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2 Diffraction by Multiple Knife Edges

361

Giovanelli Method Like the Deygout method, this method is based on the assumption that one of the edges is dominant and is primarily responsible for the attenuation due to diffraction, the other edges having but a secondary influence (Giovanelli 1984). Two edge case. Let us here consider the case of two knife edges M1 and M2. The determination of the main edge proceeds from the consideration of the parameter q = h/r defined with respect to the radius of the first Fresnel ellipsoid. The edge corresponding to the highest value of the parameter q is defined as the main edge, while the other edges are considered as secondary edges. 1. We first consider the case, represented in Fig. 12, where M1 is defined as the main edge. The projection of the ray originating at the apex point of the edge M1 and grazing the edge M2 creates a fictitious receiver R' within the plane Pr. The Fresnel-Kirchhoff parameter is a function of the diffraction angle 1, and does not depend on the angle '1. The effective height h1 of the principal obstacle is determined from the obstruction by the edge M1 of the Fresnel ellipsoid with foci at E and R':

h1 = ( H1 H E ) d1

H R' H E d1 + d 2 + d3 H H1 H R ' = H1 + ( d 2 + d 3 ) 2 d2
( Pr )
M2 h
2

(K.59) (K.60)

M1

1 ' 1

h E

2
H0 H1
H2

R'

H3

d1

d2

d3

Fig. 12. Radius of the Fresnel ellipsoid: M1 is the main edge (Giovanelli method)

362

K Diffraction Models

The secondary obstacle M2 is then considered along the propagation path M1M2R, with a diffraction angle 2 and an effective height h2 given by the equation:

h2 = ( H 2 H1 ) d 2

H R H1 d 2 + d3

(K.61)

2. Let us now consider the case, represented in Fig. 13, where M2 has been defined as the main edge. The projection of the ray originating from the apex point of the edge M1 and grazing the edge M2 creates a fictitious transmitter E' within the plane Ep. The Fresnel-Kirchhoff parameter is a function of the diffraction angle 2, and does not depend on the angle '2. The effective height h2 of the main obstacle is determined from the obstrcution by the edge M2 of the Fresnel ellipsoid with loi located at E' and R:

h2 = ( H 2 H E ' ) ( d1 + d 2 )

H3 H E ' , d1 + d 2 + d3 H H2 . H E ' = H1 + ( d1 ) 1 d2

(K.62) (K.63)

The secondary obstacle M1 is then considered along the propagation path EM2R, with a diffraction angle 1 and an effective height h1 given by the equation:

h1 = ( H1 H E ) d1
( PE )
M
1

H2 HE . d1 + d 2

(K.64)

E'
h E
1

h
2

' 2

H0 H1
H2

H3 d

Fig. 13. Radius of the Fresnel ellipsoid: M2 is the main edge (Giovanelli method)

2 Diffraction by Multiple Knife Edges

363

( PE )
Mk

( PR )
M k 1
hk

M k +1

E'
E

R'
H0

Hk 1

Hk

Hk +1

H N +1

dk

d k +1

Fig. 14. Radius of the Fresnel ellipsoid : generalisation to N edges (Giovanelli method)

Generalisation to N edges. The determination of the attenuation due to the diffraction by N successive edges is based on the repetition of the two edge procedure. Different cases are to be considered, depending on which edge is the main obstacle between E and R: if the main obstacle is an edge Mk located between the first edge M1 and the last edge MN, two observation planes PE and PR are introduced at the level of the transmitter E and receiver R. The projection of the light ray which grazes the edges Mk and Mk-1 is unaffected by the obstacles Mk-2, Mk-3, M2, M1 and thus defines a fictitious transmitter E' within the plane PE. Likewise the projection of the light ray which grazes the edges Mk and Mk+1 is unaffected by the obstacles Mk+2, Mk+3, MN-1, MN and thus defines a fictitious receiver R' within the plane PR. The effective height hk of the main obstacle Mk is determined from the obstruction by this edge of the Fresnel ellipsoid with foci located at E' and R'. This construction is then extended to the propagation paths located left and right of the main obstacle, by introducing a new observation plane at the level of Mk, with the same function as PR for determining a new main edge at the left of Mk and as PE for determining a new main edge at the right of Mk respectively. The procedure is then repeated. The equations for the heights of the fictitious transmitters and of the receivers are:

H E ' = H k + ( d1 + ... + d k ) H kdkH1k +1 , +

(K.65)

364

K Diffraction Models

H k +1 H k , d k +1 H R' HE' hk = ( H k H E ' ) ( d1 + ... + d k ) . d1 + ... + d k +1 H R ' = H k + ( d k +1 + ... + d N +1 )

(K.66) (K.67)

if the main obstacle is the first edge M1 located immediately after the transmitter, an observation plane PR is introduced at the level of the receiver R: the projection of the light ray originating from the secondary source M1 and grazing the edge M2, is unaffected by the obstacles M3, M4, , MN-1, MN and thus defines a fictitious receiver R' within the plane PR. The effective height h1 of the main obstacle is determined from the obstruction by M1 of the Fresnel ellipsoid with foci located R and R'. if the main obstacle is the last edge MN located immediately before the receiver, an observation plane PE is introduced at the level of the transmitter E: the projection of the light ray originating from the secondary source MN and grazing the edge MN-1 is unaffected by the obstacles MN-2, MN-3, , M2, M1 and thus defines a fictitious transmitter E' within the plane PE. The effective height h1 of the main obstacle is determined from the obstruction by MN of the Fresnel ellipsoid with foci located at E' and R..

3 Diffraction by a Single Rounded Obstacle


In general, the diffraction caused by an actual obstacle located between the transmitter and the receiver is more adequately represented by a rounded obstacle than by a simple knife-edge obstacle. The vicinity of the obstacle will be represented here by a cylinder with a radius equal to the radius of curvature of the relief. 3.1 Wait Method For a positive and small angle , and assuming that the transmitter and the receiver are both at a relatively large distance from the edge, the attenuation caused by the diffraction over a rounded obstacle can be expressed as the sum of three terms (Wait 1959):

AdB ( , ) = AdB ( , 0 ) + AdB ( 0, ) + U ( ) ,


where:

(K.68)