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Welcome to the Global Translation Initiative

The Global Translation Initiative (GTI) is a Free Word and English PEN project that aims to strengthen support for literary translation and share information between Englishlanguage translation communities throughout the world.
The first ever International Translation Day took place at the Free Word Centre in London on 30 September 2010. Hosted by English PEN and Free Word in association with the London Book Fairs Literary Translation Centre, the day brought together translators, academics, teachers, agents, publishers, booksellers, funders, journalists, NGOs and cultural representatives to discuss the state of the translation sector and propose new solutions to shared challenges. International Translation Day was a landmark event in the Global Translation Initiative (see p.20). This report draws together some of the most innovative and exciting ideas that emerged from the discussions and debates about education, training, promotion and funding on the day. It also includes a summary of the groundbreaking research commissioned by the GTI from Dalkey Archive Press into the barriers to translation. We look forward to building on these ideas as the GTI develops. To find out more, or to contribute to our work, please contact Emma Cleave, Programme Manager, at emma@englishpen.org

So why dont we celebrate world writing? Is it because English readers really dont like literature that was not written in their own language? This doesnt seem to have prevented the runaway success of rare breakthrough authors like Carlos Ruiz Zafon or Stieg Larsson. Is it true that we would always prefer to read something familiar? Or is it that English readers simply havent been exposed to the wealth of literature that is being written out there, in all the languages under the sun and the snow clouds, the ice storms, the hurricanes and tropical monsoons? If we can succeed in getting people to read more books in English translation, we will bring world writing into the language that sells more books than any other. And we will send these books flowing out on their onward journey, as the English translation makes them accessible to publishers and translators in other languages. English translation is not an endpoint. It is a staging post in the circulation of books and ideas around the world. The Global Translation Initiative is designed to aid the circulation of books and ideas by allowing us to understand why more people arent reading more literature in translation. By commissioning research into the real and perceived barriers to literary translation into English, and by hosting debates such as those at International Translation Day, and the Literary Translation Centre at London Book Fair, we are exploding the myths that frustrate literary translation and developing new ideas for the future. Some important points are already becoming clear.

Flying Off The Shelves


Jonathan Heawood, Director of English PEN, surveys the challenges facing the translation sector and welcomes some innovative new thinking on how to get literature in translation flying off the shelves.
We get so used to the way of the world that its hard to imagine things being any different: traffic, work, school, the climate...We like to forget that we have the power to change the way we live. This isnt surprising: changing things is hard. Sometimes its easier to blame someone else and continue grumbling. As readers, for instance, we are used to living without foreign literature. Many people in the book trade accept this as normal, even inevitable. They complain about the cost of paying translators, as though translation is a luxury. They say that foreign literature is too difficult, too boring, or simply too strange for English readers. People used to say the same about foreign music and cinema, until music-lovers and film-goers began to demand a more varied cultural diet, and specialist labels sprang up to cater to them. Now, world cinema and world music are embedded at the heart of western culture and fted through mainstream distribution, awards and critical recognition.

1. Translation is not expensive to publish


As Kirsty Dunseath, Fiction Publishing Director at Weidenfeld & Nicolson, said at International Translation Day 2010, literature in translation presents a real opportunity for publishers in present market conditions. Whereas publishers outbid each other for the right to publish a small number of British authors, the market for literature in translation is currently much less competitive. Publishers wont spend so much on the

rights, which means that they can afford to pay for the translation. Publishers have rightly pointed out that they need access to quality sample translations and readers reports to help them make the right decision about which books to publish. However, they also need to revisit their business models for publishing books in translation. In Dunseaths words, its cost effective publishing and brings interesting literature from all over the world. Whats not to like?

3. Translators are outstanding guides to world writing


One consistent theme has emerged from all our work: translators themselves are the best curators for world writing. They are in touch with the publishing scene in the original language and are often the first to hear about exciting new books and authors. Yet this unique capacity requires time and experience to hone. Young translators may possess the knowledge, but they do not have the networks they need to build bridges between cultures. Nicky Harman, the first Translator in Residence at the Free Word Centre, is not alone in calling for more mentoring for inexperienced translators. In Germany, as Laurenz Bolliger reminds us, translators are a very important part of the literary scene. They are well paid and play an active role in promoting the book and dealing with the media, sometimes attaining the status of an author. British publishers need to put more value on translators intellectual and social capital, both through proper remuneration and through investing in their professional development. It may be money very well spent. Some experts have proposed the creation of a specialist translation agency that would promote translators and their full range of skills to publishers.

2. Readers are ready for translated literature


Our research with Dalkey Archive Press (see page 16) has shown that the commercial bias against translated literature is based on a fallacy. Translators believe that publishers dont like books in translation; publishers believe that journalists dont like books in translation; and journalists believe that readers dont like books in translation. However, booksellers who have the most direct contact with readers suggest that lack of awareness, rather than distaste, may lie behind the currently small market for most books in translation. Numerous experts lined up at International Translation Day 2010 to support these important findings. Jonathan Ruppin of the leading independent bookshop Foyles put it very simply: If you put interesting books in front of people, even if theyre not familiar with them, they will buy them. Boyd Tonkin of The Independent pointed out that the idea of translation as something culturally elite is now being challenged and asked how readers of Larsson and Zafon can be encouraged to cross over to the more literary side of the translation market. And Mireille Berman of the Dutch Foundation for Literature argued against the exoticisation of foreign literature. In the Go Dutch promotion, she presented a range of Dutch writers as if they were authors who just happened to be from the Netherlands. Together, these points show the benefits of treating world writing as literature first, and translation second.

4. Revolutions happen on the internet


Mark Thwaite, Digital Marketing Manager at Quercus Books and MacLehose Press, points out that the internet allows publishers to access large numbers of readers in the so-called long tail of specialist audiences. As the force behind the successful blog Ready Steady Book (with 10,000 unique daily users), Thwaite knows what hes talking about. He argues that the internet is full of people who are committed to particular types of books and talk about what they have read and would like to read. The level of insight that the internet provides into readers is a marketing departments dream. The translator Sarah Ardizzone shares this enthusiasm for online engagement, showing how young people can be switched on to translation through the imaginative use of audio and text files online, allowing them to read or listen to a story in several different languages. Across the sector, publishers and literature specialists need to invest in digital capacity to market to and, more importantly, to engage with online audiences.

5. Its all about education...


Without strong language teaching at school and university, we will not create the next generation of readers or translators. Bilingual teaching resources are important for both bilingual and monolingual children if they are to grow up receptive to language learning. However, as Debra Kelly of Routes into Languages explained at International Translation Day, schemes that promote languages in schools are under threat, and modern language departments in universities are facing cuts. So, whilst children are becoming more excited by their adventures in world writing, the governments education policy is heading rapidly in the wrong direction. This seems all the more bizarre at a time when language skills are increasingly important in the global marketplace. Public spending cuts provide a darkly looming backdrop to the other issues here. Whilst the translation sector is not expecting the state to intervene in the same way as in Norway, for instance (where translation receives significant subsidies), we must all recognise the importance of public spending on language teaching in our globalised economy.

The Global Translation Initiative was set up in order to bring people together from across the translation sector. The debates at International Translation Day and at the Literary Translation Centre at London Book Fair are extremely important in drawing these various experts into a shared conversation. The ongoing work of Free Word in creating a space for this conversation both in its London centre and through its virtual networks is crucial. There is of course a certain amount of cultural translation that needs to be done before experts from such different fields can communicate effectively with each other; but the need to build these bridges is urgent and, in the economic environment, time is running out. Our work so far shows that there is no single solution to the challenges facing us. The complex landscape of literary translation is still being charted. There is no player in this landscape who can solve all our problems at once. Yet there are a number of important initiatives which, if properly co-ordinated, could really start to get world writing flying off the shelves.

6. ...and money
There are evidently great strengths within the translation sector, as well as some profound areas of weakness. The most obvious of these is financial. Without more funding for translation, publishers will struggle to make the necessary investment. Funders including Arts Council England and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation see the value in literary translation. However, if they are to make a meaningful intervention they are going to need to work across the private, public and voluntary sectors. There are numerous passionate experts working on literary translation in such diverse institutions as universities, cultural institutes, charities and publishing houses. Too often, these experts work in isolation from each other. If they are to make a lasting difference to this sector, funders must play an active part in drawing these creative and committed experts together into an ongoing conversation, of which International Translation Day and the Literary Translation Centre are important elements.

Jonathan Heawood Director, English PEN


STOP PRESS: On 30 March 2011 English PEN was awarded a major grant by Arts Council England to support literature in translation. Visit www.englishpen.org for more details

International Translation Day 2010

Languages in Education
Sarah Ardizzone, Patricia Billings and Debra Kelly reflected on the state of language learning in the UK and discussed ways to inspire young people to enjoy languages. They considered issues of bilingualism and how to work with multilingual schools to preserve and celebrate the dozens of community languages spoken in the UK. Patricia Billings, co-founder of Milet Publishing Keeping two languages benefits a whole range of cognitive skills. The education market used to be the strongest market for bilingual books in the UK but this is no longer the case. If children do not get the necessary resources at the early stages they will be less receptive by the time they reach secondary school. Bilingualism in the US largely refers to English and Spanish: to be relevant in any professional context you have to know Spanish so the US is becoming a bilingual country by default there is more scope in the UK for language to be viewed more broadly. Both bilingual and monolingual children enjoy reading bilingual books and engaging with issues of language & difference. Bilingualism can be used to illustrate the point that having more than one language is achievable and desirable. Debra Kelly, co-director of the London Routes into Languages consortium of universities and codirector of Links into Languages London There is still a perception that languages are academically difficult and therefore risky for schools, which tend to focus on league table results. Engagement with young people can be through enrichment activities and influencers. One initiative that works well is using Language Ambassadors students who go into schools and talk about their own experiences. Other activities designed to increase motivation are interpreting workshops, subtitling workshops, Manga workshops, film festivals and video games localisation workshops. Employer engagement - the presence of translation professionals - is key to workshops, so young people can see the career opportunities that studying languages brings. We need more high-profile champions for languages, particularly with 2012 approaching.

All sectors primary, secondary and university need to work together. Sarah Ardizzone, translator Involving young people through the digital medium is another way of creating interest and improving participation: translations can be stored as both an audio and a text file, so you can read or listen to a story in several different languages. Schools that have a high population of community languages, and perhaps low English language levels, can benefit from using this sort of technology. There are organisations which tackle the perception of elitism in language learning, with a focus on a grassroots and community languages approach. Parent involvement is key to the learning process. Children who feel that they are struggling because they have two languages benefit through being reflexive and thoughtful about the process of translation, which results in increased confidence in communicating in English.

we need more high-profile champions for languages

Taking Flight
points to note
-Co-ordinate information about the state of language learning in the UK and what is happening at institutional levels. - Campaign against cuts to university language departments. - On the CILT website there is a Language Pledge where you can sign an online petition. - Get involved with Speak to the Future a new campaign being launched by Mike Kelly, Catherine Ward (CILT) and Lid King (The Languages Company).

having more than one language is achievable and desirable

parent involvement is key to the learning process

International Translation Day 2010

Training for the future


Bill Swainson, Elin Haf Jones, Nicky Harman, Philip Wilson and Martin Sorrell discussed ways of improving conditions for translators entering the profession. They considered the role of the translator and the practicalities of moving on from study of translation to professional employment, as well as how to improve relationships between translators and publishers. The panel also discussed opportunities for translators from minority languages, focusing on initiatives that can be built upon and identifying areas that require further support. Nicky Harman, translator and Practical Translation Coordinator at Imperial College London It is necessary to learn about the publishing business and about how to present a different literary tradition to the English-language reading public. Another important initiative to develop is mentoring for inexperienced translators. Elin Haf Gruffydd Jones, Director of the Mercator Institute for Media, Languages and Culture It is difficult to make a living out of being a literary translator from a smaller language translation workshops, partnerships and a multidisciplinary approach to translation are needed in order for such literatures to travel. Martin Sorrell, Emeritus Professor of French and Literary Translation at the University of Exeter Our MA course in applied translation aims to give people the apparatus and the confidence that will hopefully make them attractive to publishers but it is largely a case of making your own luck in the marketplace. Philip Wilson, translator and PhD researcher at the University of East Anglia Becoming a literary translator can be a confusing and isolating world with an uncertain financial future. There is a certain amount of luck but luck is also being ready, which is what an MA course can help with. Links made through workshops and events are useful for networking and helping to bring translation into the mainstream. Bill Swainson, Senior Commissioning Editor, Bloomsbury Publishing The translation network is vital to those in commercial publishing who do

publish in translation translators, fellow publishers, people who act as agents for translators or who promote international literature, readers - but it is the translator that is essential in putting the author across in the UK. It is no harder to publish a book in translation than it is to publish in your own language. Booksellers ask key questions: Who is the author? What has s/he written before? Where is the author from? Does s/he speak English? The best way to deal with these questions is to take them on board as part of the whole context in which both publishers and translators do their work. It is the job of the publicist to arouse interest in the book and the question of language should not arise until the interest has been created. If one treats the language issue as a problem to begin with, it just gets bigger. Audience, Free Word Centre Successful translators help the authors promote the book and act as the linguistic bridge. Publishers and universities should think about internships and make alliances. Translators need to know where to go.

If one treats the language issue as a problem to begin with, it just gets bigger

Taking Flight
points to note
-Establish a mentoring/collaboration scheme, whereby inexperienced translators can learn from an experienced translator, in both the literary field and in professional environments like the UN. Advice would be offered on how to approach publishers and on the process of collaborating with editors. -Establish internships or work experience for translators within commercial publishing houses, to learn how publishing works. -Discuss the possibility of universities hosting publishing houses and subsidising and providing opportunities for translators who are starting out. -Nurture the network of overlapping but not identical interests: publishers, translators, readers, scouts, agents, foreign publishers, literary promotion bodies, literary journalists, authors.

The translation network is vital to those in commercial publishing

it is no harder to publish a book in translation than it is to publish in your own language

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International Translation Day 2010

Getting it Out There


Boyd Tonkin, Simon Winder, Fergal Tobin, Mireille Berman, Jonathan Ruppin, Mark Thwaite and Martin Riker set out to tackle the perceived barriers that deter consumers from buying literature in translation. They discussed why some books in translation become bestsellers and how to reach out to a new and sustainable audience for translated literature. Martin Riker, Associate Director of Dalkey Archive Press In order to market a translation you have to create an immediacy for that author in this culture that the author has in another culture. If there is a bias against anything, its a bias against the unfamiliar. The problems that literary translations face in reaching an audience are the same problems that any other book faces: how do you get somebody to pick something up? One issue facing translated works is the difficulty of accessing conventional marketing strategies and the need to find new strategies to compensate for the fact that you may not have an author present or a certain cultural context. These are issues that the translation community needs to be creative about. The Independent Foreign Fiction Prize is one example of a creative solution. Jonathan Ruppin, Web Editor at Foyles If you put interesting books in front of people, even if theyre not familiar with them, they will buy them. The availability of literature from all English-speaking territories inevitably decreases the amount of translated literature in the UK. Its important that the large chain booksellers get behind translation and that publishers communicate better with booksellers. Mireille Berman, Dutch Foundation for Literature Rather than stressing the exotic or talking about windows into different worlds we need to create projects that build an audience for translated literature by looking for commonalities with current affairs in the UK. Go Dutch presented writers simply as interesting authors with an original point of view that was recognizable for UK readers; as if they were authors who just happened to be from the Netherlands.

There is no difference between marketing foreign fiction and marketing any fiction
Simon Winder, Publishing Director, Penguin Press Central European Classics get massive publicity coverage and support from Waterstones but the potential audience for these books spreads out thinly. Mark Thwaite, Digital Marketing Manager, Quercus Books and MacLehose Press The internet allows access to niches: it is full of people who are committed to particular types of books and talk about what they have read and would like to read. These are communities that publishers can engage with, listen to and market to. The key to successful online marketing is listening to what the consumer says. The success of the blog Ready Steady Book (10,000 unique visits a day at its height) also indicates a healthy interest in translated literature. There is no difference between marketing foreign fiction and marketing any fiction. Boyd Tonkin, Literary Editor, The Independent The old idea of translation as something culturally elite is being challenged. Will readers of Larsson or Zafon cross over to the more literary side of the translation market? How can we encourage them? There is a real opportunity to make links,

to build a bridge, and it is our job to discuss how we do it. We are at a moment of fascinating interface between the traditional requirement to spread the word about books that may be potentially difficult and demanding, and the fact that there is a large market for translated fiction people who are in a quite different cultural space.

Taking Flight
points to note
-Find creative marketing strategies and solutions for translation, such as The Independent Foreign Fiction Prize. -Get books on the table and show readers what is available. -Dont market translated fiction with a preconceived notion that consumers find it difficult. -Find cultural and emotional connections that an audience can identify with. -Use the internet to engage with communities, listen to what they want to read & target marketing more carefully. -Make the most of the opportunities available within the EU for funding. -Discuss ways to encourage the readers of more mainstream translated fiction to cross over to the more literary side.

If you put interesting books in front of people, even if theyre not familiar with them, they will buy them

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International Translation Day 2010

The Future of Funding


Shreela Ghosh, Director of Free Word, led a round-table session which discussed partnerships and funding for translation. Alexandra Buchler presented extracts from a survey conducted by Literature Across Frontiers and, together with Laurenz Bolliger, looked at how the UK compares against the European literary scene. Nicola Smyth from Arts Council England and Isabel Lucena from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation explained why funding for translation matters to both state and philanthropic organisations. Kirsty Dunseath provided a helpful and honest appraisal of the economic realities of publishing translations. High level contributions from the floor came from Christoph Jankowski. Isabel Lucena, International Officer, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Our new funding programme for literature in translation will start in 2011 and last for three years, addressing four different groups: translators, initiatives to promote literature in translation within the book industry, initiatives that expose translated literature to the UK public and initiatives that promote literature in translation for children and young people. Alexandra Buchler, Director of Literature Across Frontiers Support for translation is not just about publishing books in translation, it is about literary exchange and creating an environment in which it can thrive: this means creating funding for authors and translators to come to your country. The UK lacks basic translation infrastructure: there is a lack of governmental provision for publishing books in translation. Kirsty Dunseath, Publishing Director of Fiction for Weidenfeld & Nicolson Literature in translation presents a real opportunity for publishers in present market conditions. Publishers bid against each other for British writers but books sell for far too much money and they make a loss. With literature in translation youve got a much better equation; everybody goes for different books, theres more diversity, its cost effective publishing and brings interesting literature from all over the world. The pitch and sample have to be good enough for a publisher to want to take it further. The better the submission, the

more likely you are to take it further; the submission with the really good sample translation is going to be the one that an editor can do something with.

Taking Flight
points to note
-Start a literary translation agency to promote translators and provide good sample translations from books -Create a one-stop shop for high quality funded sample translations -Obtain more funding for translators -Put more resources into childrens literature in translation, to build the next market -Fund longer sample translations. Convince foreign agencies to put money into samples; currently they fund whole books but not samples or electronic publishing -Establish partnership or match funding for the one stop shop where some funding comes from agencies, some from foundations

literature in translation presents a real opportunity for publishers

Funding for translation itself is vital: smaller publishers cannot always take the risk of shouldering a huge translation bill. Green light funding would be invaluable - to know before you actually go and buy the rights that the translation is funded rather than some of the schemes which only accept applications at certain points in the year. It is vital that funding is made available for foreign publishers and foreign agents to work with translators in the UK to produce good sizeable samples of the book. Laurenz Bolliger, Editorial Director for DuMont Publishing In Germany, translators are a very important part of the literary scene. They are well paid and play an active role in promoting the book and dealing with the media, sometimes attaining the status of an author.

Support for translation is about literary exchange and creating an environment in which it can thrive

it is vital that funding is made available for foreign publishers and foreign agents to work with translators in the UK

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Dalkey Survey
The Dalkey survey aims to test a number of assumptions about literary translation; that the English-speaking world is facing a cultural crisis and that a startlingly small amount of translated literature is being published and supported. Also, that this situation is due to a lack of awareness, among both the public and philanthropic sectors, of translations cultural and historical importance. The Dalkey survey was conducted through an online data collection service and invited responses from the translation sector across the Anglophone world (the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand). This research does not intend to build an argument for the value of translation, but seeks to provide a broad overview of the current state of the art globally. Here are some of the key recommendations that have been drawn from the survey: What the translators want: The initiatives that translators would most like to see implemented in relation to the training of young translators are: mentoring of young translators with experienced professional literary translators; experience and contact with the publishing world to learn how translations are published; the creation of translations programs that combine the theory and practice of translation; and more professional translators as teaching staff in universities. What the universities want: The initiatives that universities would most like to see implemented are: the introduction of graduate degrees in literary translation (MFAs, PhDs), and of online components to certificate and degree programmes in translation; more interaction between translation programmes and other creative programmes such as creative writing; more funding for their translation programmes; and more support from their administration to develop such programmes. What the publishers want: The initiatives that publishers would most like to see implemented are: more diversity in the nature and type of grants that are offered in support of translated literature, especially an increase in support for promotions and the touring of international authors; more understanding of the nature of the publishing world on the part of funders; adaptability of funding models to these demands; more focus on reader development and audience building; and a more open intellectual climate in the field in general.

Statistics
These statistics are based on responses to the Dalkey survey, sent to booksellers, publishers, media organisations, translators and universities across the Anglophone world. A total of 152 responses were collected across the various sectors (22 media, 37 translators, 39 publishers, 35 universities, and 16 booksellers), with an overall response rate of 60.8%.

86.7% of 90.9% of 81.8% of 97.1% of 100%

booksellers said customers are open to buying translations

media organisations perceived a bias against translated literature in review media publishers said they believe there is a market for translations that has not been tapped publishers declared reader development and audience building is important for contemporary works in translation. of publishers receive financial support from government agencies

against 34.3% from private foundations and philanthropists

20%

from individual

81.3% of 66.7% of 53.6% of

translators said they supplement translation with other work translators would encourage young people to become translators

universities said that interest in literary translation has grown in the past few years

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Free Word
The Free Word Centre is an international centre for literature, literacy and free expression. It aims to push boundaries to promote, protect and democratise the power of the written and spoken word for creative and free expression. It brings together organisations across literature, literacy and free expression to enhance their work and the profile of their sectors. Ten organisations are resident at Free Word: Apples & Snakes; The Arvon Foundation; ARTICLE l9; Booktrust; English PEN; Index on Censorship; the Reading Agency; The Literary Consultancy; Dalkey Archive Press and J News. The first eight are founder organisations, part of the original consortium which helped evolve the concepts behind the Free Word Centre. Thanks to support from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Free Word and the Translators Association have established their first Translator in Residence programme. Two practising literary translators will join the Free Word Centre to research and develop innovative new projects with the local community. The Free Word Centre is a national resource, with strong links to associates and partners throughout the UK and internationally. The centre, in its landmark building in Farringdon Road, provides attractive office space and venues for public events, including a hall, lecture theatre with screening facilities, meeting rooms and a caf. Free Word is supported by Arts Council England, London and the Freedom of Speech Foundation, whose parent company, Fritt Ord, is based in Norway.

English PEN
English PEN works to promote literature and human rights. From defending the rights of persecuted writers to promoting literature in translation and running writing workshops in schools, English PEN seeks to advocate literature as a means of intercultural understanding, promoting the friendly co-operation of writers and free exchange of ideas. English PENs Writers in Translation programme works to increase access to writing from around the world by developing audiences and infrastructure for international literature in translation. The programme currently promotes 6-8 translated books a year through the Writers in Translation grants scheme and events programme. Our aim is to celebrate books of outstanding literary value, dedication to free speech and intercultural understanding. English PENs Writers in Translation programme is supported by Bloomberg and Arts Council England.

Dalkey Archive Press


Dalkey Archive Press exists to publish, promote to readers, and preserve modern and contemporary literature and cultures from around the world. Through its literary and critical publications, as well as its partnerships with other arts organisations and universities, it develops new generations of readers, writers and translators. Since 1984, Dalkey Archive Press has made available to readers the finest works of world literature from the past 100 years. The intention of the Press is to serve as a permanent home for these works, so that they will continue to be read by present and future generations. Dalkey is supported in part by grants and donations from individuals, foundations, and government agencies.

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Global Translation Initiative


GTI partners are working together to document the current state of translation into English by identifying specific obstacles as well as sites of opportunity. Since the launch of the GTI project in 2010, the following professionals have been commissioned to make the case for literary translation from various perspectives: Amanda Hopkinson, David Del Vecchio, David Shook, Geoffrey Taylor, Ivor Indyk, Jean Anderson, Julian Evans, Mark Thwaite, Maureen Freely, Michael Kelly, Mireille Berman, Namita Gokhale, Nicky Harman, Olivia Sears and Polly McLean.

Acknowledgments
English PEN and Free Word would like to thank all the participants at International Translation Day as well as the following partners and sponsors: Bloomberg, Dalkey Archive Press, The London Book Fairs Literary Translation Centre and its partner organisations: Arts Council England, British Centre for Literary Translation, British Council, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Literature Across Frontiers, the Translators Association and Words Without Borders.

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