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# Lightning 101

Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee by members of the IEEE Lightning and Insulator Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010

## IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section A Introduction
Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics / UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Conducting Channel of Air Plasma!
Electrical energy as equivalent to gasoline
1 US Gallon gasoline = 132 MJoule = 33.56 kWh Negative Lightning Flash I2t = 6,000 to 550,000 A2s 6,000 A2s x 20 = 120 kJoule Global Lightning energy = 1 transmission line

Power
Energy is concentrated into100 s 120 kJoule / 100 s 1.21 GW

## And more relevant to overhead lines, A Powerful Source of Transient Current!

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Powerful Source of Transient Current! - Concave front observed on flashes to towers - 2 s Ramp Approximation at Peak of Wave

## IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
A Powerful Source of Transient Current! - Concave front observed on flashes to towers - 2 s Ramp Approximation at Peak of Wave

## IEEE T&D Lightning 101

What Is Lightning?
Widely Variable Source of Current! - First strokes range from 2 to 200 kA - Subsequent Strokes smaller, faster - Logarithm of distribution is normally distributed

P(a ) =

1 a 1+ a
n

## Lightning Current Peak Amplitude

0.05 0.10 0.50 1.00 2.00

95% >5.00 kA 10
10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 95.00 98.00 99.00 99.50 99.90 99.95 99.99 1.00

P(IP I ) =
* P

IEEE:

1 + (I / 31)
* P

2.6

5% > 96 kA

10.00

100.00

1000.00

[kA]

## What Is Lightning Protection?

Electrically Conducting Path: Interception to Ground Buildings: Air terminal(s), down conductors, grounding system Overhead Lines: Continuous overhead groundwires (OHGW), also known as shield or static wires Takes advantage of internal conducting elements Gets current in and out of structures without ionization damage Lasts as long as the building or structure

## History of Lightning Protection

Roman Goddess of Lightning: Offerings to Fulgora protect crops from the destruction of thunderstorms Church Bells with Fulgora Frango imprint: Theory: Sound from ringing bells will destroy lightning Practice: From 1750 to 1784, there were 386 flashes to church steeples; 103 church bell ringers died while trying to dispel lightning.
FISCHER, J. N. (1784): Beweis, da das Glockenluten bei Gewittern mehr schdlich als ntzlich. Mnchen. A Proof that the Ringing of Bells during Thunderstorms May Be More Dangerous than Useful, Munich, 1784

## History of Lightning Protection

Franklin and others established electrical nature: Giving light; Colour of the light; Crooked direction, Swift motion. Being conducted by metals. Crack or noise in exploding. Subsisting in water or ice. Rending bodies it passes through. Destroying animals. Melting metals. Firing inflammable substances. Sulphreous smell.

## History of Lightning Protection

Franklin lightning and grounding protection: Iron Rod, 6 to 8 feet above highest part of building Brass wire, sharpened, the Size of a common Knittingneedle Rod and Point at each End, with a middling Wire along the Ridge The lower end of the rod should enter the earth so deep as to come at the moist part, perhaps two or three feet; and if bent when under the surface so as to go in a horizontal line six or eight feet from the wall, and then bent again downwards three or four feet, it will prevent damage to any of the stones of the foundation.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## History of Lightning Protection

Two-wire telegraph, telephone systems
Initially two-wire systems, later protected with spark gaps

## Single-wire earth return systems

Discovered that the earth itself can be a return conductor, with constant surge impedance in a practical 500-800 range Blitzplatte of K. A. Steinheil, 1846

Telegraphers Equations
Heaviside Transmission Line Model Wave propagation, impedance Z=60 ln (2h/r)
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## History of Lightning Protection

Grounding of power system secondaries
Grounding mandatory only for lightning arresters New York Board of Fire Underwriters deadline for removal of all grounds on electric circuits: October 1, 1892 The 1901 National Electric Code (NEC) permitted grounding, provided that under normal conditions of service there will be no passage of current over the ground wire

## Four-Terminal Measurements of Earth Resistivity

Two outer rods used to inject current from ac (crank driven) source; Two inner rods read out corresponding potential difference Equations give apparent resistivity as function of probe separation
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## History of Lightning Protection

Characterization of Lightning using Oscilloscopes Bewley measures surge impedance of buried wires Practical surge arresters for station equipment

Damage to aircraft from charge ablation sets metal skin thickness Experiments initiated with concrete-encased foundation (Ufer) electrodes

## History of Lightning Protection

Improved surge arrester materials (Doped Zinc Oxide) Improved polymer insulator materials (fiberglass, EPDM/Silicone Rubber)

Ability to track lightning from its electromagnetic pulse using wide area networks (Krider, Noggle, Uman) Characterization of downward lightning flashes to instrumented towers (Berger, Anderson and Eriksson)

## Section B Common Factors in Lightning Protection

Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics/UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

## Risk Assessment: Direct Strokes

Number of Flashovers per Year is the Product of:
Ground Flash Density, flashes / km2/year Attractive Width of Line, m Length of line, km Probability of exceeding critical current,

P=1/(1+(Icrit/31 kA)2.6)

## Risk Assessment Process

Lightning Incidence to Ground (Flash Density) Establish critical current that causes flashover
Direct stroke to phase: Insulator BIL divided by surge impedance in corona Direct stroke to overhead groundwire: Insulator BIL divided by footing resistance, adjusted for coupling Direct stroke to mast at substation: Insulator BIL divided by station resistance

## http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/images/HRFC)AnnualFlashRate_0.5.png Recommend: Ng=0.33 Ntotal

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Global Map, Total (Cloud + Ground) Flashes

CG 20

10 5 3 2 1 0.3
0.2

http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/images/HRFC)AnnualFlashRate_0.5.png Units: Flashes per km2 per year. Recommend: N101 IEEE T&D Lightning g=0.33

Ntotal

## Direct Stroke Termination Model

Ng

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year). IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Risk Assessment Process

Direct stroke incidence model Distribution Lines: small critical current, accept flashovers for all direct strokes Transmission lines: critical current well above median 31 kA, intercept large fraction of direct strokes with overhead groundwires Stations: critical current well above 100 kA, deal with shielding failures and coupling issues

## Direct Stroke Termination Model

L 2 Da

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year). IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Average for all currents:

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

D a = 19 h 0.45

## Direct Stroke Termination Model - Rizk

D a = 19 h 0 .45 #= 2 Da L N g 1000

Da is attractive width to each side of the line (m); L is line length (km); Ng is ground flash density (flashes/km2/year).
If # normalized to L=100 km, denominator becomes 10.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Risk Assessment Process

Lightning Incidence to Ground (Flash Density) Establish critical current that causes flashover Direct stroke to phase: Insulator CFO divided by surge impedance in corona Direct stroke to overhead groundwire: Insulator CFO divided by footing resistance, adjusted for coupling and volt-time upturn Direct stroke to mast at substation: Insulator CFO divided by station resistance
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## What Does an Insulator Do? Maintains an Air Gap to Establish CFO

Separates Line from Ground
length of air gap depends primarily on system voltage, modified by desired safety margin, contamination, etc.

## Resists Electrical Stresses

system voltage/fields, overvoltages CFO = Critical Flashover (50% probability)

## Resists Environmental Stresses

heat, cold, UV, contamination, etc.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Insulator Types
For simplicity will discuss lightning protection in terms of three broad applications: Distribution lines (thru 69 kV) Transmission lines (69 kV and up) Substations (all voltages)

## Insulator Types Distribution Lines

Pin type insulators
mainly porcelain growing use of polymeric (HDPE high density polyethylene) limited use of glass (in US at least)

Line post insulators porcelain, polymeric Dead end insulators polymeric, porcelain, glass Spool and Strain insulators porcelain, polymeric Fiberglass Standoffs Wood Crossarm or Pole, not shorted out by bond to insulator base

## Insulator Types Transmission Lines

Suspension insulators
new installations mainly polymer porcelain and glass discs now used less frequently

## Line Post insulators

mainly NCIs for new lines and installations porcelain much less frequent now

## Insulator Types Substations

Post insulators
Primarily porcelain NCIs growing in use at lower voltages (~161 kV and below)

Suspension insulators
NCIs (primarily), ceramic

## Cap and Pin Apparatus insulators

legacy type Poor puncture performance, great for icing with silicone coating

## Design Criteria Mechanical

(from Insulators 101)

An insulator is a mechanical support! Its primary function is to support the line mechanically Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought. Will the insulator support your line? Determine The Maximum Load the Insulator Will Ever See Including NESC Overload Factors.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Design Criteria Mechanical

(from Lightning 101)

electrical electrically

An insulator is a mechanical support! Its primary function is to support the line mechanically

Mechanical

Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought. Will the insulator support your line? Determine the Critical Current that will cause Electrical Flashover of the insulator based on its CFO
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Design Criteria - Mechanical

Other Considerations
- Available in any desired length

## Line Posts Mainly cantilever load

- For given core size / strength, increase in dry arc gives decrease in cantilever strength - Combined Loading Curve for Cantilever, Transverse and Longitudinal Load see Insulators 101

## Standing on Line Posts is a BAD Idea!

Insulators 101 course

## Design Criteria - Electrical

Dry Arcing Distance (Strike Distance) The shortest distance through the surrounding medium between terminal electrodes. 1

## Design Criteria - Electrical

Define System Maximum Line-to-Ground Voltage Determine Leakage Distance Required mm per kV Consider Switching Over-voltage Requirements on EHV systems Accept the Critical Flashover Level (CFO) given by the Dry Arc distance Calculate Critical Current from CFO, divided by the impedance of the structure (phase, OHGW or mast), adjusted for coupling and the volt-time curve Make design, construction or follow-up adjustments if estimate is unsatisfactory
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Electrical Ratings ANSI C2 Insulation Level Requirements

ANSI C2-2007, Table 273-1
Rated Dry Flashover Voltage (kV)

## Nominal Phase-to-Phase Voltage (kV)

Higher insulation levels required in areas where severe lightning, high atmospheric contamination, or other unfavorable conditions exist IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Design Criteria - Electrical

Define System Maximum Line-to-Ground Voltage Determine Leakage Distance Required mm per kV Consider Switching Over-voltage Requirements on EHV systems Accept the Critical Impulse Flashover Level (CFO) given by the Dry Arc distance Calculate Critical Current from CFO, divided by the impedance of the structure (phase, OHGW or mast), adjusted for coupling and the volt-time curve Make design, construction or follow-up adjustments if estimate is unsatisfactory
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Design Criteria - Electrical

Where do I get these values? Manufacturers Catalog Critical Impulse Flashover (CFO) Negative Polarity for shielding failures Positive Polarity for lightning to tower If only Basic Impulse Level (BIL) is available, assume this is 90% of Critical Impulse Flashover (CFO) As a default, you can assume 540 kV per (m dry arc distance) for full lightning impulse This increases to 822 kV/m for 270-m span, higher for shorter spans, lower for longer spans +CFO = (400 + 710 t -0.75) kV/m
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## 101 Section C Distribution Line Protection

Presented by John McDaniel, National Grid IEEE Chairman, Lightning Working Group
Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning

## Risk Assessment: Induced Overvoltages

Indirect stroke coupling model (Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse, LEMP)
Fast transient voltage, needs only poor grade insulation to withstand (including wood path) Causes problems with coupling into control circuits, coaxial cables and sensitive electronics Big factor in protection of distribution lines

## Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410

Rusck simplified formula:

U max

h Height of phase over ground (m) I Peak Current (kA) Zo0 = 1/ 4 0 / o = 30 v return stroke velocity, c/3

Z 0 I 0h 1 v = + 1 y 2 c

1 2 1v 1 2c

Assumptions: a. Single conductor, Infinitely long line b. Perfect (zero resistivity) ground c. Step current waveshape Model is simple and correct, but assumptions are weak.
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Effects of Nearby Lightning Std 1410

Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

## Using Conductivity in Rusck Model

Perfectly Conducting Ground: Image Method Imperfect Ground: Image Method
heff = h + 4.7

h h=h

h>h

## Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers

Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

## Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers

Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year

## Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers

Flashovers per 100 km per year for GFD = 1/km2/year
Value typical for Appalachians, Rockies

## Critical Lightning Impulse Flashover Level (kV)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Ground Effect on Induced Flashovers

Higher Insulation (> 300 kV CFO) needed for Design Resistant to Induced Overvoltage with 1 mS/m

## How to achieve CFO >300 kV

Insert insulation in guy wires Review framing of guyed poles

## Add wood in series with insulators

Consider isolated bonding of leakage current across ceramic insulators is a pole-fire concern

## Add fiberglass in series with insulators

Poles or crossarms

g = 1 mS/m

## LIOV-EMTP code (http://www.liov.ing.unibo.it)

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Arrester Effect on Induced Flashovers

g = 1 mS/m

Arresters every 200 m (650) equivalent to 420 kV for Design Resistant to Induced Overvoltage
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Section D Transmission Line Protection

Presented by William A. Chisholm, Kinectrics/UQAC Secretary, IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Lightning 101

## Critical Current for Stroke to Tower

Initial Estimate: CFO divided by Resistance of Stricken Tower
Geometric term from overall surface area A of foundations, radius g Contact resistance if the actual metal / concrete area fills only a small fraction of the total contact patch to soil, L being path length F=2 for almost all electrodes, is soil resistivity (m)

RGeometric + RContact

= 2

1 11.8 g 2 1 A ln g A + L ln F A Wire

## Correction 1: Short Duration of Overvoltage

Adjacent towers help out, share current within a few s The show is over when reflections from adjacent towers arrive

## Correction 2: OHGW to Phase Coupling

A fraction Cn (20-35%) of the voltage on the OHGW will be picked up by the parallel phase conductors The voltage across the insulators will be reduced by (1-Cn)

## Correction 3: Parallel Impedance of OHGW

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Performance Goals for Transmission

Typically lines have at least 1 m of dry arc distance
CFO of 540 kV for full standard impulse, no adjacent towers CFO of 822 kV for adjacent towers 270 m away (2 s @ 0.9 c)

Typically towers with four foundations have base radius rx, ry, rz of 3 m, g=5.2 m, A = 108 m2, Rgeom=/30 Resistivity varies from tower to tower Central US, =100 m; Appalachians 1000 m In Central US, critical current for two OHGW (Cn=0.3) is well above 200 kA and probability of failure is low In Appalachians, Icrit=35 kA; P(I>Icrit) = 41%
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Performance Goals for Transmission

Doubling dry arc distance will double the critical current
230-kV lines, 2 m dry arc, have critical current of 70 kA rather than 35 kA in area with =1000 m Probability 11% rather than 41%, outage rate four times better

Two, rather than four, foundations (H-frame), 3 m deep, 7 m apart, 0.5 m radius, will have a resistance of /17 rather than /30
115-kV line performance still excellent for =100 m, P(I>Icrit) <1% 115-kV line performance poor for =1000 m, P(I>Icrit) =76% 230-kV line performance degrades from 11% to 35% in 1000 m
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Performance Goals for Transmission

Greater Separation from Phase to OHGWs Reduces Coupling of Voltage onto Phases This is bad it increase the insulator voltage Two OHGW at 40 m above ground, 5 m Coupling at 25 m: Cn = 0.3, P(35 kA) = 41% Coupling at 15 m: Cn = 0.17, P(30 kA) = 52% Bottom Phase more prone to flashover

## Performance Goals for Transmission

Shield Wire located Below Phases Improves Coupling Underbuilt Ground Wire (UBGW) Could be OPGW with lightweight armor, easy access Two OHGW at 40 m above ground, 5 m; Third at 10 m Coupling at 25 m: Cn = 0.4, P(42 kA) = 32% Coupling at 15 m: Cn = 0.33, P(37 kA) = 38%

## Dual Voltage Line, OHGW + UB OPGW

At ENbW in Germany, it was not possible to take the line out of service to replace an existing OHGW with an optical fiber groundwire (OPGW) Phase motion restrained by long-rod ceramic post insualtors The OPGW was successfully installed below the bottom phases

## Compact Lines, OHGW+UBGW

COPEL added UBGW to control of tower base potentials More effective for lightning too.

## Performance Goals for Transmission

Arresters limits voltage on protected insulator, and also convert protected phase into UBGW Most effective partial application on unshielded lines is on the top phases, giving equivalent performance to OHGW in the same positions Most effective partial application on lines that already have OHGW is often on bottom phases

## TLSA Application (AEP 138 kV, 1980s)

R. E .Koch , J. A. Timoshenko, J. G. Anderson, C. H. Shih, Design of Zinc Oxide Transmission Line Arresters for Application on 138 kV Towers, IEEE Trans PAS V. 104 No.. 10, Oct 1985, pp. 2675

## Arrester limits power-follow current, Gap does not re-ignite.

IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Section E Standards

Lightning 101

Presented to the IEEE Towers, Poles and Conductors Subcommittee IEEE/PES Technical Committee Meeting, Orlando January 11, 2010
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## IEEE, NFPA and IEC Standards

Consensus standards
Standards writing bodies must include representatives from materially affected and interested parties.

Public review
Anybody may comment. Comments must be evaluated, responded to, and if found to be appropriate, included in the standard .

Right to appeal
By anyone believing due process lacking.

Objective is generally to ensure that Standards are developed in an environment that is equitable, accessible, and responsive to the requirements of various stakeholders*.
* The American National Standards Process, ANSI March 24, 2005

## Lightning Protection of Structures

Each country has its own standards, such as NFPA 780 in USA and CSA B72 in Canada US MIL-HDBK-419A, Grounding, Bonding and Shielding for Electronic Equipments and Facilities There is some work towards adopting the IEC 62305 standard throughout Europe
It is relatively complicated and expensive It involves risk analysis and management It is more of a guide than a standard It is vastly superior to fire protection for buildings that have internal electronic components
IEEE T&D Lightning 101

## Lightning Protection of Lines

IEEE P1410/D6 has recently been balloted with high approval, resolving comments this week.
Computer method for calculating induced overvoltage effects Expanded treatment of multi-component insulation

## IEEE 1243 revision is being initiated.

More consideration being given to line surge arresters versus overhead groundwires Coordinated with C62 Surge Arrester Application Guide

## Lightning Protection of Stations

IEEE 998 is undergoing revision.
Considering update, inclusion of attractive radius models with height dependence rather than fixed rolling sphere radius

## IEEE T&D Lightning 101

Questions?
A long-standing tradition of technical committee meetings is that the TPC Chair buys a free beverage for everyone who asks a question that can be answered by the presenters, so ..