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PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TRIANGULATION

1. Aim and the Methods of the Photogrammetric Triangulation

1.1 Methods of the Photogrammetric triangulation

1.1.1 Bundle Block adjustment

1.1.1.1Mathematical Relation between Image and Ground Co-ordinates

1.1.1.2 Observation and Normal equations

1.1.1.3 Solution of the Normal equations

1.1.1.4 Accuracy Estimation of the Bundle Adjustment

1.1.2 Block adjustment by independent Models

1.1.2.1 Planimetric adjustment of a block

1.1.2.1.1 Mathematical Formulation

1.1.2.2 Spatial Block adjustment

1.1.2.3 Accuracy aspects of the method of the block adjustment by independent

models

1.1.2.3.1 Planimetric Accuracy

1.1.2.3.2 Height Accuracy

2. Digital Photogrammetric Triangulation

3. Conclusion Remarks

1. AIM AND THE METHODS OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC

TRIANGULATION

As we know, we need for the photogrammetric evaluation at least three control points by ground

survey methods in each stereomodel. To avoid this difficulty some methods has been developed. The

aim of this method, called photogrammetric triangulation, is to bridge areas with minimum number

of ground survey points. The results of aerial triangulation are the orientation elements of all

photographs or stereomodels and the XYZ co-ordinates of discrete points in a higher coordinate

system. These points are

Points signalized before the flight

Natural points selected in the photographs

Artificial points marked in the photographs

Photogrammetric Triangulation is used in the determination of control point co-ordinates for the

evaluation of the stereomodels, of the co-ordinates of large numbers of points for cadastral boundary

points or test field and for and of the co-ordinates of control points and numerous individual points in

engineering applications. We will introduce two techniques, which can be used to deal with blocks of

photographs. The first is numerical orientation of the two bundles of rays of a stereopair of

photographs. In this technique, the 12 elements of outer orientation of the two photographs and the co-

ordinates of new points in the stereomodel are computed from the known co-ordinates of control

points. This method is known as a bundle block adjustment and can be extended to a large number

of photographs. The second technique is the numerical absolute orientation. It is based on the

assumption that a stereomodel has been formed by the numerical relative orientation of two

Photogrammetric Triangulation 2

overlapping photographs. This stereomodel is then transformed into the ground coordinate system

with the help of control points. The extension of this technique from a single model to a block of

models implies that all models in the block are absolutely oriented simultaneously. This method is

known as a block adjustment by independent models.

Features of Bundle Block and Independent Model Adjustment

1.1 THE METHODS OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TRIANGULATION

1.1.1 BUNDLE BLOCK ADJUSTMENT

In a bundle adjustment of a strip or block of photographs, with at least 60% overlap and 20% sidelap,

we compute directly the relations between image co-ordinates and object co-ordinates without

introducing model co-ordinates as an intermediate step. Thus, the photograph is the elementary unit

in a bundle adjustment. In the bundle adjustment the image co-ordinates and the associated

projection centre of a photograph define a spatial bundle of rays. The elements of outer orientation of

all bundles in a block are computed simultaneously for all photographs. The initial data consist of the

image co-ordinates of the tie points (points existing in more than one photograph ) together with the

image co-ordinates and object co-ordinates of the control points.

The least squares adjustment principle can be defined as follows:

The bundles of rays are displaced and rotated so that the bundles intersect each other as well as

possible at the tie points and pass through the control points as nearly as possible.

l bundle block adjustment

least-squares parameter estimation using image coordinates x' , y' of ground

control points, tie points, and points to be determined

result : exterior orientation parameters + object space coordinates of points

l independent model adjustment

model coordinates instead of using image coordinates

l principle : simultaneous

evaluation of image blocks

(n>2)

l objective : control points / point

determination (X,Y,Z)

Photogrammetric Triangulation 3

Figure1: Principle of a bundle block adjustment

Before we start to study the adjustment we have to know the mathematical relation between the image

co-ordinates and their ground co-ordinates.

1.1.1.1 MATHEMATICAL RELATION BETWEEN IMAGE AND GROUND COORDINATES

Figure 2: Projection Center O, image point P

( collinearity condition )

Photogrammetric Triangulation 4

As a condition of the central projection the object point P, the projection centre o and the the image

point P

must lie on a straight line at the moment of exposure. (Collinearity condition ) We introduce

now an Z Y X , , ground system, parallel to the image co-ordinate system 0 ( for all image

points and c for the projection centre) and rotated in space relative to the original XYZ ground

system. The collinearity condition of the straight line relation can be expressed in the Z Y X , ,

system by the two equations.

c

0

=

Z Z

X X

0

0

c

0

=

Z Z

Y Y

0

0

We rewrite the equation with the measured image co-ordinates as the unknowns.

0

0

0

Z Z

X X

c

(1)

0

0

0

Z Z

Y Y

c

(2)

We replace the co-ordinates X of the object point and

0

X of the projection centre by X and X

0

of

the ground co-ordinate system. The Z Y X system is rotated relative to the XYZ system and

therefore we have to write as follows:

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

0

0

0

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

0

0

0

Z Z

Y Y

X X

r r r

r r r

r r r

Z Z

Y Y

X X

(3)

We multiply the equation (3) with R

T

= R

-1

and insert the equations (1) and (2) we get the relation

between image and ground co-ordinates.

c

0

N

Z

c

Z Z r Y Y r X X r

Z Z r Y Y r X X r

x

+ +

+ +

0

0 33 0 23 0 13

0 31 0 21 0 11

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) (

(4)

0

-c

N

Z

c

Z Z r Y Y r X X r

Z Z r Y Y r X X r

y

+ +

+ +

0

0 33 0 23 0 13

0 32 0 22 0 12

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) (

(5)

Photogrammetric Triangulation 5

The elements r

ik

are the cosines of the angles between the axes of the image and ground co-

ordinate systems. and functions of the angles , , by which the photograph was rotated

relative to the ground co-ordinate system at the moment of exposure. The equations (4) and

(5) are nonlinear and therefore they must be linearized. We expand the functions into the

Taylor series and ignore the terms of degree 2 and higher. The differential quotients are

obtained as follows:

2 11 13 2

0

) ( a N r Z r

N

c

X

x

2 12 13 2

0

) ( b N r Z r

N

c

X

y

................................................... ..............................................

1.1.1.2 OBSERVATION AND NORMAL EQUATIONS

The differential quotients are used to write the linearised observation equations of least

squares adjustment by indirect observations. Each measured image point yields two

observation equations. ( i= index for the measured point, j= index for the photograph )

The unknowns of this equation are the six elements of outer orientation of the photograph

with the index j and the three ground co-ordinates of point P

i

. If a ray passes through a fixed

point , the terms dX

i

, dY

i

,and dZ

i

dissapear. This point is called a fix point and will take no

correction. The differential quotients [ ]

0

are calculated from approximate values of the

unknowns. The approximations to the unknowns can be derived in various ways.

An example with four photographs will show us the procedure:

Photogrammetric Triangulation 6

= Control Points = measured new point coordinates

Photograph 1 Photograph 2

Photograph 3 Photograph 4

The observation equations for the example above are as follows:

1 2

3 4

5 6

1 2

3 4

5 6

3 4

5 6

7 8

3 4

5 6

7 8

Observed image Coor. (2x6x4)=48

Unknowns:

3x4 = 12 projection centre co-ordinates

3x4 =12 rotations

3x4 =12 new points co-ordinates

36 (total)

redundancy: 48-36 = 12

Photogrammetric Triangulation 7

These equations are written in matrix notation as

v = A x l (observation Equations)

A

T

A x = A

T

l = N x = n (Normal Equations)

1.1.1.3 SOLUTION OF THE NORMAL EQUATIONS

The structure of the normal equations belonging to the example above are as follows:

Or in matrix notation

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

2

1

2

1

22 12

12 11

n

n

x

x

N N

N N

T

(5)

x

1

is the subvektor concerning the unknown outer orientation elements, and x

2

is the

subvector of the unknown new point co-ordinates .The inversion of the two hyperdiagonal

matrices is simple, each submatrix can be inverted independently. To solve the normal

equation system a group of unknowns x

2

are written in terms of the other unknown group x

1

.

So, we obtain the reduced normal equation system.

2

1

22 12 1 1 12

1

22 12 11

) ( n N N n x N N N N

T

Photogrammetric Triangulation 8

x

1

unknown group can be determined by this equation above. An least squares adjustment

gives corrections to the approximate co-ordinates of the new points. If the approximations are

very poor, the corrected values must be treated as new approximates for a new adjustment

calculation. This step is repeated until there is no further significant change in the unknowns

of the block adjustment. If amateur cameras are used instead of photogrammetric cameras ,

the elements of inner orientation of the camera can be added as unknowns in the observation

equations. And the solution of the normal equations yields the inner orientation elements of

the amateur camera.

1.1.1.4 ACCURACY ESTIMATION OF THE BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT

The accuracy can be estimated for a bundle block adjustment with 60% overlap and 20%

sidelap and for signalised points as:

Planimetry:

xy

= 3 m in the photograph

Height:

z

= 0.03 of camera distance (NA-WA)

= 0.04 of camera distance (SWA)

Accuracy potential of aerial triangulation

l precision of image coordinates

l block geometry

Depends on

g

) PA ' A ( ) x ( D P D(l)

2

0

1 2

0

xy

0

15 m (10-30) analog instruments, point marking up to 1970

10 m (6-15) analytical plotter, point marking 1970-1975

4 m (3-5) analytical plotter, signalized points 1975-1980

3 m (2-4) analytical plotter, signalized points, self calibration since 1980

1 m close range photogrammetry, signalized points,

extreme self calibration (D.C. Brown)

0.1-0.2 pixel digital point transfer by intensity based matching since 1990

0.4 pixel digital point transfer by feature based matching

0

of History" "

Photogrammetric Triangulation 9

1.1.2 BLOCK ADJUSTMENT BY INDEPENDENT MODELS

The adjustment of the block by independent models begins with

the model co-ordinates derived from the numerical relative

orientations and formation of the stereomodels. These

stereomodels are brought together into a single block and

simultaneously transformed into the ground co-ordinate system.

The individual steromodels are the units of aerial triangulation by

independent models. It differs two kind of adjustment

Planimetric Adjustment of a Block

Spatial Block Adjustment

1.1.2.1 PLANIMETRIC ADJUSTMENT OF A BLOCK

The adjustment of planimetry concerns only with the XY co-ordinates. As result we want to obtain

the XY co-ordinates of new points in the ground co-ordinate system. The model co-ordinates x,y of

the relatively oriented and levelled individual models are given values. The can be levelled by means

of control points taken from topographic maps. The co-ordinates of these points can be measured

approximately in a topographic map. The corresponding image co-ordinates of these points are

measured and used to compute the model co-ordinates after the relative orientation. With the help of

these points the numerical absolute orientation can be performed to level the model. The principle of a

planimetric block adjustment is shown below.

Figure:1 Planimetric block adjustment by independent models

Photogrammetric Triangulation 10

The model co-ordinates are in separate independent, local co-ordinate systems for each

model. Each of this co-ordinate systems is displaced and rotated relative to the ground co-

ordinate system and has an arbitrary scale. A initial data to bring the individual models into

one block in the co-ordinate system we have the tie points, the model and ground co-

ordinates of the field surveyed control points. The adjustment can be defined as follows:

The models are

Displaced ( two translations X

U

, Y

U

)

Rotated ( rotation angle K )

Scaled (scale factor m)

So that

The tie points fit together as well as possible and

The residual discrepancies at the control points are small as possible.

1.1.2.1.1 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

The mathematical relation between a model and the ground

coordinate system can be formulated as follows ( plane similarity

transformation)

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

y

x

K K

K K

m

Y

X

Y

X

U

U

cos sin

sin cos

The m and K values are the unknowns and the non linearities can be eliminate by substituting

b K m

a K m

sin

cos

With this subtitutions the linear equations below are obtained.

x b y a Y Y

y b x a X X

U

U

+ +

+

The extension of this equation system to a block of photographs is called a chained plane similarity

transformation.

Observation equations for a control Point

Photogrammetric Triangulation 11

Y x b y a Y V

X y b x a X V

U Y

U X

+ +

+

Observation equations for a tie point

O Y x b y a Y V

O X y b x a X V

U Y

U X

+ +

+

The overlined terms in the equations are the unknowns. The model co-ordinates are introduced

referred to the centroid of each model has the effect of reducing the submatrix of the transformation

elements to a diagonal matrix.

The system of normal equations of the planimetric adjustment of a block has a very special structure

which can be expressed in matrix form as follows:

,

_

,

_

,

_

0

1

2

1

2

1

n

x

x

D N

N D

T

x

1

.......................................... unknown transformation parameters

x

2

...........................................unknown tie-points co-ordinates

D

1

,D

2

.......................................diagonal matrices

N

T

,N .......................................sparse submatrices which give rise to correlation between the

unknowns x

1

, and x

2

n

1

........................................vector of the absolute terms of the unknowns x

1

As a result of the diagonal matrices in the normal equations we can eliminate the unknowns

x

1

(transformation elements) or x

2

( tie point co-ordinates )before solving the equations.

When there is a large number of models and a small number of tie points in the block

adjustment, then eliminating the transformation elements is suitable, otherwise, when there is

a small number of models and large number of tie points the tie point co-ordinates must be

eliminated.

1.1.2.2 SPATIAL BLOCK ADJUSTMENT

In spatial block adjustment we compute the XYZ co-ordinates of points in the ground co-ordinate

system. As initial data we have the xyz model co-ordinates of points in the models formed by

relative orientation and the model co-ordinates of the projection centres derived from the numerical

relative orientation. The projection centres stabilise the heights along the strip. A very good

Photogrammetric Triangulation 12

stabilisation of heights in the block could only be achieved by sidelaps between strips of about 60%

The principle of spatial block adjustment can be seen in Figures 2 and 3 .

Figure:2 Model connection with projection centres

Figure:3 Spatial Block adjustment by independent models

The points in each model are defined in an independent, spatial co-ordinate system which can be

transformed into the ground co-ordinate system by the seven elements of absolute orientation of all

models in the block.

The adjustment can therefore be defined as follows. The models are:

Displaced (three translations X

U

,Y

U

, Z

U

)

Rotated (three rotations , , )

Scaled (scale factor m)

So that

The tie points and the projection centres fit together as well as possible

The residual discrepancies at the control points are as small as possible.

The mathematical relation between the model and the ground co-ordinate system was known as a spatial

similarity transformation and defined as follows:

Photogrammetric Triangulation 13

,

_

,

_

,

_

z

y

x

R m

Z

Y

X

Z

Y

X

U

U

U

in which

X

U

,Y

U

, Z

U

= ground co-ordinates of the origin of the xyz (Model) system

m = scale number of the xyz system

R = matrix of the spatial rotation of the xyz system into the XYZ system as functions of the

three rotations , ,

These seven parameters are represents a spatial similarity transformation. At least seven equations are

required for a computational solution of the seven elements. Equation ( ) yields:

Three equations for a full control point (XYZ known )

Two equations for a planimetric control point (XY known)

One equation for a height control point ( Z known)

A spatial similarity transformation requires at least two planimetric points and three height control points, or two

full control points and a height control point not in the same line. If there are redundant measurements a least

squares solution will be necessary.

1.1.2.3 ACCURACY ASPECTS OF THE BLOCK ADJUSTMENT BY

INDEPENDENT MODELS

The planimetric and height accuracies of the block adjustment are treated separately.

1.1.2.3.1 PLANIMETRIC ACCURACY

We can obtain the accuracy of the XY co-ordinates of the tie points with the weight coefficients Q

xx

and Q

YY

derived by inverting the normal equation matrix. The weight coefficients are identical and

are named Q

LL

.The accuracy

B,L

of the co-ordinates X and Y of a tie point after the block adjustment

is as follows:

LL L B

Q

,

0

=

LL

Q

L M;

0

is the mean square error of unit weight of the adjustment. The accuracy

y x

or of a model co-

ordinate x or y , expressed in the ground co-ordinate system The quantity

LL

Q can therefore be

regarded as a factor which multiplied by the accuracy

L M,

of the XY co-ordinates in the individual

Photogrammetric Triangulation 14

models, gives the planimetric accuracy

L B,

of the block. Some tips of the accuracy aspect of the

block adjustment by independent models are as below:

The accuracy

is almost independent of the size of the block and

is close to the accuracy in a single model.

The control points inside the block bring no significant improvement in accuracy.

1.1.2.3.2 HEIGHT ACCURACY

The accuracy of heights after a block adjustment can be derived from the inversion of the normal equation

matrix and is follows:

ZZ Z B

Q

,

0

=

ZZ

Q

Z M,

The height accuracy is primarly dependent on the number i of models between two chains of height

control points. Therefore we can improve the height accuracy by introducing height control points on

these edges at intervals of i/2 models.

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