54.1
..
62.8
..
21.4
..
78.6
72.6
..
64.4
55.4
..

2000
2003
..
2003
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
2002
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
..
2007
2004
2005
2001
2005
2007
2003
..
2006
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2004
..

54.3
47.3
..
56.5
81.3
9.6
21.0
62.8
61.9
46.1
59.2
54.1
23.8
18.8
..
..
39.0
4.8
34.3
30.0
43.3
48.8
19.7
43.4
83.7
67.8
73.9
51.4
21.2
..
60.0
..
43.1
64.4
76.8
28.6
33.5
0.3
53.4
..
17.4
..
62.9
67.9
38.7
28.7
64.3
..

..
..
1994
1998
1998
1996
..
1992
..
..
..
..
1998
1996
..
..
1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
..
1997
1993
1994
1996
..
..
1995
..
1990
..
1995
..
1995
1992
..
1996
1998
..

..
..
11.0
30.2
47.3
18.9
..
57.4
..
..
..
..
6.7
1.6
..
..
21.2
..
34.7
14.4
11.5
20.6
4.6
25.6
..
44.3
46.0
53.1
7.1
..
42.0
24.6
38.6
32.1
..
..
19.5
..
44.8
..
5.2
..
47.7
29.7
..
24.8
26.9
..

2000
2003
..
2003
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
2002
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
..
2007
2004
2005
2001
2005
2007
2003
..
2006
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2004
..

29.9
15.7
..
20.3
36.4
1.2
6.1
31.3
25.6
20.8
25.3
22.8
7.5
5.3
..
..
9.6
0.9
12.1
10.5
15.0
16.5
6.1
20.8
40.8
26.5
32.3
18.8
5.7
..
25.2
..
11.9
29.6
40.9
8.2
10.8
0.1
20.3
..
3.3
..
29.4
28.1
11.4
8.3
32.8
..

..
..
1994
1998
1998
1996
..
1992
..
..
..
..
1998
1996
..
..
1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
..
1997
1993
1994
1996
..
..
1995
..
1990
..
1995
..
1995
1992
..
1996
1998
..

..
..
49.4
87.6
95.4
74.5
..
91.0
..
..
..
..
49.2
15.1
..
..
84.6
..
82.0
63.3
63.8
75.7
42.7
59.7
..
93.1
93.5
93.9
48.3
..
92.9
62.2
91.6
86.4
..
..
79.4
..
75.0
..
39.9
..
89.3
91.3
..
86.0
74.8
..

2000
2003
..
2003
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
2002
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
..
2007
2004
2005
2001
2005
2007
2003
..
2006
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2004
..

70.2
75.3
..
81.2
93.5
30.4
40.9
80.1
83.3
65.0
79.6
74.4
46.3
41.2
..
..
77.6
19.6
56.7
53.6
69.6
77.9
39.9
62.3
94.8
89.6
90.5
77.1
44.1
..
81.6
..
75.9
83.9
89.6
57.3
60.4
1.8
76.1
..
35.7
..
81.0
87.9
69.3
55.3
81.5
..

..
..
1994
1998
1998
1996
..
1992
..
..
..
..
1998
1996
..
..
1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
..
1997
1993
1994
1996
..
..
1995
..
1990
..
1995
..
1995
1992
..
1996
1998
..

..
..
22.3
49.1
64.1
36.0
..
68.8
..
..
..
..
18.2
4.5
..
..
41.2
..
50.0
28.5
26.5
37.4
14.7
36.1
..
61.0
62.3
67.2
17.8
..
59.4
36.5
56.5
49.7
..
..
37.9
..
54.0
..
15.0
..
61.7
50.1
..
44.5
41.7
..

2000
2003
..
2003
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
2002
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
..
2007
2004
2005
2001
2005
2007
2003
..
2006
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2004
..

42.4
33.5
..
39.3
56.1
8.2
15.2
46.8
43.9
34.2
42.4
38.8
17.8
14.6
..
..
28.9
5.0
24.9
22.3
31.0
34.8
15.1
33.1
59.5
46.9
51.8
36.5
15.9
..
42.9
..
30.6
46.9
57.2
21.6
24.7
0.4
37.5
..
12.3
..
45.8
47.5
27.9
21.3
48.3
..

1995
1996
..
1999
1995

6.8
2.5
..
6.8
6.5

..
2005
..
2007
2000

..
<2
..
2.5
2.6

1995
1996
..
1999
1995

1.4
0.3
..
1.2
1.3

..
2005
..
2007
2000

..
0.4
..
0.5
0.5

1995
1996
..
1999
1995

23.6
26.3
..
24.4
20.4

..
2005
..
2007
2000

..
18.5
..
14.0
12.8

1995
1996
..
1999
1995

6.5
5.0
..
6.5
5.8

..
2005
..
2007
2000

..
3.5
..
3.2
3.0

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Share of population below
national poverty linea
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–09c

Share of urban population below
national poverty linea
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–09c

Share of rural population below
national poverty linea
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–09c

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Year

Percent

62.3
29.0
19.4
19.2
34.0
12.2
13.2
49.6
24.6
34.5
61.5
..
29.4f
..
..
..
35.1
29.8
39.6f
10.8
30.5
51.6
33.7
41.5f
55.1f
52.0
25.4
25.5
25.4
..
49.6
17.0
36.7
43.1
23.2
45.0
35.1f
..
47.0
..
..
..
49.0

..
16.7
39.5
..

2000e
2003e
2003
2003e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004e
2005
..
2008
..
..
..
2004
2005
2003e
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006e
2000e
..
2008
2003e
2007e
2004e
2006e
2001
2005e
..
2003e
..
..
..
2001e
..
2006
2009
2006
..

14.7
..
..
..
..

..
2008
..
2007
..

..
..
1993
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1998
..
..
1993
1999
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1994
..
1999
1998
..
..
..
1996
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1995
..
..
..
..
1997
1998
..

..
..
47.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.4f
..
..
69.0
44.2
..
..
39.5
..
..
..
66.6f
..
71.3
65.3
..
..
..
69.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
44.4
66.8
..

..
2003e
2003
2003e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004e
2005
2005
2008
..
..
..
2004
2005
2003e
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006e
2000e
..
2008
2003e
2007e
2004e
2006e
2001
2005e
..
2003e
..
2005
..
2001e
2007e
2006
2009
2006
2003e

..
39.0
30.6
46.4
66.9
39.9
26.6
62.0
55.0
44.8
71.3
50.1
42.7f
..
..
..
38.9
32.7
58.0f
28.5
53.0
64.7
45.9
56.6f
63.8f
68.7
52.4
47.4
46.3
..
54.7
38.0
59.5
54.7
58.5
53.8
50.8f
..
66.4
..
23.0
..
69.2
33.4
61.7
24.5
59.3
72.0

..
..
1993
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1998
..
..
1993
1999
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1994
..
1999
1998
..
..
..
1996
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1997
1998
..

..
..
29.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.6f
..
..
62.0
36.9
..
..
19.4
..
..
..
36.7f
..
52.1
54.9
..
..
..
62.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1995
1996
..
..
1995

22.6
19.4
..
..
6.2

..
2008
..
2007
2005

..
22.0
..
9.0
3.8

1995
..
..
..
..

..

Percent

Year

Percent

36.8
9.1
26.7
..

..
..
1993
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1999
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1994
..
1999
1998
..
..
..
1996
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1997
1998
..

..
..
55.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.5f
..
..
..
45.4
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
68.9f
..
76.7
66.5
..
..
..
71.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48.7
83.0
..

..
2003e
2003
2003e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004e
2005
2005
2008
..
..
..
2004
2005
2003e
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006e
2000e
..
2008
2003e
2007e
2004e
2006e
2001
2005e
..
2003e
..
..
..
2001e
2007e
2006
2009
2006
..

..
46.0
44.8
52.4
68.9
55.0
44.3
69.4
58.6
48.7
75.7
57.7
54.2f
..
..
..
39.3
44.6
67.8f
39.2
63.0
69.1
49.1
60.5f
67.7f
73.5
55.9
57.6
61.2
..
56.9
49.0
63.9
63.8
64.2
64.9
61.9f
..
78.5
..
..
..
75.0
37.4
74.3
27.2
76.8
..

..
10.6
..
4.8
..

1995
..
..
..
..

30.3
..
..
..
..

..
2008
..
2007
..

..
30.0
..
14.5
..

..

(continued)

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

47

Table

3.1

Millennium Development Goal 1:
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (continued)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Population below
minimum dietary
energy consumption
Share (%) Total (millions)
2005–07d
2005–07d

Share of poorest quintile in national
consumption or incomeb
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–09c

Prevalence of child malnutrition, underweight
(% of children under age 5)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–09c

Year

Percent

Year

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

..
..
1994
1998
1998
1996
..
1993
..
..
..
..
1998
1996
..
..
1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1995
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
..
1997
1993
1994
1996
..
..
1995
..
1990
..
1995
..
1995
1992
..
1999
1998
1995

..
..
3.1
5.9
5.1
5.7
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
5.8
6.4
..
..
7.2
..
4.0
5.6
6.4
5.2
6.0
1.5
..
5.9
4.8
4.6
6.3
..
5.7
1.5
6.0
5.0
..
..
6.5
..
1.1
..
3.6
..
2.7
7.4
..
5.9
3.3
4.6

2000
2003
..
2003
2006
2001
2001
2003
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
2002
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
..
2007
2004
2006
2001
2005
2007
2003
..
2000
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2004
..

2
6.9
..
7.0
9.0
5.6
4.5
5.2
6.3
2.6
5.5
5.0
5.6
6.0
..
..
9.3
6.1
4.8
5.2
6.4
7.2
4.7
3.0
6.4
6.2
7.0
6.5
6.2
..
5.2
..
8.3
5.1
4.2
5.2
6.2
10.8
6.1
..
3.1
..
4.5
6.8
5.4
5.8
3.6
..

1996
1996
1996
1999
..
1998
1994
1995
1997
1996
1995
..
1999
1996
1997
1996
..
..
1996
1999
1999
..
1998
1992
..
1997
1998
1996
1996
1995
1997
1992
1998
1999
1996
..
1996
..
1990
..
1999
1993
..
1999
1998
1995
1999
1999

37
26.8
15.1
33.7
..
17.8
11.8
23.3
34.3
22.3
30.7
..
18.2
16.0
13.8
38.3
..
..
23.2
20.3
21.2
..
17.6
13.8
..
35.5
26.3
38.2
20.3
13.0
28.1
21.5
45.0
27.3
24.2
..
19.6
..
25.4
..
10.1
31.8
..
25.3
23.2
21.5
19.6
11.5

2001
2006
2000
2009
2000
2006
..
2000
2004
2000
2007
2005
2006
2006
2004
2002
2005
2001
2006
2008
2008
2006
2009
2005
2007
2004
2006
2006
2008
..
2003
2007
2006
2008
2005
2009
2005
..
2008
2006
..
2006
2007
2005
2006
2006
2007
2006

27.5
20.2
10.7
26.0
38.9
16.6
..
21.8
33.9
25.0
28.2
11.8
16.7
29.6
10.6
34.5
34.6
8.8
15.8
14.3
20.8
17.4
16.4
16.6
20.4
36.8
15.5
27.9
16.7
..
21.2
17.5
39.9
26.7
18.0
13.1
14.5
..
21.3
32.8
..
31.7
6.1
16.7
22.3
16.4
14.9
14.0

41
12
25
9
62
21
10
40
37
46
69
15
14
28
..
64
41
<5
19
5
17
22
31
14
33
25
28
12
7
5
38
19
20
6
34
<5
17
7
35
..
<5
22
18
34
30
21
43
30

7.1
1.0
0.5
1.2
4.7
3.9
0.0
1.7
3.8
0.4
41.9
0.5
2.8
0.2
..
3.0
31.6
..
0.3
1.2
1.6
0.3
11.2
0.3
1.2
4.5
3.9
1.5
0.2
0.1
8.1
0.4
2.7
9.2
3.1
0.0
2.0
0.0
1.8
..
..
8.8
0.2
13.7
1.8
6.1
5.2
3.7

1995
1996
..
1999
1995

6.9
9.5
..
6.4
5.6

..
2005
..
2007
2000

..
9.0
..
6.5
5.9

1995
1998
1995
1997
1997

11.3
10.2
4.2
7.7
3.3

2005
2008
2007
2004
2006

3.7
6.8
5.6
9.9
3.3

<5
<5
<5
<5
<5

1.4
..
..
1.6
..

Percent

a. Based on nominal per capita consumption average and distributions estimated from household surveys.
b. Expenditure shares by percentiles of population, ranked by per capita expenditure.
c. Survey year refers to the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected; in cases for which the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which
most of the data were collected is reported as the reference year. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Data for a three-year period are used for the estimation of the prevalence of undernourishment.
e. Poverty estimates based on survey data from earlier years are available but not comparable with the most recent year reported here.
f. World Bank estimates.

48

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Table

3.2

Millennium Development Goal 2:
achieve universal primary education

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Share of cohort reaching grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)
1990
2000
2007–08a

Youth literacy rate
(% ages 15–24)
1991
2000
2009

Net primary enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
1990
2000
2009

Primary completion rate
(% of relevant age group)
1990
2000
2009

..
41.2
86.9
..
..
71.1
92.7
57.9
..
..
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
..
..
51.4
..
24.9
..
..
70.7
..
70.3
..
..
..
97.2
44.0
79.1
22.8
..
..
96.0
45.1
..
..
..
..
..
74.3
51.4
62.3
..
..
..

..
..
82.5
36.0
43.2
..
98.9
..
53.5
72.9
..
..
54.7
26.9
68.8
37.9
40.5
..
72.1
62.9
46.6
52.1
64.9
77.5
75.2
67.6
..
..
62.6
92.9
56.0
88.8
26.7
63.0
..
..
57.5
..
..
..
89.8
39.2
71.1
52.9
80.2
..
68.5
83.9

..
94.7
..
63.3
98.9
91.6
82.6
66.7
..
..
..
..
57.2
44.4
53.5
35.7
82.7
..
..
75.9
72.9
..
82.6
73.1
..
..
90.8
72.9
76.3
94.0
90.6
89.1
54.0
..
..
97.5
73.1
94.4
..
..
84.7
..
..
96.4
93.5
92.2
90.7
..

..
19.5
89.8
19.3
40.9
54.2
53.6
30.4
16.3
..
..
58.8
40.1
32.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.8
..
..
58.4
..
37.0
28.1
..
29.1
113.7
26.4
..
15.8
..
49.2
77.9
41.9
..
..
..
..
..
62.7
..
35.0
..
..
93.6

..
39.3
91.0
25.1
24.6
49.9
103.2
..
22.4
..
..
..
41.8
28.0
..
36.4
23.0
..
74.1
69.5
32.1
30.7
..
60.1
..
37.6
65.4
30.8
..
102.8
16.1
91.6
17.9
..
22.3
..
39.1
107.2
..
..
86.6
35.8
60.3
..
63.2
..
61.4
..

..
62.0
..
43.0
52.4
73.4
86.6
38.0
33.5
..
55.9
74.1
46.5
35.4
46.5
47.8
55.2
..
..
82.7
61.7
..
..
70.3
..
78.8
59.2
59.4
..
89.4
56.6
87.1
40.3
..
..
83.2
56.9
105.1
..
..
93.2
57.2
..
102.3
61.4
72.5
87.1
..

..
27.3
75.7
55.6
57.2
66.6
53.0
42.7
35.6
..
..
70.6
60.8
73.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.6
..
..
66.3
..
34.0
32.3
..
63.8
..
33.8
..
57.0
..
51.5
..
72.8
..
..
..
..
..
60.0
..
44.5
..
..
68.7

..
84.2
89.0
69.1
58.8
..
89.1
..
54.9
..
..
..
88.0
..
..
60.5
64.6
..
73.0
66.2
..
..
..
67.2
..
36.1
..
..
..
98.4
52.5
90.9
74.0
..
41.7
..
72.3
91.0
..
..
..
..
74.0
81.4
74.7
56.7
..
..

..
..
..
75.1
72.6
77.7
..
53.6
..
..
..
..
66.1
64.3
60.9
73.1
45.9
..
..
79.0
68.6
..
..
..
..
49.4
50.7
86.9
..
97.2
53.7
91.5
64.3
..
48.5
..
69.8
94.9
..
..
..
86.0
..
80.9
..
57.7
71.0
..

..
..
..
..
53.6
..
88.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
91.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.4
..

..
..
..
..
73.3
83.1
..
58.5
37.6
80.2
..
..
60.7
..
94.9
..
..
..
52.6
70.7
..
59.5
80.3
90.9
..
70.2
..
..
61.3
94.5
..
..
..
..
77.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
77.2
88.4
..
74.4
..
..
..

73.1
54.3
95.2
..
76.6
..
98.2
64.7
46.3
85.3
67.7
..
66.6
..
97.9
88.7
..
97.6
65.5
80.1
61.1
70.9
92.7
92.0
75.6
..
86.5
..
67.7
96.5
70.9
93.0
..
71.8
77.2
95.3
65.0
..
57.6
..
..
85.9
93.4
77.4
..
..
74.6
98.9

87.5
..
..
56.2
92.6

91.6
86.0
..
75.8
95.8

93.8
..
..
89.7
..

80.8
..
..
51.4
80.3

82.6
87.7
..
56.7
88.5

90.5
..
..
80.4
..

83.8
..
..
68.9
80.0

97.1
99.0
..
80.1
93.1

94.5
..
..
84.2
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
99.9
79.5
..

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

49

Table

3.3

Millennium Development Goal 3:
promote gender equity and empower women

Ratio of girls to boys in primary
and secondary school
(%)
1991
2000
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Ratio of literate young
women to men
(% ages 15–24)
1990
2000
2009

Women in
national parliament
(% of total seats)
1990
2000
2009

Share of women employed in
the nonagricultural sector
(%)
1990
2000
2000–09 a

..
..
108.0
..
79.0
82.3
94.0
59.1
40.9
..
..
88.5
..
72.2
..
..
..
..
..
78.0
44.0
..
..
123.8
..
95.6
80.9
57.6
68.9
100.4
72.7
110.8
53.0
76.5
94.8
..
67.4
..
61.8
..
103.5
..
..
97.1
58.1
77.9
..
96.4

..
64.2
101.6
70.1
..
..
..
..
55.8
84.1
..
85.7
69.3
71.0
81.1
77.4
65.1
95.9
81.6
89.7
61.5
65.5
97.6
107.2
71.9
..
92.6
69.5
95.3
98.6
74.9
103.2
65.0
80.2
96.0
..
81.9
103.7
..
..
100.3
..
95.5
97.5
69.1
92.8
91.4
94.4

..
..
..
85.6
92.7
85.6
103.4
68.7
63.6
..
76.8
..
..
82.0
..
77.3
87.9
..
..
95.4
77.2
..
95.4
107.1
..
96.9
100.0
78.4
..
101.3
88.3
..
75.3
..
100.3
103.1
..
103.5
..
..
99.4
89.4
..
96.1
..
98.7
95.8
..

..
..
107.4
52.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
105.5
..
76.8
100.0
95.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.7
..
..

..
..
..
..
91.6
88.2
..
66.6
41.7
92.4
..
..
73.6
..
100.2
..
..
..
64.3
86.2
..
61.4
101.1
114.9
..
93.9
..
..
81.9
101.7
..
..
..
..
97.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
84.4
103.2
..
76.0
..
..
..

81.1
66.9
103.2
..
99.2
..
101.7
79.4
72.8
98.7
84.7
..
84.6
..
100.5
93.6
..
98.0
84.5
97.3
79.1
81.3
101.8
114.4
114.9
..
99.0
..
90.8
102.1
81.6
104.2
..
83.6
100.5
101.0
75.7
..
71.1
..
..
92.8
103.2
97.3
..
..
82.3
101.1

15.0
3.0
5.0
..
..
14.0
12.0
4.0
..
0.0
5.0
14.0
6.0
0.0
13.0
..
..
13.0
8.0
..
..
20.0
1.0
..
..
7.0
10.0
..
..
7.0
16.0
7.0
5.0
..
17.0
12.0
13.0
16.0
..
4.0
3.0
..
4.0
..
5.0
12.0
7.0
11.0

16.0
6.0
..
8.0
6.0
6.0
11.0
7.0
2.0
..
..
12.0
..
0.0
5.0
15.0
2.0
8.0
2.0
9.0
9.0
..
4.0
4.0
..
8.0
8.0
12.0
4.0
8.0
..
22.0
1.0
..
17.0
9.0
12.0
24.0
9.0
..
30.0
..
3.0
16.0
..
18.0
10.0
14.0

37.3
10.8
11.1
15.3
30.5
13.9
18.1
10.5
5.2
3.0
8.4
7.3
8.9
13.8
10.0
22.0
21.9
16.7
9.4
8.3
..
10.0
9.8
25.0
12.5
..
20.8
10.2
22.1
17.1
34.8
26.9
12.4
7.0
56.3
7.3
22.0
23.5
13.2
6.1
44.5
18.1
13.6
30.4
11.1
30.7
15.2
15.2

..
..
33.5
12.5
14.3
..
..
..
3.8
..
25.9
26.1
..
..
10.5
..
..
..
20.9
..
..
10.8
21.4
..
..
..
10.5
..
..
37.4
11.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.7
..
22.2
..
..
41.0
..
16.6
15.4

..
..
42.9
..
..
..
38.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.8
38.6
..
42.8
..
18.6
33.0
..
..
..
..
..
41.1
..
..
..
..
..
22.0
20.4

..
24.3
43.4
..
..
22.2
38.9
46.8
..
..
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
47.3
..
..
31.7
..
..
..
..
11.4
37.7
..
34.6
35.8
37.1
..
41.4
36.1
21.1
33.0
..
10.6
..
23.2
..
44.0
..
..
30.5
..
39.0
22.0
21.9

81.6
80.5
..
68.8
84.6

..
92.5
..
82.4
99.5

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
99.9
83.2
..

2.0
4.0
..
0.0
4.0

3.0
2.0
..
1.0
12.0

7.7
1.8
7.7
10.5
22.8

..
20.5
..
..
..

..
19.0
..
..
24.3

13.1
19.0
15.8
20.8
25.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

50

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Table

3.4

Millennium Development Goal 4:
reduce child mortality

1990

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000)
2000
2008

2009

1990

Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)
2000
2008

2009

Child immunization rate, measles
(% of children ages 12–23 months)
1990
2000
2008
2009

258
184
60
201
189
148
63
175
201
128
199
104
152
123
198
150
210
93
153
120
231
240
99
93
247
167
218
250
129
24
232
73
305
212
171
95
151
15
285
180
62
124
92
162
150
184
179
81

212
144
99
188
178
156
41
184
205
114
199
116
142
106
168
89
148
83
131
106
185
218
105
124
198
100
164
217
122
19
183
76
227
190
180
86
120
14
250
180
77
115
105
139
124
154
166
116

166
121
59
169
168
155
29
172
209
105
199
127
121
95
148
58
109
71
106
72
146
195
86
91
119
61
115
194
118
17
147
50
167
143
117
79
95
13
198
180
65
109
77
111
100
130
145
93

161
118
57
166
166
154
28
171
209
104
199
128
119
94
145
55
104
69
103
69
142
193
84
84
112
58
110
191
117
17
142
48
160
138
111
78
93
12
192
180
62
108
73
108
98
128
141
90

153
111
46
110
114
91
49
115
120
90
126
67
105
95
120
92
124
68
104
76
137
142
64
74
165
102
129
139
81
21
155
49
144
126
103
62
73
13
166
109
48
78
67
99
89
111
108
54

126
89
66
102
107
96
33
119
122
81
126
74
97
84
102
58
91
61
93
68
111
129
66
86
134
65
99
120
77
17
123
50
107
114
108
56
61
12
150
109
54
73
71
86
78
94
99
69

101
76
44
92
102
95
24
113
124
76
126
80
85
76
90
41
69
53
80
49
90
117
56
66
85
43
71
103
75
15
99
35
79
89
74
52
52
11
126
109
45
70
53
70
66
81
88
58

98
75
43
91
101
95
23
112
124
75
126
81
83
75
88
39
67
52
78
47
88
115
55
61
80
41
69
101
74
15
96
34
76
86
70
52
51
11
123
109
43
69
52
68
64
79
86
56

38
79
87
79
74
56
79
82
32
87
38
75
56
85
88
..
38
76
86
61
35
53
78
80
..
47
81
43
38
76
59
..
25
54
83
71
51
86
..
30
79
57
85
80
73
52
90
87

41
70
91
51
76
49
86
36
28
70
46
34
71
50
51
86
52
55
92
90
42
71
78
74
63
55
73
55
62
84
71
69
37
33
74
69
48
97
37
35
72
58
92
78
58
57
85
75

79
66
94
75
84
80
96
62
23
76
67
79
63
73
51
95
74
55
91
86
51
76
76
85
64
70
88
71
65
98
77
73
66
41
92
93
77
99
66
24
62
79
95
88
77
68
85
70

77
72
94
75
91
74
96
62
23
79
76
76
67
73
51
95
75
55
96
93
51
76
74
85
64
64
92
71
59
99
77
76
73
41
92
90
79
97
71
24
62
82
95
91
84
68
85
76

61
90
36
89
50

46
47
25
55
27

34
23
19
39
21

32
21
19
38
21

51
66
32
69
40

40
38
23
46
23

30
20
17
35
18

29
18
17
33
18

83
86
89
79
93

80
98
93
93
95

88
92
98
96
98

88
95
98
98
98

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

51

Table

3.5

Millennium Development Goal 5:
improve maternal health

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)
Modeled estimate
National estimate
1990
2008
1990–99a
2000–09a

Births attended by skilled health staff
(% of total)
Surveys 1990–99a
Surveys 2000–09a
Year

1,000
790
83
770
1,200
680
230
880
1,300
530
900
460
690
370
1,000
930
990
260
750
630
1,200
1,200
380
370
1,100
710
910
1,200
780
72
1,000
180
1,400
1,100
1,100
..
750
..
1,300
1,100
230
830
260
880
650
670
390
390

610
410
190
560
970
600
94
850
1,200
340
670
580
470
300
280
280
470
260
400
350
680
1,000
530
530
990
440
510
830
550
36
550
180
820
840
540
..
410
..
970
1,200
410
750
420
790
350
430
470
790

..
..
498
326
484
..
..
..
1,100
830
..
..
..
600
74
..
998
..
..
..
..
530
910
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
590
..
..
..
560
..
..
1,000
150
..
229
..
478
..
..

..
397
198
307
615
669
16
543
1,099
380
549
781
543
546
..
..
673
519
730
451
980
405
488
762
994
498
807
464
686
22
408
449
648
545
750
148
401
57
857
1,044
166
1,107
589
578
..
435
591
555

250
220
100
270
130

120
82
64
110
60

..
117
..
77
332

..
55
..
132
..

Percent

Year

Percent

1996
1996
1996
1999
..
1998
1998
1995
1997
1996
..
..
1999
..
1994
1995
..
..
1990
1998
1999
1995
1998
1993
..
1997
1992
1996
1991
1999
1997
1992
1998
1999
1992
..
1999
..
..
1999
1998
1999
1994
1999
1998
1995
1999
1999

22.5
59.8
87
31
..
55
88.5
45.9
15
51.6
..
..
47.1
..
5
20.6
..
..
44.1
44.3
34.8
25
44.3
49.6
..
47.3
54.8
40
40
98.5
44.2
68.2
17.6
41.6
25.8
..
48.3
..
..
32.2
84.4
56.9
56
43.8
50.5
37.8
47.1
72.5

2007
2006
2007
2006
2005
2006
2005
2009
2004
2000
2007
2005
2006
2006
2000
2002
2005
2000
2006
2008
2007
2006
2009
2009
2007
2009
2006
2006
2007
2005
2008
2007
2006
2008
2008
2009
2005
..
2008
2006
2003
2006
2007
2005
2006
2006
2007
2009

47.3
74.0
94.6
53.5
33.6
63.0
77.5
43.7
14.4
61.8
74.0
83.4
56.8
92.9
64.6
28.3
5.7
85.5
56.8
57.1
46.1
38.8
43.8
61.5
46.3
43.9
53.6
49.0
60.9
99.2
55.3
81.4
32.9
38.9
52.1
81.7
51.9
..
42.4
33.0
91.2
49.2
69.0
43.4
62.0
41.9
46.5
60.2

1992
1998
1999
1995
1995

77
55.2
99
39.6
80.5

2006
2008
..
2004
2006

95.2
78.9
..
62.6
94.6

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

52

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Table

3.6

Millennium Development Goal 6:
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

Prevalence of HIV
(% ages 15–49)
1990
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Contraceptive use, any method
(% of married women ages 15–49)
Surveys 2000–09a
Surveys 1990–99a

Children sleeping under
insecticide-treated nets
(% of children under age 5)
Surveys 2000–09a

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

Year

Percent

0.5
0.2
3.5
3.9
3.9
0.6
..
3.1
1.1
<0.1
..
5.2
2.4
0.9
0.1
0.3
..
0.9
0.1
0.3
1.1
0.3
3.9
0.8
0.3
0.2
7.2
0.4
0.2
<0.1
1.2
1.6
0.1
1.3
5.2
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.1
0.7
0.1
2.3
4.8
0.6
10.2
12.7
10.1

2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
2.5
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3

1996
1996
..
1999
..
1998
1998
1995
1997
1996
1991
..
1999
..
..
1995
1990
..
1990
1999
1999
..
1998
1992
..
1997
1996
1996
1991
1999
1997
1992
1998
1999
1996
..
1999
..
..
1999
1998
1993
..
1999
1999
1995
1999
1999

8.1
16.4
..
11.9
..
19.3
52.9
14.8
4.2
21.0
7.7
..
15.0
..
..
8.0
4.3
..
11.8
22.0
6.2
..
39.0
23.2
..
19.3
21.9
6.7
3.3
26.0
5.6
28.9
8.2
15.3
13.7
..
10.5
..
..
7.9
56.3
9.9
..
25.4
23.5
14.8
22.0
53.5

2001
2006
2007
2006
2005
2006
2005
2006
2004
2000
2007
2005
2006
2008
..
2002
2005
2000
2001
2008
2005
2006
2009
2009
2007
2009
2006
2006
2007
2002
2008
2007
2006
2008
2008
2009
2005
..
2008
2006
2003
2006
2007
2005
2006
2006
2007
2009

6.2
17.0
52.8
17.4
9.1
29.2
61.3
19.0
2.8
25.7
20.6
44.3
12.9
22.5
..
8.0
14.7
32.7
17.5
23.5
9.1
10.3
45.5
47.0
11.4
39.9
41.0
8.2
9.3
75.9
16.2
55.1
11.2
14.6
36.4
38.4
11.8
..
8.2
14.6
59.9
7.6
50.6
26.4
16.8
23.7
40.8
64.9

2007
2006
..
2006
2005
2006
..
2006
2000
2000
2007
2005
2006
2009
2000
2002
2007
..
2006
2008
2008
2006
2009
..
2009
2009
2006
2006
2004
..
2008
2006
2009
2008
2008
2009
2009
..
2008
2006
..
2006
2007
2008
2006
2006
2008
2009

18
20
..
10
8
13
..
15
1
9
6
6
3
20
1
4
33
..
49
28
5
39
46
..
26
46
25
27
2
..
23
11
43
6
56
56
29
..
26
11
..
28
1
26
38
10
41
17

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

1995
1998
1995
1997
1995

52.0
51.7
45.2
58.8
60.0

2006
2008
..
2004
2006

61.4
60.3
..
63.0
60.2

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
(continued)

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

53

Table

3.6

Millennium Development Goal 6:
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases (continued)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Tuberculosis treatment success rate
(% of registered cases)
Surveys 2000–08a
Surveys 1990–99a

1990

Incidence of tuberculosis
(per 100,000 people)
1999

2009

Year

Percent

Year

205
77
307
95
154
81
175
145
125
85
165
169
177
619
86
72
159
153
185
223
119
158
112
184
199
177
258
275
228
28
181
322
125
131
167
135
195
43
207
285
301
119
267
226
308
163
297
329

245
84
588
182
295
154
162
277
240
59
315
324
338
619
97
84
304
210
221
212
190
188
382
519
237
213
417
297
272
25
347
616
149
250
319
116
232
37
355
285
479
119
691
232
367
324
603
628

298
93
694
215
348
182
148
327
283
39
372
382
399
620
117
99
359
501
269
201
318
229
305
634
288
261
304
324
330
22
409
727
181
295
376
98
282
31
644
285
971
119
1257
183
446
293
433
742

1998
1999
1999
1999
1998
1999
..
1995
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1997
1999
1999
1998
1997
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1997
1999
1999
..
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
..
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999

68.0
77.0
71.0
61.0
74.0
75.0
..
37.0
64.0
93.0
69.0
61.0
63.0
72.0
82.0
44.0
74.0
50.0
70.0
51.0
74.0
35.0
79.0
69.0
74.0
64.0
71.0
69.0
..
87.0
71.0
51.0
60.0
75.0
67.0
81.0
58.0
91.0
75.0
88.0
57.0
80.0
..
78.0
76.0
61.0
69.0
73.0

2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2007
2008
2008
2006
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008

70.0
89.0
65.0
76.0
90.0
76.0
74.0
71.0
54.0
90.0
87.0
76.0
76.0
84.0
56.0
76.0
84.0
53.0
84.0
86.0
78.0
70.0
85.0
73.0
79.0
81.0
87.0
82.0
68.0
87.0
84.0
82.0
81.0
78.0
87.0
94.0
84.0
100.0
86.0
81.0
76.0
81.0
68.0
88.0
79.0
70.0
88.0
74.0

38
34
40
147
29

47
27
40
123
26

59
19
40
92
24

1999
1999
1999
1999
1999

87.0
85.0
67.0
88.0
91.0

2008
2008
2008
2008
2008

90.0
89.0
69.0
85.0
86.0

Percent

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

54

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Table

3.7

Millennium Development Goal 7:
ensure environmental sustainability

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

1990

Forest area
(% of total land area)
2000

2010

Terrestrial protected areas
(% of total land area)
1990
2000
2009

GDP per unit of energy use
(2005 PPP $ per kg of oil equivalent)
1990
2000
2008

48.9
52.1
24.2
25.0
11.3
51.4
14.3
37.2
10.4
6.4
70.7
66.5
32.1
0.2
66.3
..
15.2
85.4
44.2
32.7
29.6
78.8
6.5
1.3
51.2
23.5
41.4
11.5
0.4
19.1
55.2
10.6
1.5
18.9
12.9
28.1
48.6
88.5
43.5
13.2
7.6
32.1
27.4
46.8
12.6
24.1
71.0
57.3

47.9
45.8
22.1
22.8
7.7
46.8
20.4
36.8
9.8
4.3
69.4
66.1
32.5
0.2
62.1
15.6
13.7
85.4
46.1
26.8
28.1
75.4
6.3
1.4
48.1
22.6
37.9
10.9
0.3
19.1
52.4
9.8
1.0
14.4
13.9
28.1
46.2
88.5
40.8
12.0
7.6
29.7
30.1
42.3
8.9
19.6
68.8
48.8

46.9
41.2
20.0
20.6
6.7
42.1
21.1
36.3
9.2
1.6
68.0
65.6
32.7
0.3
58.0
15.2
12.3
85.4
48.0
21.7
26.6
71.9
6.1
1.4
44.9
21.6
34.4
10.2
0.2
17.2
49.6
8.9
1.0
9.9
17.6
28.1
44.0
89.1
38.1
10.8
4.7
29.4
32.7
37.7
5.3
15.2
66.5
40.4

12.4
23.8
30.3
13.3
3.8
7.0
2.5
14.4
9.4
0.0
10.0
5.4
22.6
0.0
7.3
4.9
17.7
4.2
1.5
13.9
6.8
7.6
11.5
0.5
18.1
2.1
15.0
2.3
0.5
1.7
14.8
14.4
6.8
11.6
9.9
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
0.6
6.5
4.7
3.0
26.5
11.3
7.3
36.0
18.0

12.4
23.8
30.9
13.5
4.8
8.7
2.5
14.7
9.4
0.0
10.0
7.8
22.6
0.0
19.2
4.9
17.7
5.2
1.5
14.0
6.8
16.1
11.6
0.5
18.1
2.9
15.0
2.3
0.5
4.5
14.8
14.5
6.8
12.8
9.9
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
0.6
6.9
4.9
3.0
26.9
11.3
7.9
36.0
18.0

12.4
23.8
30.9
13.9
4.8
9.2
2.5
14.7
9.4
0.0
10.0
9.4
22.6
0.0
19.2
5.0
18.4
14.9
1.5
14.0
6.8
16.1
11.6
0.5
18.1
2.9
15.0
2.4
0.5
4.5
15.8
14.5
6.8
12.8
10.0
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
0.6
6.9
4.9
3.0
27.7
11.3
9.7
36.0
28.0

5.8
3.2
7.6
..
..
5.1
..
..
..
..
1.9
10.7
5.5
..
..
..
1.8
11.8
..
2.5
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
2.0
..
..
6.3
..
..
..
3.1
2.5
..
2.2
2.7
..
1.8
..

4.9
4.3
9.1
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
..
0.8
11.5
4.5
..
..
3.5
1.9
11.2
..
2.6
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
8.4
..
2.0
..
..
6.0
..
..
..
3.0
3.4
..
2.1
2.0
..
1.7
..

8.8
3.9
11.6
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
0.8
9.6
3.1
..
..
3.8
2.0
9.4
..
3.4
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
7.3
..
2.6
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
3.5
5.3
..
2.6
1.9
..
2.1
..

0.7
0.0
0.1
11.3
4.1

0.7
0.1
0.1
11.2
5.4

0.6
0.1
0.1
11.5
6.5

6.3
1.9
0.1
1.2
1.3

6.3
4.3
0.1
1.5
1.3

6.3
5.9
0.1
1.5
1.3

7.1
5.8
..
9.7
6.6

6.9
6.2
4.0
8.3
7.1

6.8
5.8
5.2
8.4
8.3
(continued)

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

55

Table

3.7

Millennium Development Goal 7:
ensure environmental sustainability (continued)

Carbon dioxide emissions
per capita
(metric tons)
1990
2000
2007

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

56

Population with sustainable access
to an improved water source
(%)
1990
2000
2008

Population with sustainable access
to improved sanitation
(%)
1990
2000
2008

0.4
0.1
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.3
..
0.1
6.6
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
1.3
1.4
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.6
0.4
1.6
0.1
0.0
9.5
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
1.5

0.7
0.2
2.5
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.9
0.2
0.1
1.0
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.5
2.3
0.1
1.0
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.6
0.4
7.0
0.1
0.1
8.4
0.2
1.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
1.1

1.4
0.5
2.6
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.6
7.5
0.1
0.1
1.4
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.6
3.1
0.1
1.5
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.8
0.5
7.3
0.2
0.1
9.0
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8

36.0
56.0
93.0
41.0
70.0
50.0
..
58.0
38.0
87.0
45.0
..
76.0
77.0
..
43.0
17.0
..
74.0
54.0
52.0
..
43.0
61.0
58.0
31.0
40.0
29.0
30.0
99.0
36.0
64.0
35.0
47.0
68.0
..
61.0
..
..
..
83.0
65.0
..
55.0
49.0
43.0
49.0
78.0

41.0
66.0
94.0
60.0
72.0
64.0
83.0
63.0
45.0
92.0
44.0
70.0
78.0
84.0
43.0
54.0
28.0
85.0
84.0
71.0
62.0
55.0
52.0
74.0
65.0
37.0
63.0
44.0
40.0
99.0
42.0
81.0
42.0
53.0
67.0
79.0
65.0
..
55.0
23.0
86.0
61.0
55.0
54.0
55.0
57.0
54.0
80.0

50.0
75.0
95.0
76.0
72.0
74.0
84.0
67.0
50.0
95.0
46.0
71.0
80.0
92.0
..
61.0
38.0
87.0
92.0
82.0
71.0
61.0
59.0
85.0
68.0
41.0
80.0
56.0
49.0
99.0
47.0
92.0
48.0
58.0
65.0
89.0
69.0
..
49.0
30.0
91.0
57.0
69.0
54.0
60.0
67.0
60.0
82.0

25.0
5.0
36.0
6.0
44.0
47.0
..
11.0
6.0
17.0
9.0
..
20.0
66.0
..
9.0
4.0
..
..
7.0
9.0
..
26.0
32.0
11.0
8.0
42.0
26.0
16.0
91.0
11.0
25.0
5.0
37.0
23.0
..
38.0
..
..
..
69.0
34.0
..
24.0
13.0
39.0
46.0
43.0

40.0
9.0
50.0
8.0
45.0
47.0
45.0
22.0
7.0
28.0
16.0
30.0
22.0
63.0
51.0
11.0
8.0
36.0
63.0
9.0
15.0
18.0
29.0
29.0
14.0
10.0
50.0
32.0
21.0
91.0
14.0
29.0
7.0
34.0
40.0
21.0
45.0
..
11.0
22.0
73.0
34.0
49.0
24.0
12.0
44.0
47.0
44.0

57.0
12.0
60.0
11.0
46.0
47.0
54.0
34.0
9.0
36.0
23.0
30.0
23.0
56.0
..
14.0
12.0
33.0
67.0
13.0
19.0
21.0
31.0
29.0
17.0
11.0
56.0
36.0
26.0
91.0
17.0
33.0
9.0
32.0
54.0
26.0
51.0
..
13.0
23.0
77.0
34.0
55.0
24.0
12.0
48.0
49.0
44.0

3.1
1.3
9.2
0.9
1.6

3.8
2.0
9.3
1.2
2.1

4.1
2.3
9.3
1.5
2.3

94.0
90.0
54.0
74.0
81.0

89.0
96.0
54.0
78.0
90.0

83.0
99.0
..
81.0
94.0

88.0
72.0
97.0
53.0
74.0

92.0
86.0
97.0
64.0
81.0

95.0
94.0
97.0
69.0
85.0

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Table

3.8

Millennium Development Goal 8:
develop a global partnership for development

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) Debt Initiative

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Debt sustainability
Debt service relief
Public and publicly guaranteed debt service
committed
(% of exports, excluding worker remittances)
($ millions)a
1990
2000
2009

Decision pointa

Completion pointa

..
Jul. 2000
..
Jul. 2000
Aug. 2005
Oct. 2000
..
Sep. 2007
May 2001
Jun. 2010
Jul. 2003
Mar. 2006
Mar. 2009
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
Dec. 2000
Feb. 2002
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
..
..
Mar. 2008
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Sep. 2000
Feb. 2000
..
Apr. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Jun. 2000
..
Mar. 2002
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2000
Nov. 2008
Feb. 2000
Dec. 2000
..

..
Mar. 2003
..
Apr. 2002
Jan. 2009
Apr. 2006
..
Jun. 2009
..
..
Jul. 2010
Jan. 2010
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2007
Jul. 2004
..
..
..
..
Jun. 2010
Oct. 2004
Aug. 2006
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2002
..
Sep. 2001
..
Apr. 2004
..
Apr. 2005
Mar. 2007
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2006
..
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
May 2000
Apr. 2005
..

..
460
..
930
1,366
4,917
..
804
260
136
15,222
1,738
3,415
..
..
..
3,275
..
112
3,500
800
790
..
..
4,600
1,900
1,628
895
1,100
..
4,300
..
1,190
..
1,316
263
850
..
994
..
..
..
..
3,000
360
1,950
3,900
..

7.1
8.4
4.3
7.7
40.7
12.5
8.9
7.5
2.3
2.5
..
30.9
14.7
..
..
..
33.2
3.8
17.3
19.9
17.7
22.0
22.7
4.1
..
31.9
22.4
9.7
24.8
4.5
17.2
..
3.2
22.3
9.4
28.6
13.7
7.6
7.8
..
..
4.5
5.3
25.1
8.6
47.1
12.6
18.2

20.4
10.7
2.0
15.1
25.1
14.0
10.5
..
..
..
..
0.5
14.9
4.8
..
2.8
12.2
8.8
..
12.0
17.6
..
15.7
10.3
..
8.4
10.8
10.2
..
16.4
7.0
..
6.0
8.2
15.3
20.3
13.2
3.3
29.6
..
5.5
10.1
2.1
10.3
3.2
6.5
17.2
..

8.4
..
1.0
..
10.1
2.5
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.6
5.7
..
..
3.0
..
8.7
2.5
10.1
..
4.5
2.5
11.2
..
..
..
..
1.9
1.4
..
..
0.7
4.7
16.2
..
6.2
2.1
..
2.4
5.6
2.1
1.0
..
1.7
1.6
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

63.3
23.2
..
23.1
23.0

..
8.5
..
23.0
20.0

..
6.2
..
6.4
9.0
(continued)

Millennium Development Goals

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

57

Table

3.8

Millennium Development Goal 8:
develop a global partnership for development (continued)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15–24)
Female
Male
Total
(share of female
(share of male
(share of total
labor force)
labor force)
labor force)
Year
Percent
Year
Year
Percent
Percent

Fixed-line and mobile
telephone subscribers
(per 100 people)
1990
2000
2009

Information and communication

..
2002
2000
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
..
2007
2005
..
..
..
2009
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
2002
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
2002

..
0.82
13.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.89
..
..
16.55
..
..
..
..
4.73
2.27
..
..
..
21.36
..
41.7
3.16
..
..
..
14.8
20.33
5.15
..
48.15
..
..
8.84
..
..
21.36
24.88

..
2002
2000
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
..
2007
2005
..
..
..
2009
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
..
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
2002

..
1.07
13.23
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.51
..
..
16.42
..
..
..
..
5.73
1.74
..
..
..
18.08
..
36.68
3.95
..
..
..
11.92
..
7.27
..
44.59
..
..
7.39
..
..
23.11
28.18

..
2002
2000
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
..
2007
2005
..
..
..
2009
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
..
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
2002

..
0.61
14.01
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.42
..
..
16.68
..
..
..
..
3.73
2.77
..
..
..
26.25
..
47.05
1.67
..
..
..
20.11
..
3.5
..
52.51
..
..
10.11
..
..
19.48
21.4

0.7
0.3
2.0
0.2
0.1
0.3
2.3
0.2
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.7
0.6
1.0
0.3
..
0.3
2.2
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
5.5
0.4
3.7
0.1
0.3
0.2
1.9
0.6
12.4
0.3
0.2
9.4
0.2
1.6
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.8
1.2

0.6
1.6
20.8
0.7
0.6
1.3
16.9
0.4
0.2
1.3
0.1
3.0
4.3
1.4
2.1
0.8
0.4
12.9
3.0
1.8
0.8
0.9
1.3
2.3
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.5
1.3
38.8
0.8
10.5
0.2
0.5
0.7
3.3
4.6
57.4
0.7
1.4
30.2
1.2
6.0
0.8
1.8
0.8
1.7
4.1

45.5
57.8
103.5
22.0
10.5
39.6
91.8
4.1
24.1
19.0
15.5
59.6
64.7
16.9
67.3
3.7
6.0
94.9
86.9
64.5
55.9
35.1
50.3
33.9
21.3
31.5
16.9
29.4
68.6
114.9
26.4
62.6
17.4
48.2
24.6
44.1
57.3
130.0
20.9
8.1
102.9
37.2
59.1
40.3
35.8
29.4
34.8
27.0

..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0

0.1
0.2
3.5
0.1
0.1
0.3
5.7
0.2
0.1
0.6
..
0.4
0.5
0.9
0.4
0.2
0.1
1.0
1.2
0.3
0.4
..
0.5
..
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
1.0
10.1
0.3
4.1
0.1
0.6
..
..
1.6
13.6
..
..
6.6
0.3
1.1
0.3
1.9
0.3
0.7
1.6

0.7
0.7
6.3
0.6
0.9
1.1
14.0
0.3
0.2
0.9
0.0
0.6
1.7
4.3
1.5
1.0
0.7
3.4
3.5
1.1
0.5
0.2
1.4
0.3
..
0.6
0.2
0.8
4.5
17.6
1.4
23.9
0.1
0.9
0.3
3.9
2.2
21.2
..
0.9
8.4
10.7
3.7
0.9
3.1
1.7
1.1
7.6

..
..
0.1
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.1
0.2
2.9
0.1
0.1
0.3
1.8
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
1.2
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
7.3
0.1
1.6
0.0
0.1
0.1
4.6
0.4
7.4
0.1
0.2
5.5
0.0
0.9
0.1
1.9
0.2
0.2
0.4

3.3
2.2
6.2
1.1
0.8
3.8
29.7
0.5
1.7
3.7
0.6
6.7
4.6
3.0
2.1
4.9
0.5
6.7
7.6
5.4
0.9
2.3
10.0
3.7
0.5
1.6
4.7
1.9
2.3
22.7
2.7
5.9
0.8
28.4
4.5
16.4
7.4
38.7
0.3
1.2
9.0
9.9
7.6
1.6
5.4
9.8
6.3
11.4

2006
2007
..
2009
2005

24.3
24.8
..
21.88
30.68

2004
2007
..
2009
2005

42.85
17.16
..
22.77
31.35

2004
2007
..
2009
2005

46.27
47.89
..
19.37
29.32

3.2
2.8
5.0
1.6
3.7

6.1
9.8
12.1
13.1
11.2

101.2
79.1
95.1
90.1
105.8

0.1
..
..
..
0.3

0.7
1.1
..
1.2
2.2

1.1
3.9
2.2
5.7
9.7

0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0

0.5
0.6
0.2
0.7
2.7

13.5
20.0
5.5
32.2
33.6

Personal computers
(per 100 people)
1990
2000 2005–09b

Internet users
(per 100 people)
1995
2000
2009

Note: 0.0 indicates less than 1 but more than 0.
a. As of 2010.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

58

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals

Drivers of growth

Table

4.1

Doing Business indicators

Overall ranking
2009
2010

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

164
172
50
154
181
173
142
182
183
159
179
177
168
157
161
180
103
158
141
77
178
175
94
137
152
138
132
155
167
20
130
68
171
134
70
176
151
92
143
..
32
153
126
125
162
129
84
156
42
136
99
..
114
58

163
170
52
151
181
168
132
182
183
159
175
177
169
158
164
180
104
156
146
67
179
176
98
138
155
140
133
153
165
20
126
69
173
137
58
178
152
95
143
..
34
154
118
128
160
122
76
157
42
136
94
..
114
55

Number of
procedures
2009
2010

Starting a business
Time required
Cost
for each
(% of GNI
procedure
per capita)
(days)
2009
2010
2009
2010

9
8
7
10
4
11
10
9
8
13
11
14
10
10
11
20
13
5
9
8
7
13
16
12
7
5
2
10
6
9
5
10
10
9
8
2
10
4
10
6
..
6
10
12
12
7
18
6
9
9
14
6
..
6
10

47
68
31
61
14
32
35
24
22
75
24
127
160
40
37
136
84
9
58
27
12
41
216
34
40
20
7
39
8
19
6
26
66
17
31
3
144
8
39
12
..
22
36
60
29
75
25
18
97
13.5
24
7
..
12
11

9
8
7
10
4
11
6
8
8
13
11
10
10
10
11
20
13
5
9
8
7
13
17
11
7
5
2
10
6
9
5
9
10
9
8
2
10
4
10
6
..
6
10
12
12
7
18
6
9
9
14
6
..
6
10

45
68
31
61
14
32
19
11
22
75
24
84
160
40
37
136
84
9
58
27
12
41
216
33
40
20
7
39
8
19
6
13
66
17
31
3
144
8
39
12
..
22
36
56
29
75
25
18
90
13.5
24
7
..
12
11

106.8
151.1
155.5
2.1
50.3
151.6
115.0
17.0
244.9
246.4
182.1
847.6
86.5
133.3
195.1
100.4
76.5
18.9
17.8
215.1
24.8
139.2
181.5
36.5
27.0
52.9
6.2
108.0
86.9
34.7
4.1
19.3
20.4
118.7
76.7
10.1
81.7
63.7
19.2
118.8
..
5.9
36.0
33.9
36.8
205.0
84.4
28.4
353.8
12.5
12.1
16.1
..
16.1
5.7

97.0
163.0
152.6
2.2
49.8
129.3
51.2
18.5
228.4
226.9
176.5
735.1
111.4
133.0
169.9
104.3
69.2
14.1
21.9
199.6
20.3
146.6
183.3
38.3
26.0
54.6
12.9
108.4
79.7
33.6
3.8
13.9
18.5
118.6
78.9
8.8
77.3
63.1
17.5
110.7
..
6.0
33.6
33.0
30.9
178.1
94.4
27.9
182.8
10.0
12.9
6.3
..
15.8
5.0

Registering property
Minimum capital
(% of GNI
per capita)
2009
2010

149.0
29.0
290.8
0.0
428.2
0.0
182.9
38.9
507.1
369.3
261.8
0.0
96.5
204.9
500.5
12.4
297.0
492.4
26.5
0.0
13.4
495.4
415.8
0.0
11.9
0.0
207.4
0.0
334.6
450.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
613.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
206.9
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
514.0
0.0
1.3
0.0
10.7
31.0
0.0
..
11.8
0.0

151.9
28.7
285.3
0.0
416.2
0.0
191.8
42.4
468.6
386.7
245.5
0.0
129.8
202.9
434.1
21.3
268.4
367.7
32.7
0.0
11.0
519.1
415.1
0.0
12.0
0.0
248.1
0.0
306.8
412.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
613.0
0.0
0.0
385.7
205.1
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
486.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
11.4
34.4
0.0
..
11.2
0.0

Number of
procedures
2009
2010

7
7
4
5
4
5
5
6
5
6
5
6
6
6
7
6
11
10
7
5
5
6
9
8
6
10
7
6
5
4
4
8
9
4
13
4
7
6
4
7
..
6
6
9
9
5
13
6
5
8
11
7
..
8
4

7
7
4
5
4
5
5
6
5
6
5
6
6
6
7
6
11
10
7
5
5
6
9
8
6
10
7
6
5
4
4
8
9
4
13
4
7
6
4
7
..
6
6
9
9
5
13
5
5
8
11
7
..
8
4

Time required
(days)
2009
2010

72
184
120
16
59
94
93
73
75
44
24
54
55
62
40
23
78
41
39
66
34
104
211
64
101
50
74
88
29
49
26
42
23
35
82
60
62
124
33
236
..
24
9
44
73
295
77
39
31
51
47
72
..
47
39

67
184
120
16
59
94
93
73
75
44
24
54
55
62
40
23
78
41
39
66
34
104
211
64
101
50
74
49
29
49
26
42
23
35
82
55
62
122
33
86
..
24
9
44
73
295
77
40
31
51
47
72
..
47
39

Cost
(% of property
value)
2009
2010

10.0
11.4
11.8
5.0
13.2
6.3
19.2
7.6
18.6
18.7
20.8
9.8
10.3
13.9
13.2
6.2
9.1
2.2
10.5
7.6
1.1
13.9
6.1
4.2
8.0
13.2
9.4
3.2
20.0
5.2
10.7
11.3
9.6
11.0
20.9
0.5
10.9
20.6
7.0
12.4
..
8.7
3.0
7.1
4.4
13.1
3.5
6.6
10.1
4.8
7.1
0.9
..
4.9
6.1

9.6
11.5
11.8
5.0
13.1
5.8
19.3
3.9
18.5
18.2
20.8
7.0
10.7
13.9
13.0
6.3
9.1
2.1
10.5
7.6
1.0
14.0
6.1
4.2
8.0
13.2
9.8
3.2
11.9
5.2
10.6
9.9
9.6
11.0
20.9
0.4
10.9
20.6
7.0
12.2
..
8.8
3.0
7.1
4.4
13.0
3.2
6.6
8.5
4.7
7.1
0.8
..
4.9
6.1
(continued)

Private sector development

Part III. Development outcomes

59

Drivers of growth

Table

4.1

Doing Business indicators (continued)
Enforcing contracts
Number of
procedures
2009
2010

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

39
46
42
29
37
44
43
37
43
41
43
43
44
33
40
40
39
37
38
32
36
50
41
40
41
41
38
42
36
46
36
30
33
39
40
24
43
44
37
40
..
30
53
40
38
41
38
35
38
42
46
41
..
40
39

39
46
42
29
37
44
43
37
43
41
43
43
44
33
40
40
39
37
38
32
36
50
40
40
41
41
38
42
36
46
36
30
33
39
40
24
43
44
37
40
..
30
53
40
38
41
38
35
38
42
46
41
..
40
39

Time required
(days)
2009
2010

658
1,011
825
687
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
625
560
770
1,225
553
405
620
1,070
434
487
276
1,140
465
785
1,280
871
432
626
370
720
730
270
545
457
260
1,185
780
720
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
510
471
410
705
630
1,010
..
615
565

652
1,011
825
625
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
625
560
770
1,225
553
405
620
1,070
434
487
276
1,140
465
785
1,280
871
312
620
370
645
730
270
545
457
230
1,185
780
720
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
490
471
410
705
630
1,010
..
615
565

Cost
(% of debt)
2009
2010

49.0
44.4
64.7
28.1
83.0
38.6
46.6
21.8
82.0
45.7
89.4
151.8
53.2
41.7
34.0
18.5
22.6
15.2
34.3
37.9
23.0
45.0
25.0
47.2
19.5
35.0
42.4
142.4
52.0
23.2
17.4
142.5
35.8
59.6
32.0
78.7
50.5
26.5
14.3
149.5
..
33.2
19.8
56.1
14.3
47.5
44.9
38.7
32.0
23.8
21.9
26.2
..
25.2
21.8

49.7
44.4
64.7
28.1
81.7
38.6
46.6
21.8
82.0
45.7
89.4
151.8
53.2
41.7
34.0
18.5
22.6
15.2
34.3
37.9
23.0
45.0
25.0
47.2
19.5
35.0
42.4
94.1
52.0
23.2
17.4
142.5
35.8
59.6
32.0
78.7
50.5
26.5
15.4
149.5
..
33.2
19.8
56.1
14.3
47.5
44.9
38.7
113.1
23.8
21.9
26.2
..
25.2
21.8

Dealing with construction permits
Cost
(% of GNI
Time required
Number of
per capita)
(days)
procedures
2009
2010
2009
2010
2009
2010

18
12
15
24
15
25
14
18
21
14
18
14
17
22
16
18
..
12
16
17
18
32
15
11
15
24
16
21
14
25
18
17
12
17
18
14
13
16
20
25
..
17
19
14
22
15
18
17
17
22
22
25
..
19
20

18
12
15
24
15
25
14
18
21
14
18
14
17
21
16
18
..
12
16
17
18
32
15
11
15
24
16
21
15
25
18
17
12
17
18
14
13
16
20
25
..
17
19
14
22
15
18
17
17
22
22
25
..
19
20

245
328
410
167
132
212
227
120
239
164
164
248
169
629
179
201
..
128
210
146
220
255
167
120
601
77
178
213
185
201
107
381
139
265
350
210
255
220
144
283
..
174
271
116
328
277
171
254
1012
176
240
218
..
163
84

238 1,993.4 1,775.2
328
597.7
694.3
320
254.4
249.6
167
246.2
264.5
122
721.2
576.1
212 8,262.0 7,047.6
213
1,178.4 1,235.8
120
523.3
570.7
239
275.2
259.5
164 6,383.4 6,684.4
164
72.6
68.1
128 4,505.8 2,692.2
169
179.3
241.1
592
230.9
227.6
179
2,145.6 1,862.8
201
128.4
220.7
..
..
..
128
562.0
419.6
210
34.5
42.9
146
336.4
314.9
220 1,099.0 1,017.7
255
249.6
419.0
167 2,020.0 1,075.0
120
161.7
167.8
601 1,278.8 1,290.7
77 28,295.9 29,574.4
178
630.7
654.9
268
1,311.3 1,316.7
168
818.5
505.0
201
506.3
463.2
107
35.5
32.3
381
632.0
530.3
139
124.7
113.0
265 2,355.0 2,352.3
350
573.4
597.5
195
456.1
353.6
255
631.4
565.1
210
463.1
459.0
144
30.3
38.0
252
368.5
343.3
..
..
..
174
24.5
23.1
271
206.4
192.2
116
147.1
143.0
328 3,281.3 2,756.3
277 1,285.3 1,241.9
171
1,510.5 1,287.8
254 2,793.8 2,454.2
1012 13,770.3 8,020.6
180
408.3
362.0
240
39.6
44.0
218
331.6
293.7
..
..
..
163
263.7
251.5
97
998.3
858.7

Protecting investors
(0 least protection to
10 most protection)
Disclosure
index
2009 2010

5
5
6
7
6
4
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
5
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
0
3
6
2
3
8
6
6
8
..
6
5

5
5
6
7
6
4
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
5
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
2
3
6
2
3
8
7
6
8
..
7
5

Director liability
index
2009 2010

3
6
1
8
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
1
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
3
..
2
5

3
6
1
8
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
5
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
3
..
2
5

a. Average of the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes.
b. Average of the rigidity of hours, difficulty of hiring, and difficulty of firing indexes.

60

Part III. Development outcomes

Private sector development

Protecting investors
(0 least protection to
10 most protection)
Shareholder suits
index
2009
2010

5
6
3
3
4
5
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
0
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
5
8
4
5
7
4
4
4
5
..
1
6

5
6
3
3
4
5
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
0
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
6
8
4
5
7
4
4
4
5
..
1
6

Investor protection
indexa
2009
2010

4.3
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
3.3
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
2.0
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.7
5.3
5.3
..
3.0
5.3

Private sector development

4.4
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
3.3
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.8
5.3
5.3
..
3.3
5.3

Rigidity of hours
index (0 least rigid
to 100 most rigid)
2009
2010

30
60
40
0
20
53
20
33
40
20
40
47
40
47
40
60
40
20
60
40
20
20
27
0
20
20
40
0
20
20
13
33
20
53
0
40
67
53
13
40
..
20
20
0
13
40
0
33
40
28
40
20
..
40
13

30
60
40
0
20
53
20
33
40
20
40
47
40
47
40
60
40
20
60
40
20
20
27
0
20
20
40
0
20
20
33
33
20
53
0
0
67
53
13
40
..
20
20
0
13
40
0
33
40
28
40
20
..
40
13

Difficulty of hiring
index (0 least difficult
to 100 most difficult)
2009
2010

38
67
39
0
33
0
28
33
61
39
39
50
78
33
67
67
0
33
17
0
11
33
67
22
22
22
89
44
33
56
0
67
0
100
0
44
50
72
44
33
..
56
39
11
100
61
0
22
0
43
44
0
..
100
28

38
67
39
0
33
0
28
33
61
39
39
72
78
33
67
67
0
33
17
0
11
33
67
22
22
22
89
44
33
56
0
67
0
100
0
11
50
72
44
33
..
56
39
11
100
83
0
11
0
40
44
0
..
89
28

Employing workers
Difficulty of firing
index (0 least difficult
to 100 most difficult)
2009
2010

40
70
40
40
10
30
70
70
50
40
40
70
70
20
30
70
20
30
80
40
50
20
70
30
0
40
40
20
40
40
40
20
20
50
20
30
60
50
50
50
..
30
50
20
50
40
0
20
60
58
40
60
..
50
80

40
70
40
40
10
30
70
70
50
40
40
70
70
20
30
70
20
30
80
40
50
20
70
30
0
40
40
20
40
40
20
20
20
50
20
10
60
50
50
50
..
30
50
20
50
40
0
20
60
58
40
60
..
50
80

Firing cost
(weeks of wages)
2009
2010

68
58
36
90
34
26
33
93
22
36
100
31
33
49
56
133
69
40
43
26
178
26
87
47
44
84
30
84
31
31
35
134
24
35
50
26
91
38
39
189
..
24
118
53
18
36
13
178
446
63
17
132
..
85
17

67
58
36
90
34
26
33
93
22
36
100
31
33
49
56
133
69
40
43
26
178
26
87
47
44
84
30
84
31
31
4
134
24
35
50
26
91
38
39
189
..
24
118
53
18
36
13
178
446
63
17
132
..
85
17

Rigidity of employment
indexb (0 least rigid
to 100 most rigid)
2009
2010

36
66
40
13
21
28
39
46
50
33
40
63
63
33
46
66
20
28
52
27
27
24
54
17
14
27
56
21
31
39
18
40
13
68
7
7
59
59
36
41
..
35
36
10
54
54
0
21
33
42
41
27
..
60
40

36
66
40
13
21
28
39
46
50
33
40
63
63
33
46
66
20
28
52
27
27
24
54
17
14
27
56
21
31
39
18
40
13
68
7
7
59
59
36
41
..
35
36
10
54
54
0
21
33
42
41
27
..
60
40

Part III. Development outcomes

61

Drivers of growth

Table

4.2

Investment climate
Enterprise Surveys
Viewed by firms as a major constraint (% of firms)
Private
Domestic
Firms that
sector fixed Net foreign credit to believe the court
direct
capital
private
Customs
Crime,
system is fair,
formation investment
sector
Transpor- and trade
Labor
Labor
Tax
theft, and
impartial, and
(% of GDP) ($ millions) (% of GDP) uncorrupt (%) Corruption discord
regulations
tation
skills
rates
Finance Electricity regulations
2009a
2009a
2009–10 b
2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b 2009–10 b
2009a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

13.4
2.4
15.4
8.9
..
..
12.4
42.7
6.9
21.8
7.7
6.1
13.5
8.3
..
16.1
..
5.9
23.2
..
11.6
17.0
..
14.5
17.3
..
29.4
14.9
..
..
19.5
7.9
15.6
..
..
10.6
..
17.8
20.9
7.4
..
13.4
16.3
3.0
20.5
..
17.5
17.8
1.7
19.9
33.0
10.9
..
24.8
23.2

..
2,198.5
..
251.3
..
0.3
–50.0
120.0
..
..
..
..
..
380.9
96.9
..
..
221.5
..
39.4
1,677.8
140.9
..
94.5
62.9
217.8
..
..
..
..
218.9
878.4
528.1
..
5,647.2
118.7
7.2
..
242.9
74.3
..
4,042.4
2,682.2
58.7
414.5
..
603.7
699.2
..
9,702.9
..
6,140.4
546.0
1,491.3
1,525.2

64.4
21.2
22.2
25.5
17.5
21.7
11.3
64.0
7.0
5.2
16.0
7.5
4.8
17.1
29.3
7.7
16.6
..
10.1
18.9
..
..
5.6
31.5
13.5
16.1
11.5
14.2
17.4
..
85.1
25.1
46.8
12.2
37.6
..
34.6
24.7
25.1
9.3
..
147.1
12.3
25.0
15.3
21.9
13.1
12.0
..
35.2
16.2
36.2
10.9
64.4
68.4

23.7
9.6
79.5
38.7
..
32.6
59.5
..
31.0
..
17.2
32.3
35.3
..
..
100.0
..
41.3
..
..
..
..
..
33.2
44.3
28.8
74.3
42.7
..
63.6
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
..
..
29.7
..
..
..
..
..
14.1
..
..
..

75.6
67.8
27.4
70.5
..
61.3
29.8
..
67.2
..
72.7
65.0
75.0
..
..
0.0
..
41.4
..
..
..
..
..
46.7
31.2
42.7
12.8
24.8
..
50.7
..
..
83.7
..
..
..
..
..
36.9
..
..
..
..
..
70.2
..
..
..

28.1
52.7
22.6
42.2
..
41.5
62.3
..
45.8
..
63.3
44.1
53.8
..
..
0.0
..
34.1
..
..
..
..
..
33.5
26.8
48.1
22.8
17.3
..
41.5
..
..
44.2
..
..
..
..
..
14.2
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
..
..
..

26.4
67.6
16.9
75.7
..
45.9
51.8
..
59.7
..
39.5
40.9
30.5
..
..
1.1
..
30.9
..
..
..
..
..
47.1
19.0
40.8
15.6
26.3
..
25.1
..
..
60.4
..
..
..
..
..
42.5
..
..
..
..
..
43.5
..
..
..

38.5
70.3
25.5
75.0
..
55.1
36.7
..
46.5
..
73.3
44.8
66.6
..
..
0.9
..
30.4
..
..
..
..
..
28.6
35.0
39.4
51.0
48.2
..
46.3
..
..
62.0
..
..
..
..
..
34.6
..
..
..
..
..
58.6
..
..
..

35.7
51.9
34.8
53.9
..
58.6
53.1
..
74.6
..
51.7
71.1
39.8
..
..
0.2
..
58.0
..
..
..
..
..
44.3
59.1
54.6
37.6
33.5
..
42.9
..
..
63.2
..
..
..
..
..
53.4
..
..
..
..
..
50.9
..
..
..

26.1
16.1
14.0
26.0
..
21.5
5.7
..
28.4
..
20.0
24.5
6.1
..
..
0.2
..
16.4
..
..
..
..
..
11.3
2.6
2.2
2.7
6.4
..
8.8
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
..
..
11.4
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
..

25.9
28.2
32.2
37.5
..
37.8
49.2
..
53.1
..
65.0
51.5
26.7
..
..
1.2
..
42.7
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
5.1
17.0
21.8
12.2
..
45.7
..
..
37.1
..
..
..
..
..
16.0
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
..
..
..

25.3
46.7
20.1
40.3
..
27.7
24.0
..
45.5
..
38.8
48.4
38.2
..
..
2.2
..
48.8
..
..
..
..
..
19.8
39.3
26.6
24.6
21.4
..
45.8
..
..
50.0
..
..
..
..
..
29.9
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
..
..
..

35.8
51.8
15.8
42.6
..
26.3
27.2
..
57.4
..
54.0
45.9
19.4
..
..
2.0
..
35.1
..
..
..
..
..
21.7
15.6
18.7
11.0
16.9
..
17.7
..
..
31.6
..
..
..
..
..
26.9
..
..
..
..
..
27.5
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

62

Part III. Development outcomes

Private sector development

Number of tax
payments
2010

37
31
55
19
46
32
44
43
54
54
20
32
61
64
35
46
18
19
26
50
33
56
46
41
21
32
23
19
59
38
7
37
37
41
35
26
42
59
16
29
..
9
42
33
48
53
32
37
49
25
34
29
..
28
8

Time to prepare,
file, and pay taxes
(hours)
2010

310
282
270
152
270
211
654
186
504
732
100
336
606
270
90
492
216
198
488
376
224
416
208
393
324
158
201
157
270
696
161
230
375
270
938
148
424
666
76
357
..
200
180
104
172
270
161
132
242
347
451
433
..
358
144

Enterprise Surveys
Regulation and tax administration
Average time to clear customs
Time dealing
(days)
Highest marginal with officials
(% of
Total tax rate tax rate, corporate
Imports
management time) Direct exports
(%)
(% of profi t)
2010
2009–10 b
2009–10 b
2009–10 b
2009–10 b

67
53.2
66.0
19.5
44.9
153.4
49.1
37.1
203.8
65.4
217.9
339.7
65.5
44.4
38.7
59.5
84.5
31.1
43.5
292.3
32.7
54.6
45.9
49.7
19.6
43.7
37.7
25.1
52.2
68.4
24.1
34.3
9.6
46.5
32.2
31.3
33.3
46.0
44.1
235.6
..
30.5
36.1
36.8
45.2
50.8
35.7
16.1
40.3
54.8
72.0
42.6
..
41.7
62.8

Private sector development

35.0
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38.0
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
32.0
35.0
..
30.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
34.6
35.0
30.0
30.0
..
45.0
35.0
30.9

12.2
20.7
10.2
22.2
..
7.0
3.9
..
20.8
..
29.4
6.0
1.6
..
..
0.5
..
2.8
..
..
..
..
..
5.6
7.5
17.1
3.5
2.0
..
9.4
..
..
22.9
..
..
..
..
..
7.4
..
..
..
..
..
2.7
..
..
..

6.7
9.6
6.2
7.4
..
15.1
..
..
11.9
..
18.0
..
16.6
..
..
9.6
..
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
14.2
9.9
12.9
..
10.3
..
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.7
..
..
..

11.4
33.0
3.7
16.4
..
24.0
20.5
..
27.5
..
45.4
31.4
31.2
..
..
20.1
..
10.3
..
..
..
..
..
4.4
6.7
19.3
11.2
16.5
..
9.8
..
..
9.3
..
..
..
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
..
..
..

..
20.0
40.0
..
30.0

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Interest rate
spread
(lending rate
minus deposit
rate)
2009

..
8.1
..
6.3
..
..
..
8.1
..
..
8.6
49.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.5
..
..
..
8.8
8.2
10.1
33.5
21.8
..
..
10.8
6.2
4.9
..
5.1
..
19.7
..
5.6
..
..
3.2
..
6.0
7.1
..
11.2
15.0
..
5.5
6.3
5.5
3.5
..
..

Listed
domestic
companies
2009

..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
55
..
..
..
15
..
..
88
..
7
..
214
..
..
..
..
..
..
363
..
5
15
..
8
19
94
..
..
305
..
78
49

Market
capitalization of Turnover ratio for
listed companies traded stocks
(%)
(% of GDP)
2009a
2009a

..
..
..
33.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.6
..
..
36.6
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
55.2
..
9.1
..
19.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
247.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.7
..
68.8
23.1

..
..
..
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.1
..
3.0
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60.1
..
45.7
16.2

Part III. Development outcomes

63

Drivers of growth

Table

4.3

Financial sector infrastructure
Macroeconomy
Foreign currency sovereign ratings
Long-term
Short-term
2010–11b
2010–11b

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

B+
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
B+
..
..
..
BB..
..
..
..
..
..
..
BBB..
BBB
..
..
B
..
..
BBB+
..
..
..
..
..
B+
..

B
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
F3
..
B
B
..
..
B
..
..
F2
..
..
..
..
..
B
..

..
BB
B
BBBBBB-

..
B
B
F3
F3

Gross national savings
(% of GDP)
2008
2009 c

15.5
23.6
10.6
34.8
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
..
..
..
12.3
..
..
..
17.1
..
10.4
8.8
1.4
..
14.2
33.5
–2.1
..
..
..
..
16.7
3.8
31.6
..
..
17.3
..
16.1
1.6
5.3
..
14.9
17.4
6.9
13.3
..
21.9
19.2
..
32.5
..
23.6
67.1
32.9
21.3

15.4
9.7
..
16.4
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
..
..
16.1
..
18.8
15.5
7.7
..
15.4
28.1
..
..
..
..
..
16.7
9.1
26.5
..
..
15.1
..
..
9.2
7.8
..
15.4
12.2
2.4
21.2
..
17.5
19.0
..
..
..
16.7
..
31.2
22.8

Money and quasi money (M2)
(% of GDP)
2008
2009 c

41.0
18.0
32.9
39.0
22.5
34.2
19.3
85.2
14.4
11.8
27.1
12.6
16.0
27.8
74.5
6.2
109.8
30.9
16.8
49.5
23.6
0.0
20.8
40.3
34.0
27.8
20.5
19.7
25.8
0.0
97.0
30.8
36.5
15.7
30.1
0.0
35.5
33.5
60.4
20.6
0.0
78.4
17.5
24.2
27.6
37.8
20.8
21.5
0.0
67.0
54.8
84.2
28.3
102.5
60.0

47.7
31.1
36.4
46.8
24.8
36.7
21.5
84.2
15.5
14.7
28.6
14.3
22.2
29.6
83.0
12.3
112.3
0.0
22.1
55.0
0.0
0.0
23.3
42.7
38.6
35.4
22.0
23.5
25.2
0.0
104.0
35.7
38.5
17.1
37.1
0.0
35.5
35.1
59.3
23.3
0.0
80.2
20.3
27.6
28.8
42.6
20.6
20.6
0.0
75.7
64.1
79.8
53.7
104.7
64.2

Real interest rate
(%)
2008
2009 c

..
–8.2
..
–0.4
..
–6.9
..
8.9
..
..
4.7
19.9
..
..
1.9
..
..
–17.2
..
19.6
..
..
..
1.9
2.4
3.6
32.8
15.0
..
..
13.6
9.4
–0.5
..
4.1
3.3
7.6
..
–13.0
12.0
..
5.4
..
4.3
4.4
..
13.1
6.8
..
..
–5.8
0.1
–15.5
..
..

..
22.8
..
20.6
..
0.4
..
6.9
..
..
5.7
27.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
..
..
7.6
9.2
6.3
33.8
15.6
..
..
17.5
12.0
4.4
..
19.1
..
14.6
..
–10.3
..
..
4.1
..
5.6
7.1
..
3.8
8.3
..
..
19.2
1.0
57.8
..
..

a. Data are consolidated for regional security markets where they exist.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
c. Provisional.

64

Part III. Development outcomes

Private sector development

Capital marketsa

Intermediation
Domestic credit to
private sector
(% of GDP)
2008
2009c

Interest rate spread
(lending rate minus
deposit rate)
2008
2009 c

56.0
12.6
20.9
21.0
18.4
20.9
10.2
61.1
7.0
3.7
11.5
7.1
3.2
16.3
24.7
4.4
18.4
17.8
8.5
17.3
15.9
..
4.9
30.3
11.1
12.5
11.2
11.9
17.2
..
87.8
18.3
44.9
10.9
33.9
..
29.9
24.3
32.3
7.1
..
145.1
10.5
23.6
16.1
18.7
13.9
15.2
..
32.6
13.2
42.8
6.8
63.2
65.8

8.6
6.0
..
7.9
..
..
..
6.2
..
..
8.0
35.4
..
..
9.4
..
..
3.3
..
14.1
..
..
..
8.7
8.5
10.4
33.5
21.8
..
..
11.4
7.3
5.4
..
3.5
9.8
19.7
..
7.8
14.8
..
3.5
..
6.7
6.7
..
9.8
12.5
..
5.7
6.3
5.7
3.5
..
..

64.4
21.2
22.2
25.5
17.5
21.7
11.3
64.0
7.0
5.2
16.0
7.5
4.8
17.1
29.3
7.7
16.6
..
10.1
18.9
..
..
5.6
31.5
13.5
16.1
11.5
14.2
17.4
..
85.1
25.1
46.8
12.2
37.6
..
34.6
24.7
25.1
9.3
..
147.1
12.3
25.0
15.3
21.9
13.1
12.0
..
35.2
16.2
36.2
10.9
64.4
68.4

Private sector development

..
8.1
..
6.3
..
..
..
8.1
..
..
8.6
49.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.5
..
..
..
8.8
8.2
10.1
33.5
21.8
..
..
10.8
6.2
4.9
..
5.1
..
19.7
..
5.6
..
..
3.2
..
6.0
7.1
..
11.2
15.0
..
5.5
6.3
5.5
3.5
..
..

Ratio of bank
nonperforming loans to
total gross loans (%)
2008
2009 c

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.5
..
7.7
..
..
9.0
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
3.1
..
6.3
12.6
..
19.1
..
17.9
..
3.9
..
7.6
..
..
2.2
..
..
14.8
..
14.8
..
6.0
15.5

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.8
..
16.2
..
..
7.9
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.8
2.7
..
6.6
13.1
..
18.7
..
16.5
..
5.9
..
8.1
..
..
4.2
..
..
13.2
..
13.4
..
5.5
13.2

Listed domestic companies
2008
2009 c

..
..
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
53
..
..
..
15
..
..
41
..
7
..
213
..
..
..
..
..
..
425
..
7
14
..
6
19
81
..
..
373
..
77
49

..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
55
..
..
..
15
..
..
88
..
7
..
214
..
..
..
..
..
..
363
..
5
15
..
8
19
94
..
..
305
..
78
49

Market capitalization
of listed companies
(% of GDP)
2008
2009 c

Turnover ratio for
traded stocks
(%)
2008
2009c

..
..
..
26.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.9
..
..
36.4
..
..
..
43.5
..
..
37.0
..
6.9
..
24.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
177.7
..
..
6.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
52.7
..
74.0
15.6

..
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.2
..
..
11.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.9
..
2.8
..
29.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
60.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
61.9
..
31.1
25.5

..
..
..
33.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.6
..
..
36.6
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
55.2
..
9.1
..
19.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
247.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.7
..
68.8
23.1

..
..
..
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.1
..
3.0
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60.1
..
45.7
16.2

Part III. Development outcomes

65

Drivers of growth

Table

5.1

International trade and tariff barriers
Trade
Annual growth
Annual average
(%)
(% of GDP)
Exports of Imports of Exports of Imports of
goods and goods and goods and goods and Exports of Imports of Exports of Imports of Terms of
Merchanservices goods and goods and goods and goods and trade index
services
services
services
Services
dise
Total
(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) ($ millions) ($ millions) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) services
services (2000 = 100)
services
services
a
a
a
a
a
a
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009a
2000–09 2000–09
2009a
2009a
2009a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

66

63.3
98.5
42.0
78.2
..
..
57.5
89.0
36.9
112.2
62.8
31.3
122.8
75.5
..
115.6
24.7
39.4
85.5
80.6
71.8
86.2
..
63.5
163.0
..
80.7
67.8
..
117.3
107.5
68.9
106.5
..
63.0
40.9
..
68.0
246.9
44.2
..
55.4
35.9
136.3
58.4
..
58.0
67.8
101.7
68.7
76.5
56.9
..
68.1
107.3

Part III. Development outcomes

53.6
75.6
45.7
69.2
36.0
35.2
32.7
48.1
20.9
69.5
30.4
63.4
88.7
64.2
46.2
137.3
29.6
33.5
66.0
43.5
52.1
58.7
41.2
49.8
171.0
80.1
51.1
55.4
52.7
92.6
66.0
60.4
93.6
44.6
52.9
27.2
64.4
53.8
162.6
38.7
..
47.6
32.1
103.3
44.2
80.6
42.3
63.3
91.9
53.3
60.1
36.1
73.4
51.2
84.8

13.4
26.2
..
15.9
..
17.1
15.2
52.3
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
42.9
..
..
14.4
..
25.5
18.0
9.8
..
16.1
12.5
162.0
..
..
..
..
44.8
17.1
12.2
..
11.4
16.5
15.4
..
93.2
8.7
..
9.4
5.6
25.4
16.7
..
14.9
7.4
..
18.0
..
18.8
8.7
21.1
21.4

298,039
39,432
922
3,971
..
..
5,896
366
290
2,879
79
1,017
6,884
9,722
..
7,713
84
3,011
5,773
223
7,982
1,671
..
7,413
809
..
2,447
1,420
..
1,504
4,161
2,454
4,319
..
62,054
610
..
3,082
912
305
..
77,883
8,230
1,794
4,963
..
3,753
4,560
2,040
200,244
56,798
47,185
..
26,121
20,568

317,933
34,901
1,875
5,273
..
..
6,856
1,013
449
4,794
258
2,298
4,876
7,866
..
4,328
379
8,229
3,685
368
10,820
1,865
..
11,253
1,764
..
4,484
1,783
..
2,043
5,074
4,287
5,548
..
46,999
1,524
..
5,637
975
554
..
80,328
11,391
2,295
7,511
..
5,557
4,118
3,678
193,682
50,772
60,048
..
36,088
21,894

29.8
52.2
13.8
33.6
..
..
26.6
23.6
14.5
42.1
14.7
9.6
71.9
41.7
..
74.1
4.5
10.6
52.2
30.4
30.5
40.7
..
25.2
51.2
..
28.5
30.0
..
49.7
48.4
25.1
46.6
..
35.9
11.7
..
24.0
119.3
15.7
..
27.3
15.1
59.8
23.2
..
23.4
35.6
36.3
32.1
40.4
25.0
..
28.6
52.0

33.5
46.2
28.2
44.6
..
..
30.9
65.4
22.4
70.1
48.2
21.7
50.9
33.8
..
41.6
20.3
28.8
33.3
50.1
41.3
45.4
..
38.3
111.7
..
52.2
37.7
..
67.6
59.1
43.8
59.9
..
27.2
29.2
..
44.0
127.6
28.5
..
28.1
20.8
76.5
35.2
..
34.6
32.2
65.4
36.6
36.1
31.9
..
39.5
55.3

32.4
73.6
14.1
45.5
9.7
8.7
22.9
24.1
14.5
39.4
15.2
24.4
79.1
46.6
40.7
89.5
8.1
12.9
60.7
38.8
35.8
30.3
30.1
25.4
52.9
28.9
27.5
25.9
28.5
41.7
58.4
29.0
44.2
16.2
42.3
10.4
..
26.7
94.0
19.9
..
29.7
16.6
83.5
20.0
36.0
15.1
33.8
36.5
35.6
42.0
25.1
56.9
31.4
49.4

33.9
54.4
27.3
37.0
24.0
31.0
23.3
60.6
21.4
56.5
37.0
32.6
54.9
37.5
53.6
54.2
53.0
29.7
32.1
53.6
53.3
33.3
55.3
34.7
110.4
75.6
42.5
41.1
39.6
69.2
63.0
44.0
48.9
25.0
31.0
26.3
..
42.2
105.2
33.8
..
29.3
22.0
91.2
28.7
53.7
26.9
38.0
46.4
31.4
24.6
29.1
27.8
37.6
52.6

..
..
..
–28.0
..
..
–4.8
11.9
..
..
..
5.4
..
9.3
..
..
..
6.9
–4.9
2.5
..
3.0
..
–7.0
–17.2
..
9.3
..
..
..
–4.8
2.4
–14.0
..
..
..
..
–8.8
10.8
..
..
–19.5
..
–6.1
15.5
..
16.2
..
5.2
–10.3
–3.0
–14.5
..
–13.1
–1.6

..
..
..
–9.3
..
..
–5.2
13.0
..
..
..
–11.9
..
11.0
..
..
..
16.4
–2.8
3.8
–14.1
16.8
..
–0.2
–1.1
..
–10.5
..
..
..
–4.6
14.0
5.3
..
..
..
..
–17.1
1.7
..
..
–17.4
..
–3.5
14.1
..
25.2
..
36.0
–7.5
16.7
–17.9
..
–6.0
6.7

..
..
..
82.7
..
..
106.9
58.7
..
..
..
85.9
..
96.1
..
..
..
115.3
124.4
71.3
..
98.8
..
114.5
157.3
..
88.3
..
..
..
81.0
49.3
138.2
..
..
..
..
91.9
100.0
..
..
126.3
..
100.0
119.3
..
67.2
..
102.7
..
103.3
89.6
..
99.5
106.0

Trade and regional integration

Food
2009

13.7
..
..
5.2
26.8
67.5
..
72.6
..
..
..
..
..
48.2
0.4
..
..
77.5
..
53.0
..
..
..
44.0
..
..
28.8
86.6
..
..
32.4
23.3
..
..
4.5
42.3
92.4
29.5
..
..
..
10.2
5.6
..
35.5
..
..
7.5
19.4
6.3
0.3
..
..
22.1
9.2

Structure of merchandise exports
(% of total)
Agricultural
raw materials
Fuel
Ores and metals Manufactures
2009
2009
2009
2009

3.0
..
..
0.2
60.5
4.8
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
0.0
..
..
11.9
..
1.0
..
..
..
13.2
..
..
5.2
3.8
..
..
0.9
3.1
..
..
1.1
1.7
0.7
1.1
..
..
..
1.9
1.4
..
9.8
..
..
1.4
23.1
0.4
0.0
..
..
1.6
0.5

36.9
..
..
0.3
0.0
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.0
6.5
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
4.2
..
..
4.9
0.1
..
..
0.0
17.5
..
..
90.4
0.1
0.0
24.0
..
..
..
11.1
92.1
..
1.0
..
..
0.9
0.9
63.6
97.7
..
..
2.0
13.6

15.3
..
..
16.1
0.6
4.8
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
0.3
..
..
0.8
..
6.9
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
3.0
0.8
..
..
0.7
3.9
..
..
0.2
31.9
0.0
3.4
..
..
..
29.3
0.3
..
24.6
..
..
81.1
22.3
2.4
0.5
..
..
8.8
1.3

30.8
..
..
78.0
12.1
20.6
..
26.7
..
..
..
..
..
15.2
90.7
..
..
8.7
..
39.1
..
..
..
36.6
..
..
57.2
8.6
..
..
64.6
11.7
..
..
3.6
19.4
3.0
41.3
..
..
..
47.5
0.4
..
24.6
..
..
8.4
34.3
27.2
1.6
..
..
65.5
75.4

Food
2009

11.2
..
..
13.1
15.7
12.5
..
29.4
..
..
..
..
..
23.2
29.3
..
..
10.9
..
34.3
..
..
..
15.4
..
..
10.7
13.1
..
..
21.7
15.4
..
..
11.8
12.4
35.9
24.2
..
..
..
6.5
14.9
..
8.9
..
..
6.5
22.4
..
16.3
..
..
11.2
8.6

Structure of merchandise imports
(% of total)
Agricultural
raw materials
Fuel
Ores and metals Manufactures
2009
2009
2009
2009

1.0
..
..
0.9
0.7
1.4
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
0.8
0.6
..
..
0.5
..
1.3
..
..
..
1.4
..
..
0.6
1.0
..
..
2.4
1.2
..
..
1.0
1.5
0.9
1.5
..
..
..
0.9
1.1
..
0.9
..
..
0.7
0.4
..
1.5
..
..
2.1
2.0

16.8
..
..
13.3
23.6
2.4
..
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
6.5
..
..
15.9
..
15.6
..
..
..
21.5
..
..
10.4
10.4
..
..
15.6
15.4
..
..
1.0
7.8
15.4
23.2
..
..
..
21.5
4.0
..
22.6
..
..
13.9
12.9
..
1.1
..
..
20.5
11.5

1.7
..
..
2.1
0.7
0.6
..
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
1.2
0.8
..
..
1.2
..
0.6
..
..
..
1.6
..
..
0.4
1.0
..
..
1.1
0.5
..
..
1.8
1.8
1.1
0.9
..
..
..
1.3
0.9
..
1.0
..
..
13.3
5.2
..
1.4
..
..
2.5
3.1

66.2
..
..
69.5
59.0
80.9
..
56.5
..
..
..
..
..
48.6
62.4
..
..
71.5
..
48.1
..
..
..
60.0
..
..
77.7
74.2
..
..
59.2
55.0
..
..
83.6
76.1
46.6
50.1
..
..
..
64.3
77.8
..
66.5
..
..
65.1
57.6
..
79.8
..
..
63.0
74.8
(continued)

Trade and regional integration

Part III. Development outcomes

67

Drivers of growth

Table

5.1

International trade and tariff barriers (continued)
Export indexes
(0 low to 1 high)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Diversification
2009

Concentration
2009

0.61
0.82
0.75
0.86
0.72
0.80
0.79
0.70
0.34
0.70
0.75
0.82
0.78
0.71
0.65
0.74
0.63
0.80
0.85
0.63
0.81
0.79
0.80
0.70
0.86
0.77
0.73
0.81
0.87
0.82
0.70
0.73
0.87
0.79
0.85
0.82
0.56
0.69
0.84
0.62
0.78
0.58
0.74
0.71
0.77
0.71
0.73
0.86
0.75
..
0.80
0.59
0.82
0.69
0.55

0.42
0.95
0.35
0.45
0.34
0.59
0.48
0.44
0.12
0.40
0.51
0.35
0.70
0.36
0.33
0.73
0.22
0.34
0.72
0.26
0.44
0.49
0.93
0.22
0.50
0.60
0.22
0.62
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.32
0.31
0.51
0.83
0.40
0.70
0.23
0.52
0.27
0.47
0.14
0.76
0.24
0.29
0.25
0.23
0.65
0.19
..
0.56
0.17
0.76
0.15
0.16

Tariff barriers, all products (%)
Share of
Share of
lines with Share of
Dispersion
Simple
lines with Share of lines with
interaround Weighted national domestic lines that specific
Simple
mean
Binding
Sectoral Global
coverage bound rate mean tariff the mean mean tariff peaks
effect
effect
rates
peaks are bound
2005–09 2005–09
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2009
2010
Competitiveness
indicator (%)

–0.2
–1.3
–15.8
–8.2
6.5
–0.1
–0.7
–3.2
0.9
–0.2
–2.8
0.0
7.1
1.4
–0.9
–2.5
7.4
–0.1
0.4
8.2
1.6
–2.6
1.9
–3.0
11.4
–0.8
9.2
–8.9
12.4
0.9
–3.4
–2.4
7.6
0.8
1.7
11.5
2.0
6.1
–5.9
–0.2
2.7
0.2
1.8
6.1
1.6
4.4
5.7
2.7

16.0
–13.9
–6.4
5.7
–11.5
–2.7
11.5
–2.1
–3.0
–3.0
20.3
0.6
–3.1
12.3
5.6
2.0
4.3
–4.3
19.1
–0.8
–6.4
–3.4
1.1
–4.3
–16.5
0.3
–0.4
–5.2
4.5
–2.9
4.0
4.0
6.6
–0.4
21.0
0.2
–9.8
–14.2
9.7
5.0
–0.5
3.6
–5.9
–3.6
–4.5
6.5
–2.4
–16.9

1.9
1.2
–0.3
2.4
–0.4

–1.5
8.6
2.8
–2.2
5.7

..
..
39.5
96.1
39.4
22.3
..
100.0
..
..
..
..
..
33.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.6
15.2
100.0
..
..
..
40.5
..
..
..
96.1
96.6
19.5
100.0
..
100.0
..
..
..
96.1
..
96.1
13.8
14.3
16.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
28.7
19.0
42.5
67.8
..
15.8
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48.6
95.3
78.9
..
..
..
28.9
..
..
..
19.4
44.9
119.4
89.3
..
30.0
..
..
..
19.4
..
19.4
120.0
80.0
73.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
13.3
8.8
12.4
9.8
..
14.7
..
..
..
..
..
13.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.3
12.1
9.5
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
6.3
13.0
10.9
9.9
..
13.4
..
..
..
7.6
..
10.9
12.9
12.8
12.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.9
0.9
0.6
1.5
..
..
0.6
1.3
..
0.6
..
0.5
..
0.6
0.4
..
..
0.7
0.6
0.2
0.5
0.6
0.6
1.0
1.5
..
..
..
0.6
..
3.8
0.8
1.5
0.6
0.7
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
1.6
0.9
1.5
0.9
0.6
1.0
0.8
..
..
0.7
4.7
..
1.4
..

..
..
15.4
5.2
8.8
5.5
..
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
7.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.9
9.2
10.5
..
..
..
8.4
..
..
..
1.8
9.1
10.6
6.0
..
8.9
..
..
..
4.4
..
10.2
8.2
14.2
8.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
50.2
20.2
44.5
29.8
..
44.3
..
..
..
..
..
47.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.8
36.6
21.6
..
..
..
47.9
..
..
..
16.7
48.9
34.9
31.4
..
50.5
..
..
..
17.9
..
26.2
39.9
47.3
37.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
0.0
8.5
0.0
1.1
..
11.9
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.8
5.7
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.1
0.0
0.0
1.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.5
..
12.0
1.0
0.0
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

51.9
100.0
39.3
96.6
39.2
21.8
13.3
100.0
62.5
13.5
..
100.0
16.1
33.1
100.0
..
..
..
100.0
13.7
14.3
38.9
97.8
14.6
100.0
..
29.7
31.2
40.6
39.3
17.8
13.6
96.6
96.8
19.2
100.0
..
100.0
..
100.0
..
96.6
..
96.6
13.4
14.0
15.8
16.7
21.0
..
..
99.3
..
100.0
57.6

..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

68

Part III. Development outcomes

Trade and regional integration

Tariff barriers, primary products (%)

Tariff barriers, manufactured products (%)

Simple
mean tariff
2010

Dispersion
around the mean
2009

Weighted
mean tariff
2010

Simple
mean tariff
2010

Dispersion
around the mean
2009

Weighted
mean tariff
2010

..
..
15.5
6.1
11.4
15.4
..
16.2
..
..
..
..
..
15.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.6
16.0
9.2
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
4.1
14.0
11.8
11.5
..
14.1
..
..
..
5.4
..
9.7
17.5
14.4
15.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.8
0.7
0.5
1.4
0.5
..
0.5
1.1
..
0.5
..
0.5
..
0.5
0.7
..
..
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.7
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.5
0.5
1.4
0.7
0.5
0.7
0.5
..
..
0.5
4.8
..
1.2
..

..
..
12.4
0.5
8.1
9.4
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.0
12.6
1.6
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
2.1
10.7
9.1
6.4
..
7.7
..
..
..
1.9
..
1.3
8.7
12.4
8.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
12.9
9.0
12.5
9.1
..
14.3
..
..
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.9
11.7
9.5
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
6.7
12.8
10.7
9.7
..
13.2
..
..
..
7.8
..
11.1
12.4
12.6
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.9
0.9
0.6
1.5
..
..
0.6
1.3
..
0.6
..
0.5
..
0.6
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.6
0.9
1.5
0.9
0.6
1.0
0.8
..
..
0.7
4.7
..
1.4
..

..
..
11.7
8.0
11.7
11.5
..
9.8
..
..
..
..
..
11.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.7
11.5
8.0
..
..
..
11.7
..
..
..
8.0
11.7
11.3
11.5
..
11.7
..
..
..
8.0
..
8.0
11.5
11.7
11.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Trade and regional integration

Average cost to ship 20 ft
container from port to
final destination ($)
Export
Import
2010
2010

1,938
1,850
1,251
3,010
2,412
2,747
1,379
1,200
5,491
5,902
1,073
3,505
3,818
1,969
836
1,411
1,431
1,890
1,945
831
1,013
855
1,545
2,055
1,680
1,232
1,197
1,713
2,202
1,520
737
1,100
1,686
3,545
1,263
3,275
690
1,098
876
1,573
..
1,531
2,050
1,754
1,262
940
2,780
2,664
3,280
834
1,248
613
..
700
773

2,458
2,840
1,400
3,390
4,030
4,285
1,978
1,000
5,554
8,150
1,057
3,735
7,709
2,577
911
1,411
1,581
2,993
1,955
975
1,203
1,391
2,349
2,190
1,610
1,212
1,555
2,570
3,067
1,523
689
1,475
1,813
3,545
1,440
4,990
577
1,940
876
1,639
..
1,807
2,900
1,849
1,475
963
2,940
3,315
5,101
996
1,428
698
..
1,000
858

Average time to clear customs
(days)
Direct exports
Imports
2009–10 b
2009–10 b

6.7
9.6
6.2
7.4
..
15.1
..
..
11.9
..
18.0
..
16.6
..
..
9.6
..
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
14.2
9.9
12.9
..
10.3
..
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

11.4
33.0
3.7
16.4
..
24.0
20.5
..
27.5
..
45.4
31.4
31.2
..
..
20.1
..
10.3
..
..
..
..
..
4.4
6.7
19.3
11.2
16.5
..
9.8
..
..
9.3
..
..
..
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

69

Drivers of growth

Table

5.2

Top three exports and share in total exports, 2009
First

Product

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Cote d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé & Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICAa

Second
Share
of total
exports
(%)

Share
of total
exports
(%)
Product

Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Cashew nuts, in shells
Diamonds, nonindustrial, unworked or simply sawn or cleaved
Cotton, not carded or combed
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Tunas, yellowfin
Logs, tropical hardwoods, not elsewhere specified
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Cloves (whole fruit, cloves and stems)
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Cobalt ores and concentrates
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Live bovine animals other than purebred breeding animals
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Prefabricated buildings
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Cashew nuts, in shells
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Aluminum ores and concentrates
Cashew nuts, in shells
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Diamonds, nonindustrial, unworked or simply sawn or cleaved
Cargo vessels and other vessels for transport of goods or persons
Shrimps and prawns
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed
Cotton, not carded or combed
Iron ores and concentrates, nonagglomerated
T-shirts, singlets, and other vests, knitted of cotton
Aluminum, unwrought, not alloyed
Natural uranium and its compounds
Natural uranium and its compounds
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Phosphoric acid and polyphosphoric acids
Tunas, skipjack, and bonito
Diamonds, nonindustrial, unworked or simply sawn or cleaved
Goats, live
Platinum, unwrought or in powder form
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Cane sugar, raw
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Refined copper, cathodes and sections of cathodes
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed

96.3
29.5
27.9
52.1
76.1
39.6
16.4
25.8
90.9
32.1
87.8
20.7
36.3
27.4
72.7
19.3
31.0
69.9
44.5
49.7
62.9
92.2
14.3
33.3
42.1
9.3
63.0
39.3
45.4
13.4
38.1
16.4
70.5
86.3
29.0
47.1
25.5
59.2
21.5
28.3
9.3
91.3
15.7
9.6
47.1
35.4
49.8
22.9

Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Liquefied natural gas
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Phosphoric acid and polyphosphoric acids
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude

46.8
15.8
79.3
6.6
9.4

Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous
minerals, crude

44.8 Liquefied natural gas
[18.5]

Cotton, not carded or combed
Nickel mattes
Gold, semi-manufactured, including platinum plated, nonmonetary
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Fish, whole or in pieces
Diamonds, not mounted or set, unsorted
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, noncrude
Vessels and other floating structures for breaking up

28.7
19.9
19.6
9.3
18.7
13.5
25.4
5.6
26.8

Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Sheep, live
Liquefied natural gas
Sheep, live
Sesamum seeds
Manganese ores and concentrates
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Manganese ores and concentrates
Aluminum oxide not elsewhere specified

16.6
14.6
17.8
22.2
14.2
24.9
9.8
14.3
8.5
11.2

Cut flowers and flower buds, fresh
Men’s and boys’ trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
Tankers
Women’s and girls’ trousers, overalls, breeches, and shorts, of cotton
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, not elsewhere specified
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
Octopus, other than live, fresh, and chilled
Cane sugar, raw
Electrical energy
Unwrought zinc, containing by weight 99.99 percent or more of zinc
Light oils and preparations
Liquefied natural gas
Niobium, tantalum, and vanadium ores and concentrates
Wristwatches, other than automatic winding
Fish, fresh and chilled, not elsewhere specified
Tunas, bigeye (Thunnus obesus)
Titanium ores and concentrates
Sheep, live
Gold, unwrought, nonmonetary

13.8
13.8
19.3
6.7
8.8
12.5
14.4
12.2
10.5
14.5
23.8
7.5
20.6
12.3
6.8
7.3
11.8
24.3
6.4

Mixtures of odoriferous substances for the food or drink industries
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed
Ground
Fish fillets and other fish meat, fresh or chilled
Copper, unrefined, and copper anodes for electrolytic refining
Ferro-chromium containing by weight more than 4% carbon

13.4
9.2
8.3
8.8
16.5
9.1

Natural gas, in gaseous state
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Natural gas, in gaseous state
Ignition and other wiring sets of a kind used in vehicles, aircraft or ships
Ignition and other wiring sets of a kind used in vehicles, aircraft or ships

21.0
15.3
9.1
4.8
6.1
3.9
[20.0]

Note: Includes only products that account for more than 4 percent of total exports.
a. Values in brackets are Africa’s share of total world exports.

70

Part III. Development outcomes

Trade and regional integration

Third

Product

Copper waste and scrap
Diamonds, nonindustrial, not mounted or set, not elsewhere specified
Sesamum seeds
Bananas, including plantains, fresh
Men’s and boys’ trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
Logs, tropical wood specified in Subhe
Essential oils, not elsewhere specified

Share of total
exports
(%)

6.0
8.6
9.1
8.4
10.4
16.7
18.6

Copper ores and concentrates
Cocoa paste, not defatted
Goats, live

14.1
8.0
13.2

Men’s and boys’ shirts, of cotton
Cut flowers and flower buds, fresh
Logs, tropical hardwoods, not elsewhere specified
Titanium ores and concentrates
Cocoa butter, fat and oil
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated

6.9
10.9
7.0
12.3
5.6
4.0

Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Pullovers, cardigans, and similar articles, knitted of cotton
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Vanilla
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Sesamum seeds
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, crude
Tunas, skipjack, and bonito
Light oils and preparations
Uranium ores and concentrates

5.9
11.0
13.3
5.6
6.3
8.1
13.2
11.2
9.0
13.3

Tin ores and concentrates
Aircraft, unladen weight of 2,000–15,000 kilograms
Fish, frozen, not elsewhere specified
Skipjack and stripbellied bonito
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Live bovine animals
Iron ores and concentrates, nonagglomerated

11.2
9.7
6.0
5.4
8.5
21.6
5.6

Food preparations not elsewhere specified
Precious metal ores and concentrates, other than silver
Gold, unwrought, nonmonetary
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed
Copper ores and concentrates
Cane sugar, raw

10.6
8.3
7.7
7.5
7.8
8.3

Liquefied natural gas
Light oils and preparations
Petroleum oils and oils from bituminous minerals, noncrude

10.8
5.3
4.8

Men’s and boys’ trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
Natural gas, in gaseous state

Trade and regional integration

5.5
3.7
[9.9]

Number
of exports
accounting for
75 percent of
total exports

1
6
16
3
1
5
9
4
1
3
1
6
7
5
2
19
7
2
4
7
3
1
54
6
4
31
3
8
4
36
8
7
2
1
5
4
19
4
22
4
103
1
25
31
5
15
4
19
3
65
1
76
94
40

Part III. Development outcomes

71

Drivers of growth

Table

5.3

Regional integration, trade blocs
Year of
entry into
Type of
force
most
of most
Year
recent
recent
established agreement agreementa

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC)

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

1999

Merchandise exports within bloc
($ millions)
2000
2005
2007

1990

1995

139

120

96

201

NNA

7

8

10

CU

2008

2009

305

355

300

20

29

73

64

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

1994

1994

FTA

1,146

1,367

1,443

2,695

4,021

6,676

6,114

East African Community (EAC)

1996

2000

CU

335

628

689

1075

1,385

1,797

1,572

Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

1983

2004b

NNA

160

157

182

255

385

449

378

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

1,532

1,875

2,715

5,497

6,717

9,355

7,312

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

NNA

63

113

106

162

214

217

183

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

1,655

3,615

4,427

7,799

12,051

16,011

11,697

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

621

560

741

1,390

1,735

2,281

1,927

2008

2009

Year of
entry into
Type of
force
most
of most
Year
recent
recent
established agreement agreementa

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC)

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

1999

Merchandise exports within bloc
(% of total bloc exports)
2000
2005
2007

1990

1995

CU

2.3

2.1

1.0

0.9

1.1

0.8

1.2

NNA

0.5

0.5

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.9

2.2

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

1994

1994

FTA

4.7

6.1

4.6

4.6

4.5

5.3

7.2

East African Community (EAC)

1996

2000

CU

17.7

19.5

22.6

18.0

17.8

19.2

18.9

Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

1983

2004b

NNA

1.4

1.5

1.0

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.6

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

8.0

9.0

7.6

9.3

7.8

8.5

9.9

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

NNA

3.9

5.9

4.4

4.9

5.8

5.7

5.8

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

6.6

10.2

9.5

9.3

10.2

10.3

11.0

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

13.0

10.3

13.1

13.4

14.9

15.9

13.2

72

Part III. Development outcomes

Trade and regional integration

Year of
entry into
Type of
force
most
of most
Year
recent
recent
established agreement agreementa

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC)

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

1999

Merchandise exports by bloc
(% of world exports)
2000
2005
2007

1990

1995

2008

2009

CU

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

NNA

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

1994

1994

FTA

0.7

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.7

East African Community (EAC)

1996

2000

CU

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

1983

2004b

NNA

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.5

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.6

NNA

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

0.9

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (WAEMU/UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Note: Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC; formerly Central African Customs and Economic Union [UDEAC]), Cameroon, the Central African Republic,
Chad, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon; Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL), Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and
Rwanda; Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Burundi, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; East African Community (EAC), Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda,
Tanzania, and Uganda; Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo,
the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire,
the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo; Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion,
and Seychelles; Southern African Development Community (SADC; formerly Southern African Development Coordination Conference), Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA), Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.
a. CU is customs union; FTA is free trade agreement; NNA is not notified agreement, which refers to preferential trade agreements established among member countries that are not notified
to the World Trade Organization (these agreements may be functionally equivalent to any of the other agreements); and PTA is preferential trade agreement.
b. From the official website of the trade bloc.

Trade and regional integration

Part III. Development outcomes

73

Drivers of growth

Table

6.1

Water and sanitation
Access,
supply side

Access, demand side
Population with sustainable
Population with sustainable access
Internal
access to improved sanitation
to an improved water source
fresh water
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
resources per
rural
urban
total
rural
urban
total
capita (cubic
population) population) population) population) population) population)
meters)
2007
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

4,850
8,431
1,227
1,268
849
1,284
14,630
610
33,119
1,412
1,910
14,395
62,516
3,819
360
40,485
586
1,551
115,340
1,857
1,325
23,505
10,383
548
2,574
55,138
18,114
1,118
4,835
127
2,182
4,586
2,949
248
1,496
1,005
13,829
2,169
..
29,518
687
928
742
2,293
2,035
1,825
1,273
6,513
985
290
332
23
97
929
410

60
50
75
95
76
72
74
84
67
50
95
46
71
80
92
..
61
38
87
92
82
71
61
59
85
68
41
80
56
49
99
47
92
48
58
65
89
69
..
49
30
91
57
69
54
60
67
60
82
92
83
99
..
81
94

83
60
84
99
95
83
92
85
92
67
91
80
95
93
98
..
74
98
95
96
90
89
83
83
97
79
71
95
81
52
100
77
99
96
75
77
89
92
100
86
67
99
64
92
80
87
91
87
99
95
85
100
..
98
99

47
38
69
90
72
71
51
82
51
44
97
28
34
68
52
..
57
26
41
86
74
61
51
52
81
51
29
77
44
47
99
29
88
39
42
62
88
52
..
26
9
78
52
61
45
41
64
46
72
87
79
98
..
60
84

31
57
12
60
11
46
47
54
34
9
36
23
30
23
56
..
14
12
33
67
13
19
21
31
29
17
11
56
36
26
91
17
33
9
32
54
26
51
..
13
23
77
34
55
24
12
48
49
44
89
95
94
97
69
85

44
86
24
74
33
49
56
65
43
23
50
23
31
36
63
..
52
29
33
68
18
34
49
27
40
25
15
51
45
50
93
38
60
34
36
50
30
69
97
24
52
84
55
61
32
24
38
59
56
94
98
97
97
83
96

24
18
4
39
6
46
35
38
28
4
30
23
29
11
10
..
4
8
30
65
7
11
9
32
25
4
10
57
32
9
90
4
17
4
28
55
19
38
..
6
6
65
18
53
21
3
49
43
37
83
88
92
96
52
64

Quality
of supply
Average
duration of
insufficient
water supply
2009–10 a

..
9.9
19.0
3.2
4.6
..
23.5
9.8
..
2.7
..
13.6
45.3
27.7
..
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.1
2.9
8.0
4.7
12.1
..
6.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Financing
Committed
nominal
investment in
ODA gross
water projects disbursements for
with private
water supply and
participation
sanitation sector
($ millions)
($ millions)
a
2000–09
2008
2009

..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
3.4
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
120.7
..
8.5
..
0.0
0.0
..
468.0
..
..
..
..

1,668.2
22.3
63.5
2.2
60.5
15.7
18.5
6.4
1.9
26.0
1.3
62.0
1.8
7.9
3.2
0.0
8.2
107.1
18.6
9.1
124.4
14.7
3.0
101.3
18.8
7.1
17.4
13.9
47.1
21.9
9.5
81.6
11.8
38.1
108.7
37.7
0.9
76.2
0.2
13.3
1.9
52.7
21.8
1.1
148.9
3.0
64.2
39.5
12.1
464.0
4.7
56.7
0.0
301.0
98.6

1,789.9
13.9
55.0
0.0
70.7
19.2
8.7
20.4
6.7
28.9
1.4
73.7
0.4
30.6
7.1
0.0
7.4
142.6
3.2
5.0
56.3
11.2
2.6
98.2
23.1
13.1
12.8
16.0
78.0
23.6
10.8
95.5
12.0
43.7
105.5
28.2
1.0
58.3
0.6
10.0
5.1
60.9
55.2
0.3
173.2
5.8
86.4
50.5
7.6
542.1
9.0
106.0
0.0
319.4
100.4

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

74

Part III. Development outcomes

Infrastructure

Drivers of growth

Table

6.2

Transportation
Access, supply side

Road network
(km)
2000–08a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

51,429
19,000
25,798
92,495
12,322
51,346
1,350
24,307
40,000
880
153,497
17,000
81,996
3,065
2,880
4,010
44,359
9,170
3,742
57,614
44,348
3,455
63,265
5,940
10,600
49,827
15,451
18,912
11,066
2,028
30,331
66,467
18,948
193,200
14,008
320
14,805
508
11,300
22,100
362,099
11,900
3,594
87,524
11,652
70,746
66,781
97,267
111,261
104,918
83,200
58,256
19,371

Rail lines
(km)
2009

..
..
..
888
622
..
977
..
..
..
..
3,641
..
639
..
..
..
..
810
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
728
..
3,116
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22,051
4,508
300
..
..
..
..
..
14,019
4,723
5,195
..
2,110
1,991

Access, demand side
Vehicle fleet (per 1,000 people)

Road density
Ratio to total land
(road km/100 sq km
of land area)
2000–08a

Commercial
vehicles
2000–08a

Passenger
vehicles
2000–08a

4.0
17.0
4.0
34.0
44.0
11.0
33.0
4.0
3.0
39.0
7.0
5.0
25.0
14.0
10.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
33.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
11.0
20.0
10.0
8.0
13.0
2.0
1.0
99.0
4.0
0.0
1.0
21.0
53.0
33.0
8.0
110.0
..
3.0
30.0
1.0
21.0
9.0
21.0
29.0
12.0
25.0

40.0
21.0
113.0
11.0
6.0
..
94.0
0.3
6.0
33.0
5.0
26.0
20.0
..
..
11.0
3.0
..
7.0
33.0
..
33.0
21.0
..
3.0
27.0
9.0
9.0
..
159.0
13.0
109.0
5.0
31.0
4.0
2.0
23.0
173.0
5.0
..
159.0
28.0
89.0
73.0
2.0
7.0
18.0
106.0

8.0
17.0
56.0
7.0
2.0
11.0
67.0
0.3
..
31.0
..
15.0
16.0
..
..
6.0
1.0
..
5.0
21.0
..
27.0
15.0
..
2.0
8.0
4.0
7.0
..
123.0
9.0
52.0
4.0
31.0
2.0
2.0
17.0
103.0
3.0
..
108.0
20.0
46.0
4.0
2.0
3.0
11.0
91.0

5.0
10.0
5.0
13.0
12.0

112.0
43.0
291.0
71.0
114.0

72.0
31.0
225.0
53.0
76.0
(continued)

Infrastructure

Part III. Development outcomes

75

Drivers of growth

Table

6.2

Transportation (continued)
Quality

Ratio of paved to
total roads (%)
2000–08a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

10.4
9.5
32.6
4.2
10.4
8.4
69.0
..
0.8
76.5
1.8
7.1
7.9
45.0
..
21.8
13.7
10.2
19.3
14.9
9.8
27.9
14.1
18.3
6.2
11.6
45.0
19.0
26.9
98.0
20.8
12.8
20.7
15.0
19.0
68.1
29.3
96.5
8.0
11.8
17.3
36.3
30.0
7.4
21.0
23.0
22.0
19.0
73.5
86.9
57.2
67.8
75.2

Pricing

Financing

Price of
diesel fuel
($ per liter)
2010

Price of
gasoline
($ per liter)
2010

1.15
0.43
1.21
0.97
1.28
1.42
1.10
1.33
1.69
1.31
..
1.27
0.84
1.30
1.07
..
1.07
0.78
..
..
0.83
0.95
..
1.27
1.07
0.96
1.26
1.54
1.25
0.99
1.23
0.86
1.09
1.16
0.77
1.62
..
1.34
..
0.94
..
1.14
0.43
1.10
1.19
1.17
1.11
1.52
1.15
0.32
0.19
0.32
0.13
0.88
0.82

1.25
0.65
1.04
0.93
1.44
1.43
1.20
1.84
1.71
1.32
..
1.28
1.27
1.68
1.63
..
2.54
0.91
..
..
0.82
0.95
..
1.33
0.97
0.98
1.52
1.71
1.42
1.16
1.55
1.11
1.06
1.07
0.44
1.63
..
1.57
..
0.94
..
1.19
0.62
1.07
1.22
1.18
1.42
1.66
1.29
0.48
0.32
0.48
0.17
1.23
0.94

Committed nominal
investment in transport
projects with private
participation ($ millions)
2000–08a

53.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.5
..
735.0
0.0
396.0
..
..
..
3.9
..
0.0
159.0
..
404.0
..
..
17.5
..
55.4
..
..
0.0
..
..
382.0
..
..
264.0
..
..
..
3,483.0
30.0
..
134.0
..
404.0
15.6
..
108.0
640.0
..
200.0
840.0

ODA gross disbursements for
transportation and storage
($ millions)
2008
2009

2,460.5
1.8
99.4
0.1
38.2
34.3
92.1
76.1
5.1
58.2
0.6
159.4
28.2
6.7
3.6
..
1.8
313.8
7.0
6.4
119.3
35.5
16.8
97.5
16.1
31.2
117.8
33.0
81.0
41.6
1.5
100.5
25.8
60.7
44.4
50.7
3.7
82.9
..
22.6
0.1
0.4
29.3
0.0
162.8
0.0
178.5
77.1
0.0
531.4
90.4
110.2
..
179.2
144.7

3,039.4
5.7
92.3
12.9
52.5
46.0
90.2
55.7
15.3
45.3
2.2
138.3
20.4
16.0
93.8
..
2.9
251.8
75.9
9.7
116.6
28.6
15.1
115.3
6.5
49.8
42.8
22.3
44.6
22.9
0.7
100.0
53.7
38.8
108.7
26.8
1.6
89.1
..
34.2
1.7
520.5
78.3
0.4
146.4
0.6
103.1
34.6
0.0
890.6
76.0
145.5
..
344.2
320.3

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

76

Part III. Development outcomes

Infrastructure

Drivers of growth

Table

6.3

Information and communication technology
Access, supply side
Telephone subscribers (per 100 people)

Total
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

38.8
45.5
57.8
103.5
22.0
10.5
39.6
91.8
4.1
24.1
19.0
15.5
59.6
64.7
16.9
67.3
3.7
6.0
94.9
86.9
64.5
55.9
35.1
50.3
33.9
21.3
31.5
16.9
29.4
68.6
114.9
26.4
62.6
17.4
48.2
24.6
44.1
57.3
130.0
20.9
8.1
102.9
37.2
59.1
40.3
35.8
29.4
34.8
27.0
88.1
101.2
79.1
95.1
90.1
105.8

Mainline
telephone
2009

1.5
1.6
1.4
7.4
1.1
0.4
1.7
14.3
0.3
0.1
3.9
0.1
0.7
1.3
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.1
1.8
2.9
1.1
0.2
0.3
1.7
1.9
0.1
0.9
1.2
0.6
2.3
29.7
0.4
6.5
0.4
0.9
0.3
4.8
2.2
25.1
0.6
1.1
8.8
0.9
3.7
0.4
2.7
0.7
0.7
3.1
11.3
7.4
12.4
17.2
11.0
12.3

Mobile
telephone
2009

37.3
43.8
56.3
96.1
20.9
10.1
37.9
77.5
3.8
24.0
15.2
15.4
58.9
63.3
14.9
65.8
2.8
4.9
93.1
84.0
63.4
55.7
34.8
48.7
32.0
21.3
30.6
15.7
28.8
66.3
85.2
26.1
56.1
17.0
47.2
24.3
39.3
55.1
104.9
20.4
7.0
94.2
36.3
55.4
39.9
33.1
28.7
34.1
23.9
76.9
93.8
66.7
77.9
79.1
93.5

Access, demand side
Average delay for
Unmet
Households with firm in obtaining
demand
(% of mainline own telephone a mainline phone
telephones) (% of households) connection (days)
2008
2008
2009–10a

..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
0.4
..
..
28.3
..
..
..
..
..
49.5
2.1
..
..
0.2
..
..
0.4
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.8
..
..
..
0.0
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
0.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.4
..
..
..
73.6
..
..
1.4
1.8
1.1
..
..
..
0.8
..
18.1
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.0
..

9.3
89.4
17.1
19.5
..
19.2
8.2
..
13.3
..
20.1
25.5
5.8
..
..
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
..
..
53.7
..
29.9
45.9
13.8
..
38.6
..
..
13.9
..
..
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
..
51.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Internet
users
(per 100
people)
2009

8.8
3.3
2.2
6.2
1.1
0.8
3.8
29.7
0.5
1.7
3.7
0.6
6.7
4.6
3.0
2.1
4.9
0.5
6.7
7.6
5.4
0.9
2.3
10.0
3.7
0.5
1.6
4.7
1.9
2.3
22.7
2.7
5.9
0.8
28.4
4.5
16.4
7.4
38.7
0.3
1.2
9.0
9.9
7.6
1.6
5.4
9.8
6.3
11.4
21.3
13.5
20.0
5.5
32.2
33.6

Quality
Telephone faults
Cleared by next
Total
working day
(per 100
(%)
mainlines)
2009
2009

..
..
6.6
..
..
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.2
4.9
..
..
1.1
..
..
26.1
..
..
9.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
5.0
..
..
..
5.0
0.6
..
..
..
..
41.0
..
..
0.1
..
..
24.8

..
..
40.7
..
..
..
..
93.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.0
..
24.0
66.0
..
..
60.0
..
..
47.0
..
..
92.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
98.0
..
92.0
95.0
..
..
..
95.0
63.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
98.3
..
..
78.7
(continued)

Infrastructure

Part III. Development outcomes

77

Drivers of growth

Table

6.3

Information and communication technology (continued)
Fixed
broadband
internet
subscription
($ per month)
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

56.9
154.3
112.5
56.9
87.2
..
84.7
33.3
1,270.7
12.5
409.4
..
..
42.4
56.3
254.1
..
517.6
..
..
45.5
..
..
38.8
43.7
..
100.2
490.6
53.0
57.2
15.1
80.6
41.2
254.1
105.8
88.0
202.5
38.1
42.8
29.3
..
23.5
26.1
749.2
22.7
1,049.6
41.9
47.4
..
15.1
15.1
8.1
39.9
16.0
11.1

Cost of 3-minute call
during peak hours ($)
Fixed
telephone
local
2009

0.19
0.29
0.13
0.19
0.24
..
0.32
0.07
0.13
0.37
0.14
..
..
0.38
0.09
..
0.02
0.02
..
..
0.11
..
..
0.11
0.20
..
0.30
..
0.11
0.23
0.07
0.18
0.16
0.16
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.35
0.07
..
..
0.15
0.00
0.07
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.78
..
0.05
0.08
0.03
..
0.25
0.02

Pricing
Cost of 3-minute call
during off-peak hours ($)

Connection charge
($)
Mobile cellular

Cellular
local
2009

Fixed
telephone
local
2009

Cellular
local
2009

Residential
telephone
2009

Business
telephone
2009

Prepaid
2009

Postpaid
2009

Fixed
broadband
internet
2009

0.64
0.65
0.55
0.75
0.95
..
0.95
0.91
0.76
1.14
0.64
..
..
0.63
0.54
..
0.35
0.21
..
..
0.31
..
0.57
0.31
0.70
..
0.65
0.59
0.70
0.63
0.13
0.72
0.89
0.79
0.60
0.45
0.47
0.54
0.92
..
..
0.89
0.18
0.78
0.59
0.73
0.50
0.70
..
0.41
0.33
0.11
..
1.34
0.49

0.13
0.23
0.13
0.14
0.14
..
0.16
0.05
0.13
0.37
0.14
..
..
0.00
0.09
..
0.02
0.02
..
..
0.04
..
..
0.11
0.15
..
0.09
..
0.11
0.23
0.06
0.14
0.08
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.10
0.35
0.05
..
..
0.07
0.00
0.04
0.27
0.10
0.11
0.46
..
0.04
0.06
0.03
..
0.25
0.02

0.65
0.65
0.55
0.75
0.95
..
0.95
0.91
0.76
1.14
0.64
..
..
0.63
0.54
..
0.35
0.21
..
..
..
..
0.57
0.31
0.70
..
0.65
0.59
0.70
0.63
0.13
0.72
0.89
0.79
0.60
0.45
0.47
0.54
0.92
..
..
0.89
0.18
0.78
..
0.73
..
0.70
..
0.41
0.33
0.11
..
1.34
0.49

35.7
56.7
204.4
35.4
53.0
..
42.4
25.8
75.0
112.5
114.4
..
..
21.2
56.3
..
71.5
20.6
..
..
28.4
..
..
29.7
39.7
..
30.2
..
81.9
19.1
36.0
17.8
34.6
31.8
..
52.8
25.9
21.2
48.1
..
..
55.2
..
25.1
15.2
75.0
59.1
9.9
..
14.8
..
6.7
..
74.5
14.8

52.4
56.7
372.1
51.9
53.0
..
105.9
26.4
75.0
112.5
114.4
..
..
21.2
56.3
..
71.5
20.6
..
..
28.4
..
..
..
..
..
30.2
..
81.9
19.1
72.0
17.8
34.6
..
..
..
25.9
..
48.1
..
..
55.2
..
42.0
15.2
75.0
59.1
29.7
..
90.2
..
90.2
..
148.9
37.0

..
..
5.3
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
1.7
..
..
..
..
28.1
..
100.2
14.4
..
..
0.7
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
3.2
..
14.9
3.7

2.1
..
5.3
1.4
6.4
..
5.3
..
2.1
1.7
..
..
..
..
28.1
..
100.2
14.4
..
..
0.7
..
1.1
1.3
5.9
..
0.5
2.8
2.1
1.9
3.1
0.7
2.2
3.2
..
1.8
8.6
4.2
3.7
..
..
17.6
2.2
1.8
0.4
2.1
1.5
..
..
5.3
6.9
3.2
..
14.9
3.7

72.0
90.8
31.8
94.7
..
..
105.9
29.0
..
309.2
169.4
..
..
53.0
28.1
264.7
..
..
..
..
63.9
..
..
..
53.1
..
0.0
613.3
103.8
26.6
72.0
..
..
103.8
..
176.0
81.0
40.2
45.9
..
..
64.2
43.4
..
18.9
174.9
145.3
..
..
..
..
0.0
119.6
..
..

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

78

Part III. Development outcomes

Infrastructure

Financing
Annual investment
($ millions)

Fixed telephone
service
2009a

Mobile
communication
2009

143.1
..
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40.4
..
..
7.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49.0
258.7
..
177.9
..
..
80.8

6,107.9
..
335.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
203.8
..
271.5
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
592.9
..
..
454.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
227.2
..
..
..
..
..
20.7
..
..
..
..
4,000.0
1,327.8
..
1,166.2
..
..
161.6

Infrastructure

Annual revenue ($ millions)

Committed nominal
investment in
telecommunication projects with
private participaTelecommunications
tion ($ millions)
2009
2009

4,070.7
..
336.7
..
118.0
..
..
..
..
..
3.9
203.8
..
298.6
8.6
..
..
..
..
..
640.5
..
..
514.2
..
..
..
..
63.5
..
..
..
..
..
644.7
174.3
..
265.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
298.5
..
500.0
4,085.3
..
3,135.4
..
684.1
265.8

11,333.0
354.0
127.0
86.0
193.0

278.0
23.0
6.0
68.0
..
151.0
110.0
318.0
..
..

..
91.0

847.0
87.0
28.0
278.0
11.0
24.0
83.0
73.0
429.0
43.0
35.0
52.0

87.0
3,057.0
183.0
..
256.0
..
23.0

2,387.0
357.0
25.0
522.0
44.0
283.0
114.0
200.0
2,716.0
398.0
1,791.0
..
240.0
287.0

ODA gross disbursements for
communication
($ millions)
2009

Fixed telephone
service
2009

Mobile
communication
2009

Telecommunications
2009

256.3
0.6
0.7
0.1
4.3
1.8
2.1
0.8
0.1
..
..
4.3
0.1
0.9
10.4
(0.0)
..
4.6
..
0.4
9.3
0.1
0.2
17.3
..
0.3
0.3
2.0
0.8
0.0
6.5
19.0
(8.7)
0.5
22.8
2.4
0.1
2.4
..
0.9
0.1
6.2
0.1
..
2.2
..
8.2
1.2
0.3
29.3
0.7
2.8
..
1.5
19.2

2,304.4
..
22.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
292.7
22.3
..
25.0
270.8
..
..
..
..
..
646.4
..
..
32.9
..
50.0
..
67.7
..
..
..
280.7
..
..
593.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3,194.4
798.4
1,039.5
..
1,127.6
229.0

12,497.8
..
315.5
279.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.6
726.5
..
1,173.8
16.2
..
28.8
196.4
..
..
1,067.3
..
..
1,088.1
..
..
248.4
..
463.4
..
114.2
..
..
..
5,990.1
..
..
692.5
..
..
..
..
..
89.5
..
..
..
..
..
11,710.3
3,057.2
4,717.0
..
2,806.6
1,129.4

15,077.3
..
338.4
402.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.9
..
..
1,466.5
60.2
..
54.5
480.8
..
..
1,174.0
..
..
1,837.6
..
..
325.9
..
513.4
..
..
..
..
..
6,270.8
152.8
..
1,285.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
686.2
..
..
17,337.8
5,011.9
6,513.4
..
4,136.9
1,675.6

Part III. Development outcomes

79

Drivers of growth

Table

6.4

Energy
Access, demand side

Total
(billion kWh) Hydroelectric
2008
2008

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

423.9
4.0
0.1
0.6
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
7.5
0.5
5.8
..
..
0.3
3.8
2.0
..
8.4
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.1
2.1
..
21.1
..
..
2.4
..
..
..
255.5
4.5
..
4.4
0.1
..
9.7
8.0
236.1
40.2
131.0
28.7
20.8
15.3

17.2
96.3
0.7
0.0
..
..
76.2
..
..
..
..
99.4
81.3
32.7
..
..
0.0
87.3
43.8
..
74.1
..
..
40.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.9
67.5
..
27.1
..
..
9.5
..
..
..
0.5
32.4
..
60.1
74.0
..
99.7
53.4
6.7
0.7
11.2
0.0
4.5
0.2

Energy production
Sourcea
(% of total)
Coal
Natural gas
2008
2008

58.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
31.1
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
94.2
0.0
..
2.7
0.0
..
0.0
46.3
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
56.2
0.0

4.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
7.7
..
..
..
..
0.4
18.7
65.1
..
..
0.0
0.0
24.7
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.0
..
58.2
..
..
1.7
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
36.2
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
66.5
97.3
68.4
41.0
13.8
88.7

Nuclear
2008

Oil
2008

3.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
5.1
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

3.8
3.7
99.3
0.0
..
..
15.9
..
..
..
..
0.2
0.0
0.2
..
..
99.3
12.4
31.2
..
25.9
..
..
38.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
1.4
..
14.7
..
..
85.8
..
..
..
0.1
67.6
..
0.9
24.4
..
0.3
0.3
21.3
2.0
19.7
59.0
24.2
10.8

GDP per unit of
Electric power energy use (2005 Solid fuels use
(% of
PPP $ per kg of
consumption
population)
(kWh per capita) oil equivalent)
2008
2008
2006

530.9
189.3
76.3
1,503.3
..
..
262.6
..
..
..
..
95.1
150.2
186.3
..
..
..
42.4
1,158.0
..
267.7
..
..
155.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
461.4
1,797.3
..
126.5
..
..
158.2
..
..
..
4,759.5
96.4
..
83.9
98.8
..
602.4
1,022.2
1,281.7
957.1
1,425.4
3,909.3
735.6
1,298.0

3.2
8.8
3.9
11.6
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
0.8
9.6
3.1
..
..
3.8
2.0
9.4
..
3.4
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
7.3
..
2.6
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
3.5
5.3
..
2.6
1.9
..
2.1
..
6.4
6.8
5.8
5.2
8.4
8.3

81.6
47.7
94.3
40.0
95.0
95.0
80.6
36.2
95.0
93.0
76.0
95.0
83.9
79.0
16.0
..
62.7
95.0
27.0
94.7
85.9
95.0
95.0
75.0
71.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
60.0
5.0
95.0
57.0
95.0
78.8
95.0
..
51.0
5.0
95.0
95.0
17.3
89.9
58.0
94.0
95.0
95.0
85.7
71.2
5.4
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.8
5.0

a. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because other sources of generated electricity (such as geothermal, solar, and wind) are not shown.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

80

Part III. Development outcomes

Infrastructure

Firms identifying
electricity as major or
very severe obstacle
to business operation
and growth (%)
2009–10 b

Quality
Average delay for
Electrical power
Electric power
firm in obtaining
outages in a
transmission and
electrical
typical month
distribution losses
connection
(average)
(% of output)
(days)
2009–10 b
2008
2009–10 b

35.7
51.9
34.8
53.9
..
58.6
53.1
..
74.6
..
51.7
71.1
39.8
..
..
0.2
..
58.0
..
..
..
..
..
44.3
59.1
54.6
37.6
33.5
..
42.9
..
..
63.2
..
..
..
..
..
53.4
..
..
..
..
..
50.9
..
..
..

7.7
86.8
39.2
23.1
..
17.6
30.5
..
10.6
..
48.0
8.5
20.9
..
..
..
..
34.5
..
..
..
..
..
13.9
..
92.1
59.2
32.9
..
18.7
..
..
37.1
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
..
..
..
..
53.9
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Infrastructure

10.5
14.5
92.6
52.0
..
..
9.7
..
..
..
..
11.0
76.8
23.5
..
..
..
9.5
17.8
..
22.1
..
..
14.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
17.6
..
9.4
..
..
19.5
..
..
..
8.8
11.9
..
19.3
122.8
..
23.3
6.5
12.5
18.1
10.6
14.0
11.0
12.4

Firms that
share or own
their
own generator
(%)
2009–10 b

Firms using
electricity from
generator
(%)
2009–10 b

5.4
13.9
4.5
10.8
..
10.6
4.9
..
22.6
..
21.8
25.3
3.8
..
..
3.0
..
7.2
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
5.4
13.6
1.0
5.3
..
3.2
..
..
20.1
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
..
..
..
11.1
..
..
..

79.0
50.5
34.5
28.3
..
34.8
48.8
..
75.5
..
49.3
81.8
6.5
..
..
36.8
..
22.9
..
..
..
..
..
30.9
66.5
29.3
25.3
20.1
..
24.5
..
..
34.5
..
..
..
..
..
81.8
..
..
..
..
..
63.6
..
..
..

17.3
10.1
0.6
2.5
..
4.5
10.9
..
52.0
..
4.2
43.2
1.0
..
..
1.0
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
63.1
5.2
2.1
0.5
..
0.8
..
..
5.2
..
..
..
..
..
36.6
..
..
..
..
..
9.3
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Financing
Committed nominal
ODA gross
investment in energy
disbursements
projects with private
for energy
participation
($ millions)
($ millions)
2009
2009

..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1,478.9
4.7
16.3
0.3
26.1
1.9
57.3
1.9
3.4
0.8
..
132.8
0.1
15.4
22.5
0.0
3.1
179.0
0.1
1.8
43.9
0.8
3.4
142.9
0.4
13.1
5.8
2.3
20.5
11.2
5.8
57.6
4.5
0.6
72.7
41.9
..
16.5
..
30.1
..
4.8
2.0
..
121.4
121.8
163.0
8.1
1.3
1,106.6
2.2
460.3
2.5
454.7
166.7

Part III. Development outcomes

81

Participating in growth

Table

7.1

Education
Primary education
Literacy rate (%)
Youth (ages 15–24)
Adult (ages 15 and older)
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

82

75.2
73.1
54.3
95.2
..
76.6
..
98.2
64.7
46.3
85.3
67.7
..
66.6
..
97.9
88.7
..
97.6
65.5
80.1
61.1
70.9
92.7
92.0
75.6
..
86.5
..
67.7
96.5
70.9
93.0
..
71.8
77.2
95.3
65.0
..
57.6
..
..
85.9
93.4
77.4
..
..
74.6
98.9
..
..
..
99.9
79.5
..

Part III. Development outcomes

79.5
80.8
64.9
93.7
..
76.9
..
97.3
72.2
53.5
85.8
73.3
..
72.1
..
97.7
91.6
..
98.6
71.0
81.2
68.1
78.2
91.9
85.7
70.4
..
86.9
..
70.9
95.5
78.1
91.1
..
78.1
77.0
94.9
74.2
..
67.6
..
..
89.1
91.9
78.5
..
..
81.8
98.4
..
..
..
99.9
86.7
..

70.9
65.5
43.4
96.7
..
76.3
..
99.0
57.3
39.0
84.7
62.1
..
61.0
..
98.2
85.8
..
96.6
60.0
78.9
53.8
63.6
93.6
98.1
80.9
..
86.0
..
64.3
97.6
63.7
94.9
..
65.3
77.4
95.8
56.2
..
48.1
..
..
82.7
94.9
76.4
..
..
67.3
99.5
..
..
..
99.8
72.1
..

65.5
70.0
41.7
84.1
..
66.6
..
84.8
55.2
33.6
74.2
67.0
..
55.3
..
93.3
66.6
..
87.7
46.5
66.6
39.5
52.2
87.0
89.7
59.1
..
73.7
..
57.5
87.9
55.1
88.5
..
60.8
70.7
88.8
49.7
..
40.9
..
..
70.2
86.9
72.9
..
..
70.9
91.9
..
..
..
88.9
56.1
..

74.8
82.9
54.2
83.8
..
72.6
..
90.1
69.1
44.5
79.7
79.5
..
64.7
..
97.0
77.9
..
91.4
57.6
72.8
50.8
66.9
90.5
82.9
63.7
..
80.6
..
64.5
90.6
70.1
88.9
..
72.0
75.0
93.7
61.8
..
52.7
..
..
79.6
87.8
79.0
..
..
80.6
94.7
..
..
..
95.2
68.9
..

56.3
57.6
29.1
84.4
..
60.9
..
80.2
42.1
23.1
68.7
54.9
..
45.3
..
89.8
56.0
..
84.1
35.8
60.4
28.1
38.0
83.5
95.3
54.5
..
67.0
..
50.3
85.3
41.5
88.1
..
49.8
66.8
84.0
38.7
..
30.1
..
..
60.8
86.2
66.9
..
..
61.3
89.4
..
..
..
82.0
43.9
..

Gross enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009

..
..
121.9
..
78.3
146.6
113.8
98.1
88.6
89.7
..
90.3
119.5
73.6
54.5
81.9
48.3
102.5
..
..
105.2
89.8
..
112.7
104.4
..
160.4
119.3
94.7
104.4
100.0
114.4
112.1
62.4
..
150.7
131.2
83.7
106.2
..
..
101.2
74.0
..
104.9
115.2
121.6
112.9
..
..
107.7
..
..
107.4
..

..
..
129.2
..
82.9
149.1
122.0
101.8
103.8
105.2
..
97.5
123.5
81.2
57.6
83.6
52.8
107.1
..
..
105.7
96.7
..
113.9
104.6
..
162.3
117.6
102.9
100.6
100.0
120.7
113.0
69.2
..
149.8
130.7
82.1
105.0
..
..
103.2
77.8
..
104.9
118.8
120.8
113.5
..
..
111.0
..
..
111.9
..

..
..
114.2
..
73.5
144.2
105.5
94.4
73.6
74.2
..
83.0
115.5
66.0
51.3
80.1
43.8
97.8
..
..
104.6
82.8
..
111.4
104.2
..
158.5
121.1
86.3
108.4
100.1
108.1
111.2
55.2
..
151.4
131.8
85.4
107.4
..
..
99.1
70.0
..
104.9
111.5
122.4
112.4
..
..
104.2
..
..
102.7
..

Net enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009

..
..
94.7
..
63.3
98.9
91.6
82.6
66.7
..
..
..
..
57.2
44.4
53.5
35.7
82.7
..
..
75.9
72.9
..
82.6
73.1
..
..
90.8
72.9
76.3
94.0
90.6
89.1
54.0
..
..
97.5
73.1
94.4
..
..
84.7
..
..
96.4
93.5
92.2
90.7
..
..
93.8
..
..
89.7
..

..
..
..
..
67.1
98.2
97.5
83.6
76.9
..
..
..
..
62.5
46.8
54.0
38.1
85.2
..
..
75.5
77.9
..
82.2
71.2
..
..
88.5
79.3
73.9
93.4
93.2
87.1
60.0
..
..
95.5
71.7
93.4
..
..
84.7
..
..
95.8
98.1
90.9
89.6
..
..
94.8
..
..
91.2
..

..
..
..
..
59.4
99.6
85.6
81.5
56.6
..
..
..
..
52.0
42.1
53.0
33.2
80.1
..
..
76.2
67.8
..
83.0
75.0
..
..
93.2
66.4
78.8
94.6
87.9
91.1
47.6
..
..
99.5
74.4
95.4
..
..
84.6
..
..
97.0
89.0
93.6
91.8
..
..
92.9
..
..
88.1
..

Studentteacher
ratio
2009

..
..
..
..
48.9
51.4
46.3
23.9
94.6
60.9
..
37.3
64.4
42.1
..
24.2
38.5
57.9
..
..
33.1
..
..
46.8
..
..
47.9
..
50.1
39.1
21.6
61.3
30.1
38.8
..
68.3
26.2
34.7
13.8
..
..
..
38.4
..
53.7
41.3
49.3
..
..
..
23.0
..
..
26.6
..

Human development

Secondary education
Net enrollment ratio
Gross enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

..
..
..
..
19.8
21.2
41.5
81.5
13.6
24.1
..
36.7
..
..
30.5
..
31.8
34.4
..
..
57.2
37.0
..
59.5
45.0
..
31.5
29.5
38.3
..
87.2
23.4
..
11.7
..
26.7
50.1
..
105.0
..
..
93.9
38.0
..
27.4
..
27.4
48.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
22.6
24.6
45.2
74.7
17.5
34.1
..
47.0
..
..
35.1
..
37.1
38.8
..
..
60.5
46.3
..
62.4
37.8
..
32.5
31.5
46.4
..
86.1
26.2
..
14.5
..
27.5
47.3
..
102.6
..
..
91.6
40.3
..
30.7
..
29.8
52.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Human development

..
..
..
..
16.8
17.8
37.7
88.2
9.8
14.0
..
26.2
..
..
25.8
..
26.4
30.0
..
..
53.6
27.4
..
56.5
52.3
..
30.6
27.6
30.1
..
88.3
20.6
..
8.8
..
26.0
52.8
..
107.5
..
..
96.1
35.5
..
24.1
..
24.9
44.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
15.4
..
..
63.3
10.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.4
..
..
..
46.1
..
..
49.6
28.8
..
..
25.0
30.1
..
..
14.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
46.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.7
..
..
..
13.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.6
..
..
..
48.0
..
..
51.1
21.9
..
..
25.7
36.6
..
..
15.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
95.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
13.1
..
..
..
7.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.1
..
..
..
44.1
..
..
48.1
35.7
..
..
24.4
23.5
..
..
13.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Studentteacher ratio
2009

..
..
..
..
25.6
26.5
..
18.2
80.1
32.3
..
16.0
..
..
..
..
42.7
47.9
..
..
18.3
..
..
29.7
..
..
23.5
..
..
..
16.0
37.9
..
27.6
..
..
..
..
12.6
..
..
..
22.2
..
..
..
18.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Tertiary education
Gross enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009

..
..
..
..
3.4
2.7
9.0
14.9
2.5
2.0
5.2
6.0
6.4
..
3.5
..
2.0
..
..
..
8.6
..
..
4.1
..
..
3.6
..
6.0
3.8
..
..
..
1.4
..
4.8
4.1
8.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.1
..
3.2
..
30.6
..
..
12.9
..

..
..
..
..
4.6
..
10.1
13.1
3.5
3.4
..
..
10.6
..
4.1
..
3.0
..
..
..
10.6
..
..
4.8
..
..
3.8
..
8.5
5.3
..
..
..
2.2
..
5.5
4.2
10.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.5
..
3.9
..
25.2
..
..
13.7
..

..
..
..
..
2.2
..
8.0
16.7
1.5
0.6
..
..
2.2
..
2.8
..
1.0
..
..
..
6.6
..
..
3.3
..
..
3.4
..
3.5
2.2
..
..
..
0.7
..
4.1
3.9
5.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.6
..
2.5
..
36.3
..
..
12.0
..

Public spending on
education (%)
Share of
government
expenditure Share of GDP
2009
2009

..
..
..
22.0
..
23.4
19.2
15.9
..
12.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.3
..
11.4
..
..
19.3
..
..
..
..
..
18.1
..
16.9
..
..
..
17.6
15.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
8.9
..
8.3
3.7
5.9
1.3
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.0
..
4.4
..
3.2
..
..
4.5
..
..
..
5.8
..
4.3
..
5.4
..
..
..
4.6
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

83

Participating in growth

Table

7.2

Health
Mortality
Life expectancy at birth
(years)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

84

Total
2009

Male
2009

Female
2009

52.5
47.6
61.8
55.0
53.3
50.9
51.4
71.3
47.3
48.9
65.8
47.8
53.7
58.0
55.7
50.6
59.9
55.7
60.9
56.2
56.8
58.3
48.2
54.9
45.4
58.7
60.8
53.8
48.8
57.0
72.6
48.1
61.6
52.0
48.1
50.6
65.8
55.9
73.7
47.9
50.1
51.6
58.5
46.3
56.3
62.9
53.4
46.3
45.4
71.5
72.6
70.3
74.5
71.6
74.5

51.5
45.6
60.7
55.1
52.0
49.4
50.8
68.7
45.9
47.7
63.6
46.2
52.8
56.7
54.4
49.5
57.6
54.3
59.6
54.6
55.9
56.4
46.7
54.5
45.0
57.3
59.2
52.9
48.1
55.0
69.2
47.4
60.8
51.1
47.6
48.8
63.9
54.4
68.5
46.7
48.7
50.3
57.0
47.1
55.5
61.2
52.8
45.8
45.3
69.7
71.2
68.6
72.0
69.4
72.5

53.6
49.6
63.0
54.8
54.7
52.4
51.9
74.1
48.8
50.2
68.1
49.4
54.7
59.3
57.2
51.8
62.2
57.1
62.1
58.0
57.7
60.4
49.8
55.3
45.7
60.1
62.5
54.7
49.5
59.0
76.2
48.8
62.4
52.9
48.7
52.5
67.7
57.5
79.2
49.2
51.5
53.1
60.1
45.5
57.1
64.6
54.1
46.9
45.6
73.4
74.1
72.2
77.2
73.9
76.5

Part III. Development outcomes

Diseases

Infant mortality Maternal mortality
ratio, modeled
rate
Under-five
estimate (per
(per 1,000
mortality rate
100,000 live births)
live births)
(per 1,000)
2009
2009
2008

130
161
118
57
166
166
154
28
171
209
104
199
128
119
94
145
55
104
69
103
69
142
193
84
84
112
58
110
191
117
17
142
48
160
138
111
78
93
12
192
180
62
108
73
108
98
128
141
90
26
32
21
19
38
21

81
98
75
43
91
101
95
23
112
124
75
126
81
83
75
88
39
67
52
78
47
88
115
55
61
80
41
69
101
74
15
96
34
76
86
70
52
51
11
123
109
43
69
52
68
64
79
86
56
23
29
18
17
33
18

646
610
410
190
560
970
600
94
850
1,200
340
670
580
470
300
280
280
470
260
400
350
680
1,000
530
530
990
440
510
830
550
36
550
180
820
840
540
..
410
..
970
1,200
410
750
420
790
350
430
470
790
92
120
82
64
110
60

Prevalence
of HIV
(% ages
15–49)
2009

Incidence of
tuberculosis (per
100,000 people)
2009

5.4
2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
2.5
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
..
0.1
0.1

344
298
93
694
215
348
182
148
327
283
39
372
382
399
620
117
99
359
501
269
201
318
229
305
634
288
261
304
324
330
22
409
727
181
295
376
98
282
31
644
285
971
119
1,257
183
446
293
433
742
43
59
19
40
92
24

Malaria
Clinical
cases
Reported
reported
deaths
c
2009
2009

71,675,530 113,326
2,221,076 10,530
1,256,708
1,375
14,878
6
4,399,837
7,982
1,757,387
714
1,883,199
4,943
65
2
175,210
667
182,415
221
49,679
..
6,749,112 21,168
92,855
116
1,847,367 18,156
7,120
0
78,983
23
21,298
23
3,043,203
1,121
112,840
197
479,409
240
1,899,544
3,378
812,471
586
143,011
369
8,123,689
..
..
..
871,560
1,706
215,110
173
5,455,423
6,527
1,633,423
2,331
167,705
91
..
..
4,310,086
3,747
81,812
46
309,675
2,159
4,295,686
7,522
1,247,583
809
3,893
23
222,232
574
..
..
646,808
1,734
56,153
45
6,072
45
2,686,822
1,396
6,639
13
40
840
618,842
1,556
9,775,318
6,296
2,976,395
3,862
736,897
14
239
3
..
..
94
2
..
..
145
1
..
..

Human development

Prevention and treatment
Child
immunization
rate (% of
Malnutrition (% of
children ages
children under age 5)
12–23 months)
b
Stunting Underweight
Measles DPT
2009
2009 2007–09a 2007–09a

68
77
72
94
75
91
74
96
62
23
79
76
76
67
73
51
95
75
55
96
93
51
76
74
85
64
64
92
71
59
99
77
76
73
41
92
90
79
97
71
24
62
82
95
91
84
68
85
76
94
88
95
98
98
98

70
73
83
96
82
92
80
99
54
23
83
77
91
81
89
33
99
79
45
98
94
57
68
75
83
64
78
93
74
64
99
76
83
70
42
97
98
86
99
75
31
69
84
95
85
89
64
81
73
97
93
97
98
99
99

Contraceptive use
(% of married women
ages 15–49)

Births
attended
by skilled
health staff
(% of total)
2007–09a

Any
method
2007–09a

Modern
method
2007–09a

Children sleeping
under insecticidetreated nets
(% of under age 5)
2007–09a

Tuberculosis
case detection
rate, all forms
(%)
2009

Tuberculosis
treatment
success rate (% of
registered cases)
2008

79.0
70.0
89.0
65.0
76.0
90.0
..
74.0
71.0
..
90.0
87.0
76.0
76.0
84.0
56.0
76.0
84.0
53.0
84.0
86.0
78.0
70.0
85.0
73.0
79.0
81.0
87.0
82.0
68.0
87.0
84.0
82.0
81.0
78.0
87.0
94.0
84.0
100.0
86.0
81.0
76.0
81.0
68.0
88.0
79.0
70.0
88.0
74.0
..
90.0
89.0
69.0
85.0
86.0

..
..
..
35.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
45.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.6
40.0
..
35.2
..
39.4
49.2
..
..
24.2
..
..
29.6
..
41.0
..
29.3
..
..
37.4
..
..
..
29.5
..
..
..
45.8
..

..
..
..
26.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.3
20.8
..
16.4
..
20.4
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
17.5
..
26.7
..
13.1
..
..
21.3
..
..
..
6.1
..
..
..
14.9
..

47.3
..
94.6
..
..
..
..
43.7
..
..
74.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.1
46.1
..
43.8
61.5
46.3
43.9
..
..
60.9
..
55.3
81.4
..
38.9
52.1
81.7
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
69.0
..
..
..
46.5
60.2

..
..
52.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.6
..
..
22.5
..
..
..
..
..
23.5
..
..
45.5
47.0
11.4
39.9
..
..
9.3
..
16.2
55.1
..
14.6
36.4
38.4
..
..
8.2
..
..
..
50.6
..
..
..
40.8
64.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.6
..
..
38.9
..
10.3
28.2
..
..
8.0
..
..
53.5
..
8.1
26.1
..
..
..
6.0
..
..
..
46.8
..
..
..
26.5
..

..
17.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
19.9
..
..
33.1
..
..
28.2
4.5
..
46.1
..
26.4
45.8
..
..
..
..
22.8
..
42.8
5.5
55.7
56.2
29.2
..
25.8
..
..
..
0.6
25.7
..
..
41.1
17.3

48.0
75.0
47.0
62.0
14.0
25.0
70.0
44.0
60.0
26.0
46.0
46.0
69.0
27.0
71.0
89.0
58.0
50.0
42.0
47.0
31.0
26.0
59.0
85.0
93.0
52.0
44.0
49.0
16.0
24.0
41.0
46.0
76.0
36.0
19.0
19.0
49.0
31.0
57.0
31.0
42.0
74.0
52.0
67.0
77.0
10.0
44.0
80.0
46.0

..
30.7
21.0
..
..

..
6.8
5.6
..
..

..
78.9
..
..
..

..
60.3
..
..
..

..
57.6
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

100.0
63.0
82.0
93.0
86.0

Children with fever
receiving any
antimalarial treatment
same or next day
(% of under age 5)
2007–09a

29.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.8
..
..
..
..
..
9.5
..
..
43.0
..
..
23.2
..
67.2
19.7
..
..
20.7
..
36.7
..
..
33.2
5.6
8.4
9.1
..
30.1
..
..
..
0.6
56.7
..
..
43.3
23.6
..
..
..
..
..
(continued)

Human development

Part III. Development outcomes

85

Participating in growth

Table

7.2

Health (continued)
Water and sanitation
Population with sustainable access
Population with sustainable access
to improved sanitation
to an improved water source
(% of rural
(% of urban
(% of total
(% of rural
(% of urban
(% of total
population)
population)
population)
population)
population)
population)
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008
2008

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

60
50
75
95
76
72
74
84
67
50
95
46
71
80
92
..
61
38
87
92
82
71
61
59
85
68
41
80
56
49
99
47
92
48
58
65
89
69
..
49
30
91
57
69
54
60
67
60
82
92
83
99
..
81
94

83
60
84
99
95
83
92
85
92
67
91
80
95
93
98
..
74
98
95
96
90
89
83
83
97
79
71
95
81
52
100
77
99
96
75
77
89
92
100
86
67
99
64
92
80
87
91
87
99
95
85
100
..
98
99

47
38
69
90
72
71
51
82
51
44
97
28
34
68
52
..
57
26
41
86
74
61
51
52
81
51
29
77
44
47
99
29
88
39
42
62
88
52
..
26
9
78
52
61
45
41
64
46
72
87
79
98
..
60
84

31
57
12
60
11
46
47
54
34
9
36
23
30
23
56
..
14
12
33
67
13
19
21
31
29
17
11
56
36
26
91
17
33
9
32
54
26
51
..
13
23
77
34
55
24
12
48
49
44
89
95
94
97
69
85

44
86
24
74
33
49
56
65
43
23
50
23
31
36
63
..
52
29
33
68
18
34
49
27
40
25
15
51
45
50
93
38
60
34
36
50
30
69
97
24
52
84
55
61
32
24
38
59
56
94
98
97
97
83
96

24
18
4
39
6
46
35
38
28
4
30
23
29
11
10
..
4
8
30
65
7
11
9
32
25
4
10
57
32
9
90
4
17
4
28
55
19
38
..
6
6
65
18
53
21
3
49
43
37
83
88
92
96
52
64

Human resources
Health workers
(per 1,000 people)
Community
Nurses and
workers
midwives
Physicians
a
a
2008–09
2008–09
2008

..
0.1
..
0.1
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.1
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.1
..
..
..
0.0
0.4
..
..
0.1
..
0.0
..
..
0.3
..
..
0.1
..
..
..

..
0.8
..
0.7
..
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
0.8
..
..
..
..
0.6
1.1
..
0.6
..
..
0.3
..
0.3
0.3
0.7
..
..
..
0.1
1.6
..
..
0.4
..
0.2
..
..
0.8
..
..
0.3
..
..
..

..
2.8
1.9
0.6
1.2

..
3.5
6.8
0.9
3.3

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
b. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid.
c. Malaria cases reported before 2000 can be probable and confirmed or only confirmed, depending on the country.

86

Part III. Development outcomes

Human development

Health expenditure
Share of GDP (%)

Share of total health expenditure (%)

Total
2009

Public
2009

Private
2009

Public
2009

Private
2009

External resources
for health
2009

Out-of-pocket
(% of private
expenditure
on health)
2009

6.6
4.6
4.2
10.3
6.4
13.1
5.6
3.9
4.3
7.0
3.4
9.5
3.0
5.1
7.0
3.9
2.2
4.3
3.5
6.0
6.9
5.7
6.1
4.3
8.2
13.2
4.1
6.2
5.6
2.5
5.7
5.7
5.9
6.1
5.8
9.0
7.1
5.7
4.0
13.1
..
8.5
7.3
6.3
5.1
5.9
8.2
4.8
..
5.3
5.8
5.0
3.9
5.5
6.2

2.9
4.1
2.3
8.2
3.9
6.0
1.6
2.9
1.6
3.9
2.1
4.9
1.6
1.0
5.3
3.4
1.0
2.0
1.7
3.0
3.1
0.9
1.6
1.5
5.6
5.3
2.8
3.6
2.7
1.6
2.1
4.1
4.0
3.5
2.1
3.9
2.9
3.1
3.1
0.9
..
3.4
2.0
4.0
3.8
1.7
1.6
2.5
..
3.0
5.0
2.1
2.6
1.9
3.4

3.7
0.5
1.9
2.1
2.4
7.1
4.0
1.0
2.6
3.1
1.3
4.7
1.4
4.1
1.6
0.5
1.2
2.2
1.8
3.0
3.8
4.9
4.5
2.9
2.6
8.0
1.4
2.6
2.9
0.9
3.6
1.5
2.0
2.6
3.7
5.1
4.2
2.5
0.9
12.2
..
5.1
5.3
2.3
1.4
4.2
6.7
2.2
..
2.3
0.8
2.9
1.3
3.6
2.9

44.0
89.0
55.2
80.0
61.7
46.0
27.9
74.0
38.7
55.2
61.6
51.0
53.8
18.8
76.9
86.9
44.6
47.6
47.9
50.1
45.0
15.2
25.5
33.8
68.2
39.7
67.1
58.0
47.9
62.6
36.9
73.2
66.6
57.6
36.3
43.2
41.0
55.6
76.8
7.2
..
40.1
27.4
63.3
73.6
28.2
19.0
53.0
..
56.8
86.2
41.7
66.1
34.4
54.0

56.0
11.0
44.8
20.0
38.3
54.0
72.1
26.0
61.3
44.8
38.4
49.0
46.2
81.2
23.1
13.1
55.4
52.4
52.1
49.9
55.0
84.8
74.5
66.2
31.8
60.3
32.9
42.0
52.1
37.4
63.1
26.8
33.4
42.4
63.7
56.8
59.0
44.4
23.2
92.8
..
59.9
72.6
36.7
26.4
71.8
81.0
47.0
..
43.2
13.8
58.3
33.9
65.6
46.0

..
2.7
22.6
18.8
21.9
45.2
8.1
7.4
40.4
6.9
15.3
35.8
7.2
10.6
30.2
3.2
65.6
39.5
1.7
26.3
16.8
15.6
42.0
36.1
30.4
47.0
28.3
99.1
25.6
25.6
1.6
72.0
14.9
32.6
4.9
53.2
38.7
14.0
1.4
20.4
..
1.9
3.2
12.2
56.5
17.4
20.9
50.3
..
..
0.0
1.5
1.0
0.2
1.2

62.9
100.0
92.7
34.0
93.0
66.1
94.9
99.7
95.0
96.7
100.0
76.2
100.0
98.8
98.6
83.5
100.0
80.1
100.0
48.5
78.6
99.4
56.0
77.4
68.9
52.2
67.8
28.5
99.5
100.0
88.7
43.6
17.8
96.2
95.6
44.4
68.5
78.5
30.9
89.5
..
29.6
96.2
42.3
65.1
84.2
65.4
74.5
..
93.4
94.7
97.7
100.0
86.3
87.0

Human development

Private prepaid
plans
(% of private
Health expenditure
expenditure
per capita ($)
on health)
2009
2009

..
0.0
7.3
6.5
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
1.4
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.0
3.1
6.2
0.0
0.0
8.8
0.0
0.0
15.1
14.5
0.5
0.0
6.3
1.5
61.0
3.2
3.1
10.2
0.0
17.9
0.0
1.0
..
66.1
1.0
18.9
14.5
4.3
0.0
4.1
..
..
5.1
1.7
0.0
13.7
11.2

76.0
203.8
31.9
611.9
38.1
19.8
61.1
146.1
19.3
41.8
27.8
15.6
70.1
55.3
84.5
709.4
10.1
14.7
266.3
25.6
45.1
18.8
18.4
33.2
70.0
29.4
18.0
19.1
38.4
21.9
383.1
24.7
258.0
20.9
69.3
48.2
90.7
58.9
365.7
43.9
..
485.4
94.6
155.8
25.3
28.9
42.5
47.1
..
173.4
267.9
113.3
416.7
155.7
240.0

Part III. Development outcomes

87

Participating in growth

Table

8.1

Rural development
Rural population (%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

1990

Share of total population
2008

2009

1990

Annual growth
2008

2009

71.8
62.9
65.5
58.1
86.2
93.7
59.3
55.9
63.2
79.2
72.1
72.2
45.7
60.3
24.3
65.3
84.2
87.4
30.9
61.7
63.6
72.0
71.9
81.8
86.0
54.7
76.4
88.4
76.7
60.3
56.1
78.9
72.3
84.6
64.7
94.6
56.4
61.0
50.7
67.1
70.3
48.0
73.4
77.1
81.1
69.9
88.9
60.6
71.0
51.5
47.9
56.5
24.3
51.6
42.1

63.5
43.3
58.8
40.4
80.4
89.6
43.2
40.4
61.4
73.3
71.9
66.0
38.7
51.2
12.7
60.6
79.3
83.0
15.0
43.6
50.0
65.6
70.2
78.4
74.5
39.9
70.5
81.2
67.8
59.0
57.5
63.2
63.2
83.5
51.6
81.7
39.4
57.6
45.7
62.2
63.5
39.3
56.6
75.1
74.5
58.0
87.0
64.6
62.7
47.2
34.8
57.3
22.5
44.0
33.5

63.0
42.4
58.4
39.7
80.0
89.3
42.4
39.6
61.3
72.9
71.9
65.4
38.3
50.6
12.3
60.5
78.8
82.7
14.5
42.7
49.2
65.1
70.1
78.1
73.8
39.2
70.1
80.7
67.3
58.8
57.5
62.4
62.6
83.4
50.9
81.4
38.6
57.4
45.2
61.9
63.0
38.8
55.7
74.8
74.0
57.3
86.9
64.4
62.2
46.9
34.1
57.2
22.3
43.6
33.1

2.2
0.7
2.2
–2.1
2.4
2.3
1.5
–2.2
1.9
2.9
2.0
3.7
1.9
3.1
4.1
1.9
1.3
3.1
–1.0
2.3
1.7
3.2
0.8
3.1
1.0
–3.8
2.2
3.5
1.4
1.0
0.2
0.2
3.4
2.8
1.6
–0.4
0.2
2.4
0.9
0.9
0.0
1.0
1.2
3.2
2.7
1.9
3.2
3.1
1.9
1.7
0.8
2.5
2.0
0.5
0.5

1.7
0.6
2.5
–0.4
2.9
2.6
0.4
–0.4
1.6
2.1
2.3
1.8
0.8
1.0
–1.3
2.3
2.4
2.2
–1.3
0.8
0.6
1.5
2.1
2.3
–0.1
2.8
2.2
2.2
1.5
2.1
0.5
1.1
1.0
3.8
1.0
2.4
–0.5
2.2
1.2
2.0
1.5
–0.1
0.7
1.0
2.3
1.3
3.1
2.2
–0.7
1.1
–0.3
1.7
1.2
0.4
–0.2

1.7
0.5
2.4
–0.4
2.9
2.5
0.3
–0.5
1.6
2.0
2.3
1.8
0.9
1.0
–1.5
2.3
2.4
2.2
–1.5
0.7
0.6
1.6
2.1
2.3
–0.1
2.5
2.2
2.2
1.5
2.0
0.4
1.0
1.0
3.8
0.9
2.5
–0.5
2.2
0.1
1.9
1.6
–0.2
0.6
1.1
2.3
1.2
3.1
2.2
–0.3
1.1
–0.3
1.7
1.2
0.4
–0.2

Rural population density
(rural population per
sq km of arable land)
1990
2008

286.0
231.2
194.5
187.0
215.8
572.4
122.1
483.0
96.4
147.7
402.4
400.7
233.4
312.9
13,614.8
190.5
..
..
97.0
303.6
352.6
547.8
294.0
384.1
434.7
338.7
316.6
371.3
323.3
299.7
593.0
309.7
155.2
60.6
213.2
768.7
3,274.5
148.7
3,549.0
563.8
453.7
125.7
155.4
370.2
229.4
130.7
315.3
209.1
257.0
823.3
171.0
1,429.4
58.8
147.0
118.0

358.0
229.5
199.7
310.6
194.5
803.8
138.4
309.8
138.1
186.1
578.6
633.4
285.2
376.7
10,785.4
305.0
583.0
492.4
66.7
185.5
265.2
268.6
368.4
573.4
430.3
378.0
456.6
344.4
177.7
474.2
838.9
314.2
168.2
84.7
208.2
615.3
701.9
201.0
3,970.4
192.8
566.6
131.8
113.0
492.5
329.6
152.3
487.6
346.1
209.4
1,078.3
159.6
1,684.1
80.8
172.6
122.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

88

Part III. Development outcomes

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Share of rural population
below the national poverty line
Surveys
1990–99a
Year

..
..
1999
1993
1998
1998
1996
..
1992
1995
1995
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1999
..
1998
1998
1994
..
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
..
1996
..
1996
1993
1993
1996
..
..
1994
..
1990
..
..
..
..
1992
..
1997
1998
1995
..
1995
..
..
1999
..

Rural population poverty gap at national poverty line
(%)

Surveys 2000–09a
Percent

..
..
33.0
55.0
50.7
83.2
59.6
..
74.4
48.6
69.4
..
..
41.5
..
..
..
45.4
..
79.0
49.6
82.1
..
52.9
68.9
..
76.7
66.5
..
68.1
..
71.3
69.0
66.0
69.8
..
..
71.0
..
88.3
..
..
..
..
40.8
..
48.7
83.0
44.0
..
30.3
..
..
24.2
..

Year

..
..
2003
2003
2003
2006
2007
2007
2008
2003
2004
2005
2005
2008
..
..
..
2004
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2005
2004
2006
2000
..
2008
2003
2007
2004
2006
2001
2005
..
2003
..
..
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2006
..
..
..
2008
..
2007
..

Percent

..
..
46.0
44.8
52.4
68.9
55.0
44.3
69.4
58.6
48.7
75.7
57.7
54.2
..
..
..
39.3
44.6
67.8
39.2
63.0
69.1
49.1
60.5
67.7
73.5
55.9
57.6
61.2
..
56.9
49.0
63.9
63.8
64.2
64.9
61.9
..
78.5
..
..
..
75.0
37.4
74.3
27.2
76.8
..
..
..
30.0
..
14.5
..

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Surveys
2000–07a

Surveys 1990–99a
Year

..
..
1999
..
1998
1998
..
..
1992
1995
..
..
..
1998
..
..
..
1999
..
..
1998
1994
..
1997
1993
..
1999
1998
..
..
..
1996
1993
1993
1992
..
..
1994
..
1990
..
..
..
..
1992
..
1997
1998
..
..
1995
..
..
..
..

Percent

..
..
9.4
..
15.7
45.9
..
..
42.5
26.3
..
..
..
14.3
..
..
..
12.2
..
..
18.2
39.1
..
19.3
26.5
..
21.4
23.9
..
..
..
29.9
34.0
22.5
16.1
..
..
25.3
..
73.1
..
..
..
..
12.7
..
15.2
44.5
..
..
4.5
..
..
..
..

Year

..
..
2003
2003
2003
2006
2007
2007
2008
2003
2004
2005
2005
2008
..
..
..
2004
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
..
2007
2005
2004
..
2000
..
2008
2003
2007
2004
2006
2001
2005
..
2003
..
..
..
2001
2007
2006
2009
2006
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Percent

..
..
14.0
18.4
17.6
24.2
17.5
14.3
35.0
23.3
17.8
34.9
20.6
20.3
..
..
..
8.5
16.0
30.5
13.5
22.0
27.8
17.5
..
26.3
28.9
8.6
..
24.1
..
22.2
16.0
21.2
26.6
26.0
24.7
21.5
..
34.6
..
..
..
37.0
11.0
29.3
7.6
38.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Share of rural population with
sustainable access
(%)
To improved
sanitation
To an improved
facilities
water source
2008
2008

46.8
38.0
69.0
90.0
72.0
71.0
51.0
82.0
51.0
44.0
97.0
28.0
34.0
68.0
52.0
..
57.0
26.0
41.0
86.0
74.0
61.0
51.0
52.0
81.0
51.0
29.0
77.0
44.0
47.0
99.0
29.0
88.0
39.0
42.0
62.0
88.0
52.0
..
26.0
9.0
78.0
52.0
61.0
45.0
41.0
64.0
46.0
72.0
87.4
79.0
98.0
..
60.0
84.0

24.1
18.0
4.0
39.0
6.0
46.0
35.0
38.0
28.0
4.0
30.0
23.0
29.0
11.0
10.0
..
4.0
8.0
30.0
65.0
7.0
11.0
9.0
32.0
25.0
4.0
10.0
57.0
32.0
9.0
90.0
4.0
17.0
4.0
28.0
55.0
19.0
38.0
..
6.0
6.0
65.0
18.0
53.0
21.0
3.0
49.0
43.0
37.0
83.0
88.0
92.0
96.0
52.0
64.0

Part III. Development outcomes

89

Participating in growth

Table

8.2

Agriculture
Agriculture
Gross production index (1999–2001=100)
value
added Agriculture
total
Crop Livestock Food
Cereal
(% of GDP)
2009a
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Excluding South Africa
Benin S. Africa & Nigeria
Excl.
Botswana
Angola
Burkina Faso
Benin
Burundi
Botswana
Cameroon
Burkina
Faso
Cape Verde
Burundi
Central African Republic
Cameroon
Chad Verde
Cape
Comoros
Central
African Republic
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Chad
Congo, Rep.
Comoros
Côte d’Ivoire
Congo,
Dem. Rep.
Djibouti Rep.
Congo,
Equatorial
Guinea
Côte
d’Ivoire
Eritrea
Djibouti
Ethiopia Guinea
Equatorial
Gabon
Eritrea
Gambia, The
Ethiopia
Ghana
Gabon
Guinea The
Gambia,
Guinea-Bissau
Ghana
Kenya
Guinea
Lesotho
Guinea-Bissau
Liberia
Kenya
Madagascar
Lesotho
Malawi
Liberia
Mali
Madagascar
Mauritania
Malawi
Mauritius
Mali
Mozambique
Mauritania
Namibia
Mauritius
Niger
Mozambique
Nigeria
Namibia
Rwanda
Niger
São Tomé and Príncipe
Nigeria
Senegal
Rwanda
Seychelles
São
Tomé and Principe
Sierra Leone
Senegal
Somalia
Seychelles
South Leone
Africa
Sierra
Sudan
Somalia
Swaziland
South
Africa
Tanzania
Sudan
Togo
Swaziland
Uganda
Tanzania
Zambia
Togo
Zimbabwe
Uganda
NORTH AFRICA
Zambia
Algeria
Zimbabwe
Egypt, Arab
Rep.
NORTH
AFRICA
Libya
Algeria
Morocco
Egypt,
Arab Rep.
Tunisia
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
ALL AFRICA

13.1
10.2
..
3.1
..
..
..
9.2
55.5
..
46.3
42.9
4.5
24.4
..
3.5
14.4
50.7
5.1
27.5
31.7
17.2
..
22.6
8.4
..
29.1
30.5
..
20.6
4.3
31.5
9.4
..
..
34.2
..
16.6
2
51.4
..
3
29.7
7.3
28.8
..
24.7
21.6
17.9
13.1
11.7
13.7
..
16.4
7.8

..
196.0
112.0
113.0
140.0
109.0
114.0
118.0
119.0
118.0
112.0
97.0
124.0
110.0
147.0
91.0
126.0
149.0
103.0
118.0
154.0
130.0
123.0
124.0
75.0
117.0
113.0
136.0
157.0
116.0
105.0
123.0
102.0
185.0
134.0
135.0
111.0
133.0
39.0
197.0
104.0
120.0
118.0
110.0
135.0
113.0
112.0
144.0
70.0

128.7
250.0
110.0
120.0
144.0
108.0
117.0
107.0
110.0
118.0
113.0
97.0
116.0
109.0
101.0
90.0
154.0
153.0
104.0
114.0
156.0
133.0
120.0
107.0
72.0
115.0
115.0
141.0
162.0
116.0
95.0
130.0
140.0
210.0
134.0
132.0
110.0
130.0
61.0
204.0
96.0
111.0
112.0
101.0
154.0
109.0
109.0
170.0
55.0

125.1
92.0
135.0
112.0
132.0
118.0
105.0
141.0
132.0
120.0
103.0
96.0
157.0
132.0
158.0
104.0
101.0
140.0
100.0
132.0
127.0
167.0
128.0
147.0
78.0
127.0
111.0
153.0
153.0
115.0
138.0
89.0
90.0
153.0
121.0
158.0
125.0
144.0
44.0
144.0
105.0
130.0
123.0
140.0
104.0
137.0
120.0
106.0
107.0

130
198.0
116.0
113.0
136.0
110.0
120.0
118.0
123.0
125.0
112.0
98.0
123.0
120.0
147.0
89.0
126.0
151.0
103.0
117.0
155.0
133.0
122.0
126.0
72.0
131.0
114.0
129.0
183.0
116.0
106.0
102.0
101.0
186.0
135.0
134.0
111.0
134.0
38.0
201.0
104.0
122.0
119.0
115.0
134.0
132.0
112.0
135.0
82.0

..
174.0
136.0
182.0
158.0
114.0
148.0
43.0
148.0
172.0
115.0
97.0
183.0
113.0
90.0
..
237.0
170.0
127.0
177.0
156.0
169.0
146.0
94.0
37.0
169.0
120.0
120.0
240.0
129.0
182.0
94.0
134.0
175.0
142.0
191.0
145.0
175.0
..
406.0
54.0
122.0
144.0
24.0
154.0
120.0
131.0
208.0
30.0

163.0
137.0
109.0
139.0
115.0

196.0
136.0
102.0
142.0
119.0

121.0
134.0
116.0
128.0
110.0

163.0
139.0
109.0
140.0
115.0

279.0
125.0
93.0
163.0
84.0

Cereal
(thousands of metric tons)
Production Exports Imports
2009
2008
2008

116,492
1,030
1,508
56
3,627
300
2,017
7
251
2,193
26
1,573
23
1,471
0
..
227
15,502
47
311
2,607
2,659
215
2,804
75
293
4,388
3,993
6,335
213
1
1,785
112
3,451
20,983
651
4
1,869
..
868
215
14,577
5,552
61
5,683
1,004
2,811
2,198
919
42,172
5,253
23,697
207
10,430
2,585

2,199
1
5
2
11
0
0
1
0
0
0
5
0
38
0
..
1
2
0
0
0
15
0
30
0
0
3
31
4
..
18
30
3
30
5
8
..
37
0
0
0
1,279
170
1
136
19
73
238
1
400
1
258
1
95
45

21,901
734
226
177
205
29
551
103
31
147
47
902
175
1,090
201
30
119
1,424
135
169
825
324
32
1,100
259
262
276
259
252
438
282
610
371
320
1,364
56
14
1,533
19
214
452
2,302
1,664
182
546
307
439
48
652
32,879
9,093
12,324
2,276
6,127
3,059

Trade
Agricultural
Food
Imports
Exports
Imports
Exports
($ millions) ($ millions) ($ millions) ($ millions)
2008
2008
2008
2008

25,448
12
450
150
273
57
962
1
23
87
8
57
67
4,361
38
3
2
1,352
81
16
1,532
58
96
2,669
1
97
193
768
351
24
372
330
235
97
856
235
5
252
4
26
58
5,461
457
256
954
301
878
348
534
5,382
76
1,823
8
1,919
1,555

32,546
2,375
791
609
294
49
624
194
33
143
55
959
469
1,224
432
85
66
1,347
391
111
1,311
264
67
1,344
138
217
401
266
416
470
746
616
367
335
3,400
123
28
1,793
90
211
518
4,896
1,543
224
643
326
629
284
627
26,427
7,785
8,661
2,266
5,157
2,557

15,199
10
300
115
67
2
681
1
16
54
8
11
23
3,382
37
3
2
576
3
15
1,482
28
96
737
1
10
150
103
144
18
326
181
190
87
696
19
5
133
2
23
53
3,741
319
242
361
247
198
190
111
4,668
61
1,499
1
1,718
1,389

26,522
1,824
745
467
228
44
541
190
27
111
51
830
413
1,036
383
53
65
1,131
322
89
1,214
220
52
1,175
112
196
331
177
341
424
562
526
229
282
2,991
105
23
1,633
77
189
385
3,204
1,290
184
555
279
537
208
475
23,107
7,015
7,754
2,091
4,140
2,107

Note:

90

Part III. Development outcomes

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Share of land area (%)
Permanent cropland
2009

Cereal
cropland
2009

1.0
0.2
2.7
0.0
0.2
15.2
2.5
0.7
0.1
0.0
29.6
0.3
0.2
13.4
..
2.7
0.0
0.9
0.6
0.5
12.5
2.8
8.9
0.9
0.1
2.3
1.0
1.3
0.1
0.0
2.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
3.3
11.3
46.9
0.3
6.5
1.9
0.0
0.8
0.1
0.8
1.5
3.1
11.4
0.0
0.3
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.2
2.1
14.2

3.8
1.4
9.6
0.2
13.2
8.8
2.8
8.2
0.4
2.0
12.9
0.9
0.1
2.4
0.0
..
4.5
9.2
0.1
29.6
6.9
8.1
5.3
4.1
5.9
1.9
2.9
19.6
3.3
0.2
0.0
2.6
0.4
7.2
15.1
14.4
1.1
8.6
..
8.6
0.9
2.7
4.0
3.1
5.8
13.2
9.3
1.4
5.3
2.4
1.3
3.1
0.2
12.2
9.2

Agricultural
irrigated land
(% of
agricultural land)
2000–08b

..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
4.4
4.0

Fertilizer
consumption
(100 grams
per hectare of
arable land)
2008

11.6
8.3
0.0
..
3.9
2.2
8.6
..
..
..
..
0.9
1.1
18.9
..
..
0.0
7.7
14.1
2.6
6.4
1.5
..
33.3
..
..
4.3
1.7
9.0
..
210.1
0.0
0.3
0.4
13.3
8.3
..
2.4
29.0
..
..
49.7
3.6
..
5.9
4.9
3.4
50.1
27.9
..
6.8
723.6
27.3
53.8
32.1

Agricultural
machinery
(tractors per 100 sq
km of arable land)
2000–08b

Agricultural
employment
(% of total
employment)
2000–08b

..
..
134.8
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
46.2
..
8.3
..
..
..
4.5
39.3
..
25.2
..
..
1.9
..
2.7
9.8
..
..
..
..
6.6
0.5
..
2.1
..
..
12.0
43.0
12.4
87.1
23.3
0.5
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
46.2
..
8.3
..
..
..
4.5
39.3
..
25.2
..
..
1.9
..
2.7
9.8
..
..
..
..
6.6
0.5
..
2.1
..
..
12.0
43.0
12.4
87.1
23.3
0.5
..
..
..

139.6
372.1
218.9
..
142.6

139.6
372.1
218.9
..
142.6

Agriculture value
added per worker
(2000 $)
2009

Cereal yield
(kilograms per
hectare)
2009

318.3
313.1
..
597.1
..
..
..
2,224.8
..
..
452.9
167.9
..
925.6
..
1,004.8
66.1
214.7
1,869.3
275.3
..
225.4
..
334.2
207.0
..
192.2
161.7
..
407.5
5,555.9
219.7
1,638.1
..
..
..
..
245.4
724.9
..
..
3,640.8
922.3
1,176.0
283.0
..
202.9
215.7
141.4
2,929.4
2,183.7
3,024.2
..
3,306.3
3,602.4

1,296.9
587.7
1,423.5
569.4
1,002.0
1,319.4
1,524.0
223.6
948.3
879.9
1,063.9
788.5
861.5
1,899.7
1,111.1
..
500.0
1,676.8
2,388.8
1,049.3
1,659.8
1,339.2
1,444.5
1,203.8
421.0
1,609.7
2,581.7
2,162.8
1,588.2
875.8
8,306.9
876.6
364.7
379.8
1,528.0
1,828.7
4,056.2
1,134.5
..
1,402.3
371.4
4,414.2
587.2
1,147.5
1,109.5
1,398.4
1,539.4
2,066.9
449.6
3,111.3
1,653.9
7,571.4
568.8
1,910.7
1,812.9

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Part III. Development outcomes

91

Participating in growth

Table

8.3

Producer food prices

1991

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

92

Rice, paddy
(current $ per metric ton)
1995
2000
2005

2008

1991

Maize
(current $ per metric ton)
1995
2000
2005

2008

..
..
..
351.5
220.4
177.2
..
..
..
..
..
265.9
212.7
..
..
..
..
..
170.4
416.9
220.2
..
72.7
..
..
119.9
139.1
223.3
..
..
181.1
..
260.4
761.3
199.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
962.2
..
..
283.6
..
..
215.4

..
..
..
245.6
272.3
136.2
..
..
..
..
..
150.3
220.4
..
..
..
260.8
..
206.2
393.3
245.1
..
107.2
..
..
170.0
117.8
236.4
..
..
135.8
..
214.4
652.2
873.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
205.2
..
..
232.4
..
..
288.5

..
..
..
119.4
277.5
144.6
..
..
..
..
..
178.4
154.5
..
..
..
201.6
..
136.9
306.6
405.5
351.1
299.9
..
..
190.6
594.4
154.5
..
..
90.6
..
154.5
279.4
582.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
388.9
..
..
165.7
..
..
255.1

..
..
..
392.2
609.2
269.1
..
..
..
..
..
220.1
222.2
..
..
..
127.7
..
175.0
577.8
138.2
474.8
378.8
..
..
125.9
718.5
269.7
..
..
163.3
..
201.0
545.1
480.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
497.3
..
..
258.3
..
..
346.4

..
..
..
559.8
814.9
337.2
..
..
..
..
..
362.9
506.4
..
..
..
734.4
..
258.3
826.0
128.8
893.2
627.5
..
..
314.9
1,060.8
264.5
..
..
..
..
260.2
519.4
659.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
125,651.2
..
..
375.2
..
..
..

..
..
..
212.7
270.0
283.6
313.9
..
..
..
..
212.7
159.5
..
..
..
294.7
..
211.3
188.9
191.0
..
104.3
..
..
337.8
96.3
134.7
..
303.5
132.7
166.6
163.0
334.8
259.0
..
..
..
..
..
129.3
1,538.6
..
..
205.6
..
..
74.6

..
..
..
148.5
208.2
152.3
432.0
..
..
..
..
200.3
162.9
..
..
295.1
154.3
..
419.0
215.1
245.1
76.2
155.6
..
..
178.6
47.1
166.3
..
287.6
92.4
193.3
138.2
661.3
194.5
..
..
..
..
..
159.1
328.1
..
..
190.3
..
..
121.2

..
..
..
91.3
253.0
163.7
247.9
..
..
..
..
262.6
119.4
..
..
354.3
119.3
..
134.5
171.7
166.7
842.7
190.3
..
..
143.8
111.9
107.7
..
171.4
51.8
145.1
118.0
198.4
211.0
..
..
..
..
..
78.5
621.9
..
..
120.8
..
..
123.8

..
..
..
192.4
314.3
113.2
334.6
..
..
..
..
359.6
233.0
..
..
347.0
144.7
..
311.2
366.5
152.0
1,168.0
201.7
..
..
84.5
184.7
197.5
..
185.9
154.5
276.6
173.0
477.5
104.2
..
..
..
..
..
99.3
184.6
..
..
294.4
..
..
100.5

..
..
..
253.7
325.2
140.6
461.0
..
..
..
..
587.8
331.7
..
..
500.2
350.0
..
293.3
445.6
127.0
1,382.3
471.0
..
..
226.5
291.5
172.0
..
221.1
..
262.6
226.4
486.9
138.5
..
..
..
..
..
200.9
42,295.8
..
..
495.8
..
..
..

270.7
127.5
..
436.5
..

544.5
193.4
..
445.0
..

344.8
167.9
..
276.4
..

421.4
185.0
..
325.2
..

581.2
269.7
..
405.1
..

173.2
140.5
..
242.3
..

335.7
151.5
..
292.7
..

212.6
174.8
..
223.0
..

259.8
179.3
..
225.8
..

358.3
260.3
..
398.7
..

Part III. Development outcomes

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

1991

1995

Sorghum
(current $ per metric ton)
2000

..
..
..
212.7
330.6
177.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
342.4
..
..
..
362.3
..
213.6
217.5
187.0
..
207.7
..
..
..
176.6
145.3
..
..
63.9
147.8
140.2
368.1
234.0
..
..
..
..
..
106.8
943.0
..
..
237.5
..
..
69.0

..
..
..
134.4
328.3
160.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
252.2
..
..
212.4
193.2
..
193.3
212.9
263.8
..
194.1
..
..
..
72.0
198.3
..
..
47.9
182.0
96.2
847.7
450.1
..
..
..
..
..
132.9
92.7
..
..
246.4
..
..
75.0

..
..
..
84.3
374.7
313.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,103.1
..
..
284.7
142.1
..
129.0
153.1
179.4
351.1
204.1
..
..
..
500.6
87.4
..
..
51.8
157.4
77.3
190.3
211.0
..
..
..
..
..
74.9
165.6
..
..
140.5
..
..
90.1

..
..
..
178.7
324.2
217.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
336.6
..
..
391.7
188.7
..
334.3
424.4
120.7
854.6
331.8
..
..
..
514.4
233.6
..
..
141.3
263.2
117.4
509.0
138.8
..
..
..
..
..
70.9
335.2
..
..
364.6
..
..
100.6

..
..
..
225.3
430.5
269.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
325.4
..
..
571.0
446.4
..
316.4
514.9
139.4
1,287.9
319.8
..
..
..
661.0
197.2
..
..
..
244.4
154.2
370.2
186.0
..
..
..
..
..
214.7
3,297.7
..
..
629.7
..
..
..

..
..
..
212.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
460.8
..
..
..
294.7
..
218.8
308.6
..
..
256.6
..
..
..
133.2
156.0
..
..
..
147.8
150.1
339.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,206.4
..
..
265.9
..
..
71.8

..
..
..
152.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
391.3
..
..
337.2
216.0
..
388.9
245.0
..
..
361.3
..
..
..
65.1
194.3
..
..
..
209.5
96.2
413.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
278.6
..
..
238.4
..
..
60.0

..
..
..
84.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
245.7
..
..
434.3
144.8
..
128.2
205.9
..
..
311.1
..
..
..
518.6
85.1
..
..
..
157.4
108.2
184.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
655.1
..
..
122.2
..
..
90.1

..
..
..
178.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
415.4
..
..
645.3
170.0
..
310.1
495.3
..
..
485.5
..
..
..
642.7
254.5
..
..
..
263.2
135.1
493.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
433.6
..
..
305.8
..
..
100.6

..
..
..
217.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
376.9
..
..
939.4
461.5
..
266.6
619.6
..
..
487.7
..
..
..
919.6
192.7
..
..
..
244.4
175.8
402.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,426.7
..
..
407.5
..
..
..

152.3
141.2
..
218.2
..

207.7
166.9
..
402.8
..

131.5
184.0
..
218.3
..

160.8
186.7
..
292.5
..

221.7
264.3
..
384.5
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

2005

2008

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

1991

1995

Millet
(current $ per metric ton)
2000

2005

2008

Part III. Development outcomes

93

Participating in growth

Table

8.4

Environment
Water pollution
Renewable internal
fresh water resources
Emissions of
Annual
Water
Total
fresh water productivity (2000 organic water
Energy production
pollutants
Forest area (billions Per capita withdrawals $ per cubic meter
(kilotons of oil
(cubic
(kilograms
(billions of
(% of land of cubic
of fresh water
equivalent)
meters) cubic meters)
meters)
per day)
area)
withdrawal)
a
a
a
1990 2010
2007
2007
2000–05
2000–07
2000–07
1990
2008

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

31.3
48.9
52.1
24.2
25.0
11.3
51.4
14.3
37.2
10.4
6.4
70.7
66.5
32.1
0.2
66.3
..
15.2
85.4
44.2
32.7
29.6
78.8
6.5
1.3
51.2
23.5
41.4
11.5
0.4
19.1
55.2
10.6
1.5
18.9
12.9
28.1
48.6
88.5
43.5
13.2
7.6
32.1
27.4
46.8
12.6
24.1
71.0
57.3
1.3
0.7
0.0
0.1
11.3
4.1

28.0
46.9
41.2
20.0
20.6
6.7
42.1
21.1
36.3
9.2
1.6
68.0
65.6
32.7
0.3
58.0
15.2
12.3
85.4
48.0
21.7
26.6
71.9
6.1
1.4
44.9
21.6
34.4
10.2
0.2
17.2
49.6
8.9
1.0
9.9
17.6
28.1
44.0
89.1
38.1
10.8
4.7
29.4
32.7
37.7
5.3
15.2
66.5
40.4
1.4
0.6
0.1
0.1
11.5
6.5

3,884
148
10
2
13
10
273
0
141
15
1
900
222
77
0
26
3
122
164
3
30
226
16
21
5
200
337
16
60
0
3
100
6
4
221
10
2
26
..
160
6
45
30
3
84
12
39
80
12
47
11
2
1
29
4

4,850
8,431
1,227
1,268
849
1,284
14,630
610
33,119
1,412
1,910
14,395
62,516
3,819
360
40,485
586
1,551
115,340
1,857
1,325
23,505
10,383
548
2,574
55,138
18,114
1,118
4,835
127
2,182
4,586
2,949
248
1,496
1,005
13,829
2,169
..
29,518
687
928
742
2,293
2,035
1,825
1,273
6,513
985
290
332
23
97
929
410

103.6
0.6
0.1
0.2
1.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.1
0.4
..
0.6
0.0
1.4
0.0
0.0
0.6
5.6
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.6
0.2
2.7
0.1
0.2
14.7
1.0
6.5
1.6
0.7
0.7
0.3
2.4
10.3
0.2
..
2.2
0.0
0.5
3.3
12.5
37.1
1.0
5.2
0.2
0.3
1.7
4.2

14.3
18.2
29.0
2.7
2.5
10.5
27.2
14.4
3.8
..
6.9
76.0
7.4
29.2
72.1
1.2
1.6
39.0
5.9
5.1
1.9
1.2
5.0
14.9
3.1
0.3
1.8
0.4
0.7
6.9
5.7
13.0
0.8
4.5
11.6
..
2.2
47.1
1.3
..
10.6
0.3
1.4
2.2
8.2
21.5
1.9
1.5

..
..
3,246
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,540
32,159
..
..
16,048
..
..
..
5,252
..
92,770
32,672
..
..
15,446
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,621
..
..
..
229,582
38,567
..
30,322
..
2,105
..
..

6.1
68.2
4.3
12.6
2.8

9.6
1.5
7.9
2.9
7.2

..
..
..
73,989
..

475,369
28,652
1,774
910
..
..
10,976
..
..
..
..
12,019
8,746
3,382
..
..
..
14,052
14,630
..
4,392
..
..
9,013
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,608
..
..
150,452
..
..
964
..
..
..
114,535
8,775
..
9,064
1,054
..
4,918
8,550
234,657
100,114
54,869
73,173
773
5,728

Energy
Energy use
(kilotons of oil
equivalent)
1990
2008

809,956 310,313 497,224
105,837
5,883 10,972
1,833
1,661
3,005
1,002
1,261
2,117
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,119
4,980
7,102
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22,664 11,798 22,250
13,245
797
1,368
11,415
4,323 10,278
..
..
..
..
..
..
546
..
681
29,581 14,866 31,704
13,519
1,181
2,073
..
..
..
6,858
5,291
9,459
..
..
..
..
..
..
15,108 10,940 18,021
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,460
5,922
9,314
317
..
1,752
..
..
..
226,793 70,582 111,156
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,230
1,686
2,859
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
162,951 90,860 134,489
34,874 10,629 15,372
..
..
..
17,470
9,733 18,957
2,138
1,263
2,563
..
..
..
6,790
5,399
7,355
8,533
9,297
9,506
361,445 77,234 150,155
162,044 22,192 37,069
87,487 31,825 70,710
103,743 11,330 18,221
637
6,941 14,977
7,534
4,946
9,178

Combustible
renewables and waste
(% of total energy use)
1990
2008

56.6
73.5
94.2
33.4
..
..
76.7
..
..
..
..
84.7
59.5
73.5
..
..
..
93.9
62.9
..
73.7
..
..
77.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
93.9
..
..
80.2
..
..
56.8
..
..
..
11.5
81.8
..
91.7
82.8
..
74.3
50.9
2.8
0.1
3.3
1.1
4.6
12.9

57.7
63.5
61.0
22.3
..
..
71.0
..
..
..
..
93.4
51.3
74.0
..
..
80.0
92.4
52.5
..
66.8
..
..
76.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.9
11.2
..
81.2
..
..
41.7
..
..
..
10.4
68.0
..
88.2
83.1
..
81.0
65.3
2.3
0.1
2.1
0.9
3.2
13.6

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
b. Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride.

94

Part III. Development outcomes

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Greenhouse gas emissions
Methane

Carbon dioxide
(thousands of
metric tons)
1990
2007

464,110
4,426
715
2,169
586
304
1,737
88
198
147
77
4,067
1,187
5,793
399
121
..
3,016
6,082
191
3,928
1,055
253
5,818
..
484
986
612
421
2,664
1,462
1,000
7
953
45,338
682
66
3,180
114
388
18
333,241
5,555
425
2,371
773
817
2,444
15,510
231,777
78,831
75,881
40,286
23,523
13,256

682,631
24,743
3,873
4,994
1,693
180
6,163
308
253
385
121
2,433
1,587
6,379
487
4,793
579
6,504
2,034
396
9,801
1,389
286
11,227
..
674
2,250
1,055
579
1,949
3,884
2,598
3,034
909
95,194
715
128
5,474
623
1,312
601
433,173
11,512
1,063
6,038
1,315
3,202
2,689
9,629
452,017
140,005
184,508
57,287
46,368
23,849

Total
(kilotons of
carbon dioxide
equivalent)
1990
2005

..
..
49,530 45,409
4,847 4,080
5,812 4,501
..
..
..
..
13,503 18,518
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
96,593 56,445
6,231 5,584
11,243 10,997
..
..
..
..
1,884 2,467
39,325 52,243
8,103 8,218
..
..
7,238 8,990
..
..
..
..
17,952 22,130
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,863 12,843
3,435 5,057
..
..
117,467 130,317
..
..
..
..
5,277
7,129
..
..
..
..
..
..
51,179 63,785
43,370 67,441
..
..
25,817 32,024
2,752 2,889
..
..
26,944 19,294
10,112 9,539
104,128 134,629
40,726 54,219
27,839 46,996
22,473 14,682
9,132 10,573
3,958 8,160

Agricultural
(% of total)
1990 2005

Industrial
(% of total)
1990 2005

44.0
26.4
36.7
90.5
..
..
55.2
..
..
..
..
25.6
37.3
18.3
..
..
78.7
81.6
0.9
..
48.9
..
..
74.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.3
95.8
..
18.5
..
..
68.8
..
..
..
37.3
87.1
..
73.9
52.9
..
66.1
79.1
21.6
9.1
38.0
4.9
58.8
44.9

32.1
21.6
16.1
7.7
..
..
20.2
..
..
..
..
47.9
10.4
18.9
..
..
11.0
9.3
46.5
..
13.7
..
..
15.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.5
3.7
..
47.3
..
..
4.5
..
..
..
52.4
21.4
..
21.3
18.4
..
8.1
22.2
51.5
61.2
33.4
79.1
6.2
26.2

44.0
27.9
47.8
84.1
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
..
23.1
31.9
17.4
..
..
73.2
72.5
1.1
..
39.5
..
..
65.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44.2
94.9
..
19.8
..
..
68.3
..
..
..
31.4
85.2
..
63.2
39.8
..
59.3
73.3
20.6
8.2
31.7
5.7
51.7
25.5

Agricultural
(% of total)
1990 2005

Industrial
(% of total)
1990 2005

ODA gross
Other greenhouse
disbursements
gasesb
ODA gross
(thousands of
for general
metric tons of disbursements environment
for forestry
carbon dioxide
protection
($ millions)
equivalent)
($ millions)
1990
2005
2009
2009

64.5
39.2
50.5
90.9
..
..
68.1
..
..
..
..
37.9
48.6
22.7
..
..
93.0
91.9
25.6
..
75.5
..
..
91.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82.0
93.2
..
82.1
..
..
88.1
..
..
..
63.3
92.0
..
82.8
74.3
..
75.1
84.2
72.0
64.3
71.5
67.2
85.1
59.0

0.3
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
3.6
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
5.9
5.6
4.4
8.2
0.0
0.0
10.6

..
0
0
0
..
..
932
..
..
..
..
0
0
0
..
..
0
0
0
..
596
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
0
..
242
..
..
0
..
..
..
1,491
0
..
0
0
..
0
0
2,668
326
2,059
282
0
0

Nitrous oxide

30.2
11.6
8.9
17.9
..
..
17.9
..
..
..
..
49.6
7.7
11.2
..
..
7.5
10.0
79.9
..
10.7
..
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.9
4.7
..
45.5
..
..
4.7
..
..
..
54.3
21.5
..
20.3
14.8
..
5.7
24.8
48.2
66.3
31.2
77.6
2.6
32.1

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Total
(metric tons of
carbon dioxide
equivalent)
1990 2005

..
41,667
3,695
5,511
..
..
10,530
..
..
..
..
87,098
4,307
7,485
..
..
1,028
25,545
305
..
5,187
..
..
9,222
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,881
2,580
..
19,153
..
..
2,976
..
..
..
21,300
36,669
..
21,468
2,209
..
35,669
7,284
24,023
3,843
11,818
1,176
5,180
2,006

..
38,881
2,902
3,081
..
..
9,127
..
..
..
..
54,643
3,566
7,364
..
..
1,189
30,510
482
..
4,899
..
..
10,542
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,501
3,797
..
21,565
..
..
4,083
..
..
..
24,048
49,472
..
21,647
1,738
..
25,068
6,114
33,358
4,898
18,996
1,285
5,814
2,366

66.1
38.4
61.5
92.0
..
..
75.9
..
..
..
..
31.3
51.8
29.3
..
..
90.9
88.8
23.3
..
70.5
..
..
88.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.4
94.3
..
77.3
..
..
88.5
..
..
..
59.8
92.6
..
78.8
67.5
..
71.7
85.2
75.3
58.6
80.0
51.9
82.6
66.4

0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.3
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
3.7
0.0
7.9
7.2
11.5
0.0
0.0
4.1

..
20
0
0
..
..
419
..
..
..
..
0
5
0
..
..
0
10
9
..
15
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
282
0
..
669
..
..
0
..
..
..
2,552
0
..
0
0
..
0
0
3,950
489
3,181
280
0
0

120.8
0.9
0.0
0.1
2.8
0.0
4.3
..
2.9
0.0
0.0
4.0
1.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.5
7.8
0.2
..
16.3
0.7
..
5.7
0.1
1.1
0.7
2.2
3.1
3.5
..
1.6
1.3
0.2
0.5
1.0
..
6.9
..
..
..
0.0
2.5
0.0
11.0
..
2.9
0.5
0.0
5.7
0.2
0.0
..
0.7
4.4

588.2
2.5
13.2
3.0
10.5
1.9
12.3
7.9
18.6
6.0
0.7
15.5
3.8
1.3
0.5
0.5
1.0
13.5
5.4
0.4
18.6
2.1
2.2
35.2
1.2
3.0
18.8
5.9
14.1
11.8
5.2
17.9
11.6
7.4
9.9
9.2
0.2
54.2
0.1
1.9
0.1
26.6
15.1
1.1
30.9
1.2
16.9
11.6
1.0
109.9
4.6
35.6
0.1
40.9
22.8

Part III. Development outcomes

95

Participating in growth

Table

8.5

Fossil fuel emissions

Carbon dioxide emissions
Per capita
Total
(metric tons)
(thousands of metric tons)
1990
2005
2007
1990
2005

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 464,110
Angola
4,426
Benin
715
Botswana
2,169
Burkina Faso
586
Burundi
304
Cameroon
1,737
Cape Verde
88
Central African Republic
198
Chad
147
Comoros
77
Congo, Dem. Rep.
4,067
Congo, Rep.
1,187
Côte d’Ivoire
5,793
Djibouti
399
Equatorial Guinea
121
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
3,016
Gabon
6,082
Gambia, The
191
Ghana
3,928
Guinea
1,055
Guinea-Bissau
253
Kenya
5,818
Lesotho
..
Liberia
484
Madagascar
986
Malawi
612
Mali
421
Mauritania
2,664
Mauritius
1,462
Mozambique
1,000
Namibia
7
Niger
953
Nigeria
45,338
Rwanda
682
São Tomé and Príncipe
66
Senegal
3,180
Seychelles
114
Sierra Leone
388
Somalia
18
South Africa
333,241
Sudan
5,555
Swaziland
425
Tanzania
2,371
Togo
773
Uganda
817
Zambia
2,444
Zimbabwe
15,510
NORTH AFRICA
231,777
Algeria
78,831
Egypt, Arab Rep.
75,881
Libya
40,286
Morocco
23,523
Tunisia
13,256

656,877
19,756
2,565
4,521
1,173
165
3,693
297
235
399
110
2,275
1,605
8,160
473
4,708
733
5,485
1,861
322
7,467
1,359
264
10,944
..
737
2,173
1,037
568
1,656
3,408
1,854
2,656
824
110,371
689
128
5,529
696
1,260
579
407,895
10,992
1,019
5,082
1,337
2,338
2,363
10,780
424,566
138,741
163,220
55,997
43,825
22,783

682,631
24,743
3,873
4,994
1,693
180
6,163
308
253
385
121
2,433
1,587
6,379
487
4,793
579
6,504
2,034
396
9,801
1,389
286
11,227
..
674
2,250
1,055
579
1,949
3,884
2,598
3,034
909
95,194
715
128
5,474
623
1,312
601
433,173
11,512
1,063
6,038
1,315
3,202
2,689
9,629
452,017
140,005
184,508
57,287
46,368
23,849

0.9
0.4
0.1
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.3
..
0.1
6.6
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
1.3
1.4
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.6
0.4
1.6
0.1
0.0
9.5
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
1.5
1.9
3.1
1.3
9.2
0.9
1.6

0.9
1.2
0.3
2.5
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.4
0.6
7.7
0.2
0.1
1.4
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.6
2.7
0.1
1.3
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.8
0.5
8.4
0.2
0.1
8.6
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.9
2.7
4.2
2.1
9.5
1.4
2.3

2007

1990

0.9
1.4
0.5
2.6
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.6
7.5
0.1
0.1
1.4
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.6
3.1
0.1
1.5
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.8
0.5
7.3
0.2
0.1
9.0
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
2.8
4.1
2.3
9.3
1.5
2.3

129,769
1,208
195
592
160
83
..
24
54
40
21
1,110
324
1,581
109
33
..
823
1,660
52
1,072
288
69
1,588
..
132
269
167
115
727
399
273
2
260
12,374
186
18
868
31
106
5
90,950
1,516
116
647
211
223
667
4,233
63,258
21,515
20,710
10,995
6,420
3,618

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel
(thousands of metric tons)
Solid fuel
consumption
Total
2005
2007
1990
2005

183,320
5,392
700
1,234
320
45
..
81
64
109
30
621
438
2,227
129
1,285
200
1,497
508
88
2,038
371
72
2,987
..
201
593
283
155
452
930
506
725
225
30,123
188
35
1,509
190
344
158
111,325
3,000
278
1,387
365
638
645
2,942
115,875
37,866
44,547
15,283
11,961
6,218

189,853
6,753
1,057
1,363
462
49
..
84
69
105
33
664
433
1,741
133
1,308
158
1,775
555
108
2,675
379
78
3,064
..
184
614
288
158
532
1,060
709
828
248
25,981
195
35
1,494
170
358
164
118,224
3,142
290
1,648
359
874
734
2,628
123,367
38,211
50,357
15,635
12,655
6,509

110,850
0
0
592
0
4
..
0
0
0
0
209
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
2
0
0
110
..
0
9
13
0
4
54
42
0
98
35
0
0
0
0
0
0
72,352
0
116
3
0
0
227
3,666
3,567
825
917
4
1,278
72

143,104
0
0
702
0
2
..
0
0
0
0
273
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
78
..
0
7
43
0
0
264
0
14
103
8
0
0
114
0
0
0
95,970
0
104
54
0
0
98
2,318
6,292
666
924
0
3,844
0

2007

149,751
0
0
796
0
2
..
0
0
0
0
303
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
80
..
0
7
44
0
0
415
7
56
105
8
0
0
218
0
0
0
100,415
0
109
62
0
0
111
2,073
6,878
859
966
0
4,115
0

Note: 0 refers to a negligible value that rounds to 0.

96

Part III. Development outcomes

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

Liquid fuel consumption
1990
2005
2007

42,649
489
154
0
160
79
..
24
54
40
21
838
265
1,513
109
33
..
777
583
52
978
288
69
1,273
..
125
252
141
112
709
345
220
2
159
9,823
177
18
801
31
106
0
16,596
1,493
0
571
157
219
381
471
34,171
6,835
14,323
6,058
4,541
2,414

48,703
1,460
666
532
316
43
..
81
64
109
30
348
358
1,228
129
142
194
1,284
408
87
1,780
322
72
2,620
..
181
566
217
155
411
666
392
711
115
12,143
173
35
1,031
190
321
158
11,526
2,955
173
962
256
552
488
542
58,630
17,270
21,152
10,425
6,385
3,398

49,016
2,296
846
568
458
47
..
84
69
105
33
362
347
1,025
133
163
152
1,544
443
106
2,417
330
78
2,669
..
163
570
219
158
476
645
505
772
136
7,789
181
35
841
170
326
164
13,599
3,115
181
1,102
250
786
535
502
63,212
18,794
23,958
10,301
6,705
3,454

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel
(thousands of metric tons)
Gas fuel consumption
Gas flaring
1990
2005
2007
1990
2005

..
276
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
..
0
138
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,041
0
0
3
0
0
0
940
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17,482
10,619
3,552
2,599
30
682

..
341
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
12
910
0
605
0
0
65
1
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
38
0
0
5,572
0
0
7
0
0
0
2,269
0
0
185
0
0
0
0
39,841
16,706
18,057
3,010
237
1,831

Agriculture, rural development, and environment

..
435
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
11
629
0
876
0
0
82
1
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
82
0
0
5,594
0
0
5
0
0
0
2,353
0
0
278
0
0
0
0
39,810
13,942
20,211
3,304
339
2,014

..
409
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
46
0
0
0
..
0
924
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
2,373
0
1,969
0
1

..
3,412
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
538
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,075
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
1,688
0
1,357
0
79

2007

1990

..
3,832
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
269
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11,707
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
2,454
0
1,527
0
82

2,906
35
41
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
63
12
68
0
0
..
46
16
0
92
0
0
205
..
7
8
13
3
14
0
11
0
3
476
8
0
64
0
0
5
1,062
23
0
73
54
4
59
95
4,167
862
1,918
367
571
449

Cement production
2005
2007

4,815
179
34
0
4
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
69
88
0
0
6
213
35
0
258
49
0
289
..
20
20
23
0
41
0
76
0
7
326
14
0
357
0
23
0
1,559
45
0
186
109
86
59
82
8,848
1,536
4,414
492
1,496
910

6,229
190
211
0
4
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
75
88
0
0
6
231
31
0
258
49
0
315
..
21
37
25
0
56
0
116
0
7
884
14
0
429
0
32
0
1,857
27
0
206
109
88
88
54
10,342
2,162
5,222
503
1,496
959

Part III. Development outcomes

97

Participating in growth

Table

9.1

Labor force participation
Labor force ages 15 and older
Total
(thousands)
2000
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 263,550
Angola
6,237
Benin
2,670
Botswana
799
Burkina Faso
5,217
Burundi
3,138
Cameroon
5,995
Cape Verde
156
Central African Republic
1,703
Chad
3,277
Comoros
251
Congo, Dem. Rep.
18,605
Congo, Rep.
1,256
Côte d’Ivoire
6,728
Djibouti
295
Equatorial Guinea
186
Eritrea
1,383
Ethiopia
28,989
Gabon
537
Gambia, The
581
Ghana
8,554
Guinea
3,954
Guinea-Bissau
541
Kenya
14,321
Lesotho
810
Liberia
1,123
Madagascar
7,273
Malawi
4,953
Mali
2,959
Mauritania
1,031
Mauritius
528
Mozambique
8,914
Namibia
601
Niger
3,551
Nigeria
39,249
Rwanda
3,710
São Tomé and Príncipe
46
Senegal
4,089
Seychelles
..
Sierra Leone
1,664
Somalia
2,944
South Africa
15,280
Sudan
10,494
Swaziland
373
Tanzania
16,767
Togo
2,183
Uganda
10,500
Zambia
4,024
Zimbabwe
5,110
NORTH AFRICA
48,019
Algeria
11,101
Egypt, Arab Rep.
21,655
Libya
1,831
Morocco
10,215
Tunisia
3,217

98

Part III. Development outcomes

341,616
8,278
3,699
996
7,140
4,569
7,727
214
2,074
4,283
325
24,927
1,594
8,369
387
262
2,154
39,952
711
766
10,951
4,850
661
18,712
935
1,611
9,681
6,309
3,770
1,394
567
11,004
783
4,799
49,972
4,963
58
5,405
..
2,141
3,538
18,849
13,462
457
21,382
2,960
14,134
4,812
5,028
60,451
14,840
27,417
2,368
11,982
3,844

Male
Female
(% of total labor force) (% of total labor force)
2000
2009
2000
2009

57.0
53.3
55.1
52.9
52.3
47.0
60.9
60.3
53.7
54.5
54.3
59.7
57.0
64.8
58.5
72.5
58.0
54.8
55.4
53.8
51.6
53.3
57.3
53.4
48.0
52.8
51.3
49.9
64.2
59.2
65.9
46.9
54.9
68.9
65.4
46.9
63.0
57.9
..
47.9
58.3
56.5
72.1
58.5
50.2
58.0
53.0
55.1
53.2
74.4
71.7
75.6
78.7
73.6
75.3

56.4
53.1
53.8
52.6
52.9
47.4
59.9
56.8
53.5
54.8
53.5
59.4
56.4
63.1
55.9
69.2
55.5
52.1
53.3
53.8
50.9
53.1
57.6
53.3
47.6
52.4
50.8
50.2
62.7
58.0
63.9
48.0
53.5
68.4
64.9
47.2
61.9
56.7
..
48.6
59.1
56.3
70.5
56.6
50.6
56.5
53.5
56.6
52.5
74.1
68.4
77.0
77.5
74.2
73.3

43.0
46.7
44.9
47.1
47.7
53.0
39.1
39.7
46.3
45.5
45.7
40.3
43.0
35.2
41.5
27.5
42.0
45.2
44.6
46.2
48.4
46.7
42.7
46.6
52.0
47.2
48.7
50.1
35.8
40.8
34.1
53.1
45.1
31.1
34.6
53.1
37.0
42.1
..
52.1
41.7
43.5
27.9
41.5
49.8
42.0
47.0
44.9
46.8
25.6
28.3
24.4
21.3
26.4
24.7

43.6
46.9
46.2
47.4
47.1
52.6
40.1
43.2
46.5
45.2
46.5
40.6
43.6
36.9
44.1
30.8
44.5
47.9
46.7
46.2
49.1
46.9
42.4
46.7
52.4
47.6
49.2
49.8
37.3
42.0
36.1
52.0
46.5
31.6
35.1
52.8
38.1
43.3
..
51.4
40.9
43.7
29.5
43.4
49.4
43.5
46.5
43.4
47.5
25.9
31.6
23.0
22.5
25.8
26.7

Participation rate, ages 15 and older
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of male
(% of female
population)
population)
population)
2000
2009
2000
2009
2000
2009

69.9
82.5
72.5
74.9
84.0
90.2
66.2
62.6
78.3
72.3
77.0
70.5
71.9
66.5
68.8
62.8
68.4
81.7
73.7
78.2
74.6
84.4
71.4
81.6
73.9
71.3
86.8
77.4
51.6
68.5
60.2
86.7
55.8
62.6
56.0
86.0
57.3
75.8
..
67.8
71.3
52.3
52.0
62.3
88.9
72.9
85.0
70.2
71.0
51.2
55.2
48.9
50.5
53.4
48.1

70.7
81.3
72.7
76.6
84.4
89.3
67.0
66.4
79.0
70.4
79.6
70.8
72.7
66.9
70.1
65.5
72.6
85.4
75.5
77.8
74.6
84.2
71.5
82.2
74.0
71.1
86.4
76.8
51.9
70.0
57.5
85.8
57.1
62.7
56.2
86.0
59.8
76.4
..
66.4
70.3
55.0
52.3
63.6
88.4
74.4
84.5
69.2
66.8
51.7
58.5
48.8
52.8
52.3
48.0

81.1
90.2
81.4
80.8
90.9
90.0
81.4
83.2
86.8
80.2
83.8
86.1
83.0
82.1
81.2
93.1
82.6
90.9
83.0
86.0
76.6
89.8
83.4
88.2
80.1
76.9
89.6
79.1
68.2
81.5
80.4
87.4
63.7
88.1
74.1
86.4
73.8
89.2
..
67.8
84.7
60.9
75.1
78.2
90.8
86.3
91.1
78.6
78.5
76.4
79.0
74.1
75.5
80.7
72.3

80.8
88.4
77.9
80.9
90.8
87.5
80.7
81.3
86.7
78.2
85.4
85.6
82.6
82.1
78.7
92.0
83.4
90.3
81.1
85.2
75.2
89.2
83.8
88.1
77.7
75.8
88.7
78.8
67.0
81.0
74.8
86.9
62.6
87.5
73.4
85.1
76.0
88.6
..
67.5
84.7
63.4
73.9
74.9
90.6
85.7
90.6
79.2
74.3
77.0
79.6
75.3
78.9
80.1
70.6

59.1
75.2
63.9
69.2
77.5
90.5
51.2
45.5
70.4
64.6
70.1
55.5
61.1
49.2
56.6
33.8
55.2
72.8
64.6
70.8
72.6
78.9
59.8
75.2
68.9
66.0
84.0
75.8
35.9
55.6
40.6
86.0
48.5
38.1
38.3
85.6
41.5
62.8
..
67.8
58.4
44.3
28.9
48.4
87.0
60.0
79.0
62.1
64.0
26.1
31.3
23.8
22.7
27.5
23.8

60.9
74.5
67.4
72.3
78.2
91.0
53.5
53.5
71.6
62.7
73.7
56.5
62.9
50.8
61.5
39.7
62.5
80.7
70.0
70.6
73.8
79.2
59.6
76.4
70.8
66.6
84.2
75.0
37.6
59.0
40.8
84.8
51.8
38.9
39.2
86.7
44.5
64.8
..
65.4
56.5
47.0
30.8
53.1
86.3
63.6
78.3
59.5
60.0
26.6
37.2
22.4
24.7
26.2
25.6

Labor, migration, and population

Participation rate, ages 15–64
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of male
(% of female
population)
population)
population)
2000
2009
2000
2009
2000
2009

71.1
83.9
73.4
76.7
85.3
91.0
67.3
65.5
78.7
72.5
77.9
71.9
72.3
67.0
70.3
64.5
69.7
83.7
75.9
78.5
75.5
86.3
73.2
82.9
75.1
73.1
88.1
76.8
52.9
70.0
64.5
86.8
57.2
63.0
56.9
87.4
60.0
76.8
..
68.9
72.8
54.8
52.7
63.8
90.3
73.9
86.4
70.5
71.6
53.7
57.7
51.3
52.1
56.3
51.0

72.1
82.6
73.5
78.8
85.7
89.9
68.3
69.2
79.3
70.6
80.6
72.1
73.1
67.5
71.8
66.9
74.0
87.0
77.5
78.0
75.6
86.3
73.3
83.5
75.2
72.9
87.7
76.1
53.1
71.6
62.6
86.1
58.6
63.3
57.3
87.2
62.5
77.5
..
67.4
71.8
58.6
53.2
65.3
90.0
75.6
85.8
69.7
67.9
54.5
61.1
51.6
55.0
55.3
50.9

82.0
91.1
81.6
81.7
91.5
90.5
82.7
85.1
87.1
79.9
84.1
87.6
84.0
82.4
82.3
95.2
83.6
92.1
84.9
85.9
77.1
90.5
85.1
89.0
81.0
77.9
90.4
78.2
69.9
82.5
84.7
87.2
65.0
88.6
75.4
87.3
76.6
90.4
..
68.5
86.1
63.1
75.3
79.0
91.5
86.9
91.8
78.7
79.0
79.6
82.2
77.1
77.6
84.3
76.0

81.8
89.1
78.2
82.1
91.4
88.1
82.0
82.8
87.1
77.8
85.9
87.0
83.5
82.6
80.0
93.8
84.6
90.9
82.8
85.1
75.8
89.9
85.6
88.8
78.5
76.8
89.4
77.9
68.3
82.0
79.8
86.6
63.9
88.0
74.7
86.0
78.5
89.7
..
67.9
86.1
66.6
74.0
75.8
91.2
86.4
91.2
79.3
75.4
80.5
82.8
79.1
81.6
83.7
73.8

60.5
76.9
65.2
71.8
79.5
91.4
52.2
48.7
70.6
65.2
71.6
56.7
60.9
49.9
58.4
34.8
56.6
75.5
67.2
71.2
73.9
82.1
61.7
77.0
70.4
68.4
85.9
75.4
37.0
57.4
44.2
86.5
49.9
38.6
38.7
87.5
44.0
63.6
..
69.2
59.8
46.9
30.0
50.4
89.1
61.3
81.1
62.5
64.7
27.7
32.7
25.2
23.7
29.5
25.8

Labor, migration, and population

62.5
76.4
68.8
75.5
80.2
91.6
54.5
57.0
71.7
63.5
75.3
57.7
62.8
51.5
63.6
40.7
63.9
83.1
72.1
71.1
75.3
82.6
61.3
78.2
72.4
69.1
86.0
74.4
38.7
60.9
45.4
85.6
53.5
39.4
39.9
88.4
47.1
65.7
..
66.8
57.9
50.8
32.2
55.5
88.8
65.0
80.5
60.0
61.2
28.3
38.8
23.9
26.1
28.3
27.8

Labor force ages 15–24
Male
Female
Total
(% of total
(% of total
(thousands)
labor force)
labor force)
2000
2009
2000
2009
2000
2009

75,323 94,875
2,182
2,851
773
991
231
258
1,872
2,416
1,080
1,480
1,653
2,020
55
63
469
576
929
1,204
..
..
6,353 8,643
351
414
1,806
2,177
80
95
..
..
529
617
9,679 13,294
150
186
157
210
2,132
2,478
1,250
1,518
145
178
5,033 6,069
273
299
333
458
2,167 2,850
1,262
1,615
882
1,072
298
355
101
83
2,662 3,255
115
136
1,071
1,511
7,942
9,312
1,316
1,664
14
14
1,396
1,741
..
..
392
480
..
..
2,629 3,099
2,434
2,794
121
147
5,663
7,077
674
827
3,878 5,259
1,210
1,489
1,579
1,597
11,760 12,769
3,168 3,455
5,291
6,257
453
421
2,848
2,637
..
..

56.4
53.7
52.8
52.7
53.6
48.2
62.3
60.9
54.6
49.8
..
58.7
59.3
60.8
56.8
..
58.1
53.0
53.4
50.8
50.5
53.1
57.3
53.4
53.2
50.9
50.5
46.0
62.0
58.1
64.3
46.2
54.2
65.8
68.9
48.5
68.5
60.4
..
43.4
..
54.5
63.3
55.3
50.0
57.7
53.2
56.1
54.5
69.8
71.6
68.6
74.0
69.5
..

55.7
53.1
49.9
51.8
53.5
47.5
61.7
59.8
54.5
49.0
..
58.6
58.7
60.4
55.1
..
56.2
51.2
53.3
50.7
49.5
52.7
57.7
53.1
52.4
50.4
50.1
46.2
60.7
57.2
57.6
46.9
52.1
66.3
68.0
48.1
68.1
60.1
..
42.7
..
54.9
62.1
55.1
49.8
57.1
53.0
56.0
53.7
72.3
68.6
73.3
74.8
73.8
..

45.2
46.3
47.2
47.3
46.4
51.8
37.7
39.1
45.4
50.2
..
41.3
40.7
39.2
43.2
..
41.9
47.0
46.6
49.2
49.5
46.9
42.7
46.6
46.8
49.1
49.5
54.0
38.0
41.9
35.7
53.8
45.8
34.2
31.1
51.5
31.5
39.6
..
56.6
..
45.5
36.7
44.7
50.0
42.3
46.8
43.9
45.5
30.3
28.4
31.4
26.0
30.5
..

45.8
46.9
50.1
48.2
46.5
52.5
38.3
40.2
45.5
51.0
..
41.4
41.3
39.6
44.9
..
43.8
48.8
46.7
49.3
50.5
47.3
42.3
46.9
47.6
49.6
49.9
53.8
39.3
42.8
42.4
53.1
47.9
33.7
32.0
51.9
31.9
39.9
..
57.3
..
45.1
37.9
44.9
50.2
42.9
47.0
44.0
46.3
28.0
31.4
26.7
25.2
26.2
..

Participation rate, ages 15–24
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of male
(% of female
population)
population)
population)
2000
2009
2000
2009
2000
2009

56.8
78.3
60.3
59.5
78.6
82.2
50.9
58.5
64.1
57.0
..
65.9
55.7
51.6
54.4
68.5
61.2
79.0
62.8
66.6
53.9
77.3
59.4
73.4
64.4
60.1
75.1
53.9
41.3
55.8
49.2
73.7
30.6
53.7
31.4
76.9
41.4
67.9
..
45.4
77.6
28.7
35.1
52.3
82.2
62.1
79.8
57.1
54.6
40.6
45.9
36.1
34.9
46.7
39.9

56.2
75.3
56.7
59.3
77.7
77.4
49.6
54.8
64.2
54.4
..
65.0
54.1
51.8
50.9
..
59.4
78.5
59.9
65.5
51.1
76.2
60.2
72.4
62.0
58.5
73.0
53.5
39.3
53.6
40.8
72.5
28.9
55.1
30.0
75.1
40.6
66.4
..
43.6
..
30.8
32.7
50.0
81.4
60.7
78.7
57.0
50.4
39.8
47.1
36.5
36.3
41.1
..

63.3
84.7
62.9
62.4
83.3
80.0
63.2
72.8
70.6
56.9
..
77.4
65.7
62.3
61.4
89.0
71.0
83.7
67.7
68.0
53.5
80.4
68.1
78.3
70.1
61.4
75.8
49.7
51.1
63.1
62.5
69.6
33.2
76.3
43.0
76.3
56.3
82.0
..
40.6
88.7
31.3
43.8
59.1
82.2
71.9
84.6
64.0
59.7
55.7
64.5
48.8
50.8
65.3
50.3

61.6
80.6
55.5
61.2
82.0
73.8
60.9
65.9
70.7
53.2
..
76.2
63.1
62.5
55.6
..
67.2
80.3
63.2
66.4
49.6
78.9
69.5
76.8
66.0
59.0
73.2
49.3
47.5
59.7
46.4
68.3
30.1
76.1
40.4
73.2
54.6
79.7
..
38.2
..
33.7
40.0
55.0
81.0
69.5
83.1
63.7
54.6
56.7
63.3
52.6
53.2
60.7
..

50.2
72.1
57.6
56.6
73.8
84.3
38.5
44.8
57.7
57.1
..
54.4
45.6
40.8
47.3
48.2
51.4
74.2
58.0
65.1
54.3
74.0
50.6
68.6
58.9
58.8
74.4
58.2
31.4
48.0
35.6
77.5
28.0
34.2
19.6
77.5
26.2
53.9
..
49.9
66.6
26.2
26.1
45.8
82.2
52.4
74.9
50.3
49.5
25.1
26.6
23.0
18.4
28.3
29.0

50.7
70.0
57.9
57.5
73.2
80.9
38.2
43.8
57.9
55.6
..
53.8
45.0
41.1
46.0
..
51.7
76.7
56.5
64.6
52.6
73.4
51.0
68.0
58.2
58.0
72.8
57.7
31.0
47.2
35.0
76.8
27.7
35.7
19.4
76.9
26.2
53.1
..
48.8
..
27.8
25.1
45.0
81.8
51.9
74.2
50.3
46.3
22.5
30.1
19.8
18.7
21.5
..

Part III. Development outcomes

99

Participating in growth

Table

9.2

Labor force composition
Sectora
Industry

Agriculture

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Services

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–09 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–09 b

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–09 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–09 b

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–09 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–09 b

..
..
..
35.1
..
..
53.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.5
..
49.8
..
9.9
..
22.7
..
..
..
30.6
34.1
..
66
..
5.4
..
..
71.2
..
61.8
65.2
..
30.9
20.4
28.3
..
34.8
..

..
..
..
24.3
..
..
68.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82.5
..
29.9
..
7.6
..
8.2
..
..
..
22.8
33
..
71.1
..
3.4
..
..
78
..
75.7
78.6
..
49.7
22.3
43.3
..
60.2
..

..
..
..
19.2
..
..
14.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.1
..
17.8
..
35.5
..
24.3
..
..
..
26.3
20.2
..
10.3
..
31.2
..
..
7.3
..
10.3
8.8
..
24.8
25.6
25.8
..
23.8
..

..
..
..
10.8
..
..
3.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.6
..
14.7
..
25.8
..
9.1
..
..
..
5.9
4.9
..
2.5
..
12.5
..
..
2.8
..
5.3
2
..
9
28.2
6
..
15.1
..

..
..
..
45.5
..
..
25.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.4
..
32.4
..
53.9
..
48.7
..
..
..
42.6
32.5
..
23.4
..
57.3
..
..
21.5
..
27.6
26
..
44.1
53.8
45.6
..
41.2
..

..
..
..
64.8
..
..
22.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
63.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
55.3
..
66.1
..
63.1
..
..
..
70.7
42
..
26.3
..
79.1
..
..
19.2
..
19.2
18.4
..
41.2
49.4
50.6
..
24.5
..

a. Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified data.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

100

Part III. Development outcomes

Labor, migration, and population

Wage and salaried workers
Female
Male
Total
(% of females
(% of males
(% of total
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–09 b
2000–09 b
2000–09 b

..
..
..
73.2
..
..
19.2
38.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
46.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.4
..
13.6
..
79.2
..
81.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.6
..
82.4
..
..
10.5
..
14.5
18.7
37.7
55.9
59.8
61.8
..
44.8
64.3

..
..
..
74.4
..
..
29.3
43.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
15.2
..
77.2
..
82.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.3
..
83.5
..
..
15.3
..
22.2
25.7
51
58.6
61.9
63.7
..
48.8
..

Labor, migration, and population

..
..
..
71.9
..
..
8.7
33
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.8
..
11.4
..
83.2
..
80.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
80.8
..
..
6.1
..
7.5
9
23.1
46.5
49.8
53.7
..
34.1
..

Statusa
Self-employed workers
Female
Male
Total
(% of females
(% of males
(% of total
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–09 b
2000–09 b
2000–09 b

..
..
..
12.2
..
..
59.3
31.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
43.7
..
71.4
..
18
..
22.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17
..
..
78.1
..
59.4
59.7
50.4
26.4
31.7
25.1
..
28.9
26.8

..
..
..
8.1
..
..
57
32.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.6
..
66.4
..
21.2
..
20.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
75
..
67.5
49
38.6
30.3
30.7
27.7
..
34.5
..

..
..
..
16.8
..
..
61.7
30.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.4
..
78.4
..
11.6
..
26.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.3
..
..
80.9
..
52.1
29.2
63.2
12.8
36.6
13.7
..
13.9
..

Contributing family workers
Female
Male
Total
(% of females
(% of males
(% of total
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–09 b
2000–09 b
2000–09 b

..
..
..
2.2
..
..
18.2
10.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52.3
..
15
..
2.2
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.1
..
0.4
..
..
11.4
..
26.1
19.6
11.9
17.6
8.2
13.1
..
26.1
8.7

..
..
..
2.2
..
..
9.5
6.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
..
18.4
..
0.9
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
0.3
..
..
9.7
..
10.3
25.4
10.4
11.2
7.1
8.6
..
16.5
..

..
..
..
2.2
..
..
27.2
14.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
73
..
10.2
..
4.7
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.6
..
0.6
..
..
13
..
40.5
61.8
13.6
40.6
13.6
32.6
..
51.8
..

Part III. Development outcomes

101

Participating in growth

Table

9.3

Unemployment

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Total
(% of total
labor force)
2000–09 b

Unemployment
(ages 15 and older)
Male
(% of male
labor force)
2000–09 b

Total
(% of total labor
force ages 15–24)
2000–09 b

Youth unemployment
(ages 15–24)
Male
(% of male labor
force ages 15–24)
2000–09 b

Female
(% of female
labor force)
2000–09 b

Female
(% of female labor
force ages 15–24)
2000–09 b

..
0.7
17.6
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
59.5
..
..
20.5
..
..
10.4
..
..
..
..
5.6
2.6
7.8
8.8
33.0
7.3
..
37.6
1.5
..
..
16.7
10.0
5.5
3.4
..
23.8
..
..
4.3
..
3.2
12.9
4.2

..
0.9
15.3
..
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.6
..
..
12.1
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
6.8
1.7
5.4
7.2
8.8
4.4
..
32.5
1.7
..
..
11.0
7.9
6.1
4.5
..
22.0
..
..
2.8
..
2.5
14.1
4.2

..
0.4
19.9
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
68.6
..
..
29.9
..
..
10.7
..
..
..
..
4.2
3.5
10.0
10.9
41.2
12.3
..
43.0
0.9
..
..
24.5
13.6
4.9
2.3
..
25.9
..
..
5.8
..
3.9
11.3
4.1

..
0.8
13.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
..
16.6
..
..
..
..
4.7
2.3
..
..
..
21.4
..
41.7
3.2
..
..
..
14.8
20.3
5.2
..
48.2
..
..
8.8
..
..
21.4
24.9

..
1.1
13.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
..
16.4
..
..
..
..
5.7
1.7
..
..
..
18.1
..
36.7
4.0
..
..
..
11.9
..
7.3
..
44.6
..
..
7.4
..
..
23.1
28.2

..
0.6
14.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.4
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
3.7
2.8
..
..
..
26.2
..
47.0
1.7
..
..
..
20.1
..
3.5
..
52.5
..
..
10.1
..
..
19.5
21.4

11.3
9.4
..
10.0
14.2

11.0
5.2
..
9.8
13.1

10.1
22.9
..
10.5
17.3

24.3
24.8
..
21.9
30.7

42.8
17.2
..
22.8
31.4

46.3
47.9
..
19.4
29.3

a. Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified data.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

102

Part III. Development outcomes

Labor, migration, and population

Unemployment by education levela
Secondary
Female
Male
Total
(% of female
(% of male
(% of total
unemployment) unemployment) unemployment)
2000–09 b
2000–09 b
2000–09 b

Total
(% of total
unemployment)
2000–09 b

Primary
Male
(% of male
unemployment)
2000–09 b

Female
(% of female
unemployment)
2000–09 b

..
..
65.5
47.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
43.9
..
..
..
44.2
..
..
..
..
60.7
..
40.2
..
..
..
36.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
64.4
44.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.9
..
..
..
49.5
..
..
..
..
62.8
..
42.2
..
..
..
39.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
66.3
58.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44.4
..
..
..
39.7
..
..
..
..
59.4
..
37.9
..
..
..
32.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
27.3
19.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.8
..
..
..
48.5
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
6.9
..
..
..
56.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
23.9
16.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.8
..
..
..
41.4
..
..
..
..
23.0
..
7.5
..
..
..
52.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

59.3
..
..
51.1
41.4

65.2
..
..
57.7
46.0

32.5
..
..
36.6
31.9

23.0
..
..
22.4
37.7

21.4
..
..
21.7
37.3

Labor, migration, and population

Total
(% of total
unemployment)
2000–09 b

Tertiary
Male
(% of male
unemployment)
2000–09 b

..
..
30.2
33.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.7
..
..
..
53.2
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
6.2
..
..
..
59.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
6.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.3
..
..
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
5.9
..
2.5
..
..
..
4.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.0
..
..
..
8.1
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
2.8
..
..
..
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
8.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.6
..
..
..
3.5
..
..
..
..
9.4
..
2.1
..
..
..
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

30.4
..
..
23.9
38.5

11.4
..
..
21.6
13.6

6.6
..
..
16.2
9.0

33.0
..
..
33.5
23.3

Female
(% of female
unemployment)
2000–09 b

Part III. Development outcomes

103

Participating in growth

Table

9.4

Migration and population

Migrant stock
Share of
population (%)
Total
2005
2005

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

104

2.1
0.3
2.4
4.4
5.6
1.1
1.2
2.3
1.8
3.6
2.3
0.8
3.8
12.3
13.7
1
0.3
0.7
17.9
15.2
7.6
4.4
1.3
2.2
0.3
2.9
0.2
2
1.4
2.2
3.3
1.9
6.6
1.4
0.7
4.8
3.5
2
10.2
3
0.3
2.6
1.7
3.4
2
3.1
2.3
2.4
3.1
0.8
0.7
0.3
10.4
0.2
0.3

Part III. Development outcomes

International migration
Worker remittances, Migrant remittance
inflows
received
Net
Share of
Total
Share of
Total
migration ($ millions) GDP (%) ($ millions) GDP (%)
2005
2009
2009
2009
2009

16,338,433 –1,599,939
..
56,055
175,000
0.2
187,584
98,831
..
80,148
20,000
61.6
772,814
100,000
..
81,566
191,600
28.2
211,880
–12,121
129.2
11,183
–12,500
145.8
75,623
–45,000
..
358,446
218,966
..
13,661
–10,000
..
480,105 –236,676
..
128,838
3,527
..
2,371,277 –338,732
..
110,333
0
6.0
5,800
15,000
..
14,612
229,376
..
554,021 –340,460
261.6
244,550
9,566
..
231,739
31,127
72.2
1,669,267
11,690
114.5
401,217 –425,000
50.5
19,219
1,181
..
790,071
25,144
631.5
6,247
–36,000
28.5
96,793
62,452
7.0
39,699
–5,000
..
278,806
–30,000
..
165,448
–134,204
..
66,053
30,000
..
40,824
0
..
406,075
–20,000
31.5
131,630
–1,000
5.3
182,960
–28,497
..
972,126
–170,000 18230.2
435,749
5,931
88.1
5,387
–7,000
2.0
220,208 –100,000
..
8,441
..
11.6
152,101
336,000
32.7
21,271 –200,000
..
1,248,732
700,001
..
639,686
–531,781
..
38,574
–46,077
2.0
797,701 –345,000
11.9
182,823
–3,570
..
652,408
–5,000
749.7
287,337
–81,713
41.3
391,345 –700,000
..
1,192,628 –1,048,004 15145.3
242,446
–140,000
..
246,745
–291,405 7149.6
617,536
14,000
0.0
51,020 –550,000 6269.1
34,881
–80,599 1726.6

..
0.0
..
0.5
..
2.1
0.6
9.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
..
0.9
..
9.8
0.4
1.2
..
2.1
1.8
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
0.1
..
10.5
1.7
1.0
..
1.5
1.7
..
..
..
0.1
0.1
..
4.7
0.3
..
4.0
..
3.8
0.0
6.9
4.4

20,791.3
..
251.3
87.9
99.3
28.2
147.6
146.2
..
..
..
..
14.8
185.5
32.5
..
..
261.6
..
79.8
114.5
63.7
49.5
1,686.2
414.1
25.1
..
..
431.0
..
211.2
111.1
13.6
93.7
9,584.8
92.6
2.0
1,364.7
12.5
46.7
..
902.3
2,992.7
93.5
23.3
337.1
749.7
41.3
..
17,458.3
2,058.7
7,149.6
16.0
6,269.5
1,964.5

2.2
..
3.8
0.7
1.2
2.1
0.7
9.4
..
..
..
..
0.2
0.8
3.1
..
..
0.9
..
10.9
0.4
1.6
5.9
5.7
26.2
2.9
..
..
4.8
..
2.5
1.1
0.1
1.7
5.5
1.8
1.0
10.6
1.6
2.4
..
0.3
5.5
3.1
0.1
11.8
4.7
0.3
..
3.3
1.5
3.8
0.0
6.9
5.0

Population
Population dynamics
Annual Fertility rate
Female growth rate (births per
Male
Total
woman)
(%)
(millions) (% of total) (% of total)
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

841.0
18.5
8.9
1.9
15.8
8.3
19.5
0.5
4.4
11.2
0.7
66.0
3.7
21.1
0.9
0.7
5.1
82.8
1.5
1.7
23.8
10.1
1.6
39.8
2.1
4.0
19.6
15.3
13.0
3.3
1.3
22.9
2.2
15.3
154.7
10.0
0.2
12.5
0.1
5.7
9.1
49.3
42.3
1.2
43.7
6.6
32.7
12.9
12.5
166.7
34.9
83.0
6.4
32.0
10.4

49.8
49.3
50.5
50.0
49.9
49.0
50.0
47.8
49.1
49.7
50.2
49.6
49.9
50.9
50.0
49.6
49.2
49.7
50.0
49.6
50.7
50.5
49.5
50.0
47.2
49.7
49.8
49.7
49.4
50.7
49.6
48.6
49.3
50.1
50.1
48.4
49.5
49.6
..
48.7
49.6
49.3
50.4
48.9
49.9
49.5
50.1
49.9
48.3
50.2
50.5
50.3
51.7
49.1
50.3

50.2
50.7
49.5
50.0
50.1
51.0
50.0
52.2
50.9
50.3
49.8
50.4
50.1
49.1
50.0
50.4
50.8
50.3
50.0
50.4
49.3
49.5
50.5
50.0
52.8
50.3
50.2
50.3
50.6
49.3
50.4
51.4
50.7
49.9
49.9
51.6
50.5
50.4
..
51.3
50.4
50.7
49.6
51.1
50.1
50.5
49.9
50.1
51.7
49.8
49.5
49.7
48.3
50.9
49.7

2.5
2.6
3.1
1.5
3.4
2.8
2.2
1.4
1.9
2.6
2.4
2.7
1.9
2.3
1.7
2.6
2.9
2.6
1.8
2.7
2.1
2.4
2.2
2.6
0.8
4.2
2.7
2.8
2.4
2.3
0.5
2.3
1.9
3.9
2.3
2.8
1.6
2.6
1.2
2.4
2.3
1.1
2.2
1.5
2.9
2.4
3.3
2.5
0.5
1.6
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.0

5.0
5.6
5.4
2.8
5.8
4.5
4.5
2.7
4.7
6.1
3.9
5.9
4.3
4.5
3.8
5.3
4.5
5.2
3.2
5.0
3.9
5.3
5.7
4.9
3.3
5.8
4.6
5.5
6.5
4.4
1.5
5.0
3.3
7.1
5.6
5.3
3.7
4.7
2.3
5.2
6.4
2.5
4.1
3.5
5.5
4.2
6.3
5.7
3.4
2.6
2.3
2.8
2.6
2.3
2.1

Labor, migration, and population

Population
Age composition (% of total)
Ages 0–14

Ages 15–64

Ages 65 and older

Total
2009

Male
2009

Female
2009

Total
2009

Male
2009

Female
2009

Total
2009

Male
2009

Female
2009

42.6
45.0
43.1
33.3
46.3
38.4
40.9
36.2
40.6
45.7
38.1
46.7
40.5
40.6
36.1
41.0
41.5
43.5
36.1
42.3
38.4
42.8
42.6
42.8
38.8
42.7
42.9
46.2
44.2
39.5
22.6
44.0
36.9
49.9
42.5
42.3
40.7
43.6
..
43.4
44.9
30.5
39.1
39.3
44.7
39.9
48.9
46.2
39.9
29.9
27.3
32.3
30.1
28.4
23.2

43.1
45.4
43.4
33.6
47.2
39.2
41.2
38.0
41.2
46.2
38.6
47.2
40.8
40.1
36.4
41.5
42.6
44.0
36.5
42.9
38.8
43.2
43.2
43.1
41.4
43.3
43.2
46.9
45.2
40.1
23.2
45.4
37.6
50.9
43.0
43.3
41.5
44.3
..
44.4
45.4
31.1
39.6
40.4
45.2
40.3
49.1
46.6
41.4
30.4
27.7
32.9
29.8
29.4
23.8

42.0
44.5
42.7
33.0
45.4
37.6
40.6
34.5
40.1
45.3
37.7
46.2
40.1
41.3
35.7
40.5
40.5
43.1
35.8
41.7
38.0
42.4
42.1
42.5
36.6
42.1
42.6
45.5
43.2
38.9
22.1
42.7
36.2
48.9
42.0
41.3
39.8
42.8
..
42.5
44.4
29.9
38.7
38.3
44.2
39.5
48.6
45.9
38.5
29.3
27.0
31.8
30.5
27.4
22.6

54.3
52.6
53.7
62.9
51.7
58.8
55.5
59.6
55.5
51.4
58.8
50.7
55.7
55.5
60.7
56.1
56.0
53.3
59.5
54.9
58.0
54.0
53.9
54.6
56.4
54.2
54.0
50.7
53.5
57.9
70.1
52.8
59.5
48.1
54.3
55.2
55.4
54.0
..
54.8
52.4
65.0
57.3
57.3
52.2
56.6
48.6
50.7
56.0
65.3
68.1
63.1
65.6
66.3
70.0

54.1
52.4
54.0
63.3
51.2
58.6
55.5
59.0
55.3
51.3
58.7
50.5
55.7
56.0
60.7
55.9
55.5
53.1
59.5
54.5
57.8
54.0
53.7
54.5
54.4
53.9
53.9
50.2
52.7
57.8
70.9
51.8
59.3
47.3
54.1
54.7
55.0
53.4
..
53.8
52.1
65.3
57.1
56.7
52.0
56.5
48.6
50.6
54.9
65.2
68.2
63.0
66.1
65.7
69.9

54.5
52.8
53.4
62.5
52.2
59.1
55.5
60.2
55.6
51.6
58.9
50.8
55.8
55.0
60.7
56.4
56.5
53.5
59.6
55.3
58.1
53.9
54.1
54.6
58.2
54.5
54.2
51.2
54.4
57.9
69.3
53.7
59.7
48.9
54.6
55.8
55.7
54.7
..
55.7
52.7
64.7
57.4
57.9
52.4
56.6
48.6
50.8
57.0
65.4
67.9
63.3
65.1
66.8
70.2

3.1
2.5
3.2
3.8
2.0
2.8
3.6
4.2
3.9
2.8
3.1
2.6
3.8
3.9
3.2
2.9
2.5
3.2
4.3
2.8
3.6
3.3
3.5
2.6
4.7
3.1
3.0
3.1
2.3
2.7
7.3
3.3
3.6
2.0
3.1
2.5
4.0
2.4
..
1.8
2.7
4.5
3.6
3.3
3.1
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.1
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.2
5.4
6.7

2.8
2.2
2.6
3.1
1.6
2.2
3.2
3.0
3.5
2.6
2.7
2.3
3.5
4.0
2.9
2.6
1.9
2.9
4.0
2.6
3.4
2.8
3.2
2.4
4.2
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.2
2.1
5.9
2.9
3.1
1.8
2.9
2.1
3.5
2.3
..
1.8
2.5
3.5
3.3
2.9
2.8
3.1
2.3
2.8
3.7
4.4
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.9
6.2

3.4
2.7
3.9
4.5
2.4
3.3
3.9
5.3
4.3
3.1
3.4
3.0
4.2
3.7
3.6
3.2
3.0
3.4
4.7
3.0
3.8
3.7
3.8
2.8
5.2
3.4
3.2
3.3
2.4
3.2
8.6
3.7
4.1
2.2
3.4
2.9
4.4
2.5
..
1.8
3.0
5.4
3.9
3.8
3.4
3.9
2.8
3.3
4.5
5.3
5.1
5.0
4.4
5.8
7.2

Labor, migration, and population

Geographic distribution (%)
Dependency
ratio
Share
of
total
population
Annual growth
(% of
Urban
Rural
Urban
Rural
working-age
population) population population population population
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

84.8
90.2
86.2
58.9
93.5
70.0
80.1
67.8
80.2
94.4
70.1
97.3
79.5
80.2
64.8
78.2
78.5
87.6
68.0
82.2
72.5
85.3
85.5
83.3
77.3
84.6
85.0
97.2
86.8
72.9
42.7
89.6
68.0
108.0
84.0
81.0
80.6
85.0
..
82.6
90.9
53.8
74.6
74.5
91.6
76.7
105.8
97.1
78.5
53.4
46.9
58.4
52.4
50.9
42.8

63.0
42.4
58.4
39.7
80.0
89.3
42.4
39.6
61.3
72.9
71.9
65.4
38.3
50.6
12.3
60.5
78.8
82.7
14.5
42.7
49.2
65.1
70.1
78.1
73.8
39.2
70.1
80.7
67.3
58.8
57.5
62.4
62.6
83.4
50.9
81.4
38.6
57.4
45.2
61.9
63.0
38.8
55.7
74.8
74.0
57.3
86.9
64.4
62.2
46.9
34.1
57.2
22.3
43.6
33.1

37.0
57.6
41.6
60.3
20.0
10.7
57.6
60.4
38.7
27.1
28.1
34.6
61.7
49.4
87.7
39.5
21.2
17.3
85.5
57.3
50.8
34.9
29.9
21.9
26.2
60.8
29.9
19.3
32.7
41.2
42.5
37.6
37.4
16.6
49.1
18.6
61.4
42.6
54.8
38.1
37.0
61.2
44.3
25.2
26.0
42.7
13.1
35.6
37.8
53.1
65.9
42.8
77.7
56.4
66.9

1.7
0.5
2.4
–0.4
2.9
2.5
0.3
–0.5
1.6
2.0
2.3
1.8
0.9
1.0
–1.5
2.3
2.4
2.2
–1.5
0.7
0.6
1.6
2.1
2.3
–0.1
2.5
2.2
2.2
1.5
2.0
0.4
1.0
1.0
3.8
0.9
2.5
–0.5
2.2
0.1
1.9
1.6
–0.2
0.6
1.1
2.3
1.2
3.1
2.2
–0.3
1.1
–0.3
1.7
1.2
0.4
–0.2

3.8
4.2
4.1
2.7
5.5
5.6
3.7
2.6
2.3
4.4
2.6
4.5
2.5
3.7
2.2
3.0
5.0
4.3
2.4
4.2
3.5
3.8
2.5
4.0
3.6
5.3
3.8
5.4
4.1
2.8
0.6
4.4
3.5
4.4
3.8
4.3
2.9
3.2
2.0
3.3
3.5
1.9
4.2
2.6
4.6
4.1
4.5
2.9
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.9
2.2
1.8
1.6

Part III. Development outcomes

105

Participating in growth

Table

10.1

HIV/AIDS
Estimated HIV prevalence rate (%)

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

106

Estimated number of people
living with HIV/AIDS
(thousands)
1990
2000
2009

Point estimate
1990
2000
2009

Adults (ages 15–49)
Low estimate
1990
2000
2009

1990

28
6
23
160
93
33
..
44
31
<1.0
..
63
140
3
<0.5
5
..
4
<1.0
22
34
1
400
6
3
12
310
15
2
<0.5
76
11
4
590
160
..
6
..
<0.5
2
140
12
9
600
11
870
500
510

140
49
260
150
170
460
..
190
130
<0.1
..
68
640
12
4
25
..
34
4
250
78
13
1,500
240
52
17
850
91
8
3
750
150
51
2,600
170
..
30
..
21
9
4,200
61
120
1,400
99
980
810
1,700

200
60
320
110
180
610
..
130
210
<0.5
..
77
450
14
20
25
..
46
18
260
79
22
1,500
290
37
24
920
76
14
9
1,400
180
61
3,300
170
..
59
..
49
34
5,600
..
180
1,400
120
1,200
980
1,200

0.5
0.2
3.5
3.9
3.9
0.6
..
3.1
1.1
<0.1
..
5.2
2.4
0.9
0.1
0.3
..
0.9
0.1
0.3
1.1
0.3
3.9
0.8
0.3
0.2
7.2
0.4
0.2
<0.1
1.2
1.6
0.1
1.3
5.2
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.1
0.7
0.1
2.3
4.8
0.6
10.2
12.7
10.1

1.9
1.4
26.0
2.3
5.2
5.5

2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
2.5
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3

0.2
<0.1
2.9
2.6
3.7
0.3
..
2.0
0.5
<0.1
1.2
3.6
1.3
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
..
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.1
3.0
0.6
0.1
0.2
3.3
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.9
0.9
0.1
0.2
4.3
..
0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1
0.6
<0.1
1.8
4.3
0.1
8.6
3.4
8.7

1.4
1.2
25.1
1.9
5.1
5.0
..
8.4
2.0
<0.1
1.1
3.5
6.2
2.0
1.0
0.9
..
4.1
0.3
2.0
1.1
1.5
8.6
23.0
2.2
0.2
13.0
1.3
0.5
0.2
7.8
12.9
1.0
3.3
3.5
..
0.5
..
0.4
<0.1
15.7
0.1
21.0
6.9
2.8
6.7
13.8
23.8

1.6
1.0
23.8
1.0
2.9
4.9
..
4.2
2.8
0.1
1.2
3.1
3.1
..
3.5
0.6
..
4.2
1.3
1.6
1.1
2.0
5.8
22.3
1.3
0.2
10.0
0.8
0.6
0.7
10.6
11.1
0.8
3.3
2.5
..
0.7
..
1.4
0.5
17.2
0.9
24.9
5.3
2.5
5.9
12.8
13.4

1.4
3.7
4.2
4.8
4.0
2.4
..
6.2
2.0
<0.1
1.6
6.4
7.2
3.5
0.2
0.9
..
1.5
1.7
1.5
7.6
0.4
6.6
1.2
0.6
0.2
10.8
2.0
0.2
0.2
1.5
2.3
0.1
2.1
8.4
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.3
0.9
0.4
2.7
5.3
1.2
11.5
26.4
11.7

2.4
1.7
27.1
2.7
5.4
6.0
..
11.4
4.0
<0.1
1.5
4.5
7.6
4.1
2.5
1.6
..
6.6
1.1
2.6
2.7
2.2
9.6
26.1
4.5
0.2
15.5
2.0
0.7
0.4
9.4
18.1
1.0
4.3
4.6
..
0.7
..
1.6
0.3
16.6
0.5
23.6
8.0
4.3
7.7
15.2
26.1

2.4
1.3
25.8
1.5
3.5
5.8
..
5.2
5.1
0.1
1.6
3.8
3.9
3.2
6.6
1.0
..
6.2
2.9
2.0
1.6
3.0
6.5
25.2
1.8
0.3
12.1
1.3
0.9
1.3
12.2
15.5
0.9
4.0
3.3
..
1.0
..
2.1
1.0
18.3
1.4
27.0
6.1
3.8
6.9
14.1
15.4

..
<0.5
..
3
<0.2

6
3
..
13
<1.0

18
11
..
3
2

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1

0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

0.1
<0.1
..
0.2
0.1

Part III. Development outcomes

9.4
3.0
<0.1
...
3.9
6.9
2.9
1.5
1.2
...
5.2
0.5
2.3
1.7
1.8
9.0
24.5
3.3
0.2
14.2
1.7
0.6
0.3
8.6
15.3
1.0
3.9
3.8
0.6
0.9
0.2
16.1
0.3
22.3
7.3
3.6
7.3
14.4
24.8

0.1
<0.1

High estimate
2000
2009

HIV/AIDS

Estimated HIV prevalence rate (%)

Point estimate
2009

Young men
(ages 15–24)
Low estimate
2009

High estimate
2009

Point estimate
2009

Young women
(ages 15–24)
Low estimate
2009

High estimate
2009

0.6
0.3
5.2
0.5
1.0
1.6
..
1.0
1.0
0.1
..
1.2
0.7
0.8
1.9
0.2
..
1.4
0.9
0.5
0.4
0.8
1.8
5.4
0.3
0.1
3.1
0.2
0.4
0.3
3.1
2.3
0.2
1.2
1.3
..
0.3
..
0.6
0.4
4.5
0.5
6.5
1.7
0.9
2.3
4.2
3.3

0.4
0.2
3.7
0.3
0.8
1.2
..
0.6
0.7
0.1
0.4
0.9
0.5
..
1.0
0.1
..
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
1.3
4.1
0.1
0.1
2.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
2.4
1.3
0.2
0.9
0.9
..
0.2
..
0.3
..
4.1
..
4.8
1.3
0.6
1.8
3.2
2.5

0.9
0.4
7.3
0.6
1.2
2.1
..
1.4
2.0
0.1
0.6
1.6
1.1
..
3.2
0.3
..
2.0
1.6
0.7
0.6
1.1
2.4
7.4
0.5
0.4
4.2
0.4
1.4
0.4
4.4
3.6
0.3
1.6
1.6
..
0.4
..
1.0
..
5.0
..
8.8
2.3
1.2
2.8
5.5
4.4

1.6
0.7
11.8
0.8
2.1
3.9
..
2.2
2.5
<0.1
..
2.6
1.5
1.9
5.0
0.4
..
3.5
2.4
1.3
0.9
2.0
4.1
14.2
0.7
0.1
6.8
0.5
0.3
0.2
8.6
5.8
0.5
2.9
1.9
..
0.7
..
1.5
0.6
13.6
1.3
15.6
3.9
2.2
4.8
8.9
6.9

1.1
0.5
9.0
0.6
1.6
3.1
..
1.4
1.7
<0.1
0.9
2.1
1.1
..
2.7
0.2
..
2.1
1.4
0.9
0.6
1.5
3.0
11.2
0.2
<0.1
5.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
7.0
3.7
0.4
2.3
1.3
..
0.5
..
0.9
..
12.3
..
12.6
3.1
1.5
4.0
7.3
5.3

2.2
1.1
15.9
1.2
2.7
5.4
..
3.1
5.2
<0.1
1.5
3.6
2.3
..
7.9
0.7
..
5.2
4.0
1.8
1.3
2.9
5.4
19.2
1.2
0.1
9.2
0.9
0.5
0.3
12.1
8.6
0.6
3.9
2.3
..
1.0
..
2.5
..
15.0
..
21.3
5.3
3.1
6.4
12.0
9.3

0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.2
<0.1
..
0.3
0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1
(continued)

HIV/AIDS

Part III. Development outcomes

107

Participating in growth

Table

10.1

HIV/AIDS (continued)

Deaths of adults and children due to HIV/AIDS
(thousands)
Point estimate
Low estimate
High estimate
1990 2000 2009
1990 2000 2009
1990 2000 2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

108

<1.0
<0.2
<1.0
6.7
3.9
<1.0
..
1.0
1.4
<0.1
..
3.0
3.9
<0.1
<0.1
<0.2
..
<0.2
<0.1
<1.0
1.1
<0.1
10.0
..
<0.1
<1.0
11.0
<0.5
<0.1
<0.1
2.2
<0.5
<0.2
10.0
8.4
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
<0.2
2.9
<1.0
<0.5
21.0
<0.5
37.0
23.0
14.0
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.2
<0.1

9.2
11.0
3.0
2.7
13.0
5.8
15.0
7.1
14.0 15.0
27.0
37.0
..
..
14.0
11.0
7.9
11.0
<0.1 <0.1
..
..
5.7
5.1
48.0 36.0
<1.0
1.0
<0.2 <1.0
1.6
1.7
..
..
1.8
2.4
<0.2 <1.0
15.0 18.0
6.1
4.7
<1.0
1.2
120.0 80.0
12.0 14.0
3.5
3.6
1.3
1.7
64.0 51.0
6.9
4.4
<0.5 <1.0
<0.1 <0.5
36.0 74.0
6.7
6.7
2.9
4.3
200.0 220.0
15.0
4.1

..
1.6
2.6

..
<1.0
2.8
<0.5
..
170.0 310.0
3.0
..
5.7
7.0
110.0 86.0
5.6
7.7
89.0 64.0
66.0 45.0
130.0 83.0
<0.2
<0.2
..
<1.0
<0.1

Part III. Development outcomes

<1.0
<0.5
..
1.2
<0.1

<0.5
5.6
7.7
<0.1
1.7
1.8
<0.5
11.0
2.3
4.1
11.0
4.8
3.1
11.0 12.0
<0.5 22.0 29.0
..
..
..
<1.0
11.0
8.8
<1.0
4.7
8.1
<0.1 <0.1 <0.1
12.0 23.0 26.0
<1.0
4.8
4.1
2.1 34.0 29.0
<0.1 <0.5 <1.0
<0.1 <0.2 <1.0
<0.1 <1.0
1.0
..
..
..
<0.1
1.4
1.6
<0.1 <0.1 <0.5
<0.5
11.0 14.0
<0.5
2.5
3.1
<0.1 <0.5 <1.0
6.7 98.0 61.0
<0.1 10.0 10.0
<0.1
2.0
2.8
<1.0
1.0
1.4
4.1 53.0 38.0
<0.1
3.8
3.0
<0.1 <0.5 <1.0
<0.1 <0.1 <0.5
1.5 28.0
57.0
<0.2
5.1
2.5
<0.1
2.3
3.3
<0.5 110.0 170.0
5.6 12.0 <1.0
..
..
<0.2
1.3
1.9
..
..
<0.1 <0.5
2.1
<0.1 <0.1
..
2.0 140.0 260.0
<0.1 <0.5
..
<0.2
4.7
4.6
16.0 90.0 69.0
<0.1
3.8
5.3
22.0 76.0 49.0
<1.0 55.0 30.0
9.7 110.0 70.0

3.2
18.0
<1.0
11.0
4.7
9.3
..
5.8
2.9
<0.1
26.0
6.2
12.0
<1.0
<0.1
<1.0
..
<0.5
<1.0
6.9
15.0
<0.1
22.0
<0.2
<0.2
1.4
22.0
4.3
<0.2
<0.2
3.3
<1.0
<0.2
21.0
13.0
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
<1.0
4.3
3.5
<0.5
27.0
2.0
83.0
46.0
19.0

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<1.0
..
0.5
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.5
<0.1

<1.0
<0.5
..
<1.0
<0.1

AIDS orphans
(ages 0–17, thousands)
Low estimate
High estimate
1990 2000 2009 1990 2000
2009

Point estimate
1990 2000 2009

13.0 16.0
2.1
54.0 140.0
5.4
3.7 <0.5
11.0
30.0
16.0 14.0
1.0
45.0
93.0
19.0
9.7 13.0 130.0 140.0
16.0
17.0 10.0 120.0 200.0
33.0 46.0
1.3 100.0 330.0
..
..
..
..
..
20.0 13.0
2.0
69.0 140.0
12.0 15.0
5.1
43.0 120.0
<0.1 <0.1
..
..
<0.1
34.0 40.0
..
..
..
7.1
6.4
6.9
48.0
51.0
65.0 44.0
7.3 230.0 440.0
1.3
1.4
..
..
..
<0.5
1.4 <0.1
<0.5
4.1
2.5
2.5 <0.5
7.0
19.0
..
..
..
..
..
2.5
3.4 <0.2
6.0
18.0
<1.0
1.2 <0.1
<1.0
2.8
20.0 22.0
1.3
47.0 160.0
14.0
6.9
2.5
36.0
59.0
<1.0
1.6 <0.2
2.2
9.7
140.0 99.0
17.0 710.0 1,200.0
15.0 18.0 <0.1
38.0 130.0
5.7
4.6 <0.1
15.0
52.0
1.5
2.0
6.6
9.4
11.0
77.0 67.0 25.0 380.0 650.0
11.0
6.1 <0.5
29.0
59.0
<1.0
1.0 <0.5
1.3
3.6
<0.2 <1.0 <0.1
<0.2
1.0
45.0 92.0
6.6 180.0 670.0
8.8
11.0 <1.0
23.0
70.0
3.5
5.6 <0.5
13.0
57.0
250.0 260.0 12.0 1,100.0 2,500.0
21.0
97.0 32.0 160.0 130.0
..
..
..
..
2.0
3.5 <1.0
7.3
19.0
..
..
..
..
1.9
3.7 <0.1
1.5
15.0
<1.0
..
..
..
..
210.0 390.0
4.4 430.0 1,900.0
6.5
..
..
..
..
7.1 10.0 <1.0
23.0
69.0
130.0 110.0 53.0 750.0 1,300.0
7.4 10.0 <0.5
19.0
66.0
100.0 80.0 280.0 1,000.0 1,200.0
76.0 60.0
74.0 540.0 690.0
150.0
97.0 29.0 670.0 1,000.0
<0.5
<0.5
<1.0
<0.1

1.1
<1.0
..
1.6
<0.2

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

<1.0
<0.1
<1.0
5.2
7.7
<1.0
..
1.2
2.1
..
46.0
<0.2
4.0
..
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1
<1.0
1.1
<0.1
10.0
<0.1
<0.1
4.0
7.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
2.1
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
19.0
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
..
2.3
..
<0.5
37.0
<0.1
180.0
<0.1
18.0
..
..
..
..
..

23.0
95.0
3.7
18.0
36.0
71.0
96.0 100.0
98.0 170.0
67.0 270.0
..
..
43.0 110.0
22.0
79.0
..
<0.1
270.0 350.0
31.0
41.0
140.0 330.0
..
..
<0.2
2.5
3.2
12.0
..
..
4.1
12.0
<0.5
1.4
33.0 120.0
9.9
34.0
1.3
7.7
550.0 980.0
29.0 110.0
7.3
34.0
7.3
9.3
280.0 540.0
11.0
36.0
<1.0
2.7
<0.1
<0.5
84.0
..
17.0
50.0
11.0
44.0
300.0 1,800.0
130.0
98.0
..
..
5.4
15.0
..
..
<1.0
9.2
..
..
340.0 1,600.0
..
..
18.0
55.0
610.0 1,100.0
8.5
47.0
800.0 1,000.0
340.0 570.0
550.0 910.0
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

9.9
95.0 200.0
470.0 110.0
53.0
1.7
59.0 120.0
71.0 180.0 170.0
14.0 150.0 230.0
36.0 210.0 420.0
..
..
..
49.0 100.0 180.0
11.0
79.0 170.0
..
..
<0.1
210.0 430.0 510.0
31.0
72.0
66.0
16.0 410.0 550.0
..
..
..
<0.1
<1.0
6.4
2.6
16.0
28.0
..
..
..
<0.5
9.2
25.0
6.6
6.5
6.5
58.0 110.0 210.0
110.0
97.0 120.0
<0.5
3.1
12.0
40.0 960.0 1,400.0
<0.2
51.0 160.0
<0.5
25.0
76.0
12.0
12.0
14.0
68.0 500.0 780.0
15.0
82.0
93.0
<0.5
1.9
4.8
<0.5
<0.5
<1.0
5.6 150.0
..
1.4
33.0
96.0
<0.5
16.0
73.0
94.0 1,700.0 3,100.0
92.0 240.0 180.0
..
..
..
1.4
9.4
25.0
..
..
..
<0.1
5.1
26.0
..
..
..
7.4 550.0 2,400.0
..
..
..
<1.0
29.0
86.0
75.0 940.0 1,500.0
23.0
39.0
89.0
770.0 1,400.0 1,400.0
210.0 740.0 810.0
53.0 840.0 1,200.0
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

HIV/AIDS

HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretrovirals to
reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission
Share of total
(WHO/UNAIDS methodology, %)
Point estimate
Low estimate
High estimate
Total
2009
2009
2009
2009

3,053
1,703
12,406
2,084
1,837
9,092
61
2,157
989
1
2,232
441
11,064
63
365
464
6,721
577
885
3,643
783
383
58,591
8,846
377
17
33,156
1,710
68
41
68,248
6,744
1,737
44,723
7,030
11
917
12
637
..
188,200
245
8,182
58,833
1,451
46,948
47,175
28,208

19
46
>95
32
12
27
..
34
6
..
..
12
54
10
26
34
..
30
..
27
17
24
73
64
16
..
58
..
..
..
70
88
..
22
65
..
..
..
19
..
88
2
88
70
26
53
69
56

12
29
74
19
9
18
..
23
3
10
4
8
36
6
16
21
13
20
43
18
11
16
50
48
10
1
40
26
12
33
51
61
25
15
43
..
16
..
12
0
66
1
68
48
15
37
50
41

36
92
>95
60
22
50
..
67
12
33
11
23
95
21
50
71
40
60
95
53
34
49
95
95
33
5
95
82
37
95
95
95
74
42
95
..
45
..
36
0
95
3
95
95
67
95
95
95

65
11
..
90
3

..
..
..
..
..

14
3
..
13
6

59
10
..
49
25

HIV/AIDS

ODA gross disbursements
($ millions)
For social mitigation of HIV/AIDS
For STD control, including HIV/AIDS
2007
2009
2007
2009

76.7
1.8
0.0
2.3
1.0
0.7
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
1.2
..
0.2
..
..
0.0
1.4
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
4.7
2.7
..
0.0
3.8
0.0
0.0
..
6.2
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.6
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
9.9
0.2
0.2
6.1
0.0
5.4
1.6
2.4
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0

91.9
0.5
0.0
1.5
0.3
1.1
0.2
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0
..
0.0
3.7
..
..
0.1
0.0
..
5.2
5.3
0.0
0.0
3.1
0.1
..
..
8.4
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
..
0.2
..
11.4
0.1
0.6
7.1
0.0
7.2
3.4
7.2
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..

2,777.2
22.8
9.6
43.1
22.7
12.0
31.8
1.0
2.4
4.6
0.3
41.2
4.2
46.1
5.4
0.4
11.3
246.5
3.2
3.1
43.2
6.6
2.4
223.7
19.2
7.7
12.1
149.4
26.2
2.7
1.3
153.9
83.9
6.9
222.1
101.4
0.6
17.1
0.0
6.9
7.9
284.2
14.4
20.1
206.5
11.6
241.3
145.2
97.5
15.8
1.7
1.4
1.5
5.8
5.1

3,776.4
13.9
17.1
211.8
37.6
30.7
28.5
0.5
4.5
9.5
0.1
40.1
5.7
64.8
0.7
0.9
15.8
206.7
3.9
6.2
58.8
6.9
5.9
377.1
29.6
5.1
9.7
150.1
25.6
0.8
0.9
192.9
119.7
13.2
356.2
135.1
0.1
19.0
0.0
13.2
1.3
560.1
12.0
27.2
257.1
17.2
259.0
223.8
71.2
14.7
1.2
4.2
0.0
5.7
3.0

Part III. Development outcomes

109

Participating in growth

Table

11.1

Malaria

Population
(millions)
2008 2009

Clinical cases of
malaria reporteda
2008
2009

Reported deaths
due to malaria
2008
2009

Children
sleeping under
Under-five
insecticidemortality
treated nets
rate
(% of children
(per 1,000)
under age 5)
2008 2009
2000–09 b

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 820.7 841.0 62,920,801 71,675,530 104,331 113,326 133
Angola
18.0 18.5
2,151,072 2,221,076
9,465 10,530 166
Benin
8.7
8.9
1,147,005 1,256,708
918
1,375 121
Botswana
1.9
1.9
17,886
14,878
12
6
59
Burkina Faso
15.2 15.8 3,688,338 4,399,837
7,834
7,982 169
Burundi
8.1
8.3
1,424,026 1,757,387
1,511
714 168
Cameroon
19.1 19.5
1,650,749 1,883,199
7,673
4,943 155
Cape Verde
0.5
0.5
35
65
2
2
29
Central African Republic
4.3
4.4
152,260
175,210
456
667 172
Chad
10.9
11.2
462,573
182,415
1,018
221 209
Comoros
0.6
0.7
46,426
49,679
47
.. 105
Congo, Dem. Rep.
64.3 66.0 3,938,597
6,749,112 17,940 21,168 199
Congo, Rep.
3.6
3.7
117,291
92,855
143
116 127
Côte d’Ivoire
20.6
21.1 1,343,654 1,847,367
1,249 18,156 121
Djibouti
0.8
0.9
3,528
7,120
..
0
95
Equatorial Guinea
0.7
0.7
62,312
78,983
4
23 148
Eritrea
4.9
5.1
10,572
21,298
19
23
58
Ethiopia
80.7 82.8 2,532,645 3,043,203
1,169
1,121 109
Gabon
1.4
1.5
77,278
112,840
156
197
71
Gambia, The
1.7
1.7
508,846
479,409
403
240 106
Ghana
23.4 23.8
3,050,513 1,899,544
3,889
3,378
72
Guinea
9.8
10.1
657,003
812,471
441
586 146
Guinea-Bissau
1.6
1.6
128,758
143,011
487
369 195
Kenya
38.8 39.8
839,904 8,123,689
..
..
86
Lesotho
2.0
2.1
..
..
..
..
91
Liberia
3.8
4.0
606,952
871,560
345
1,706 119
Madagascar
19.1
19.6
116,538
215,110
276
173
61
Malawi
14.8 15.3 4,580,226 5,455,423
6,748
6,527 115
Mali
12.7
13.0
1,045,424 1,633,423
1,227
2,331 194
Mauritania
3.2
3.3
199,791
167,705
..
91 118
Mauritius
1.3
1.3
..
..
..
..
17
Mozambique
22.4 22.9
4,831,491 4,310,086
4,424
3,747 147
Namibia
2.1
2.2
128,531
81,812
171
46
50
Niger
14.7 15.3
596,858
309,675
2,461
2,159 167
Nigeria
151.2 154.7
2,834,174 4,295,686
8,677
7,522 143
Rwanda
9.7 10.0
772,197 1,247,583
566
809 117
São Tomé and Príncipe
0.2
0.2
1,647
3,893
16
23
79
Senegal
12.2
12.5
443,828
222,232
741
574
95
Seychelles
0.1
0.1
..
..
..
..
13
Sierra Leone
5.6
5.7
851,478
646,808
871
1,734 198
Somalia
8.9
9.1
56,408
56,153
49
45 180
South Africa
48.8 49.3
7,796
6,072
43
45
65
Sudan
41.3 42.3
3,145,944 2,686,822
1,388
1,396 109
Swaziland
1.2
1.2
5,881
6,639
10
13
77
Tanzania
42.5 43.7
3,812,350
40 12,434
840 111
Togo
6.5
6.6
602,908
618,842
2,663
1,556 100
Uganda
31.7 32.7 10,184,961 9,775,318
2,372
6,296 130
Zambia
12.6
12.9 3,080,301 2,976,395
3,781
3,862 145
Zimbabwe
12.5
12.5 1,003,846
736,897
232
14
93
NORTH AFRICA
164.1 166.7
12,186
239
3
3
28
Algeria
34.4 34.9
11,964
..
..
..
34
Egypt, Arab Rep.
81.5 83.0
80
94
2
2
23
Libya
6.3
6.4
..
..
..
..
19
Morocco
31.6 32.0
142
145
1
1
39
Tunisia
10.3
10.4
..
..
..
..
21

130
161
118
57
166
166
154
28
171
209
104
199
128
119
94
145
55
104
69
103
69
142
193
84
84
112
58
110
191
117
17
142
48
160
138
111
78
93
12
192
180
62
108
73
108
98
128
141
90
26
32
21
19
38
21

17.7
20.1
..
9.6
8.3
13.1
..
15.1
0.6
9.3
5.8
6.1
3.0
19.9
0.7
4.2
33.1
..
49.0
28.2
4.5
39.0
46.1
..
26.4
45.8
24.7
27.1
2.1
..
22.8
10.5
42.8
5.5
55.7
56.2
29.2
..
25.8
11.4
..
27.6
0.6
25.7
38.4
9.7
41.1
17.3
..
..
..
..
..
..

Children with
Pregnant
fever receiving women receiving
ODA
any antimalarial two doses of
disbursements
treatment (% of
intermittent
for malaria
children under
preventive
control
age 5 with fever) treatment (%)
($ millions)
b
b
2000–09
2000–09
2008
2009

29.3
54.0
..
48.0
30.0
57.8
..
57.0
53.0
62.7
29.8
48.0
36.0
9.5
48.6
3.6
9.5
..
62.6
43.0
43.5
45.7
23.2
..
67.2
19.7
24.9
31.7
20.7
..
36.7
9.8
33.0
33.2
5.6
8.4
9.1
..
30.1
7.9
..
54.2
0.6
56.7
47.7
61.3
43.3
23.6
..
..
..
..
..
..

2.5
3.0
..
1.3
..
5.8
..
8.7
..
..
5.1
..
8.3
..
..
..
..
..
32.5
43.7
2.9
7.4
15.0
..
45.1
6.4
44.5
4.0
..
..
43.1
10.0
0.3
4.9
17.2
59.8
52.2
..
10.3
0.9
..
..
0.5
30.2
18.1
16.2
60.3
6.3
..
..
..
..
..
..

682.8 1,158.8
30.4
29.4
14.1
15.9
0.0
..
3.6
20.7
22.5
7.8
6.1
9.6
..
..
2.7
0.0
0.8
0.3
0.3
0.2
36.4
89.0
0.1
0.2
1.9
16.2
1.5
0.2
6.3
3.4
5.9
0.7
34.9
140.3
1.3
3.9
5.7
6.0
19.2
43.3
1.2
0.0
1.5
1.6
39.8
73.5
..
0.0
13.8
13.0
22.7
26.7
30.7
20.4
9.6
14.7
1.4

..
..
31.5
26.6
0.4
3.8
14.7
19.6
36.5
267.4
37.3
62.6
2.4
(0.0)
26.8
27.1
..
..
7.1
5.8
3.9
1.2
..
0.0
44.1
13.3
0.3
2.6
89.8
99.1
5.0
0.3
25.2
54.4
25.4
24.8
0.1
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Malaria cases reported before 2000 can be probable and confirmed or only confirmed, depending on the country.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

110

Part III. Development outcomes

Malaria

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.1

Aid and debt relief

From all donors
2008
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 40,484.5
Angola
368.8
Benin
641.4
Botswana
720.3
Burkina Faso
1,001.0
Burundi
508.5
Cameroon
548.8
Cape Verde
221.8
Central African Republic
256.4
Chad
418.7
Comoros
37.3
Congo, Dem. Rep.
1,768.5
Congo, Rep.
485.1
Côte d’Ivoire
623.3
Djibouti
120.9
Equatorial Guinea
32.1
Eritrea
143.6
Ethiopia
3,327.8
Gabon
62.1
Gambia, The
93.8
Ghana
1,305.0
Guinea
327.6
Guinea-Bissau
131.6
Kenya
1,362.7
Lesotho
143.8
Liberia
1,249.5
Madagascar
842.9
Malawi
923.7
Mali
964.1
Mauritania
319.7
Mauritius
109.7
Mozambique
1,996.1
Namibia
210.2
Niger
606.7
Nigeria
1,290.2
Rwanda
933.2
São Tomé and Príncipe
47.3
Senegal
1,064.2
Seychelles
12.5
Sierra Leone
366.8
Somalia
758.3
South Africa
1,124.9
Sudan
2,383.6
Swaziland
69.9
Tanzania
2,330.7
Togo
329.6
Uganda
1,641.3
Zambia
1,116.2
Zimbabwe
612.4
NORTH AFRICA
3,375.9
Algeria
319.4
Egypt, Arab Rep.
1,344.3
Libya
60.2
Morocco
1,062.6
Tunisia
331.6

44,704.2
239.5
682.9
279.6
1,083.9
548.8
649.4
195.9
236.9
561.2
50.6
2,353.6
283.0
2,366.3
162.2
31.6
144.8
3,820.0
77.6
128.0
1,582.6
214.7
145.5
1,778.0
123.0
505.0
445.5
772.4
985.1
286.7
155.6
2,013.3
326.2
470.0
1,659.1
934.4
30.7
1,017.6
23.2
437.3
661.7
1,075.0
2,288.9
58.0
2,934.2
499.0
1,785.9
1,268.7
736.8
2,870.5
319.2
925.1
39.2
911.6
473.9

Net official development assistance
($ millions)
From DAC donors
From non-DAC donors
From multilateral donors
2008
2009
2008
2009
2008
2009

21,336.6
209.9
305.0
682.7
475.3
255.1
298.4
162.7
128.5
277.5
20.8
985.5
382.6
200.2
66.1
18.5
52.5
1,843.4
37.6
27.9
725.7
209.9
52.9
953.2
66.0
819.2
274.5
432.0
531.4
139.1
16.1
1,341.3
150.0
269.1
637.2
451.6
26.4
554.4
5.0
174.9
565.6
881.7
1,820.9
17.8
1,372.9
176.0
1,005.7
703.9
532.4
2,129.1
244.7
967.3
52.2
614.4
250.6

22,660.0
131.5
325.7
223.4
452.9
260.9
267.7
161.9
98.6
355.5
28.1
1,099.3
226.1
1,722.6
97.7
25.1
43.4
1,816.6
52.5
21.9
820.3
171.0
50.6
1,224.0
70.7
340.8
241.6
435.2
574.7
122.2
63.6
1,287.7
246.5
255.3
687.5
519.8
19.7
514.4
11.8
196.3
499.5
861.3
1,911.0
18.5
1,408.8
361.8
1,013.3
700.6
620.4
1,866.5
200.1
580.0
32.2
704.7
349.5

322.7
8.3
4.3
–1.5
7.2
0.2
9.9
0.4
0.2
0.4
1.2
5.4
0.2
2.5
9.6
0.1
6.8
31.0
0.7
4.4
3.7
0.5
0.4
1.9
–0.3
27.0
3.9
9.3
0.1
24.2
–1.9
3.0
2.4
1.7
2.0
1.7
0.1
38.2
0.2
–0.9
8.0
1.6
103.8
–0.7
–2.3
–0.6
4.0
0.4
0.1
151.8
–26.7
107.0
1.9
78.4
–8.8

201.5
9.7
3.4
–0.4
1.7
0.2
1.0
–0.4
0.5
–0.1
0.9
2.7
0.4
2.3
10.8
0.0
14.8
19.6
0.0
1.1
6.2
–3.9
1.0
5.4
4.7
1.0
1.5
3.8
1.6
20.7
–1.9
1.7
1.3
2.0
2.2
2.8
0.0
4.6
0.1
0.4
9.6
2.6
60.7
–0.7
–1.4
1.0
3.8
2.1
0.4
31.0
11.8
122.3
0.9
–98.2
–5.8

14,295.0
150.6
332.0
39.0
518.6
253.2
240.5
58.6
127.7
140.9
15.2
777.6
102.3
420.5
45.1
13.5
84.3
1,453.4
23.8
61.6
575.6
117.1
78.3
407.5
78.1
403.3
564.6
482.4
432.7
156.4
95.5
651.9
57.8
336.0
651.0
479.9
20.8
471.6
7.3
192.9
184.7
241.6
459.0
52.8
960.1
154.2
631.5
412.0
80.0
837.1
101.4
270.0
6.1
369.8
89.8

16,248.1
98.4
353.8
56.6
629.3
287.8
380.7
34.5
137.7
205.8
21.6
1,251.6
56.4
641.4
53.7
6.5
86.6
1,983.9
25.0
105.1
756.1
47.5
93.9
548.6
47.7
163.3
202.4
333.4
408.9
143.8
93.8
723.9
78.4
212.7
969.4
411.8
11.0
498.7
11.4
240.5
152.5
211.1
317.2
40.1
1,526.8
136.2
768.8
566.0
115.9
771.4
107.3
222.8
6.0
305.1
130.2

From other donors
2008
2009

41.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
..
..
0.1
..
0.3
0.0
0.8
..
0.0
6.7
20.2
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.9
0.2
..
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.2
1.3
5.8
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.1
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.0

32.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.0
..
0.2
..
0.0
0.1
0.4
..
..
13.3
8.0
..
0.1
0.6
0.2
..
0.7
0.7
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.4
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.1
1.2
0.0
..
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.5
2.4
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.1
(continued)

Capable states and partnership

Part III. Development outcomes

111

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.1

Aid and debt relief (continued)
Net private official development assistance ($ millions)

From all donors
2008

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA 5,263.1
Angola
3,049.8
Benin
3.8
Botswana
–92.1
Burkina Faso
16.5
Burundi
–37.8
Cameroon
93.3
Cape Verde
44.5
Central African Republic
–22.3
Chad
43.5
Comoros
1.4
Congo, Dem. Rep.
–1.9
Congo, Rep.
123.8
Côte d’Ivoire
36.6
Djibouti
32.6
Equatorial Guinea
–1,016.0
Eritrea
–5.8
Ethiopia
–137.8
Gabon
–241.6
Gambia, The
1.3
Ghana
209.4
Guinea
–59.0
Guinea-Bissau
–15.1
Kenya
–25.7
Lesotho
–4.5
Liberia
559.9
Madagascar
205.9
Malawi
–4.7
Mali
–25.3
Mauritania
–8.7
Mauritius
818.6
Mozambique
–52.5
Namibia
317.3
Niger
–30.2
Nigeria
1,713.2
Rwanda
10.3
São Tomé and Príncipe
–4.9
Senegal
163.3
Seychelles
33.6
Sierra Leone
1.8
Somalia
3.7
South Africa
5,504.6
Sudan
–13.5
Swaziland
1.9
Tanzania
122.2
Togo
31.6
Uganda
111.7
Zambia
380.2
Zimbabwe
16.0
NORTH AFRICA
20,880.4
Algeria
295.8
Egypt, Arab Rep.
15,267.8
Libya
1,914.2
Morocco
1,588.6
Tunisia
1,396.7

2009

From DAC donors
2008

6,626.6
5,237.8
2,461.3
3,049.8
–34.7
3.8
2.0
–92.1
2.1
16.5
–26.9
–37.8
45.7
93.3
49.0
44.5
5.9
–22.5
20.2
43.5
0.3
1.4
–27.4
–1.9
166.5
123.8
–1,886.0
36.6
50.4
32.6
448.2 –1,016.0
4.5
–5.8
240.3
–142.9
–294.4
–241.6
10.9
1.3
253.8
209.1
0.6
–59.0
–9.1
–15.1
444.1
–25.7
–2.8
–4.5
1,132.7
559.9
270.4
205.9
31.4
–4.7
–26.5
–25.3
23.8
–8.7
1,526.6
803.0
58.2
–52.5
289.8
317.3
16.7
–30.2
1,209.8
1,713.2
81.1
10.3
3.1
–4.9
274.1
162.6
48.3
33.6
11.6
1.8
6.1
3.7
–377.1
5,504.3
16.3
–16.8
–3.8
1.9
189.8
122.2
–86.5
31.6
64.0
111.7
–30.1
380.2
–96.5
16.0
9,244.6 20,693.6
2,728.9
294.5
4,392.2 15,252.5
1,073.7
1,910.0
811.7
1,583.8
58.5
1,235.4

2009

6,614.5
2,461.3
–34.7
2.0
2.1
–26.9
45.7
49.0
5.9
20.2
0.3
–27.4
166.5
–1,886.0
50.4
448.2
4.5
239.4
–294.4
10.9
253.8
0.6
–9.1
444.1
–2.8
1,132.7
270.4
31.4
–26.7
23.8
1,526.6
58.2
289.8
16.7
1,209.8
81.1
3.1
273.9
48.3
11.6
6.1
–377.3
5.7
–3.8
189.8
–86.5
64.0
–30.1
–96.5
9,167.0
2,727.0
4,357.5
1,035.6
809.9
57.3

Net official development assistance

From non-DAC donors
2008

25.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.0
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.6
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.7
..
..
..
0.3
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
186.8
1.3
15.3
4.2
4.8
161.3

Share of GDP (%)

Per capita ($)

Share of gross capital
formation (%)

2009

2008

2009

2008

2009

2008

2009

12.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
0.2
0.0
..
..
0.2
10.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
77.6
1.9
34.7
38.1
1.8
1.2

4.0
0.4
9.6
5.3
12.4
43.5
2.3
14.5
12.9
5.0
7.0
15.3
4.1
2.7
12.3
0.2
8.7
12.8
0.4
11.4
4.6
8.7
15.5
4.5
9.0
148.3
8.9
22.7
11.1
8.9
1.2
20.2
2.3
11.3
0.6
19.9
27.3
8.1
1.4
18.8
..
0.4
4.1
2.5
11.3
11.4
11.4
7.8
14.4
0.6
0.2
0.8
0.1
1.2
0.8

4.7
0.3
10.3
2.4
13.3
41.4
2.9
12.6
11.8
8.2
9.5
22.3
3.0
10.2
15.5
0.3
7.7
13.4
0.7
17.5
6.0
5.2
17.4
6.1
7.8
57.6
5.2
16.3
11.0
9.5
1.8
20.6
3.5
8.7
1.0
17.9
16.1
7.9
3.0
22.5
..
0.4
4.2
1.9
13.7
17.5
11.1
9.9
13.1
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.1
1.0
1.2

49.3
20.5
74.0
374.9
65.7
63.0
28.8
444.7
59.1
38.4
57.9
27.5
134.2
30.3
142.3
48.7
29.1
41.2
42.8
56.5
55.9
33.3
83.5
35.2
70.2
329.4
44.1
62.2
75.9
99.4
86.4
89.2
98.7
41.3
8.5
96.0
295.5
87.2
144.0
66.0
84.9
23.1
57.6
59.8
54.9
51.0
51.8
88.4
49.1
20.6
9.3
16.5
9.6
33.6
32.1

53.2
12.9
76.4
143.4
68.8
66.1
33.3
387.5
53.6
50.1
76.8
35.6
76.8
112.3
187.7
46.7
28.5
46.1
52.6
75.1
66.4
21.3
90.3
44.7
59.5
127.7
22.7
50.6
75.7
87.1
122.0
87.9
150.2
30.7
10.7
93.5
188.7
81.2
263.7
76.8
72.4
21.8
54.1
48.9
67.1
75.4
54.6
98.1
58.8
17.2
9.1
11.1
6.1
28.5
45.4

20.7
2.7
46.4
16.4
..
..
..
29.9
111.2
20.2
49.2
64.0
18.6
26.2
..
0.6
..
64.7
1.8
46.2
21.3
55.7
..
22.3
31.4
741.5
22.2
86.3
..
32.1
4.3
128.9
8.3
..
..
87.2
..
26.7
5.3
127.5
..
1.9
15.8
16.1
42.1
..
49.5
34.4
252.5
2.1
0.6
3.7
0.2
3.1
3.0

24.4
2.1
41.1
9.8
..
..
..
23.5
111.2
24.2
76.3
74.6
12.0
90.4
..
0.7
..
59.7
2.5
67.3
30.9
24.2
..
29.0
24.8
..
15.9
65.6
..
37.7
8.5
98.2
13.0
..
..
82.3
..
28.4
12.5
148.8
..
1.9
16.6
11.4
46.1
..
46.8
44.7
581.9
1.8
0.6
2.5
..
2.8
4.5

a. As of 2010.

112

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

Net official development assistance
Share of central
Share of imports of
government
goods and services (%)
expenditures (%)

Food aid shipments (thousands of tons)

Cereal

Noncereal

2007

2008

2007

2008

2008

2009

2008

2009

8.8
0.6
26.1
10.7
34.0
83.4
6.5
17.5
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
16.9
..
..
34.5
..
23.5
10.1
7.5
44.0
10.7
8.0
54.1
..
..
23.1
..
1.6
36.9
4.3
30.2
1.6
63.8
40.9
14.6
0.9
53.2
..
0.9
17.1
2.8
25.9
18.7
28.9
16.2
..
1.5
..
1.9
0.2
2.2
1.1

12.0
0.5
..
4.7
..
102.0
9.4
17.6
..
..
..
..
..
23.9
27.3
..
..
42.0
..
35.3
14.1
13.6
..
15.4
6.7
27.3
..
..
..
..
2.8
44.1
5.9
..
2.8
61.0
29.3
..
2.0
64.8
..
1.2
16.8
2.1
37.2
..
32.0
23.1
..
1.6
..
1.6
0.1
2.3
2.0

..
..
64.3
..
98.5
..
..
54.0
..
..
..
..
..
14.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.3
..
..
20.9
17.3
43884.0
76.2
..
82.1
..
..
..
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
4.5
92.3
..
1.3
..
..
..
75.3
75.1
..
..
7.0
0.8
2.7
..
3.9
2.7

..
..
68.2
..
102.5
..
..
44.9
..
..
..
..
..
57.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
33.8
..
..
27.9
..
..
..
..
74.9
..
8.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.3
101.9
..
1.1
..
..
..
100.6
86.9
..
..
..
0.9
1.6
..
3.6
4.0

3,284.1
24.3
12.5
0.0
34.6
57.8
8.5
27.5
7.5
50.5
0.2
90.6
4.4
17.3
8.8
0.0
32.0
679.7
0.0
11.4
47.8
22.3
5.7
307.8
18.7
53.8
41.5
179.4
35.2
38.2
0.0
133.7
5.8
74.1
0.0
31.6
1.0
10.6
0.0
27.2
180.1
0.0
498.7
12.8
77.4
0.6
208.0
89.1
115.6
43.2
16.5
26.7
..
0.0
0.0

2,631.6
9.4
5.2
0.0
34.4
50.9
4.7
4.6
20.4
56.2
0.0
78.2
7.3
21.9
7.1
0.0
14.8
571.2
0.0
7.2
36.3
14.7
8.8
220.0
32.0
33.9
43.1
82.0
43.6
39.6
0.0
80.1
9.3
74.8
0.0
16.9
1.5
20.4
0.0
25.9
92.9
0.0
405.6
13.4
65.6
1.8
223.7
32.7
119.6
19.0
17.1
1.9
..
0.0
0.0

3,460.2
0.0
9.7
0.0
39.3
24.3
12.7
11.4
13.1
69.9
0.0
86.3
2.7
12.0
7.6
0.0
17.2
979.1
0.0
2.5
38.9
30.0
6.1
213.8
15.2
35.0
28.5
57.2
19.1
50.0
0.0
135.4
4.2
55.8
0.0
16.1
6.8
24.9
3.5
25.9
317.9
0.0
520.9
16.2
75.3
5.0
158.2
24.5
287.6
25.6
21.4
4.3
..
0.0
0.0

3,066.9
0.0
16.7
0.0
21.8
47.7
8.7
17.5
17.4
100.2
7.5
141.4
3.7
21.4
21.0
0.0
0.0
904.1
0.0
10.4
29.1
11.3
2.1
216.7
6.2
22.3
20.7
70.7
23.0
25.2
0.0
157.4
0.3
40.2
0.0
22.4
6.0
11.3
0.0
15.1
281.8
0.0
427.8
2.4
24.7
25.0
96.0
11.8
178.1
12.2
11.5
0.7
..
0.0
0.0

Capable states and partnership

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Initiative

Decision
pointa

In nominal terms
Debt service Assistance Total HIPC
relief
delivered
and MDRI
Completion committed under MDRI assistance
($ millions)a ($ millions)a ($ millions)a
pointa

..
Jul. 2000
..
Jul. 2000
Aug. 2005
Oct. 2000
..
Sep. 2007
May 2001
Jun. 2010
Jul. 2003
Mar. 2006
Mar. 2009
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
Dec. 2000
Feb. 2002
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
..
..
Mar. 2008
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Sep. 2000
Feb. 2000
..
Apr. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Jun. 2000
..
Mar. 2002
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2000
Nov. 2008
Feb. 2000
Dec. 2000
..

..
Mar. 2003
..
Apr. 2002
Jan. 2009
Apr. 2006
..
Jun. 2009
..
..
Jul. 2010
Jan. 2010
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2007
Jul. 2004
..
..
..
..
Jun. 2010
Oct. 2004
Aug. 2006
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2002
..
Sep. 2001
..
Apr. 2004
..
Apr. 2005
Mar. 2007
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2006
..
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
May 2000
Apr. 2005
..

..
460
..
930
1,366
4,917
..
804
260
136
15,222
1,738
3,415
..
..
..
3,275
..
112
3,500
800
790
..
..
4,600
1,900
1,628
895
1,100
..
4,300
..
1,190
..
1,316
263
850
..
994
..
..
..
..
3,000
360
1,950
3,900
..

..
1,130
..
1,207
93
1,285
..
280
..
..
1,035
203
..
..
..
..
3,277
..
370
3,862
..
..
..
..
265
2,385
1,570
1,977
875
..
2,029
..
1,057
..
510
65
2,460
..
661
..
..
..
..
3,806
..
3,483
2,742
..

..
1,590
..
2,137
1,459
6,202
..
1,084
260
136
16,257
1,941
3,415
..
..
..
6,552
..
482
7,362
800
790
..
..
4,865
4,285
3,198
2,872
1,975
..
6,329
..
2,247
..
1,826
328
3,310
..
1,655
..
..
..
..
6,806
360
5,433
6,642
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

113

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.2

Status of Paris Declaration indicators
PDI-1

PDI-2

Operational national
development
strategiesa
2005
2007

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angolad
Benin
Botswanad
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comorosd
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djiboutid
Equatorial Guinead
Eritread
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, Thed
Ghana
Guinead
Guinea-Bissaud
Kenya
Lesothod
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritiusd
Mozambique
Namibiad
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Prínciped
Senegal
Seychellesd
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africa
Sudan
Swazilandd
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwed
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriad
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisiad

Reliable public
financial
managementb
2005
2007

PDI-3
Reliable
country
procurement
systemsc
2007

Government
budget estimates
comprehensive
and realistic (%)
2005
2007

PDI-4
PDI-5
Technical
Aid for government Aid for government
assistance aligned sectors uses country
sectors uses
and coordinated
public financial
of country
with country
management
procurement
programs (%)
systems (%)
systems (%)
2005
2007
2005
2007
2005
2007

..
C
..
C
D
C
C
D
C
..
D
..
D
..
..
..
C
..
..
C
..
..
D
..
D
C
C
C
B
..
C
..
C
..
B
..
C
..
D
..
..
D
..
B
..
B
C
..

..
C
..
B
C
C
C
D
C
..
D
..
E
..
..
..
B
..
..
B
..
..
C
..
D
C
C
C
C
..
C
..
C
C
B
..
C
..
C
..
..
D
..
B
..
B
B
..

..
4.0
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
2.0
3.0
..
2.5
..
2.5
..
..
..
3.5
9.0
..
3.5
..
..
3.5
..
9.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.5
2.0
4.0
3.0
..

..
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.0
9.0
..
2.5
..
2.0
..
..
..
4.0
9.0
..
4.0
..
..
3.5
..
9.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.0
..
4.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
..

..
..
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
C
..
..
..
..
..
..
C
..
..
..
..
..
B
..
B
..
B
..
B
..
..
..
..
B
..
B
C
..

..
46.7
..
67.5
39.3
..
85.1
..
..
..
81.0
..
..
..
..
..
74.4
..
..
96.1
..
..
90.9
..
..
..
53.6
60.0
65.4
..
83.3
..
99.5
..
49.0
..
88.9
..
..
..
70.8
..
..
89.5
..
79.1
51.9
..

..
28.5
..
92.2
53.9
85.7
90.2
36.4
87.9
..
58.3
..
64.4
..
..
..
61.7
22.4
..
94.5
..
..
64.2
..
0.0
87.0
63.7
72.6
57.4
..
82.5
..
90.7
6.3
51.0
..
87.7
..
53.6
..
..
84.6
..
83.6
68.9
98.4
73.5
..

..
56.3
..
3.4
42.6
..
92.7
..
..
..
10.7
..
..
..
..
..
27.3
..
..
40.4
..
..
60.2
..
..
..
46.6
15.1
19.5
..
38.1
..
15.3
..
57.8
..
18.1
..
..
..
95.1
..
..
49.5
..
41.6
32.4
..

..
53.9
..
56.4
41.0
29.9
39.3
36.5
64.4
..
38.1
..
30.9
..
..
..
66.8
70.4
..
73.8
..
..
63.8
..
35.3
70.9
52.3
75.4
53.4
..
26.9
..
50.2
70.6
83.6
..
54.1
..
22.5
..
..
53.2
..
60.5
28.9
58.1
34.5
..

..
51.8
..
44.5
24.5
..
64.1
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
..
..
..
45.2
..
..
62.1
..
..
47.3
..
..
..
54.7
29.5
4.4
..
35.8
..
27.1
..
39.2
..
22.7
..
..
..
38.1
..
..
65.9
..
60.2
34.1
..

..
47.5
..
43.2
32.7
53.1
22.5
23.8
1.0
..
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
46.7
4.7
..
50.8
..
..
53.6
..
32.0
21.5
49.9
34.4
8.3
..
43.5
..
25.5
0.0
42.0
..
19.0
..
20.1
..
..
3.1
..
71.5
4.4
57.0
59.4
..

..
64.1
..
60.4
19.4
..
53.5
..
..
..
30.8
..
..
..
..
..
42.8
..
..
51.9
..
..
44.7
..
..
..
35.0
44.6
19.7
..
38.0
..
48.7
..
46.0
..
28.9
..
..
..
43.7
..
..
61.2
..
54.2
43.5
..

..
63.3
..
53.8
34.6
63.1
22.1
10.2
10.6
..
0.8
..
9.3
..
..
..
41.4
32.3
..
56.1
..
..
36.8
..
0.0
25.9
35.4
34.8
22.2
..
53.8
..
36.5
0.0
42.9
..
41.3
..
38.3
..
..
0.4
..
68.5
15.5
36.9
71.0
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
9.0
..
9.0
..

..
9.0
..
9.0
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
58.2
..
..
..

..
57.4
..
79.8
..

..
76.3
..
..
..

..
86.2
..
82.2
..

..
28.2
..
..

..
12.0
..
78.9

..
24.9
..
..

..
22.7
..
81.1

..

..

..

..

Note: See Technical notes for further details. PDI is Paris Declaration Indicator. Status will be updated in the fourth quarter of 2011.
a. Ratings range from A to E, where A means the development strategy substantially achieves good practices; B means it is largely developed toward achieving good practices; C means it
reflects action taken toward achieving good practices; D means it incorporates some elements of good practice; and E means it reflects little action toward achieving good practices.
b. Ratings range from 1 (low) to 6 (high).
c. Ratings range from A (high) to D (low). Indicator was not collected in 2005.
d. Did not take part in the Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration.

114

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

PDI-6
Project
implementation
units parallel to
country structures
(number)
2005
2007

PDI-7
Aid disbursements
on schedule
and recorded by
government (%)
2005
2007

PDI-8

PDI-9

PDI-10

Bilateral aid that
is untied (%)
2005
2007

Aid provided in
the framework of
program-based
approaches (%)
2005
2007

Donor missions
coordinated (%)
2005
2007

Country analysis
coordinated (%)
2005
2007

PDI-11
Existence of
a monitorable
performance
assessment
frameworka
2005
2007

PDI-12
Existence
of a mutual
accountability
reviewa
2005
2007

..
29.0
..
131.0
37.0
..
10.0
..
..
..
34.0
..
..
..
..
..
103.0
..
..
45.0
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
69.0
65.0
23.0
..
40.0
..
52.0
..
48.0
..
23.0
..
..
..
15.0
..
..
56.0
..
54.0
24.0
..

..
58.0
..
102.0
29.0
38.0
18.0
11.0
17.0
..
146.0
..
29.0
..
..
..
56.0
5.0
..
16.0
..
..
21.0
..
16.0
48.0
51.0
60.0
27.0
..
26.0
..
47.0
23.0
41.0
..
55.0
..
2.0
..
..
105.0
..
28.0
13.0
55.0
34.0
..

..
53.0
..
91.7
52.5
..
92.2
..
..
..
82.9
..
..
..
..
..
95.9
..
..
91.6
..
..
44.0
..
..
..
57.7
70.7
39.4
..
70.1
..
73.2
..
65.6
..
69.3
..
..
..
44.2
..
..
70.2
..
84.0
50.1
..

..
31.6
..
91.6
44.4
50.8
96.4
45.2
0.0
..
19.5
..
67.0
..
..
..
73.4
16.8
..
82.3
..
..
46.5
..
0.0
79.5
58.1
68.2
52.1
..
73.7
..
77.5
7.1
66.8
..
60.8
..
29.7
..
..
51.6
..
60.8
14.3
74.4
85.1
..

..
79.3
..
92.4
59.8
..
22.3
..
..
..
88.1
..
..
..
..
..
38.8
..
..
89.9
..
..
78.3
..
..
..
96.9
95.0
72.9
..
89.0
..
83.8
..
81.6
..
90.8
..
..
..
97.2
..
..
94.6
..
81.0
99.1
..

..
98.8
..
91.8
90.6
98.5
60.3
86.7
81.2
..
93.9
..
91.7
..
..
..
82.2
99.7
..
91.8
..
..
84.5
..
82.4
83.9
90.5
93.4
67.0
..
90.8
..
84.3
99.2
95.1
..
93.0
..
91.6
..
97.4
79.9
..
98.9
56.1
85.4
99.6
..

..
60.8
..
45.3
53.6
..
36.7
..
..
..
53.8
..
..
..
..
..
52.6
..
..
52.7
..
..
44.6
..
..
..
31.8
48.1
36.7
..
46.3
..
31.2
..
41.5
..
57.3
..
..
..
26.5
..
..
55.5
..
49.9
47.1
..

..
49.0
..
57.2
35.5
39.6
30.9
34.3
1.5
..
20.8
..
2.6
..
..
..
65.6
0.0
..
68.8
..
..
30.5
..
21.3
43.5
42.0
40.6
35.1
..
46.4
..
49.0
3.9
38.4
..
38.9
..
26.9
..
..
19.2
..
60.8
38.9
65.7
46.8
..

..
14.5
..
16.8
24.3
..
10.5
..
..
..
38.4
..
..
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
19.7
..
..
9.2
..
..
..
23.8
7.4
13.8
..
46.5
..
20.9
..
8.5
..
15.1
..
..
..
18.8
..
..
17.3
..
17.2
14.7
..

..
25.1
..
12.8
13.5
25.8
43.4
9.8
18.1
..
21.3
..
65.0
..
..
..
29.4
4.7
..
39.0
..
..
48.4
..
11.0
23.8
22.3
15.2
11.4
..
16.8
..
15.4
19.1
20.8
..
16.6
..
27.1
..
..
14.9
..
15.8
15.1
21.0
15.9
..

..
37.5
..
45.2
55.0
..
34.1
..
..
..
35.2
..
..
..
..
..
49.5
..
..
39.9
..
..
32.3
..
..
..
60.0
30.0
58.9
..
63.2
..
39.9
..
36.4
..
40.5
..
..
..
75.0
..
..
38.3
..
40.1
45.8
..

..
44.0
..
39.0
73.8
49.2
64.5
23.2
35.0
..
22.9
..
75.0
..
..
..
69.5
36.8
..
59.8
..
..
78.0
..
65.6
41.6
60.8
39.3
25.4
..
31.7
..
31.8
32.8
42.0
..
28.1
..
56.3
..
..
44.7
..
64.9
20.7
54.0
46.4
..

..
C
..
C
D
D
D
D
D
..
D
D
D
..
..
..
C
..
..
C
..
..
C
..
D
C
C
D
C
..
C
..
D
..
C
..
C
..
D
..
..
D
..
B
..
B
D
..

..
C
..
C
D
D
C
D
D
..
D
D
E
..
..
..
C
..
..
C
..
..
C
..
D
C
C
D
C
..
B
..
D
C
C
..
C
..
D
..
..
D
..
B
..
B
C
..

..
B
..
B
B
..
A
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
..
..
A
..
..
A
..
..
B
..
..
..
A
B
B
..
A
..
B
..
B
..
B
..
..
..
A
..
..
A
..
B
A
..

..
B
..
B
A
B
B
B
..
..
B
..
B
..
..
..
A
B
..
A
..
..
B
..
B
B
A
B
B
..
A
..
B
B
B
..
B
..
B
..
..
B
..
A
B
B
B
..

..
100.0
..
..

..
32.0
..
47.0

..
29.2
..
..

..
78.9
..
68.3

..
46.7
..
..

..
75.0
..
90.1

..
61.2
..
..

..
48.9
..
70.3

..
18.1
..
..

..
21.6
..
11.7

..
40.0
..
..

..
56.1
..
25.0

..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..

..
A
..
..

..
B
..
B

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Capable states and partnership

Part III. Development outcomes

115

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.3

Capable states
Firms that believe
the court system is
fair, impartial, and
uncorrupt (%)
2009–10 b

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Investment climate
Viewed by firms as major or very
severe constraints (% of firms)
Crime, theft,
and disorder
Corruption
b
2009–10
2009–10 b

23.7
9.6
79.5
38.7
..
32.6
59.5
..
31.0
..
17.2
32.3
35.3
..
..
100.0
..
41.3
..
..
..
..
..
33.2
44.3
28.8
74.3
42.7
..
63.6
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
..
..
29.7
..
..
..
..
..
14.1
..
..
..

75.6
67.8
27.4
70.5
..
61.3
29.8
..
67.2
..
72.7
65.0
75.0
..
..
0.0
..
41.4
..
..
..
..
..
46.7
31.2
42.7
12.8
24.8
..
50.7
..
..
83.7
..
..
..
..
..
36.9
..
..
..
..
..
70.2
..
..
..

28.1
52.7
22.6
42.2
..
41.5
62.3
..
45.8
..
63.3
44.1
53.8
..
..
0.0
..
34.1
..
..
..
..
..
33.5
26.8
48.1
22.8
17.3
..
41.5
..
..
44.2
..
..
..
..
..
14.2
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Number of
procedures
2010

Enforcing contracts
Time required
(days)
2010

Cost
(% of claim)
2010

39
46
42
29
37
44
43
37
43
41
43
43
44
33
40
40
39
37
38
32
36
50
40
40
41
41
38
42
36
46
36
30
33
39
40
24
43
44
37
40
..
30
53
40
38
41
38
35
38
42
46
41
..
40
39

652
1,011
825
625
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
625
560
770
1,225
553
405
620
1,070
434
487
276
1,140
465
785
1,280
871
312
620
370
645
730
270
545
457
230
1,185
780
720
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
490
471
410
705
630
1,010
..
615
565

49.7
44.4
64.7
28.1
81.7
38.6
46.6
21.8
82.0
45.7
89.4
151.8
53.2
41.7
34.0
18.5
22.6
15.2
34.3
37.9
23.0
45.0
25.0
47.2
19.5
35.0
42.4
94.1
52.0
23.2
17.4
142.5
35.8
59.6
32.0
78.7
50.5
26.5
15.4
149.5
..
33.2
19.8
56.1
14.3
47.5
44.9
38.7
113.1
23.8
21.9
26.2
..
25.2
21.8

a. Average of the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

116

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

Regulation and tax administration

Disclosure
index
2010

5
5
6
7
6
4
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
5
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
2
3
6
2
3
8
7
6
8
..
7
5

Protecting investors
(0 least desirable to 10 most desirable)
Investor protection
Shareholder
Director liability
indexa
suits index
index
2010
2010
2010

3
6
1
8
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
5
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
3
..
2
5

Capable states and partnership

5
6
3
3
4
5
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
0
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
6
8
4
5
7
4
4
4
5
..
1
6

4.4
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
3.3
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.8
5.3
5.3
..
3.3
5.3

Number of tax
payments
2010

Time required
to prepare, file,
and pay taxes
(hours)
2010

37
31
55
19
46
32
44
43
54
54
20
32
61
64
35
46
18
19
26
50
33
56
46
41
21
32
23
19
59
38
7
37
37
41
35
26
42
59
16
29
..
9
42
33
48
53
32
37
49
25
34
29
..
28
8

310
282
270
152
270
211
654
186
504
732
100
336
606
270
90
492
216
198
488
376
224
416
208
393
324
158
201
157
270
696
161
230
375
270
938
148
424
666
76
357
..
200
180
104
172
270
161
132
242
347
451
433
..
358
144

Total tax rate
(% of profit)
2010

67.4
53.2
66.0
19.5
44.9
153.4
49.1
37.1
203.8
65.4
217.9
339.7
65.5
44.4
38.7
59.5
84.5
31.1
43.5
292.3
32.7
54.6
45.9
49.7
19.6
43.7
37.7
25.1
52.2
68.4
24.1
34.3
9.6
46.5
32.2
31.3
33.3
46.0
44.1
235.6
..
30.5
36.1
36.8
45.2
50.8
35.7
16.1
40.3
54.8
72.0
42.6
..
41.7
62.8

Extractive Industries
Transparency
Initiative status
2010

Candidate
Candidate

Candidate
Candidate
Candidate
Candidate
Intent to implement
Intent to implement
Candidate
Compliant
Candidate

Compliant
Candidate
Candidate
Candidate

Compliant
Compliant
Intent to implement

Candidate

Candidate
Candidate
Candidate

Part III. Development outcomes

117

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.4

Governance and anticorruption indicators
Governance indicatorsa

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Voice and
accountability
1996
2009

Political stability
and absence
of violence
1996
2009

Government
effectiveness
1996
2009

Regulatory
quality
1996
2009

Rule of law
1996
2009

Control of
corruption
1996
2009

–1.5
0.7
0.8
–0.3
–1.5
–1.2
0.8
–0.5
–0.9
0.0
–1.6
–0.5
–0.8
–0.7
–1.7
–1.1
–0.8
–0.4
–1.3
–0.3
–1.1
–0.3
–0.8
–0.2
–1.4
0.4
0.0
0.7
–1.0
0.8
0.0
0.6
–1.0
–1.8
–1.3
0.5
–0.1
0.0
–0.9
–1.9
0.9
–2.0
–1.1
–0.6
–1.0
–0.5
–0.5
–0.6

–1.1
0.3
0.4
–0.3
–0.7
–1.0
0.8
–1.0
–1.4
–0.3
–1.4
–1.0
–1.2
–1.1
–1.8
–2.2
–1.3
–1.1
–1.1
0.5
–1.4
–0.8
–0.3
–0.1
–0.3
–0.6
–0.2
0.2
–1.0
0.8
–0.1
0.3
–0.7
–0.9
–1.3
0.2
–0.3
0.0
–0.3
–2.0
0.6
–1.6
–1.2
–0.1
–1.0
–0.5
–0.3
–1.6

–2.3
1.0
0.7
–0.2
–2.0
–1.3
1.0
–0.2
–0.9
1.0
–1.9
–0.8
0.0
0.2
–0.9
0.3
–1.0
–0.2
0.1
–0.1
–1.4
–0.6
–0.7
0.6
–2.6
0.1
–0.3
0.7
0.6
0.8
–0.5
0.5
0.0
–1.6
–2.0
1.0
–0.6
1.0
–2.3
–2.3
–1.3
–2.6
0.0
–0.2
–0.5
–1.2
–0.5
–0.6

–0.2
0.4
0.9
–0.1
–1.4
–0.4
0.8
–2.0
–1.8
–1.0
–2.1
–0.4
–1.5
0.5
0.0
–0.8
–1.7
0.1
0.3
0.2
–1.9
–0.5
–1.3
0.4
–1.0
–0.7
–0.1
–0.3
–1.2
0.6
0.5
0.8
–1.2
–2.0
–0.3
0.2
–0.1
0.7
–0.4
–3.3
0.0
–2.6
0.0
0.1
–0.2
–1.1
0.5
–1.4

–1.3
..
0.3
–0.9
..
–1.1
..
..
..
..
–1.5
–0.9
0.2
..
–1.3
..
–1.3
–1.0
–0.2
–0.5
–0.9
–0.9
–0.2
..
–1.5
–0.9
–0.9
–1.5
..
0.3
–0.1
0.5
–0.9
–1.2
..
..
–0.1
..
–1.5
–1.5
0.3
–1.3
..
–0.8
–0.9
–0.6
–0.7
–0.3

–0.9
–0.5
0.6
–0.7
–1.1
–0.8
0.0
–1.4
–1.5
–1.8
–1.7
–1.2
–1.2
–0.9
–1.7
–1.4
–0.4
–0.7
–0.7
0.1
–1.3
–1.1
–0.7
–0.3
–1.2
–0.6
–0.5
–0.8
–0.9
0.7
–0.3
0.2
–0.8
–1.2
–0.2
–0.7
–0.4
0.2
–1.2
–2.3
0.5
–1.3
–0.7
–0.4
–1.4
–0.6
–0.7
–1.7

–1.1
–0.1
0.9
–0.2
–1.1
–0.8
–0.6
..
–1.1
..
–2.3
–1.2
0.0
–0.1
–1.5
..
–1.9
0.0
–1.8
0.1
0.1
0.4
–0.4
–0.6
–2.6
–0.8
–0.2
0.1
–1.1
0.0
–1.0
0.2
–1.5
–1.1
–1.6
..
–0.3
..
–1.2
–2.5
0.1
–1.5
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.3
–0.8

–1.0
–0.4
0.6
–0.1
–1.2
–0.7
0.0
–1.1
–1.1
–1.6
–1.6
–1.3
–1.0
–0.6
–1.3
–2.3
–1.0
–0.6
–0.3
0.1
–1.2
–1.2
–0.2
–0.6
–1.2
–0.5
–0.5
–0.4
–0.7
0.9
–0.3
0.1
–0.5
–0.7
–0.3
–0.8
–0.3
–0.6
–0.8
–2.6
0.4
–1.2
–0.5
–0.4
–0.8
–0.2
–0.5
–2.3

–1.6
–0.3
0.6
–0.3
–0.9
–1.5
0.5
–0.3
–0.9
..
–2.3
–1.4
–0.7
–0.2
–1.2
–0.3
–1.0
–0.9
0.4
–0.3
–1.4
–1.7
–1.1
–0.3
–2.3
–1.0
–0.4
–0.6
–0.9
0.9
–0.8
0.3
–0.9
–1.6
–1.4
..
–0.3
..
–1.3
–2.1
0.0
–1.6
0.8
–0.3
–1.4
–0.5
–0.5
–0.9

–1.2
–0.7
0.6
–0.3
–1.2
–1.1
0.5
–1.3
–1.5
–1.1
–1.7
–1.2
–1.3
–0.6
–1.3
–1.2
–0.8
–0.5
–0.4
–0.1
–1.6
–1.4
–1.1
–0.3
–1.1
–0.7
–0.2
–0.4
–0.8
0.9
–0.6
0.3
–0.6
–1.2
–0.5
–0.7
–0.3
0.1
–1.0
–2.5
0.1
–1.3
–0.6
–0.4
–0.9
–0.4
–0.5
–1.9

–1.1
..
0.5
–0.3
..
–1.1
..
..
..
..
–2.5
–0.3
0.5
..
–1.1
..
–1.1
–1.1
0.4
–0.3
0.4
–1.0
–1.1
..
–1.7
0.4
–0.3
–0.3
..
0.6
–0.2
0.6
–0.3
–1.1
..
..
–0.3
..
–1.7
–1.7
0.5
–1.1
..
–1.1
–1.0
–0.3
–1.1
–0.3

–1.3
–0.6
0.9
–0.4
–1.1
–0.9
0.7
–0.8
–1.4
–0.8
–1.4
–1.2
–1.2
–0.3
–1.6
–0.3
–0.7
–0.9
–0.6
0.1
–1.2
–1.1
–1.1
0.1
–0.6
–0.2
–0.5
–0.7
–0.7
0.7
–0.4
0.2
–0.7
–1.1
0.1
–0.4
–0.5
0.3
–1.0
–1.7
0.1
–1.2
–0.3
–0.4
–1.1
–0.9
–0.5
–1.5

–1.3
–1.0
–1.8
–0.6
–0.9

–1.0
–1.1
–1.9
–0.8
–1.3

–2.7
–0.9
–1.8
–0.5
0.0

–1.2
–0.6
0.6
–0.4
0.2

–0.6
0.2
–1.0
0.2
0.5

–0.6
–0.3
–1.1
–0.1
0.4

–1.1
0.4
–2.0
0.3
0.7

–0.9
–0.1
–1.0
0.0
0.1

–1.4
0.1
–1.4
0.1
–0.2

–0.7
0.0
–0.8
–0.2
0.2

–0.3
–0.2
–1.1
0.5
–0.2

–0.5
–0.4
–1.1
–0.2
0.0

a. The rating scale for each criterion ranges from –2.5 (weak performance) to 2.5 (very high performance).
b. 0–20 indicates that budget documents provide scant or no information, 21–40 indicates minimal information, 41–60 indicates some information, 61–80 indicates significant information, and
81–100 indicates extensive information. In 2008 the International Budget Partnership made three changes in the methodology applied to its Open Budget Survey, which is the basis for the
open budget index.
c. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

118

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

Share of firms
(%)
Expected to pay
informal payment
to public officials
to get things done
2009–10 c

Expected to give
gifts to obtain an
operating license
2009–10 c

Expected to give
gifts in meetings
with tax officials
2009–10 c

Expected to give
gifts to secure a
government contract
2009–10 c

Identifying
corruption as a
major constraint
2009–10 c

48.9
54.5
7.3
8.5
..
51.2
6
..
41.8
..
65.7
81.8
38.5
..
..
0
..
41.8
..
..
..
..
..
28.1
55.4
21.8
10.8
19.4
..
5.9
..
..
35.2
..
..
..
..
..
20.4
..
..
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..

39.1
44.6
2.9
4.1
..
39.6
0
..
52.6
..
53.8
..
31.8
..
..
0
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
3.3
49.6
18.6
3.5
42.4
..
0
..
..
32.5
..
..
..
..
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
15.7
..
..
..

34.2
26.8
8.4
6.7
..
30.8
1.1
..
21.2
..
54.4
37.1
13.6
..
..
0
..
22.8
..
..
..
..
..
9.2
54.4
6.8
11.4
20.2
..
0.3
..
..
13.7
..
..
..
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
..
..
16.4
..
..
..

58.6
59
1
11.8
..
58.8
0
..
47.3
..
75.7
49.9
28.5
..
..
0
..
26.6
..
..
..
..
..
16.7
51.6
9
2.8
22.8
..
8.8
..
..
43.4
..
..
..
..
..
33.9
..
..
..
..
..
5.5
..
..
..

75.6
67.8
27.4
70.5
..
61.3
29.8
..
67.2
..
72.7
65
75
..
..
0
..
41.4
..
..
..
..
..
46.7
31.2
42.7
12.8
24.8
..
50.7
..
..
83.7
..
..
..
..
..
36.9
..
..
..
..
..
70.2
..
..
..

1.9
3.1
5.8
3.5
1.9
2.3
5.1
2.0
1.6
2.5
1.7
1.9
2.0
..
1.7
2.6
2.6
3.1
1.9
3.9
1.6
1.9
2.1
3.2
2.4
3.4
2.8
3.1
2.8
5.5
2.6
4.5
2.8
2.7
3.0
2.7
3.4
4.8
1.9
1.0
4.9
1.6
3.6
3.0
2.7
2.6
2.8
1.8

1.9
2.8
5.8
3.1
1.8
2.2
5.1
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
3.2
1.9
2.6
2.7
2.8
3.2
4.1
2.0
2.1
2.1
3.5
3.3
2.6
3.4
2.7
2.3
5.4
2.7
4.4
2.6
2.4
4.0
3.0
2.9
4.8
2.4
1.1
4.5
1.6
3.2
2.7
2.4
2.5
3.0
2.4

3.0
..
62.0
14.0
..
5.0
..
..
7.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
49.0
..
..
57.0
..
2.0
..
28.0
..
..
..
..
47.0
26.0
19.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
..
..
..
87.0
0.0
..
35.0
..
51.0
47.0
..

26.0
..
51.0
5.0
..
2.0
..
..
0.4
..
6.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
54.0
..
..
49.0
..
40.0
..
47.0
35.0
..
..
28.0
53.0
3.0
18.0
11.0
0.0
3.0
..
..
..
92.0
8.0
..
45.0
..
55.0
36.0
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

3.2
2.8
2.6
3.5
4.4

2.9
3.1
2.2
3.4
4.3

1.0
43.0
..
27.0
..

1.0
49.0
..
28.0
..

Capable states and partnership

Mean corruption
perceptions index score
(0 low to 10 high)
2008
2010

Open budget index
overall scoreb
2008
2010

Part III. Development outcomes

119

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.5

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings

CPIA overall rating (IDA
resource allocation index)a
2008
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswanac
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guineac
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabonc
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberiad
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritiusc
Mozambique
Namibiac
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychellesc
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africac
Sudan
Swazilandc
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriac
Egypt, Arab Rep.c
Libyac
Moroccoc
Tunisiac

120

Averageb
2008

2009

Economic management
Macroeconomic
management
Fiscal policy
2008
2009
2008
2009

Debt policy
2008
2009

3.2
2.7
3.6
..
3.7
3.0
3.2
4.2
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.7
2.7
2.7
3.1
..
2.3
3.4
..
3.2
3.9
3.0
2.6
3.6
3.5
..
3.7
3.4
3.7
3.3
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.4
3.7
3.0
3.6
..
3.1
..
..
2.5
..
3.8
2.7
3.9
3.5
1.4

3.2
2.8
3.5
..
3.8
3.1
3.2
4.2
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.8
2.8
3.2
..
2.2
3.4
..
3.3
3.8
2.8
2.6
3.7
3.5
2.8
3.5
3.4
3.7
3.2
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.5
3.8
2.9
3.7
..
3.2
..
..
2.5
..
3.8
2.8
3.9
3.4
1.9

3.4
3.0
4.0
..
4.3
3.3
3.7
4.5
2.8
2.7
2.0
3.2
2.8
2.5
3.0
..
2.2
3.3
..
3.5
3.7
3.0
1.8
4.0
4.0
..
3.8
3.3
4.3
3.5
..
4.3
..
3.7
4.3
3.8
2.8
3.8
..
3.7
..
..
2.7
..
4.3
2.7
4.5
3.7
1.0

3.4
3.0
3.7
..
4.3
3.3
3.7
4.5
3.0
2.5
2.3
3.2
3.0
2.8
3.0
..
1.8
3.7
..
3.5
3.7
2.3
2.2
4.2
4.0
3.2
3.7
3.2
4.3
3.2
..
4.5
..
3.8
4.3
3.8
2.8
4.0
..
3.7
..
..
2.7
..
4.3
2.8
4.5
3.5
1.7

3.5
3.0
4.5
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
2.0
2.5
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
3.5
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
4.0
..
..
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
4.0
1.0

3.6
3.0
4.0
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
4.0
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
4.0
..
..
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
4.0
2.0

3.4
3.0
4.0
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
2.5
4.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
4.5
4.0
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
3.5
1.0

3.4
3.0
3.5
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.5
..
4.5
..
3.5
4.5
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
3.0
2.0

3.2
3.0
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.0
3.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
..
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
4.0
2.5
1.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
3.0
4.5
4.0
..
4.5
..
3.5
4.5
3.5
2.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
1.5
..
4.0
2.0
4.5
3.5
1.0

3.1
3.0
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
1.5
3.5
..
3.0
4.0
2.0
1.5
4.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
1.5
..
4.0
2.5
4.5
3.5
1.0

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

Structural policies
Averageb

Trade

Financial sector
2008
2009

Business regulatory environment
2008
2009

2008

2009

2008

2009

3.2
2.8
3.7
..
3.5
2.8
3.2
3.8
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.8
3.3
3.7
..
1.5
3.2
..
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.2
3.8
3.3
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.3
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.2
3.8
..
3.2
..
..
2.7
..
3.8
3.2
3.8
3.7
1.5

3.2
2.8
3.7
..
3.5
3.0
3.2
3.8
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.5
3.0
3.3
3.7
..
1.5
3.2
..
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.2
4.0
3.3
2.8
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.3
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.5
3.8
3.0
3.8
..
3.2
..
..
2.7
..
3.8
3.2
3.8
3.5
2.2

3.7
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
..
1.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.5
..
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
2.0

3.7
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
..
1.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.5
..
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
..
1.0
3.0
..
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
1.0

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
..
1.0
3.0
..
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
1.5

3.1
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
4.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
..
3.0
..
..
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.5
1.5

3.1
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.5
4.0
..
3.0
..
..
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.0

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
(continued)

Capable states and partnership

Part III. Development outcomes

121

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.5

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
(continued)

Policies for social inclusion and equity

Averageb
2008
2009

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswanac
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guineac
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabonc
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberiad
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritiusc
Mozambique
Namibiac
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychellesc
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africac
Sudan
Swazilandc
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriac
Egypt, Arab Rep.c
Libyac
Moroccoc
Tunisiac

Gender equality
2008
2009

Equity of public
resource use
2008
2009

Building human
resources
2008
2009

Social protection
and labor
2008
2009

Policies and
institutions for
environmental
sustainability
2008
2009

3.1
2.7
3.3
..
3.6
3.3
3.1
4.3
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.9
2.7
2.3
3.0
..
3.0
3.6
..
3.2
4.0
3.0
2.6
3.2
3.3
..
3.7
3.4
3.4
3.5
..
3.4
..
3.0
3.2
3.9
2.8
3.4
..
2.9
..
..
2.3
..
3.7
2.7
3.8
3.5
1.5

3.1
2.9
3.3
..
3.6
3.3
3.1
4.3
2.5
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.4
3.2
..
2.8
3.6
..
3.3
3.9
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.3
2.5
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.4
..
3.3
..
3.1
3.2
3.9
2.8
3.4
..
3.1
..
..
2.3
..
3.7
2.7
3.8
3.5
1.6

3.2
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5

3.2
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5

3.2
2.5
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
3.0
..
3.0
4.5
..
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.0

3.2
2.5
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.0
..
2.5
4.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.5

3.3
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.0
3.0
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
1.0

3.3
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
1.0

3.0
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
..
2.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
1.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
1.0

2.9
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
2.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

2.9
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
..
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Note: The rating scale for each indicator ranges from 1 (low) to 6 (high). The most recent external review of the CPIA ratings and methodology was in 2004.
a. Calculated as the average of the average ratings of each cluster.
b. All criteria are weighted equally.
c. Not an International Development Association (IDA) member.
d. Not rated in the IDA resource allocation index.

122

Part III. Development outcomes

Capable states and partnership

Public sector management and institutions

Averageb

Property rights and
rule-based governance
2008
2009

Quality of budgetary and
financial management
2008
2009

Efficiency of revenue
mobilization
2008
2009

Quality of public
administration
2008
2009

Transparency,
accountability, and
corruption in public sector
2008
2009

2008

2009

2.9
2.4
3.3
..
3.5
2.6
2.9
4.0
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.6
2.5
2.8
..
2.7
3.3
..
2.9
3.9
2.6
2.6
3.3
3.4
..
3.6
3.4
3.4
3.0
..
3.3
..
3.2
2.9
3.5
3.1
3.4
..
2.7
..
..
2.3
..
3.5
2.2
3.4
3.2
1.6

3.0
2.4
3.3
..
3.7
2.6
2.9
4.0
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.6
2.8
..
2.7
3.2
..
2.9
3.8
2.6
2.6
3.3
3.4
2.8
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.0
..
3.4
..
3.1
2.9
3.5
3.1
3.4
..
2.9
..
..
2.2
..
3.5
2.4
3.3
3.2
2.0

2.8
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
..
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
1.0

2.8
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
..
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
1.5

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
1.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
3.0
..
2.5
4.0
..
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.5

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

3.4
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
2.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5

3.4
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
2.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5

2.9
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
..
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
2.0
3.0
3.0
1.0

2.9
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
..
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
2.0
3.0
3.0
1.5

2.7
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
2.0
2.5
4.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
2.5
..
2.0
4.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
1.0

2.7
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
2.0
2.5
4.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
2.5
..
2.0
4.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
..
3.0
..
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
..
1.5
..
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.5

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

Capable states and partnership

Part III. Development outcomes

123

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.6

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

124

Polity indicators

Revised combined polity score
(–10 strongly autocratic to
10 strongly democratic)
1995
2000
2009

Institutionalized democracy
(0 low to 10 high)
1995
2000
2009

–2.0
6.0
7.0
–5.0
0.0
–4.0
..
5.0
–4.0
0.0
0.0
5.0
–6.0
–7.0
–5.0
–6.0
1.0
–4.0
–7.0
–1.0
–1.0
5.0
–5.0
8.0
0.0
9.0
6.0
7.0
–6.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
–6.0
–6.0
..
–1.0
..
–7.0
0.0
9.0
–7.0
–9.0
–1.0
–2.0
–4.0
6.0
–6.0

–3.0
6.0
8.0
–3.0
–1.0
–4.0
..
5.0
–2.0
–1.0
0.0
–6.0
4.0
2.0
–5.0
–6.0
1.0
–4.0
–5.0
2.0
–1.0
5.0
–2.0
4.0
0.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
–6.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
–4.0
..
8.0
..
0.0
0.0
9.0
–7.0
–9.0
–1.0
–2.0
–4.0
1.0
–3.0

–2.0
7.0
8.0
0.0
6.0
–4.0
..
–1.0
–2.0
9.0
5.0
–4.0
0.0
2.0
–5.0
–7.0
1.0
3.0
–5.0
8.0
–1.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
6.0
0.0
6.0
7.0
–2.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
–3.0
4.0
–3.0
..
7.0
..
7.0
0.0
9.0
–4.0
–9.0
–1.0
–4.0
–1.0
7.0
1.0

..
6.0
7.0
0.0
..
1.0
..
5.0
0.0
..
..
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
8.0
..
9.0
6.0
7.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
0.0
..
2.0
..
0.0
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
6.0
0.0

1.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
..
5.0
1.0
1.0
..
0.0
5.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
1.0
5.0
2.0
..
3.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
6.0
4.0
0.0
..
8.0
..
..
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
3.0
1.0

2.0
7.0
8.0
2.0
7.0
1.0
..
1.0
1.0
9.0
6.0
0.0
..
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
4.0
0.0
8.0
1.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
7.0
3.0
6.0
7.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
0.0
4.0
0.0
..
7.0
..
8.0
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
7.0
3.0

..
0.0
0.0
5.0
..
5.0
..
0.0
4.0
..
..
1.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
6.0
2.0
4.0
7.0
2.0
2.0
0.0
5.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
6.0
..
3.0
..
7.0
..
0.0
7.0
9.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
0.0
6.0

4.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
2.0
5.0
..
0.0
3.0
2.0
..
6.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
6.0
2.0
4.0
5.0
1.0
2.0
0.0
4.0
..
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
4.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
7.0
9.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
4.0

4.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
..
2.0
3.0
0.0
1.0
4.0
..
1.0
5.0
7.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
3.0
..
0.0
..
1.0
..
0.0
4.0
9.0
3.0
5.0
2.0
0.0
2.0

–3.0
–6.0
–7.0
–7.0
–3.0

–3.0
–6.0
–7.0
–6.0
–3.0

2.0
–3.0
–7.0
–6.0
–4.0

1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

3.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

4.0
6.0
7.0
7.0
4.0

4.0
6.0
7.0
6.0
4.0

1.0
4.0
7.0
6.0
5.0

Part III. Development outcomes

Institutionalized autocracy
(0 low to 10 high)
1995
2000
2009

Capable states and partnership

Technical notes
1. Basic indicators
Table .. Basic indicators
Population is total population based on the de
facto definition of population, which counts
all residents regardless of legal status or
citizenship—except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who
are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values
shown are midyear estimates.
Population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population
from year t–1 to t, expressed as a percentage.
Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents
regardless of legal status or citizenship—
except for refugees not permanently settled
in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the
country of origin.
Land area is the land surface area of a country, excluding inland waters, national claims
to continental shelf, and exclusive economic
zones.
Population density is midyear population
divided by land area in square kilometers.
Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents
regardless of legal status or citizenship—
except for refugees not permanently settled
in the country of asylum, who are generally
considered part of the population of their
country of origin. Land area is a country’s
total area, excluding area under inland water
bodies, national claims to continental shelf,
and exclusive economic zones. In most cases
the definition of inland water bodies includes
major rivers and lakes.
Gross national income (GNI) per capita,
World Bank Atlas method, is GNI, calculated
using the World Bank Atlas method (see box

1), divided by midyear population. It is similar in concept to GNI per capita in current
prices, except that the use of three-year averages of exchange rates smooths out sharp
fluctuations from year to year.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is
gross domestic product divided by midyear
population. GDP is the sum of gross value
added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any
subsidies not included in the value of the
products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets
or for depletion and degradation of natural
resources. Growth rates are in real terms and
have been calculated by the least-squares
method using constant 2000 exchange rates
(box 2).
Life expectancy at birth is the number of
years a newborn infant would live if prevailing
patterns of mortality at the time of its birth
were to remain the same throughout its life.
Under-five mortality rate is the probability
that a newborn baby will die before reaching
age 5, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a
rate per 1,000.
Gini index is the most commonly used
measure of inequality. The coefficient ranges
from 0, which reflects complete equality, to
100, which indicates complete inequality
(one person has all the income or consumption, all others have none). Graphically, the
Gini index can be easily represented by the
area between the Lorenz curve and the line
of equality.
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of
adults ages 15 and older who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple
statement on their everyday life.
Net official development assistance per capita
is calculated by dividing net disbursements
Technical notes

125

Box 2

Growth rates

Growth rates are calculated as annual averages and represented as
percentages. Except where noted, growth rates of values are computed from constant price series. Rates of change from one period
to the next are calculated as proportional changes from the earlier
period. Least squares growth rates are used wherever there is a sufficiently long time series to permit a reliable calculation. No growth
rate is calculated if more than half the observations in a period are
missing. The least squares growth rate, r, is estimated by fitting a linear regression trend line to the logarithmic annual values of the variable in the relevant period. The regression equation takes the form
ln Xt = a + bt

which is equivalent to the logarithmic transformation of the compound growth equation,
X t = Xo(1 + r)2
In this equation X is the variable, t is time, and a = lnXo and b = ln(1 + r)
are parameters to be estimated. If b* is the least squares estimate
of b, the average annual growth rate, r, is obtained as [exp(b*) – 1]
multiplied by 100 for expression as a percentage. The calculated
growth rate is an average rate that is representative of the available
observations over the entire period. It does not necessarily match
the actual growth rate between any two periods.

of loans and grants from all official sources
on concessional financial terms by midyear
population. This indicator shows the importance of aid flows in sustaining per capita income and consumption levels, although exchange rate fluctuations, the actual rise of aid
flows, and other factors vary across countries
and over time.
Regional aggregates for GNI per capita, GDP
per capita, life expectancy at birth, and adult
literacy rates are weighted by population.
Source: Data on population and life expectancy are from the United Nations Population Division World Population Prospects: The
2008 Revision, census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical
offices, Eurostat Demographic Statistics, Secretariat of the Pacific Community Statistics
and Demography Programme, U.S. Census
Bureau International Database, and World
Bank estimates based on data from these
sources as well as household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, and refugees statistics from
the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees. Data on land are from Food and
Agriculture Organization electronic files and
website. Data on GNI per capita and GDP
per capita are from World Bank national accounts data and Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) national accounts data files. Data on under-five
mortality are from the Inter-agency Group
for Child Mortality Estimation Level &
Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2010. Data
on Gini index for developing countries are
126

Africa Development Indicators 2011

from the World Bank Development Research
Group and are based on primary household
survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country
departments (http://iresearch.worldbank.
org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp) and for highincome economies are from the Luxembourg
Income Study database. Data on literacy are
from United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. Data on aid flows are from the OECD
Geographic Distribution of Aid Flows to Developing Countries.
2. National and fiscal accounts
Africa Development Indicators uses the 1993
System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) to
compile national accounts data. Botswana,
Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and South Africa report data using the 1993 SNA. Although
more countries are adopting the 1993 SNA,
many still follow the 1968 SNA, and some
low-income countries use concepts from the
1953 SNA.
Reporting periods: For most economies
the fiscal year is concurrent with the calendar year. However, there are few countries
whose ending date reported is for the fiscal year of the central government, though
fiscal years for other government levels
and reporting years for statistical surveys
may differ. Reporting end dates are as follows for the following countries: Botswana
(June  30); Egypt (June 30), Ethiopia (July
7), Gambia, The (June 30), Kenya (June 30),
Lesotho (March 31), Malawi (March 31),

African statistical systems
Most of the data used to compute the indicators in this volume of
Africa Development Indicators come from the African country national statistical systems, the only primary source of the statistics
related to country economic, social, and environmental issues.
While international and specialized institutions may review, make
comparable, and estimate missing values, the true sources of the
data are the national statistical systems, and the data coverage
and quality improvement depend on strengthening their capacity.
National statistical systems
In general a national statistical system consists of a central statistical office, a national office or institute of statistics, and its regional
agencies, sectors’ statistical units in key ministries (finance, education, health, transport, agriculture), and a Central Bank statistical unit. Some large programs may also have specialized statistical units.
Africa’s national statistical systems were designed on Europe’s model, ruled by the same principles drafted in a statistical
law—a law that ensures the independence of the system and the
essence of the role it plays within or together with the government
(produce and centralize, process, publish and disseminate basic
information needed for administrative management). In the past
most African countries reviewed and updated their statistical laws
to address new aspects of statistical information.
The system is usually coordinated by a national council of
statistics, a multisector body at the ministerial level that approves
the overall strategies and policies related to the statistical operations in the country as well as the yearly action plan for statistical
production. It meets once or twice a year. In most countries, these
councils have been weak institutions incapable of playing their
central role of coordination and quality control. It seems, however,
that in recent years, thanks to PARIS21’s new National Strategy
for the Development of Statistics process and STATCAP, they have
been able to play a stronger role in both developing and coordinating national statistical systems.
The major element of the national statistical system is the central statistical office. In the context of weak systems, these offices
tend to concentrate all national production, often substituting the
sector departments. However, that does not preclude most of
these offices from facing incredible difficulties that hamper their
power to produce statistics in a timely and accurate manner. Most
African central statistical offices now have websites where the
core of their production is displayed (see table).
In more and more countries, statistical training is provided by
national schools sometimes linked with central statistical offices,
while regional schools of statistics train statisticians at high and
intermediate levels. As a result, most central statistical offices are
staffed with trained statisticians, but a critical mass of statisticians
is yet to be reached to support regular statistical production. In addition, there is a concentration at the central statistical office, while
in general, sector departments of statistics lack trained statisticians.

Ghislaine Delaine and Antoine Simonpietri
National Strategies for the Development of Statistics
The National Strategy for the Development of Statistics approach
developed by PARIS21 and endorsed by the Marrakech Action
Plan for Statistics in 2004 gives an efficient tool to organize the
development of national statistical systems. If the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper is the vehicle for coordination and prioritization for national development planning in the region, the National
Strategy for the Development of Statistics is the equivalent for statistical systems. Based on the principles of strategic management
used in statistical systems in developed countries, the strategy’s
guidelines were discussed and reviewed by a number of managers
of statistical offices in developing countries and have taken into
account previous attempts of statistical planning.
A National Strategy for the Development of Statistics provides
a guide for strengthening statistical capacity across the entire national statistical system. The strategy envisages where the national
statistical systems should be in 5–10 years and sets milestones for
getting there. It presents a comprehensive and unified framework
for continual assessment of evolving user needs and priorities
for statistics and for building the capacity needed to meet these
needs in a more coordinated, synergistic, and efficient manner. It
also provides a framework for mobilizing, harnessing, and leveraging resources (both national and international) and a basis for effective and results-oriented strategic management of the national
statistical system.
The PARIS21 Report (March 2011) on National Strategy for
the Development of Statistics status for International Development
Association countries shows that 22 countries are currently implementing a strategy and that 15 are designing a strategy or awaiting
their adoption by country authorities.
Role of partners
For a long time donors have substituted government at both the
demand and financial levels and provided methodological support
for the adoption of up to date techniques and measurements. According to the 2010 Partner Report on Support to Statistics, Africa received nearly half of total statistical support, equivalent to
$716 million in commitments, of which 9 countries (Burkina Faso,
Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, and
Tanzania) received a little less than half of this amount.
Challenges in supporting national capacity
After years of decline, the capacity of African countries to produce
and disseminate good quality, reliable, relevant, and timely statistics has improved due in part to an increase in the demand for
data. However, this demand has rarely been used to build a sustainable statistical capacity. Data production from some administrative sources and surveys has improved, but large gaps remain
in national accounts, household surveys, and most administrative
data. If data dissemination has progressed with the development
of national data archives, very few countries have adopted data

(continued)

Technical notes

127

African statistical systems (continued)
access policies. The use of data by nationals, the raison d’être of
statistical capacity building, is still very limited.
In the past, the policy environment has been friendlier to statistical development, but progress remains precarious:

The industry of indicators has flourished with Poverty Reduction Strategy/Millennium Development Goals monitoring
and evaluation, but availability of good statistics has rarely
been cited as a condition for transparency, accountability,
and good governance in development policies. Hence, the
commitment of governments continues to be fragile.

Most of the countries have designed National Strategies
for the Development of Statistics, but implementation of
action programs is still meager. National statistical offices
have gained more autonomy despite the resistance to enforcing new laws or taking advantage of new institutional
arrangements.

For more than 20 years, Africa has benefitted from a training center network; however, trained statisticians are not
being adequately hired by statistical offices due to budgetary constraints.

Statistical knowledge and new techniques are available but
transferred to African statisticians in ad hoc and uncoordinated manners, resulting in a permanent resort to technical assistance. Some attempts have been made to address
this—but in an ad hoc manner and without a systematic capacity-building program approach.

Finally, despite recent efforts, inadequate financing of statistical operations remains the major constraint to statistical
development.
References
PARIS21. 2004. “A Guide to Designing a National Strategy for
the Development of Statistics (NSDS).” PARIS21 Secretariat,
Paris.
———. 2010. “Partner Report on Support to Statistics (PRESS).”
PARIS21 Secretariat, Paris.
———. 2011. National Strategies for the Development of Statistics
Progress Report: NSDS Summary Table for IDA and Lower
Middle Income Countries. Paris: PARIS21 Secretariat.
World Bank. 2004. “Better Data for Better Results: An Action Plan
for Improving Development Statistics.” Paper presented at the
Second International Roundtable on Managing for Development Results, February 4–5, Marrakech, Morocco.

128

Africa Development Indicators 2011

Country

Statistical office website

Angola

 

Benin

www.insae-bj.org

Botswana

www.cso.gov.bw/

Burkina Faso

www.insd.bf/fr/

Burundi

www.isteebu.bi/

Cameroon

www.statistics-cameroon.org

Cape Verde

www.ine.cv/

Central African Republic

www.stat-centrafrique.com/

Chad

www.inseed-tchad.org

Comoros

 

Congo, Dem. Rep.

www.ins.cd/

Congo, Rep.

www.cnsee.org

Côte d’Ivoire

www.ins.ci/

Equatorial Guinea

www.dgecnstat-ge.org

Eritrea

 

Ethiopia

www.csa.gov.et/

Gabon

www.stat-gabon.org

Gambia

www.gambia.gm/Statistics/

Ghana

www.statsghana.gov.gh/

Guinea

www.stat-guinee.org

Guinea-Bissau

www.stat-guinebissau.com/

Kenya

www.knbs.or.ke/

Lesotho

www.bos.gov.ls/

Liberia

www.lisgis.org

Madagascar

www.instat.mg/

Malawi

www.nso.malawi.net/

Mali

http://instat.gov.ml/

Mauritania

www.ons.mr/

Mauritius

www.gov.mu/portal/site/cso

Mozambique

www.ine.gov.mz/

Namibia

www.npc.gov.na/cbs/

Niger

www.stat-niger.org

Nigeria

www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/

Rwanda

www.statistics.gov.rw/

São Tomé and Príncipe

www.ine.st/

Senegal

www.ansd.sn/

Seychelles

www.nsb.gov.sc/

Sierra Leone

www.statistics.sl/

Somalia

 

South Africa

www.statssa.gov.za/

South Sudan

http://ssccse.org

Sudan

www.cbs.gov.sd/

Swaziland

www.gov.sz/

Tanzania

www.nbs.go.tz/

Togo

www.stat-togo.org

Uganda

www.ubos.org

Zambia

www.zamstats.gov.zm/

Zimbabwe

www.zimstat.co.zw

Total

44

Namibia (March 31), Sierra Leone (June
30), South Africa (March 31), Swaziland
(March 31), Uganda (June 30), and Zimbabwe (June 30). The reporting period for national accounts data is either calendar year
or fiscal year basis. Most economies report
national accounts and balance of payments
data using calendar years, but some report
on fiscal years. Fiscal year data are assigned
to the calendar year that contains the larger
share of the fiscal year. If a country’s fiscal
year ends before June 30, data are shown in
that first calendar year of the fiscal year; if
the fiscal year ends on or after June 30, data
are shown in the second calendar year of the
fiscal year. Balance of payments data are reported by calendar year.
Revisions to national accounts data: National
accounts data are revised by national statistical offices when methodologies change or
data sources improve. This in turn means
that Africa Development Indicators national accounts data are also revised when data
sources change.
• Ghana: The Ghana Statistical Service
revised Ghana’s national accounts series from 1993 to 2006. New GDP data
are about 60 percent higher than previously reported and incorporate improved data sources and methodology.
• Guinea-Bissau: National accounts data
for 2003–09 are revised. The new data
have broader coverage of all sectors of
the economy, and the new base year is
2005. GDP in current prices is on average 89 percent higher than previous
estimates.
• Namibia: The Central Bureau of Statistics has revised national accounts
data for 2000–07. An expanded survey
has resulted in a substantial upward
adjustment to estimates of output,
particularly in mining, services, and
manufacturing. The constant price series were rebased from 1995 to 2004
prices. GDP in current prices averages 14 percent higher than previous
estimates.
• South Africa: The base year has been
changed from 2000 to 2005. Data are
revised from 2000 onward with official
government data.
National currencies: As of January 2009,
multiple hard currencies such as the rand,

pound sterling, euro, and U.S. dollar are in
use in Zimbabwe. However, data are reported in U.S. dollars, the most frequently used
currency.
Table .. Gross domestic product,
nominal
Gross domestic product (GDP), nominal, is the
sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes
and minus any subsidies not included in the
value of the products. It is calculated without
making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation
of natural resources. GDP figures are shown
at market prices (also known as purchaser
values) and converted from domestic currencies using single-year official exchange
rates. For the few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate
effectively applied to actual foreign exchange
transactions, an alternative conversion factor
is used.
The sum of the components of GDP by
industrial origin (presented here as value
added) will not normally equal total GDP for
several reasons. First, components of GDP
by expenditure are individually rescaled and
summed to provide a partially rebased series
for total GDP. Second, total GDP is shown
at purchaser value, while value added components are conventionally reported at producer prices. As explained above, purchaser
values exclude net indirect taxes, while producer prices include indirect taxes. Third, certain items, such as imputed bank charges, are
added in total GDP.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product, real
Gross domestic product (GDP), real, is obtained
by converting national currency GDP series
to U.S. dollars using constant 2000 exchange
rates. For countries where the official exchange rate does not effectively reflect the
rate applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative currency conversion
factor has been used. Growth rates are in
real terms and calculated by the least-squares
method using constant 2000 exchange rates
(see box 2).
Technical notes

129

Africa’s future and the World Bank’s support to it

Shantayanan Devarajan

Sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 has an unprecedented opportunity for
transformation and sustained growth. Until the global economic
crisis, Africa’s economy had been growing 5 percent a year for a
decade. Growth declined in 2009 but rebounded in 2010, thanks
mainly to prudent macroeconomic policies (figure 1). Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals has been fast enough
that several countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, and Malawi) are likely
to achieve most of the goals. Africa’s private sector is increasingly attracting investment, and—if policymakers’ response to the
global crisis is a guide—the climate for market-oriented, pro-poor
reforms is robust.

GDP growth (%)

Figure 1

Growth and poverty reduction in Africa

10

Oil exporters, excluding Nigeria

8

Oil exporters
Low income

6
4
Middle income

2
Non-oil-exporting resource rich

0

Poverty rate (%)

–2

2006

2007

2008

2009

70

2010

Sub-Saharan Africa

60

Actual $1.25 a day
Projected $1.25 a day

50

After crisis

Path to 2015

40

38.0

30
20

2011

36.0
Before crisis

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

But Africa continues to face long-term development challenges: dependence on a few primary commodities, low human
capital, weak governance, low youth employment, low empowerment of women, and climate change, to name a few. If we can address these challenges, Africa could be on the brink of a takeoff,
much like China 30 years ago and India 20 years ago.
To that end, the World Bank’s strategy for Africa has two pillars
and a foundation. The two pillars are:

Competitiveness and employment. The strategy seeks to
help diversify African countries’ exports and generate productive employment, especially for the 7–10 million young
people entering the labor force every year. The strategy will
require a mix of proactive government policies that target
sectors—which helped Kenya’s cut flowers and Mali’s mangoes—with more “neutral” policies, including infrastructure
and skill-building, that enable different industries to flourish,

130

Africa Development Indicators 2011

as shown by the dynamic growth of the information, communications, and technology sector in Africa.

Vulnerability and resilience. Africa’s poor are subject to a series of shocks that conspire to keep them poor: macroeconomic shocks; health shocks such as malaria or HIV/AIDS;
natural disasters, which are likely to increase with climate
change; and conflict and political violence. The strategy seeks
to build resilience to these shocks by, for example, improving
macroeconomic policies, promoting public health interventions, adapting to the effects of climate change with greater
use of irrigation and water management, and strengthening
institutions of resource-sharing and consensus-building. The
strategy will also support countries in the event of a shock
through, for instance, health insurance and safety net programs, such as Rwanda’s nearly universal insurance scheme
or Ethiopia’s public works program.
The foundation of the strategy is governance and public sector capacity. Of Africa’s $48 billion infrastructure deficit, $17 billion can be filled by efficiency improvements in the management
of infrastructure. Teachers in public primary schools in Uganda
are absent about 20 percent of the time. Yet governance problems—vested interests—stand in the way of these efficiency gains.
The strategy will help address these problems by approaching
governance from both the demand and supply sides. We aim to
strengthen citizen voice using data, knowledge, and the power of
information, communications, and technology so that they can
demand good governance from their leaders. On the supply side,
we will continue to strengthen the capacity of the public sector,
focusing on incentives within the civil service.
The World Bank will implement the strategy using its three
instruments—finance, knowledge, and partnerships—but we will
reverse the order. The first instrument is partnership—with African
governments, the domestic and international private sector, civil
society, and development partners. We will tailor our interventions
depending on what others are doing. Since Rwanda and Niger receive substantial amounts of money for “vertical health programs”
such as HIV/AIDS or malaria, the Bank uses its resources to help
these countries improve their health systems. The second instrument is knowledge, which we will use to promote a more evidencebased public debate. Studies on leakage of public funds, teacher
absenteeism, and student learning outcomes, by informing the
public about the quality of public services, have stimulated a vigorous debate, which has brought about change. The third instrument, finance, will be used as a source of leveraging. How can we
turn a $500 million lending envelope to a country into $3 billion
in external resources to that country, just as the Bujagali dam in
Uganda used $150 million of the Bank’s IDA resources to crowd in
$650 million additional resources from public and private sources?
The strategy proposes a 10-year vision of a continent whose
per capita income is 50 percent higher than today, whose poverty
rate has fallen 12 percentage points, whose area includes at least
5 middle-income countries and 15 countries increasing agricultural productivity faster than 5 percent a year, and whose share of

Africa’s future and the World Bank’s support to it (continued)
world trade has doubled to 8 percent. To track progress towards
these goals, the strategy has a three-tier results monitoring framework based on a results chain that links Africa’s progress with the
World Bank’s contribution to those results with the use of World
Bank instruments (figure 2).
Figure 2 The Africa strategy’s three-tier results monitoring
framework

Needless to say, this strategy is not without risks. The global
economy could face another serious downturn, political violence
could break out in parts of the continent, and we may lack the resources to carry out the plans. But the themes of the strategy, as
well as the focus on partnerships—not to mention the palpable optimism on the continent—make us confident that Africa can seize
this opportunity and realize its full potential ti sustain growth and
reduce poverty.

Tier 2
Sector outcomes and
outputs contributing to
regional results, supported
through country programs

References
World Bank. 2011. Africa’s Future and the World’s Support to It.
Washington, DC: World Bank.

Tier 1
Results indicators
for regional development
outcomes
Measures how the
Africa Region makes
progress on key
development indicators

Measures the World
Bank’s contribution
to achieving
development results

Tier 3
Activities and inputs
in support of
regional results
Shows which instruments
and inputs the World Bank
is using for results
achievement

Table .. Gross domestic product
growth
Gross domestic product (GDP) growth is the average annual growth rate of real GDP (table
2.2) at market prices based on constant local
currency. Aggregates are based on constant
2000 U.S. dollars.

Table .. Gross national income,
nominal
Gross national income, nominal, is the sum of
value added by all resident producers plus any
product taxes (less subsidies) not included in
the valuation of output plus net receipts of
primary income (compensation of employees
and property income) from abroad. Data are
converted from national currency in current
prices to U.S. dollars at official annual exchange rates.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Table .. Gross domestic product per
capita, real
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, real, is
calculated by dividing real GDP (table 2.2) by
corresponding midyear population.

Table .. Gross national income,
World Bank Atlas method
Gross national income (GNI), World Bank Atlas method, (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any
product taxes (less subsidies) not included in
the valuation of output plus net receipts of
primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI,
calculated in national currency, is usually
converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange
rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the
official exchange rate is judged to diverge
by an exceptionally large margin from the
rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices
and exchange rates, the World Bank Atlas
method (see box 1) of conversion is used.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product per
capita growth
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth
is the average annual growth rate of real GDP
per capita (table 2.4).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Technical notes

131

This method applies a conversion factor that
averages the exchange rate for a given year
and the two preceding years, adjusted for
the difference between the rate of inflation
in the country and that in Japan, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the euro
area. Growth rates are calculated by the leastsquares method (see box 2).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross national income per
capita, World Bank Atlas method
Gross national income (GNI) per capita, World
Bank Atlas method, is GNI, calculated using
the World Bank Atlas method (see box 1), divided by midyear population.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product
deflator (local currency series)
Gross domestic product (GDP) deflator (local
currency series) is nominal GDP in current local currency divided by real GDP in constant
2000 local currency, expressed as an index
with base year 2000. GDP is the sum of gross
domestic and foreign value added claimed by
residents plus net factor income from abroad
(the income residents receive from abroad for
factor services including labor and capital)
less similar payments made to nonresidents
who contribute to the domestic economy, divided by midyear population. It is calculated
by the World Bank Atlas method using constant 2000 exchange rates (see box 1).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product
deflator (U.S. dollar series)
Gross domestic product (GDP) deflator (U.S.
dollar series) is nominal GDP in current U.S.
dollars (table 2.1) divided by real GDP in constant 2000 U.S. dollars (table 2.2), expressed
as an index with base year 2000. The series
shows the effects of domestic price changes
and exchange rate variations.
132

Africa Development Indicators 2011

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Consumer price index
Consumer price index reflects changes in the
cost to the average consumer of acquiring
a basket of goods and services that may be
fixed or changed at specified intervals, such
as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally
used.
Source: International Monetary Fund International Financial Statistics database and
data files.
Table .. Price indexes
Inflation, GDP deflator, is measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator and shows the rate of price change in the
economy as a whole.
Consumer price index is a change in the cost
to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or
changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
Exports of goods and services price index is
calculated by dividing the national accounts
exports of goods and services in current U.S.
dollars by exports of goods and services in
constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
Imports of goods and services price index is
calculated by dividing the national accounts
imports of goods and services in current U.S.
dollars by imports of goods and services in
constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic savings
Gross domestic savings is calculated by deducting total consumption (table 2.17) from
nominal gross domestic product (table 2.1).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross national savings
Gross national savings is the sum of gross domestic savings (table 2.13), net factor income
from abroad, and net private transfers from

abroad. Net public transfers from abroad are
included.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. General government final
consumption expenditure
General government final consumption expenditure is all current expenditure for purchases
of goods and services by all levels of government, including capital expenditure on
national defense and security. Other government capital expenditure is included in
capital formation.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Household final
consumption expenditure
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market
value of all goods and services, including
durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by
households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owneroccupied dwellings. It also includes payments
and fees to governments to obtain permits
and licenses.
Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit
institutions serving households, even when
reported separately by the country.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Final consumption
expenditure plus discrepancy
Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy (formerly total consumption) is the sum
of household final consumption expenditure (table 2.16) and general government
final consumption expenditure (table 2.15),
shown as a share of gross domestic product.
This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the
supply of resources. Private consumption,
not separately shown here, is the value of all

goods and services purchased or received as
income in kind by households and nonprofit
institutions. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. In practice, it includes any
statistical discrepancy in the use of resources.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Final consumption
expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
per capita is final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy in current U.S. dollars (table
2.17) divided by midyear population.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross fixed capital formation
Gross fixed capital formation consists of gross
domestic fixed capital formation plus net
changes in the level of inventories. Gross capital formation comprises outlays by the public sector (table 2.20) and the private sector
(table 2.21). Examples include improvements
in land, dwellings, machinery, and other
equipment. Due to statistical discrepancies,
for some countries the sum of gross private
investment and gross public investment does
not total gross domestic investment.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross general government
fixed capital formation
Gross general government fixed capital formation is gross domestic fixed capital formation
(see table 2.19) for the public sector.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Private sector fixed capital
formation
Private sector fixed capital formation is gross
domestic fixed capital formation (see table
2.19) for the private sector.
Technical notes

133

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Table .. External trade balance
(exports minus imports)
External trade balance is the difference between free on board exports (table 2.23) and
cost, insurance, and freight imports (table
2.24) of goods and services (or the difference
between gross domestic savings and gross
capital formation). The resource balance is
shown as a share of nominal gross domestic
product (table 2.1).

Table .. Exports of goods and
services as a share of GDP
Exports of goods and services represent the value
of all goods and other market services provided
to the rest of the world. They include the value
of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport,
travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction,
financial, information, business, personal,
and government services. They exclude labor
and property income (formerly called factor
services) as well as transfer payments and are
expressed as a proportion of real GDP.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Exports of goods and
services, nominal
Exports of goods and services, nominal, represent the value of all goods and other
market services provided to the rest of the
world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel,
royalties, license fees, and other services,
such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal,
and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called
factor services) as well as transfer payments and are expressed in current U.S.
dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Imports of goods and
services, nominal
Imports of goods and services, nominal, represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the
world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel,
royalties, license fees, and other services,
such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal,
and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called
factor services) as well as transfer payments and are expressed in current U.S.
dollars.
134

Africa Development Indicators 2011

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Imports of goods and
services as a share of GDP
Imports of goods and services represent the value
of all goods and other market services received
from the rest of the world. They include the
value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other
services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude
labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments and
are expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Balance of payments and
current account
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include
the value of merchandise, freight, insurance,
transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and
other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business,
personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly
called factor services) as well as transfer payments and are expressed in current U.S. dollars and as a proportion of real GDP.

Imports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government
services. They exclude labor and property
income (formerly called factor services) as
well as transfer payments and are expressed
in current U.S. dollars and as a proportion
of real GDP.
Total trade is the sum of exports and imports of goods and services.
Net income is the receipts and payments of
employee compensation paid to nonresident
workers and investment income (receipts
and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets).
Net current transfers are recorded in the
balance of payments whenever an economy
provides or receives goods, services, income,
or financial items without a quid pro quo.
Current account balance is the sum of net
exports of goods, services, net income, and
net current transfers. All transfers not considered to be capital are current.
Total reserves including gold are the holdings
of monetary gold, special drawing rights,
reserves of International Monetary Fund
(IMF) members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of
monetary authorities.
Source: Data on exports and imports of
goods and services are from World Bank and
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development national accounts data. Data
on net income, net current transfers, current
account balance, and total reserves are from
the IMF International Financial Statistics database and data files.
Table .. Exchange rates and
purchasing power parity
Official exchange rate is the exchange rate
determined by national authorities or the
rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion
factor is the number of units of a country’s
currency required to buy the same amount of

goods and services in the domestic market as
a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
Ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the national price level, making
it possible to compare across countries the
costs of the bundle of goods that make up
gross domestic product.
Real effective exchange rate is the nominal
effective exchange rate (a measure of the
value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a
price deflator or index of costs.
Gross domestic product (GDP), PPP, is gross
domestic product converted to international
dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar
has in the United States. GDP is the sum of
gross value added by all resident producers in
the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of
the products.
It is calculated without making deductions
for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita,
PPP, is GDP per capita based on purchasing
power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars
using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing
power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the
United States. GDP at purchaser prices is the
sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes
and minus any subsidies not included in the
value of the products. It is calculated without
making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation
of natural resources.
Source: International Monetary Fund International Financial Statistics database.
Data on PPP are from the World Bank International Comparison Program database.
Table .. Agriculture value added
Agriculture value added is the gross output of
forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as crop
cultivation and livestock production (International Standard Industrial Classification
[ISIC] revision 3 divisions 1–5) less the value
of their intermediate inputs. It is calculated
without making deductions for depreciation
Technical notes

135

of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. For countries that
report national accounts data at producer
prices (Angola, Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros,
the Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon,
Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé
and Príncipe, Seychelles, Togo, and Tunisia),
gross value added at market prices is used as
the denominator. For countries that report
national accounts data at basic prices (all other countries), gross value added at factor cost
is used as the denominator. Value added at
basic prices excludes net taxes on products;
value added at producer prices includes net
taxes on products paid by producers but excludes sales or value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
Table .. Industry value added
Industry value added is the gross output of
mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity, water, and gas (International Standard
Industrial Classification revision 3 divisions
10– 45) less the value of their intermediate
inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural
resources For countries that report national
accounts data at producer prices (Angola,
Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros, the Republic of
Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia,
Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Togo, and Tunisia), gross value added
at market prices is used as the denominator.
For countries that report national accounts
data at basic prices (all other countries), gross
value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Value added at basic prices excludes net taxes on products; value added at
producer prices includes net taxes on products paid by producers but excludes sales or
value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
Table .. Services plus discrepancy
value added
Services plus discrepancy value added is the
gross output of all other branches of economic
136

Africa Development Indicators 2011

activity, including wholesale and retail trade
(including hotels and restaurants), transport,
and government, financial, professional, and
personal services, such as education, health
care, and real estate (International Standard
Industrial Classification revision 3 divisions
50–99), less the value of their intermediate
inputs. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers or arising from rescaling. It is calculated
without making deductions for depreciation
of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. For countries that
report national accounts data at producer
prices (Angola, Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros,
the Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon,
Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé
and Príncipe, Seychelles, Togo, and Tunisia),
gross value added at market prices is used as
the denominator. For countries that report
national accounts data at basic prices (all other countries), gross value added at factor cost
is used as the denominator. Value added at
basic prices excludes net taxes on products;
value added at producer prices includes net
taxes on products paid by producers but excludes sales or value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
Table .. Central government
finances, expense, and revenue
Revenue, excluding grants, is cash receipts
from taxes, social contributions, and other
revenues, such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also
considered as revenue but are excluded here.
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods
and services. It includes compensation of
employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and
other expenses such as rent and dividends.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including
grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 Government Finance Statistics Manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and
expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus
or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus

repayments, which are now a financing item
under net acquisition of financial assets).
Net incurrence of liabilities is domestic financing (obtained from residents) and foreign financing (obtained from nonresidents),
or the means by which a government provides financial resources to cover a budget
deficit or allocates financial resources arising
from a budget surplus. The net incurrence of
liabilities should be offset by the net acquisition of financial assets (a third financing
item). The difference between the cash surplus or deficit and the three financing items
is the net change in the stock of cash.
Total debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations
to others outstanding on a particular date. It
includes domestic and foreign liabilities such
as currency and money deposits, securities
other than shares, and loans. It is the gross
amount of government liabilities minus the
amount of equity and financial derivatives
held by the government. Because debt is a
stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of
a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal
year.
Goods and services include all government
payments in exchange for goods and services
used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account
capital formation is excluded.
Compensation of employees consists of all
payments in cash and in kind (such as food
and housing) to employees in return for
services rendered and of government contributions to social insurance schemes such
as social security and pensions that provide
benefits to employees.
Interest payments (expense) include interest
payments on government debt—including
long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other
debt instruments—to domestic and foreign residents, expressed as a proportion of
expense.
Subsidies and other transfers include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current
accounts to private and public enterprises;
grants to foreign governments, international
organizations, and other government units;
and social security, social assistance benefits,
and employer social benefits in cash and in
kind.
Other expenses are spending on dividends,
rent, and other miscellaneous expenses,

including provision for consumption of fixed
capital.
Interest payments (revenue) include interest
payments on government debt—including
long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other
debt instruments—to domestic and foreign
residents, expressed as a proportion of revenue.
Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are
levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains,
whether realized or not, on land, securities,
and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
Taxes on goods and services include general
sales and turnover or value added taxes, selective excises on goods, selective taxes on
services, taxes on the use of goods or property, taxes on extraction and production of
minerals, and profits of fiscal monopolies.
Taxes on international trade include import
duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
Other taxes include employer payroll or labor taxes, taxes on property, and taxes not allocable to other categories, such as penalties
for late payment or nonpayment of taxes.
Social contributions include social security
contributions by employees, employers, and
self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined.
They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated
by governments.
Grants and other revenue include grants
from other foreign governments, international organizations, and other government
units; interest; dividends; rent; requited, nonrepayable receipts for public purposes (such
as fines, administrative fees, and entrepreneurial income from government ownership
of property); and voluntary, unrequited, nonrepayable receipts other than grants.
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data
files, and World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
GDP estimates.
Table .. Structure of demand
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market
Technical notes

137

value of all goods and services, including
durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by
households.
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) is all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services.
Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross
domestic investment) consists of outlays on
additions to the fixed assets of the economy
plus net changes in the level of inventories.
Exports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer
payments and are expressed as a proportion
of real GDP.
Imports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments and are expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Gross national savings is the gross national income less total consumption, plus net
transfers.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
3. Millennium Development Goals
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : eradicate extreme poverty and
hunger
Share of population below PPP $1.25 a day is
the percentage of the population living on
less than $1.25 a day at 2005 international
prices. As a result of revisions in purchasing
power parity (PPP) exchange rates, poverty
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Africa Development Indicators 2011

rates in this edition cannot be compared with
those in editions before 2009.
Poverty gap ratio at PPP $1.25 a day is the
mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line.
This measure reflects the depth of poverty as
well as its incidence.
Share of population below PPP $2 a day is the
percentage of the population living on less
than $2 a day at 2005 international prices.
As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates,
poverty rates in this edition cannot be compared with those in editions before 2009.
Poverty gap ratio at PPP $2 a day is the mean
shortfall from the poverty line (counting the
nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed
as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as
its incidence.
Share of population below national poverty
line (poverty headcount ratio) is the percentage
of the population living below the national
poverty line. National estimates are based
on population-weighted subgroup estimates
from household surveys.
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income is the share of consumption, or
in some cases income, that accrues to the
poorest 20 percent of the population.
Prevalence of child malnutrition, underweight, is the percentage of children under
age 5 whose weight for age is more than two
standard deviations below the median for the
international reference population ages 0–59
months. The reference population, adopted
by the World Health Organization in 1983,
is based on children from the United States,
who are assumed to be well nourished.
Population below minimum dietary energy
consumption (also referred to as prevalence of
undernourishment) is the population whose
dietary energy consumption is continuously
below a minimum dietary energy requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity with an acceptable minimum bodyweight for attained
height.
Source: Data on poverty are from the World
Bank Development Research Group. Data are
based on primary household survey data
obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments

Multidimensional indices of poverty
In developing countries, poverty measures are among the main
indicators of economic development and progress in alleviating
poverty. But poverty is multidimensional, and no single indicator
can adequately capture all its aspects. To do so, poverty measures
must be sufficiently informative on social welfare and comparable
over time and across space. The World Bank uses consumption
poverty as its main index and sets the poverty line at $1.25 (in 2005
purchasing power parity [PPP] terms; Chen and others 2008) per
person per day; an alternative poverty line at $2 (2005 PPP) per
person per day measures extreme poverty. Consumption poverty
alone does not give a full picture of a country’s economic condition, let alone the priorities governments should set in their efforts
to alleviate poverty. Health, education, wealth inequality, and gender equality are just some of the dimensions of poverty not fully
captured. These topics are covered by the Millennium Development Goals—in addition to poverty and hunger—ensuring that they
will receive international attention.
A multidimensional index of poverty attempts to capture various dimensions of welfare (Alkire and Foster 2007; Alkire and others 2010). Can a single indicator combining measures of health
and education, consumption poverty, and gender inequality be
sufficiently informative on social welfare to be policy relevant? The
conceptual issues underlying the construction of these indices
are not new (see Ravallion 2010, 2011 for a discussion), and measures of consumption poverty face similar challenges, but they
differ from multidimensional indices of poverty, especially in the
assumptions underlying the aggregation of information.
Constructing consumption poverty measures requires an adequate protocol to aggregate several varieties into one measure.
The consumption aggregate rightly captures social welfare if the
weights given to each variety consumed reflect societal preferences. When goods making the consumption poverty index are
marketable and markets are functioning properly, market prices
reflect the weights that the consumption of these items have in the
social welfare function. Thus, theoretically, all expenditure levels of
marketable items can be aggregated into one index of consumption that fully reflects social welfare.
Multidimensional indices of poverty extend this approach by
adding the consumption of nonmarketable items. The key assumptions underlying the construction of these indexes thus relate to the
weights (or prices) assigned to nonmarketable items entering into
the aggregation. For example, how does one compare an individual
with a $2 daily consumption level and a 75-year life expectancy with
an individual with a $3 daily consumption level but a 60-year life
expectancy? In a perfect “market for life expectancy,” one could observe how much individuals might pay for a longer life expectancy,
and assuming market perfection, willingness to pay would capture
the social weight of life expectancy in consumption terms. However,
without observable prices, policymakers will need to choose social
weights, an exercise highly arbitrary and subject to political capture.

Quy-Toan Do
The relevance and credibility of multidimensional indices of
poverty therefore depend crucially on the choice of social weights
assigned to each dimension of poverty (Alkire and others 2000).
On one hand, weights need to be sufficiently flexible to reflect
a social welfare function that varies both over time and across
space; on the other, the choice of welfare weights is politically
charged, so governments might not be able to afford such flexibility without undermining the legitimacy of their choices. Governments need transparency and accountability so that they can
produce an index that fully reflects social welfare. Then, if these
weights do not correspond to societal preferences, aggregating
consumption poverty and life expectancy into a single index will
not reduce the dimensionality of the problem at hand. A multidimensional index of poverty constructed from consumption poverty and life expectancy will still need to be complemented by
those same indices of consumption poverty (or life expectancy)
to provide a full picture of social welfare, a prerequisite for policy
decisions. The usefulness of such aggregation effort must then
be revisited.
References
Alkire, Sabina, and James Foster. 2007. “Counting and Multidimensional Poverty Measurement.” Working Paper 7, Oxford
Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of
Oxford.
Alkire, Sabina, and Maria Emma Santos. 2010. Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries. Oxford,
UK: University of Oxford, Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Oxford Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House.
Alkire, Sabina, Maria Emma Santos, Suman Seth, and Gatson Yalonetzky. 2010. Is the Multidimensional Poverty Index Robust
to Different Weights? Oxford, UK: University of Oxford, Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Queen Elizabeth House.
Chen, Shaohua, and Martin Ravallion. 2008. “The Developing
World is Poorer than We Thought, but No Less Successful
in the Fight against Poverty.” Policy Research Working Paper
4703, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Deaton, A., and S. Zaidi. 2002. “A Guide to Aggregating Consumption Expenditures.” Living Standards Measurement Study
Working Paper 135, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Hentschel, J., and P. Lanjouw. 1996. “Constructing an Indicator of
Consumption for the Analysis of Poverty.” Living Standards
Measurement Study Working Paper 124, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Ravallion, M. 2010. “Mashup Indices of Development.” Policy Research Working Paper 5432, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Ravallion, M. 2011. “On Multidimensional Indices of Poverty.” Journal of Economic Inequality 9 (2): 235–248.

Technical notes

139

(http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/
jsp/index.jsp). Data on national poverty are
from the Global Poverty Working Group
and are based on World Bank country poverty assessments and country poverty reduction strategies. Efforts have been made
to harmonize these data series with those
published on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals website (www.
un.org/millenniumgoals), but some differences in timing, sources, and definitions remain. Data on child malnutrition are from
World Health Organization Global Database
on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Data on
population below minimum dietary energy
consumption are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (www.fao.org/economic/
ess/food-security-statistics/en/).
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : achieve universal primary
education
Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills,
along with an elementary understanding of
such subjects as history, geography, natural
science, social science, art, and music.
Net primary enrollment ratio is the ratio of
children of official primary school age, based
on the International Standard Classification
of Education 1997, who are enrolled in primary school to the population of the corresponding official primary school age.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of
students completing the last year of primary
school. It is calculated as the total number of
students in the last grade of primary school
minus the number of repeaters in that grade
divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.
Share of cohort reaching grade 5 is the percentage of children enrolled in grade 1 of
primary school who eventually reach grade 5.
The estimate is based on the reconstructed
cohort method.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15–24 who can, with understanding,
both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life.
Source: Data are from the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. Efforts have been
made to harmonize these data series with
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Africa Development Indicators 2011

those published on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals website (www.
un.org/millenniumgoals), but some differences in timing, sources, and definitions remain.
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : promote gender equality and
empower women
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary
school is the ratio of female to male gross enrollment rate in primary and secondary school.
Ratio of literate young women to men is the
ratio of the female youth literacy rate to the
male youth literacy rate.
Women in national parliament are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or
lower chamber occupied by women.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is women wage employees in the
nonagricultural sector as a share of total nonagricultural employment.
Source: Data on net enrollment and literacy are from the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. Data on women in national parliaments are from the Inter-Parliamentary Union Parline database (www.ipu.org).
Data on women’s employment are from the
International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour