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Lightning 101

Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee by members of the IEEE Lightning and Insulator Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section A Introduction
Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics / UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Conducting Channel of Air Plasma!
Electrical energy as equivalent to gasoline
1 US Gallon gasoline = 132 MJoule = 33.56 kWh Negative Lightning Flash I2t = 6,000 to 550,000 A2s 6,000 A2s x 20 = 120 kJoule Global Lightning energy = 1 transmission line

Power
Energy is concentrated into100 s 120 kJoule / 100 s 1.21 GW

And more relevant to overhead lines, A Powerful Source of Transient Current!


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Powerful Source of Transient Current! - Concave front observed on flashes to towers - 2 s Ramp Approximation at Peak of Wave

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Powerful Source of Transient Current! - Concave front observed on flashes to towers - 2 s Ramp Approximation at Peak of Wave

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
Widely Variable Source of Current! - First strokes range from 2 to 200 kA - Subsequent Strokes smaller, faster - Logarithm of distribution is normally distributed

P(a ) =

1 a 1+ a
n

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning Current Peak Amplitude


0.05 0.10 0.50 1.00 2.00

95% >5.00 kA 10
10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 95.00 98.00 99.00 99.50 99.90 99.95 99.99 1.00

P(IP I ) =
* P

IEEE:

1 + (I / 31)
* P

2.6

Cigr: Ip > 20 kA Ip 20kA Ip = 61.1 kA Ip = 33.3 kA ln Ip = 1.33 ln Ip = 0.605

5% > 96 kA

IEEE T&D Lightning 101


10.00

100.00

1000.00

[kA]

What Is Lightning Protection?


Electrically Conducting Path: Interception to Ground Buildings: Air terminal(s), down conductors, grounding system Overhead Lines: Continuous overhead groundwires (OHGW), also known as shield or static wires Takes advantage of internal conducting elements Gets current in and out of structures without ionization damage Lasts as long as the building or structure

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Roman Goddess of Lightning: Offerings to Fulgora protect crops from the destruction of thunderstorms Church Bells with Fulgora Frango imprint: Theory: Sound from ringing bells will destroy lightning Practice: From 1750 to 1784, there were 386 flashes to church steeples; 103 church bell ringers died while trying to dispel lightning.
FISCHER, J. N. (1784): Beweis, da das Glockenluten bei Gewittern mehr schdlich als ntzlich. Mnchen. A Proof that the Ringing of Bells during Thunderstorms May Be More Dangerous than Useful, Munich, 1784

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Franklin and others established electrical nature: Giving light; Colour of the light; Crooked direction, Swift motion. Being conducted by metals. Crack or noise in exploding. Subsisting in water or ice. Rending bodies it passes through. Destroying animals. Melting metals. Firing inflammable substances. Sulphreous smell.

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Franklin lightning and grounding protection: Iron Rod, 6 to 8 feet above highest part of building Brass wire, sharpened, the Size of a common Knittingneedle Rod and Point at each End, with a middling Wire along the Ridge The lower end of the rod should enter the earth so deep as to come at the moist part, perhaps two or three feet; and if bent when under the surface so as to go in a horizontal line six or eight feet from the wall, and then bent again downwards three or four feet, it will prevent damage to any of the stones of the foundation.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Two-wire telegraph, telephone systems
Initially two-wire systems, later protected with spark gaps

Single-wire earth return systems


Discovered that the earth itself can be a return conductor, with constant surge impedance in a practical 500-800 range Blitzplatte of K. A. Steinheil, 1846

Telegraphers Equations
Heaviside Transmission Line Model Wave propagation, impedance Z=60 ln (2h/r)
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Grounding of power system secondaries
Grounding mandatory only for lightning arresters New York Board of Fire Underwriters deadline for removal of all grounds on electric circuits: October 1, 1892 The 1901 National Electric Code (NEC) permitted grounding, provided that under normal conditions of service there will be no passage of current over the ground wire

Four-Terminal Measurements of Earth Resistivity


Two outer rods used to inject current from ac (crank driven) source; Two inner rods read out corresponding potential difference Equations give apparent resistivity as function of probe separation
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Characterization of Lightning using Oscilloscopes Bewley measures surge impedance of buried wires Practical surge arresters for station equipment

Damage to aircraft from charge ablation sets metal skin thickness Experiments initiated with concrete-encased foundation (Ufer) electrodes

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

History of Lightning Protection


Improved surge arrester materials (Doped Zinc Oxide) Improved polymer insulator materials (fiberglass, EPDM/Silicone Rubber)

Ability to track lightning from its electromagnetic pulse using wide area networks (Krider, Noggle, Uman) Characterization of downward lightning flashes to instrumented towers (Berger, Anderson and Eriksson)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section B Common Factors in Lightning Protection


Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics/UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

Risk Assessment: Direct Strokes


Number of Flashovers per Year is the Product of:
Ground Flash Density, flashes / km2/year Attractive Width of Line, m Length of line, km Probability of exceeding critical current,

P=1/(1+(Icrit/31 kA)2.6)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Risk Assessment Process


Lightning Incidence to Ground (Flash Density) Establish critical current that causes flashover
Direct stroke to phase: Insulator BIL divided by surge impedance in corona Direct stroke to overhead groundwire: Insulator BIL divided by footing resistance, adjusted for coupling Direct stroke to mast at substation: Insulator BIL divided by station resistance

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Global Map, Total (Cloud + Ground) Flashes

http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/images/HRFC)AnnualFlashRate_0.5.png Recommend: Ng=0.33 Ntotal


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Global Map, Total (Cloud + Ground) Flashes


CG 20

10 5 3 2 1 0.3
0.2

http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/images/HRFC)AnnualFlashRate_0.5.png Units: Flashes per km2 per year. Recommend: N101 IEEE T&D Lightning g=0.33

Ntotal

Lightning Location Network (NALDN)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Direct Stroke Termination Model

Ng

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year). IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Risk Assessment Process


Direct stroke incidence model Distribution Lines: small critical current, accept flashovers for all direct strokes Transmission lines: critical current well above median 31 kA, intercept large fraction of direct strokes with overhead groundwires Stations: critical current well above 100 kA, deal with shielding failures and coupling issues

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Direct Stroke Termination Model

L 2 Da

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year). IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Direct Stroke Termination Model - Rizk

Average for all currents:


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

D a = 19 h 0.45

Direct Stroke Termination Model - Rizk


D a = 19 h 0 .45 #= 2 Da L N g 1000

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year).
If # normalized to L=100 km, denominator becomes 10.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Risk Assessment Process


Lightning Incidence to Ground (Flash Density) Establish critical current that causes flashover Direct stroke to phase: Insulator CFO divided by surge impedance in corona Direct stroke to overhead groundwire: Insulator CFO divided by footing resistance, adjusted for coupling and volt-time upturn Direct stroke to mast at substation: Insulator CFO divided by station resistance
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Does an Insulator Do? Maintains an Air Gap to Establish CFO


Separates Line from Ground
length of air gap depends primarily on system voltage, modified by desired safety margin, contamination, etc.

Resists Mechanical Stresses


everyday loads, extreme loads

Resists Electrical Stresses


system voltage/fields, overvoltages CFO = Critical Flashover (50% probability)

Resists Environmental Stresses


heat, cold, UV, contamination, etc.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types
For simplicity will discuss lightning protection in terms of three broad applications: Distribution lines (thru 69 kV) Transmission lines (69 kV and up) Substations (all voltages)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Distribution Lines


Pin type insulators
mainly porcelain growing use of polymeric (HDPE high density polyethylene) limited use of glass (in US at least)

Line post insulators porcelain, polymeric Dead end insulators polymeric, porcelain, glass Spool and Strain insulators porcelain, polymeric Fiberglass Standoffs Wood Crossarm or Pole, not shorted out by bond to insulator base

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Distribution Lines

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Transmission Lines


Suspension insulators
new installations mainly polymer porcelain and glass discs now used less frequently

Line Post insulators


mainly NCIs for new lines and installations porcelain much less frequent now

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Transmission Lines

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Substations


Post insulators
Primarily porcelain NCIs growing in use at lower voltages (~161 kV and below)

Suspension insulators
NCIs (primarily), ceramic

Cap and Pin Apparatus insulators


legacy type Poor puncture performance, great for icing with silicone coating

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types Substations

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria Mechanical


(from Insulators 101)

An insulator is a mechanical support! Its primary function is to support the line mechanically Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought. Will the insulator support your line? Determine The Maximum Load the Insulator Will Ever See Including NESC Overload Factors.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria Mechanical


(from Lightning 101)

electrical electrically

An insulator is a mechanical support! Its primary function is to support the line mechanically

Mechanical

Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought. Will the insulator support your line? Determine the Critical Current that will cause Electrical Flashover of the insulator based on its CFO
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria - Mechanical


Other Considerations
Suspensions and Deadends Only apply tension loads
- Available in any desired length

Line Posts Mainly cantilever load


- For given core size / strength, increase in dry arc gives decrease in cantilever strength - Combined Loading Curve for Cantilever, Transverse and Longitudinal Load see Insulators 101

Braced Line Posts tension and cantilever members

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Standing on Line Posts is a BAD Idea!


Insulators 101 course

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Dry Arcing Distance (Strike Distance) The shortest distance through the surrounding medium between terminal electrodes. 1

IEEE Std 100 - 1992

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Define System Maximum Line-to-Ground Voltage Determine Leakage Distance Required mm per kV Consider Switching Over-voltage Requirements on EHV systems Accept the Critical Flashover Level (CFO) given by the Dry Arc distance Calculate Critical Current from CFO, divided by the impedance of the structure (phase, OHGW or mast), adjusted for coupling and the volt-time curve Make design, construction or follow-up adjustments if estimate is unsatisfactory
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Electrical Ratings ANSI C2 Insulation Level Requirements


ANSI C2-2007, Table 273-1
Rated Dry Flashover Voltage (kV)

Nominal Phase-to-Phase Voltage (kV)

Higher insulation levels required in areas where severe lightning, high atmospheric contamination, or other unfavorable conditions exist IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Define System Maximum Line-to-Ground Voltage Determine Leakage Distance Required mm per kV Consider Switching Over-voltage Requirements on EHV systems Accept the Critical Impulse Flashover Level (CFO) given by the Dry Arc distance Calculate Critical Current from CFO, divided by the impedance of the structure (phase, OHGW or mast), adjusted for coupling and the volt-time curve Make design, construction or follow-up adjustments if estimate is unsatisfactory
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Where do I get these values? Manufacturers Catalog Critical Impulse Flashover (CFO) Negative Polarity for shielding failures Positive Polarity for lightning to tower If only Basic Impulse Level (BIL) is available, assume this is 90% of Critical Impulse Flashover (CFO) As a default, you can assume 540 kV per (m dry arc distance) for full lightning impulse This increases to 822 kV/m for 270-m span, higher for shorter spans, lower for longer spans +CFO = (400 + 710 t -0.75) kV/m
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

101 Section C Distribution Line Protection


Presented by John McDaniel, National Grid IEEE Chairman, Lightning Working Group
Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning

Risk Assessment: Induced Overvoltages


Indirect stroke coupling model (Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse, LEMP)
Fast transient voltage, needs only poor grade insulation to withstand (including wood path) Causes problems with coupling into control circuits, coaxial cables and sensitive electronics Big factor in protection of distribution lines

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Indirect Stroke Influence Model

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Indirect Stroke Influence Side View

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410


Rusck simplified formula:

U max

h Height of phase over ground (m) I Peak Current (kA) Zo0 = 1/ 4 0 / o = 30 v return stroke velocity, c/3

Z 0 I 0h 1 v = + 1 y 2 c

1 2 1v 1 2c

Assumptions: a. Single conductor, Infinitely long line b. Perfect (zero resistivity) ground c. Step current waveshape Model is simple and correct, but assumptions are weak.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410


Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)

Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410

125 kV CFO (115 kV BIL): Design Vulnerable to Induced Overvoltages

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410

300 kV CFO (275 kV BIL): Design Resists Induced Overvoltages

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Using Conductivity in Rusck Model


Perfectly Conducting Ground: Image Method Imperfect Ground: Image Method
heff = h + 4.7

h h=h

h>h

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

in mS/m, heff and h in m

FCC M3 Conductivity Map Provides

of 2 mS/m = of 500 m 4 mS/m = 250 m 8 mS/m = 125 m 15 mS/m = 67 m

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers


Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers


Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

Value typical for Central USA

Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers


Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year
Value typical for Appalachians, Rockies

Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers

Higher Insulation (> 300 kV CFO) needed for Design Resistant to Induced Overvoltage with 1 mS/m

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

How to achieve CFO >300 kV


Eliminate weak-link structures
Insert insulation in guy wires Review framing of guyed poles

Add wood in series with insulators


Consider isolated bonding of leakage current across ceramic insulators is a pole-fire concern

Add fiberglass in series with insulators


Poles or crossarms

Or Dont, add surge arresters (SA) instead

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Arrester Effect on Induced Flashovers


g = 1 mS/m

LIOV-EMTP code (http://www.liov.ing.unibo.it)


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Arrester Effect on Induced Flashovers


g = 1 mS/m

Arresters every 200 m (650) equivalent to 420 kV for Design Resistant to Induced Overvoltage
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section D Transmission Line Protection


Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics/UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

Critical Current for Stroke to Tower


Initial Estimate: CFO divided by Resistance of Stricken Tower
Geometric term from overall surface area A of foundations, radius g Contact resistance if the actual metal / concrete area fills only a small fraction of the total contact patch to soil, L being path length F=2 for almost all electrodes, is soil resistivity (m)

RGeometric + RContact

= 2

1 11.8 g 2 1 A ln g A + L ln F A Wire

Correction 1: Short Duration of Overvoltage


Adjacent towers help out, share current within a few s The show is over when reflections from adjacent towers arrive

Correction 2: OHGW to Phase Coupling


A fraction Cn (20-35%) of the voltage on the OHGW will be picked up by the parallel phase conductors The voltage across the insulators will be reduced by (1-Cn)

Correction 3: Parallel Impedance of OHGW


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Performance Goals for Transmission


Typically lines have at least 1 m of dry arc distance
CFO of 540 kV for full standard impulse, no adjacent towers CFO of 822 kV for adjacent towers 270 m away (2 s @ 0.9 c)

Typically towers with four foundations have base radius rx, ry, rz of 3 m, g=5.2 m, A = 108 m2, Rgeom=/30 Resistivity varies from tower to tower Central US, =100 m; Appalachians 1000 m In Central US, critical current for two OHGW (Cn=0.3) is well above 200 kA and probability of failure is low In Appalachians, Icrit=35 kA; P(I>Icrit) = 41%
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Performance Goals for Transmission


Doubling dry arc distance will double the critical current
230-kV lines, 2 m dry arc, have critical current of 70 kA rather than 35 kA in area with =1000 m Probability 11% rather than 41%, outage rate four times better

Two, rather than four, foundations (H-frame), 3 m deep, 7 m apart, 0.5 m radius, will have a resistance of /17 rather than /30
115-kV line performance still excellent for =100 m, P(I>Icrit) <1% 115-kV line performance poor for =1000 m, P(I>Icrit) =76% 230-kV line performance degrades from 11% to 35% in 1000 m
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Performance Goals for Transmission


Greater Separation from Phase to OHGWs Reduces Coupling of Voltage onto Phases This is bad it increase the insulator voltage Two OHGW at 40 m above ground, 5 m Coupling at 25 m: Cn = 0.3, P(35 kA) = 41% Coupling at 15 m: Cn = 0.17, P(30 kA) = 52% Bottom Phase more prone to flashover

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Performance Goals for Transmission


Shield Wire located Below Phases Improves Coupling Underbuilt Ground Wire (UBGW) Could be OPGW with lightweight armor, easy access Two OHGW at 40 m above ground, 5 m; Third at 10 m Coupling at 25 m: Cn = 0.4, P(42 kA) = 32% Coupling at 15 m: Cn = 0.33, P(37 kA) = 38%

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Dual Voltage Line, OHGW + UB OPGW


At ENbW in Germany, it was not possible to take the line out of service to replace an existing OHGW with an optical fiber groundwire (OPGW) Phase motion restrained by long-rod ceramic post insualtors The OPGW was successfully installed below the bottom phases

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Compact Lines, OHGW+UBGW


COPEL added UBGW to control of tower base potentials More effective for lightning too.

138 kV with Horizontal Posts

230 kV with Braced Posts

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Performance Goals for Transmission


Arresters limits voltage on protected insulator, and also convert protected phase into UBGW Most effective partial application on unshielded lines is on the top phases, giving equivalent performance to OHGW in the same positions Most effective partial application on lines that already have OHGW is often on bottom phases

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

TLSA Application (AEP 138 kV, 1980s)


R. E .Koch , J. A. Timoshenko, J. G. Anderson, C. H. Shih, Design of Zinc Oxide Transmission Line Arresters for Application on 138 kV Towers, IEEE Trans PAS V. 104 No.. 10, Oct 1985, pp. 2675

Externally Gapped Line Arrester (EGLA)

Arrester limits power-follow current, Gap does not re-ignite.


IEEE T&D Lightning 101

TLSA on Unshielded 230-kV (Nalcor)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

TLSA on Unshielded 138-kV (FPL)

.. With UBGW too, for managing tower base voltage

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section E Standards

Lightning 101

Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

IEEE, NFPA and IEC Standards


Consensus standards
Standards writing bodies must include representatives from materially affected and interested parties.

Public review
Anybody may comment. Comments must be evaluated, responded to, and if found to be appropriate, included in the standard .

Right to appeal
By anyone believing due process lacking.

Objective is generally to ensure that Standards are developed in an environment that is equitable, accessible, and responsive to the requirements of various stakeholders*.
* The American National Standards Process, ANSI March 24, 2005

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning Protection of Structures


Each country has its own standards, such as NFPA 780 in USA and CSA B72 in Canada US MIL-HDBK-419A, Grounding, Bonding and Shielding for Electronic Equipments and Facilities There is some work towards adopting the IEC 62305 standard throughout Europe
It is relatively complicated and expensive It involves risk analysis and management It is more of a guide than a standard It is vastly superior to fire protection for buildings that have internal electronic components
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning Protection of Lines


IEEE P1410/D6 has recently been balloted with high approval, resolving comments this week.
Computer method for calculating induced overvoltage effects Expanded treatment of multi-component insulation

IEEE 1243 revision is being initiated.


More consideration being given to line surge arresters versus overhead groundwires Coordinated with C62 Surge Arrester Application Guide

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning Protection of Stations


IEEE 998 is undergoing revision.
Considering update, inclusion of attractive radius models with height dependence rather than fixed rolling sphere radius

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Questions?
A long-standing tradition of technical committee meetings is that the TPC Chair buys a free beverage for everyone who asks a question that can be answered by the presenters, so ..

Ask Away!

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

About your Presenters


Dr. William A. (Bill) Chisholm is a well-known expert in electric power reliability problems involving adverse weather including lightning, winter pollution and low wind conditions. IEEE Fellow in 2007.
Led/leading IEEE Standards 1243 and 1410 for improving lightning protection of transmission and distribution lines. Associate at Kinectrics (former Ontario Hydro Research Division) in Transmission and Distribution group. Principal author of EPRI Transmission Line Reference (Red Book), 200 kV and Above, Chapter 6 (lightning protection) and main technical contributor to the upcoming Grey Book (lightning and grounding). Spent 2007-2008 at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, co-writing a book for and teaching lightning protection. Columnist (Transient Thoughts) for INMR Magazine.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

About your Presenters


John McDaniel graduated from Michigan Technological University with a B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. in Electrical Engineering, majoring in power systems. John is a Reliability Engineer in Distribution Field Engineering at National Grid. Previously, he was Sr Engineer Planning in Detroit Edisons Distribution Planning department and in several positions in Engineering and Operations at Commonwealth Edison. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and his professional activities include work with the IEEE Distribution Sub-Committee and IEEE Lightning and Insulator Sub-Committee. John chairs the IEEE/PES Working Group on the Lightning Performance of Distribution Lines and is the Vice Chair of the Lightning & Insulator SC, the Distribution Subcommittee and the Distribution Reliability Working. He is also a corresponding member of CIGRE WG C4.4 (Lightning) and CIRED Joint WG C4.4.05 (Protection of MV and LV networks against lightning).

IEEE T&D Lightning 101