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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

13 Sound
wavelengths wide.
Practice 13.1 (p. 193)
1 B (b) Diffraction is a property of sound
By v = fλ, waves. Since the width of the doorway
340 is comparable to the wavelength of the
λ= = 0.113 m
3000 sound waves, waves bend around the
Since the separation of the loudspeakers doorway when they pass through it.
should be of a few wavelengths, 0.3 m is the 6 (a) By v = fλ,
most appropriate separation. f 340
λ= = = 0.34 m
2 A λ 1000
3 C The two loudspeakers are 1 m apart.
4 (a) 1.0
= 2.94 wavelengths
0.34
Therefore, they are 2.94 wavelengths
apart.
(b) If the two loudspeakers are 0.5 m apart,
the loud sounds in the interference
pattern become more widely spaced.
7 If the frequency of the speakers were
lowered, the wavelength of the waves
increases. The nodal and antinodal lines of
the interference pattern decrease in number
and are more widely spaced. Therefore, the
(b) Since low frequency noise has longer points C and D move farther apart.
wavelength, it bends more when passing
the barrier. Hence, flats in the shadow of Practice 13.2 (p. 204)
the barrier are still affected by the low 1 B
frequency noise and barrier is not 2 D
effective to shield the building from 3 B
such noise. 4 C
5 (a) By v = fλ, Let a be the distance between the boy and
v 340 cliff A and b be the distance between the boy
λ= = = 0.68 m
f 500
and cliff B.
1.5
= 2.21 wavelengths The first echo is heard at t = 0.8 s.
0.68
s = vt
The doorway of 1.5 m is 2.21

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

2a = 340 × 0.8 times


a = 136 m 5.88
=
6.67 × 10 −6

The second echo is heard at 0.88 s later. = 882 000 : 1


s s
s = vt 9 – = 1.4
340 5000
2b = 340 × 0.88
s = 511 m
b = 149.6 m
The impact occurred at 511 m away.
Hence, distance between the cliffs
10 v = st = 340 × 2.5 = 850 m
= a + b = 286 m
The firework is 850 m from the audience
5 By v = fλ,
when it explodes.
v 340
λ= = = 1.3 m 11 (a) By v = fλ,
f 262
v 1500
Therefore, the wave compressions are 1.3 m λ= = = 0.01 m
f 150 × 1000
apart. The wave rarefactions are also 1.3 m
The wavelength of the ultrasonic waves
apart.
emitted is 0.01 m.
6 By v = fλ,
(b) A small wavelength results in a less
v 5000
λ= = = 0.833 m degree of diffraction when the ultrasonic
f 6000
waves encounter any obstacles.
The wavelength of the sound wave travelling
Therefore, ultrasound can be used to
along the iron rod is 0.833 m.
1.5 detect the specific targets more
7 s = v × t = 333 × = 249.75 m
2 accurately.
The length of the lake is 249.75 m. 0.1
(c) s = vt = 1500 × = 75 m
2
8 (a) (i) By s = vt,
s The shoal of fish is 75 m below the ship.
t= 0.2
v 12 s = vt = 340 × = 34 m
2000 2
= = 5.88 s The distance between the bat and the bird is
340
The time taken to hear the bang is 34 m.
5.88 s. 13 The time period between wing beats
1
(ii) By s = vt, =
600
s
t= =1.667 × 10–3 s
v
2000 s = vt
= = 6.67 × 10–6 s
3 × 10 8 = 340 ×1.667 × 10–3
The time taken to see the flash = 0.567 m
from the cannon is 6.67 × 10 s. –6 The sound waves travel 0.567 m between
(b) From (a)(i) and (a)(ii), the ratio of the wing beats.

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

s
14 v=
t
5.0
= = 333 m s–1
0.015
The speed of sound is 333 m s–1.
15 (a) By v = fλ,
v
f=
λ
340
=
1.33
= 255.6 Hz
v = fλ (c)
= 255.6 × 5.47
= 1400 m s–1
The speed of sound in the medium is
1400 m s–1.
(b) This phenomenon is called refraction.

Practice 13.3 (p. 214)


1 B
2 D
3 D (d)
4 (a)

1
5 (a) T =
f
1
(b) = = 3.83 × 10–3 s
261
The period of one vibration of this tone
is 3.83× 10–3 s.
(b) By v = fλ,

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

v
λ=
f Conventional (p. 220)
340
= Section A
261
1 (a) Assume the time of travel by light is
= 1.3 m
negligible.
The wavelength of the note is 1.3 m. s
6 (a) Noises at 130 dB produce ear pain. v= (1M)
t
(b) Students’ conversation and loudspeakers 2000
= = 345 m s–1 (1A)
are two sources of noise in school. 5.8
(c) Students talk gently and lower the The speed of sound is 345 m s–1.
volume of loudspeakers. (b) s = vt (1M)
= 345 × 0.2 = 69 m (1A)
Revision exercise 13 The height of the cliff is 69 m.
Multiple-choice (p. 218) 2 (a) The elastic string sets the air particles
Section A around it to vibrate. (1A)
1 B The vibrations of air particles are
2 B transmitted to Joe’s ear and hence he
3 C can hear the sound. (1A)
1
4 C (b) (i) f = (1M)
T
5 D
1
6 (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q29) =
2 × 10 −3
7 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q13)
= 500 Hz (1A)
The frequency of the sound
Section B
produced is 500 Hz.
8 C
(ii) By v = fλ, (1M)
The path difference v
λ=
= S2P – S1P = 4.2 m – 3.4 m = 0.8 m f
Constructive interference takes place at a 340
=
position where the path difference is equal to 500
whole number of wavelengths. Therefore, it = 0.68 m (1A)
is impossible that the wavelength of the The wavelength of the sound is
sound equals to 0.6 m. 0.68 m.
9 D 3 (a) (i) When the loudspeaker produces a
10 D sound, the loudspeaker cone
11 (HKCEE 2002 Paper II Q28) moves in and out rapidly. (1A)
12 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q37) This stretches and compresses the
13 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q38) air in front. (1A)

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

As a result, a series of rarefaction a distance. (1A)


and compression travels through Then hear the sounds travelling through
the air and the flame follows the first the rail and then the air. (1A)
motion of air. (1A) s
(b) t =
v
(For effective communication.)
10 000
(1C) =
340
(ii) By v = fλ, (1M)
= 29.4 s (1A)
v
λ= t=
s
f
v
340
= 10 000
400 =
4000
= 0.85 m (1A) = 2.5 s (1A)
The wavelength of the sound is
0.85 m.
(b) Any two of the following reasons: The time difference
(2 × 1A)
= 29.4 s – 2.5 s = 26.9 s (1A)
The frequency of the signal generator is Therefore, when compared with those
out of the audible range. soldiers standing up and listening, the
The amplitude of sound is too small. soldier can detect the enemy earlier by
There is a vacuum in the box. 26.9 s.
4 (a) The frequency range of sound given by 6 (HKCEE 2003 Paper I Q5)
hummingbirds is from 15 Hz to 80 Hz. 7 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q6)
(1A)
(b) By v = fλ, (1M)
Section B
v 340
λ= = = 22.7 m (1A) 8 (a) (i) S1Q = 8 2 + (2 − 0.5) 2 (1M)
f 15
The longest wavelength of the humming = 8.14 m (1A)
sound is 22.7 m. The distance S1Q is 8.14 m.
By v = fλ, (ii) S2Q = 8 2 + (2 + 0.5) 2 (1M)
v 340
λ= = = 4.25 m (1A) = 8.38 m (1A)
f 80
The distance S2Q is 8.38 m.
The shortest wavelength of the (b) The path difference of Q
humming sound is 4.25 m. = S2Q – S1Q (1M)
(c) No, human cannot hear the whole range = 8.38 m – 8.14 m
of sound made by hummingbirds. (1A) = 0.24 m (1A)
This is because audible frequency (c) The path difference of Q = λ
ranges from 20 Hz to 20 kHz only. (1A) The wavelength of the sound emitted is
5 (a) Get a partner to hit a long iron rail from

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

0.24 m. (1A) and show reflection, refraction,


(d) v = fλ (1M) diffraction and interference. (1A)
= 1.4 × 1000 × 0.24 Sound waves are longitudinal waves
–1
= 336 m s (1A) while light waves are transverse waves.
–1
The speed of sound in air is 336 m s . (1A)
9 (a) Yes, notes X, Y and Z have the same The travelling speed of sound waves in
pitch. (1A) the air is 330 m s–1 while the travelling
It is because the CRO settings for the speed of light waves in the air is
displays are the same and all displays 3 × 108 m s–1. (1A)
have the same number of waveforms,
i.e. they have the same frequency.
Hence, they have the same pitch. (1A)

(b) Notes X, Y and Z have the same (b)


loudness. (1A)
It is because the amplitudes of their
waveforms are the same. (1A)
(c) Each note given out by an instrument
has overtones added to the fundamental
note. (1A)
For notes of the same frequency given
out by different instruments, they have
the same fundamental note but different
overtones, (1A) For light waves:
the frequencies of which are multiples (Decreased wavelength in water.) (1A)
of the frequency of the fundamental (The wave bends to normal in water.)
note and the amplitudes of which are (1A)
different. (1A) For sound waves:
Therefore, the resultant sound wave (Decreased wavelength in water.) (1A)
(overtones added to the fundamental (The wave bends to normal in water.)
note) given by different instruments (1A)
sounds differently. 11 (a)
(d) If the note has a sound intensity level of
140 dB, it causes permanent damage to
the ear. (1A)
10 (a) Both sound and light are waves (1A)

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

= 2.22 × 10−3 s
1
f= (1M)
T
1
=
2.22 × 10 −3
= 450 Hz (1A)
By v = fλ, (1M)
v
λ=
f
(Correct amplitude.) (1A) 340
=
(Correct period.) (1A) 450
(b) The waveform of Michael’s voice has a = 0.756 m (1A)
larger amplitude. (1A) The wavelength of the sound is
The waveform of Michael’s voice 0.756 m.
shows a quality different from Julia’s.
(1A)

(c)
(ii)

(Same amplitude and period.) (1A)


(Correct quality.) (1A)
(Same frequency.) (1A)
12 (a) Interference (1A)
(Smaller amplitude.) (1A)
(b) (i) Period
(c) (i) Diffraction occurs when sound
= time occupied by 10 divisions on
waves pass through the gap and
CRO / number of complete
(1A)
waves in 10 divisions
sound waves spread out after
10 × 5 × 10 −4
= passing through the gap. (1A)
2.25
(ii) Increasing the pitch of the sound

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

means decreasing the wavelength. X-ray is a transverse wave while


(1A) ultrasound is a longitudinal wave.
Sound waves would spread at a (1A)
smaller degree after passing the The travelling speed of X-ray in a
gap. (1A) vacuum (3 × 108 m s–1) is much
13 (a) (i) An ultrasound signal emitted by higher than the travelling speed of
the ship is reflected when it hits an ultrasound in air (340 m s–1). (1A)
obstacle. (1A) (ii) The energy carried by X-ray is
After receiving the echo, the much higher than that by
distance between the ship and the ultrasound. (1A)
obstacle can be found by Foetuses may be hurt when X-rays
measuring the time elapsed from hit them. (1A)
emitting the signal to receiving the 14 (a) (i)
echo. (1A)
(ii) Time taken for the signal to travel
from the ship to the sea
0.4
=
2
(Correct reflection of waves at
= 0.2 s
each window surface.) (2 × 1A)

Depth of the sea bed


(ii)
= speed × time (1M)
= 1500 × 0.2
= 300 m (1A)
(iii) The wavelength of ultrasound is
smaller than that of audible sound.
(Correct window position.) (1A)
Ultrasound diffracts less when it
(Correct reflection of sound
passes around obstacles in the sea
waves.) (1A)
and it can detect the locations of
(b) (i) Interference of sound. (1A)
obstacles more accurately. (1A)
(ii) Loud and soft sounds are heard
(b) (i) X-ray is a kind of electromagnetic
along PQ. (1A)
wave which is produced by electric
At some positions, sound waves
and magnetic vibrations. (1A)
from the loudspeakers reinforce
Ultrasound is a kind of sound that
each other and loud sounds are
we cannot hear and is produced by
formed. (1A)
mechanical vibrations. (1A)

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

At some other positions, sound (v) No. (1A)


waves from the loudspeakers For a song, there are sounds of
cancel each other and soft sounds many frequencies merging
are formed. (1A) together. (1A)
(iii) By v = fλ, Therefore, the sounds from the
loudspeakers are no longer
v
coherent. (1A)
λ= f
(For effective communication.)
340
= (1C)
2000
15 (HKCEE 2002 Paper I Q5)
= 0.17 m (1A)
16 (a) Ultrasound is very high frequency
Let x be the shortest possible
sound. It is beyond human hearing /
distance between the student and
humans cannot hear this frequency. (2A)
speaker B.
(b) (i) By v = fλ, (1M)
Path difference
=x–4 v
1 λ= f (1M)
= λ
2
1500
1 =
= × 0.17 (1M) 50 000
2
x = 4.085 m (1A) = 0.03 m (1A)
The shortest possible distance The wavelength of the ultrasound
between the student and speaker B is 0.03 m.
is 4.085 m. Correct unit: m (1A)
(iv) If the frequency of the sound is
increased, the wavelength of the (ii) Total distance = 2400 m (1A)
s
sound waves decreases. (1A) t= (1M)
v
The nodal lines that join the places 2400
of destructive interference increase =
1500
in number and become closely = 1.6 s (1A)
spaced. That means the points of The time it would take for the
destructive interference become ultrasound wave to travel from the
closely spaced. (1A) transmitter to the sea-bed and back
If the frequency is further to the receiver is 1.6 s.
increased, the points of destructive Correct unit: s (1A)
interference become so close (c) A suggestion to include:
together (1A) Ordinary sound spreads more;
that they are hardly aware. (1A) The concentration of ordinary sound is

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

less / Ordinary sound is less intense /


The amplitude of ordinary sound
decreases rapidly;
The range of ordinary sound is limited /
Ordinary sound cannot travel far.
(3 × 1A)
17 (a) The time interval
= 1.4 × 5.0 × 10–6
= 7.0 × 10–6 s (1A)
The time interval during which the
ultrasound travels in the organ is
7.0 × 10–6 s.
(b) s = vt
= 1.6 × 103 × 7.0 × 10–6
= 0.0112 m (1A)
The distance travelled by ultrasound
through the organ is 0.0112 m.

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C Waves Chapter 13 Sound

Physics in articles (p. 225)


1 (a) The barrier works by reflecting the (c) By v = fλ,
sound waves back into the roads. (1A) v 340
λ= = = 4.25 m (1A)
f 80
(b) An effective barrier should have a solid,
continuous surface without any The longest wavelength of the sound
openings or holes. (1A) that is spoken by a man is 4.25 m.
Otherwise, sound waves can pass By v = fλ,
v 340
through the openings with the process of λ= = = 1.7 m (1A)
f 200
diffraction. (1A)
The shortest wavelength of the sound
An effective barrier must be long and
that is spoken by a man is 1.7 m.
tall enough (1A)
By v = fλ,
so as to create a significant acoustical
v 340
shadow. (1A) λ= = = 2.27 m (1A)
f 150
(c) No. (1A)
The longest wavelength of the sound
Since noise of low frequency has longer
that is spoken by a woman is 2.27 m.
wavelength, it bends more when passing
By v = fλ,
the barrier. Hence, flats in the shadow of v 340
the barrier are still affected by the noise λ= = = 0.85 m (1A)
f 400
of low frequency and barrier is not The shortest wavelength of the sound
effective to such noise. (1A) that is spoken by a woman is 0.85 m.
2 (a) When we speak, vocal cords come (d) Since vocal cords of boys will be
together and air exhaled from the lung thickened during puberty (1A)
passes through the larynx, (1A) and thick vocal cords do not have as
setting the vocal cords to vibrate and large tension as thin vocal cords, (1A)
produce sound. (1A) men usually have a deeper voice than
(b) One controls the tension of the vocal woman.
cords for different pitches of sound.
(1A)
The larger the tension in the vocal cord,
the higher is the pitch of the sound. (1A)
One controls the flow of air in the
larynx for different loudness of sound.
(1A)
The larger the flow of air in larynx, the
higher is the loudness of sound. (1A)

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