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Photogrammetric Triangulation 1

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TRIANGULATION
1. Aim and the Methods of the Photogrammetric Triangulation
1.1 Methods of the Photogrammetric triangulation
1.1.1.1Mathematical Relation between Image and Ground Co-ordinates
1.1.1.2 Observation and Normal equations
1.1.1.3 Solution of the Normal equations
1.1.1.4 Accuracy Estimation of the Bundle Adjustment
1.1.2 Block adjustment by independent Models
1.1.2.1 Planimetric adjustment of a block
1.1.2.1.1 Mathematical Formulation
1.1.2.3 Accuracy aspects of the method of the block adjustment by independent
models
1.1.2.3.1 Planimetric Accuracy
1.1.2.3.2 Height Accuracy
2. Digital Photogrammetric Triangulation
3. Conclusion Remarks
1. AIM AND THE METHODS OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC
TRIANGULATION
As we know, we need for the photogrammetric evaluation at least three control points by ground
survey methods in each stereomodel. To avoid this difficulty some methods has been developed. The
aim of this method, called photogrammetric triangulation, is to bridge areas with minimum number
of ground survey points. The results of aerial triangulation are the orientation elements of all
photographs or stereomodels and the XYZ co-ordinates of discrete points in a higher coordinate
system. These points are
Points signalized before the flight
Natural points selected in the photographs
Artificial points marked in the photographs
Photogrammetric Triangulation is used in the determination of control point co-ordinates for the
evaluation of the stereomodels, of the co-ordinates of large numbers of points for cadastral boundary
points or test field and for and of the co-ordinates of control points and numerous individual points in
engineering applications. We will introduce two techniques, which can be used to deal with blocks of
photographs. The first is numerical orientation of the two bundles of rays of a stereopair of
photographs. In this technique, the 12 elements of outer orientation of the two photographs and the co-
ordinates of new points in the stereomodel are computed from the known co-ordinates of control
points. This method is known as a bundle block adjustment and can be extended to a large number
of photographs. The second technique is the numerical absolute orientation. It is based on the
assumption that a stereomodel has been formed by the numerical relative orientation of two
Photogrammetric Triangulation 2
overlapping photographs. This stereomodel is then transformed into the ground coordinate system
with the help of control points. The extension of this technique from a single model to a block of
models implies that all models in the block are absolutely oriented simultaneously. This method is
known as a block adjustment by independent models.
Features of Bundle Block and Independent Model Adjustment
1.1 THE METHODS OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TRIANGULATION
In a bundle adjustment of a strip or block of photographs, with at least 60% overlap and 20% sidelap,
we compute directly the relations between image co-ordinates and object co-ordinates without
introducing model co-ordinates as an intermediate step. Thus, the photograph is the elementary unit
in a bundle adjustment. In the bundle adjustment the image co-ordinates and the associated
projection centre of a photograph define a spatial bundle of rays. The elements of outer orientation of
all bundles in a block are computed simultaneously for all photographs. The initial data consist of the
image co-ordinates of the tie points (points existing in more than one photograph ) together with the
image co-ordinates and object co-ordinates of the control points.
The least squares adjustment principle can be defined as follows:
The bundles of rays are displaced and rotated so that the bundles intersect each other as well as
possible at the tie points and pass through the control points as nearly as possible.
least-squares parameter estimation using image coordinates x' , y' of ground
control points, tie points, and points to be determined
result : exterior orientation parameters + object space coordinates of points
model coordinates instead of using image coordinates
l principle : simultaneous
evaluation of image blocks
(n>2)
l objective : control points / point
determination (X,Y,Z)
Photogrammetric Triangulation 3
Figure1: Principle of a bundle block adjustment
Before we start to study the adjustment we have to know the mathematical relation between the image
co-ordinates and their ground co-ordinates.
1.1.1.1 MATHEMATICAL RELATION BETWEEN IMAGE AND GROUND COORDINATES
Figure 2: Projection Center O, image point P

and the object point are lying on the same line.

( collinearity condition )
Photogrammetric Triangulation 4
As a condition of the central projection the object point P, the projection centre o and the the image
point P

must lie on a straight line at the moment of exposure. (Collinearity condition ) We introduce
now an Z Y X , , ground system, parallel to the image co-ordinate system 0 ( for all image
points and c for the projection centre) and rotated in space relative to the original XYZ ground
system. The collinearity condition of the straight line relation can be expressed in the Z Y X , ,
system by the two equations.
c
0

=
Z Z
X X

0
0
c
0

=
Z Z
Y Y

0
0
We rewrite the equation with the measured image co-ordinates as the unknowns.
0
0
0
Z Z
X X
c

(1)
0
0
0
Z Z
Y Y
c

(2)
We replace the co-ordinates X of the object point and
0
X of the projection centre by X and X
0
of
the ground co-ordinate system. The Z Y X system is rotated relative to the XYZ system and
therefore we have to write as follows:
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

0
0
0
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
0
0
0
Z Z
Y Y
X X
r r r
r r r
r r r
Z Z
Y Y
X X
(3)
We multiply the equation (3) with R
T
= R
-1
and insert the equations (1) and (2) we get the relation
between image and ground co-ordinates.
c
0

N
Z
c
Z Z r Y Y r X X r
Z Z r Y Y r X X r
x

+ +
+ +
0
0 33 0 23 0 13
0 31 0 21 0 11
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
(4)

0
-c
N
Z
c
Z Z r Y Y r X X r
Z Z r Y Y r X X r
y

+ +
+ +
0
0 33 0 23 0 13
0 32 0 22 0 12
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
(5)
Photogrammetric Triangulation 5
The elements r
ik
are the cosines of the angles between the axes of the image and ground co-
ordinate systems. and functions of the angles , , by which the photograph was rotated
relative to the ground co-ordinate system at the moment of exposure. The equations (4) and
(5) are nonlinear and therefore they must be linearized. We expand the functions into the
Taylor series and ignore the terms of degree 2 and higher. The differential quotients are
obtained as follows:
2 11 13 2
0
) ( a N r Z r
N
c
X
x

2 12 13 2
0
) ( b N r Z r
N
c
X
y

................................................... ..............................................
1.1.1.2 OBSERVATION AND NORMAL EQUATIONS
The differential quotients are used to write the linearised observation equations of least
squares adjustment by indirect observations. Each measured image point yields two
observation equations. ( i= index for the measured point, j= index for the photograph )
The unknowns of this equation are the six elements of outer orientation of the photograph
with the index j and the three ground co-ordinates of point P
i
. If a ray passes through a fixed
point , the terms dX
i
, dY
i
,and dZ
i
dissapear. This point is called a fix point and will take no
correction. The differential quotients [ ]
0
are calculated from approximate values of the
unknowns. The approximations to the unknowns can be derived in various ways.
An example with four photographs will show us the procedure:
Photogrammetric Triangulation 6
= Control Points = measured new point coordinates
Photograph 1 Photograph 2
Photograph 3 Photograph 4
The observation equations for the example above are as follows:
1 2
3 4
5 6
1 2
3 4
5 6
3 4
5 6
7 8
3 4
5 6
7 8
Observed image Coor. (2x6x4)=48
Unknowns:
3x4 = 12 projection centre co-ordinates
3x4 =12 rotations
3x4 =12 new points co-ordinates
36 (total)
redundancy: 48-36 = 12
Photogrammetric Triangulation 7
These equations are written in matrix notation as
v = A x l (observation Equations)
A
T
A x = A
T
l = N x = n (Normal Equations)
1.1.1.3 SOLUTION OF THE NORMAL EQUATIONS
The structure of the normal equations belonging to the example above are as follows:
Or in matrix notation
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

2
1
2
1
22 12
12 11
n
n
x
x
N N
N N
T
(5)
x
1
is the subvektor concerning the unknown outer orientation elements, and x
2
is the
subvector of the unknown new point co-ordinates .The inversion of the two hyperdiagonal
matrices is simple, each submatrix can be inverted independently. To solve the normal
equation system a group of unknowns x
2
are written in terms of the other unknown group x
1
.
So, we obtain the reduced normal equation system.
2
1
22 12 1 1 12
1
22 12 11
) ( n N N n x N N N N
T

Photogrammetric Triangulation 8
x
1
unknown group can be determined by this equation above. An least squares adjustment
gives corrections to the approximate co-ordinates of the new points. If the approximations are
very poor, the corrected values must be treated as new approximates for a new adjustment
calculation. This step is repeated until there is no further significant change in the unknowns
of the block adjustment. If amateur cameras are used instead of photogrammetric cameras ,
the elements of inner orientation of the camera can be added as unknowns in the observation
equations. And the solution of the normal equations yields the inner orientation elements of
the amateur camera.
1.1.1.4 ACCURACY ESTIMATION OF THE BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT
The accuracy can be estimated for a bundle block adjustment with 60% overlap and 20%
sidelap and for signalised points as:
Planimetry:
xy
= 3 m in the photograph
Height:
z
= 0.03 of camera distance (NA-WA)
= 0.04 of camera distance (SWA)
Accuracy potential of aerial triangulation
l precision of image coordinates
l block geometry
Depends on

g
) PA ' A ( ) x ( D P D(l)
2
0
1 2
0

xy

0
10 m (6-15) analytical plotter, point marking 1970-1975
4 m (3-5) analytical plotter, signalized points 1975-1980
3 m (2-4) analytical plotter, signalized points, self calibration since 1980
1 m close range photogrammetry, signalized points,
extreme self calibration (D.C. Brown)
0.1-0.2 pixel digital point transfer by intensity based matching since 1990
0.4 pixel digital point transfer by feature based matching
0
of History" "
Photogrammetric Triangulation 9
1.1.2 BLOCK ADJUSTMENT BY INDEPENDENT MODELS
The adjustment of the block by independent models begins with
the model co-ordinates derived from the numerical relative
orientations and formation of the stereomodels. These
stereomodels are brought together into a single block and
simultaneously transformed into the ground co-ordinate system.
The individual steromodels are the units of aerial triangulation by
independent models. It differs two kind of adjustment
1.1.2.1 PLANIMETRIC ADJUSTMENT OF A BLOCK
The adjustment of planimetry concerns only with the XY co-ordinates. As result we want to obtain
the XY co-ordinates of new points in the ground co-ordinate system. The model co-ordinates x,y of
the relatively oriented and levelled individual models are given values. The can be levelled by means
of control points taken from topographic maps. The co-ordinates of these points can be measured
approximately in a topographic map. The corresponding image co-ordinates of these points are
measured and used to compute the model co-ordinates after the relative orientation. With the help of
these points the numerical absolute orientation can be performed to level the model. The principle of a
planimetric block adjustment is shown below.
Figure:1 Planimetric block adjustment by independent models
Photogrammetric Triangulation 10
The model co-ordinates are in separate independent, local co-ordinate systems for each
model. Each of this co-ordinate systems is displaced and rotated relative to the ground co-
ordinate system and has an arbitrary scale. A initial data to bring the individual models into
one block in the co-ordinate system we have the tie points, the model and ground co-
ordinates of the field surveyed control points. The adjustment can be defined as follows:
The models are
Displaced ( two translations X
U
, Y
U
)
Rotated ( rotation angle K )
Scaled (scale factor m)
So that
The tie points fit together as well as possible and
The residual discrepancies at the control points are small as possible.
1.1.2.1.1 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
The mathematical relation between a model and the ground
coordinate system can be formulated as follows ( plane similarity
transformation)

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

y
x
K K
K K
m
Y
X
Y
X
U
U
cos sin
sin cos
The m and K values are the unknowns and the non linearities can be eliminate by substituting
b K m
a K m

sin
cos
With this subtitutions the linear equations below are obtained.
x b y a Y Y
y b x a X X
U
U
+ +
+
The extension of this equation system to a block of photographs is called a chained plane similarity
transformation.
Observation equations for a control Point
Photogrammetric Triangulation 11
Y x b y a Y V
X y b x a X V
U Y
U X
+ +
+
Observation equations for a tie point
O Y x b y a Y V
O X y b x a X V
U Y
U X
+ +
+
The overlined terms in the equations are the unknowns. The model co-ordinates are introduced
referred to the centroid of each model has the effect of reducing the submatrix of the transformation
elements to a diagonal matrix.
The system of normal equations of the planimetric adjustment of a block has a very special structure
which can be expressed in matrix form as follows:

,
_

,
_

,
_

0
1
2
1
2
1
n
x
x
D N
N D
T
x
1
.......................................... unknown transformation parameters
x
2
...........................................unknown tie-points co-ordinates
D
1
,D
2
.......................................diagonal matrices
N
T
,N .......................................sparse submatrices which give rise to correlation between the
unknowns x
1
, and x
2
n
1
........................................vector of the absolute terms of the unknowns x
1
As a result of the diagonal matrices in the normal equations we can eliminate the unknowns
x
1
(transformation elements) or x
2
( tie point co-ordinates )before solving the equations.
When there is a large number of models and a small number of tie points in the block
adjustment, then eliminating the transformation elements is suitable, otherwise, when there is
a small number of models and large number of tie points the tie point co-ordinates must be
eliminated.
In spatial block adjustment we compute the XYZ co-ordinates of points in the ground co-ordinate
system. As initial data we have the xyz model co-ordinates of points in the models formed by
relative orientation and the model co-ordinates of the projection centres derived from the numerical
relative orientation. The projection centres stabilise the heights along the strip. A very good
Photogrammetric Triangulation 12
stabilisation of heights in the block could only be achieved by sidelaps between strips of about 60%
The principle of spatial block adjustment can be seen in Figures 2 and 3 .
Figure:2 Model connection with projection centres
Figure:3 Spatial Block adjustment by independent models
The points in each model are defined in an independent, spatial co-ordinate system which can be
transformed into the ground co-ordinate system by the seven elements of absolute orientation of all
models in the block.
The adjustment can therefore be defined as follows. The models are:
Displaced (three translations X
U
,Y
U
, Z
U
)
Rotated (three rotations , , )
Scaled (scale factor m)
So that
The tie points and the projection centres fit together as well as possible
The residual discrepancies at the control points are as small as possible.
The mathematical relation between the model and the ground co-ordinate system was known as a spatial
similarity transformation and defined as follows:
Photogrammetric Triangulation 13

,
_

,
_

,
_

z
y
x
R m
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
U
U
U
in which
X
U
,Y
U
, Z
U
= ground co-ordinates of the origin of the xyz (Model) system
m = scale number of the xyz system
R = matrix of the spatial rotation of the xyz system into the XYZ system as functions of the
three rotations , ,
These seven parameters are represents a spatial similarity transformation. At least seven equations are
required for a computational solution of the seven elements. Equation ( ) yields:
Three equations for a full control point (XYZ known )
Two equations for a planimetric control point (XY known)
One equation for a height control point ( Z known)
A spatial similarity transformation requires at least two planimetric points and three height control points, or two
full control points and a height control point not in the same line. If there are redundant measurements a least
squares solution will be necessary.
1.1.2.3 ACCURACY ASPECTS OF THE BLOCK ADJUSTMENT BY
INDEPENDENT MODELS
The planimetric and height accuracies of the block adjustment are treated separately.
1.1.2.3.1 PLANIMETRIC ACCURACY
We can obtain the accuracy of the XY co-ordinates of the tie points with the weight coefficients Q
xx
and Q
YY

derived by inverting the normal equation matrix. The weight coefficients are identical and
are named Q
LL
.The accuracy
B,L
of the co-ordinates X and Y of a tie point after the block adjustment
is as follows:
LL L B
Q
,

0
=
LL
Q
L M;

0
is the mean square error of unit weight of the adjustment. The accuracy
y x
or of a model co-
ordinate x or y , expressed in the ground co-ordinate system The quantity
LL
Q can therefore be
regarded as a factor which multiplied by the accuracy
L M,
of the XY co-ordinates in the individual
Photogrammetric Triangulation 14
models, gives the planimetric accuracy
L B,
of the block. Some tips of the accuracy aspect of the
block adjustment by independent models are as below:
The accuracy
is almost independent of the size of the block and
is close to the accuracy in a single model.
The control points inside the block bring no significant improvement in accuracy.
1.1.2.3.2 HEIGHT ACCURACY
The accuracy of heights after a block adjustment can be derived from the inversion of the normal equation
matrix and is follows:
ZZ Z B
Q
,

0
=
ZZ
Q
Z M,

The height accuracy is primarly dependent on the number i of models between two chains of height
control points. Therefore we can improve the height accuracy by introducing height control points on
these edges at intervals of i/2 models.