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OUTLINE:

I. Common & Proper Tools Needed II. Basic Electronics III. Parts Familiarization & Function IV. Desktop & Laptop/Notebook Comparison V. Laptop/Notebook Advantages & Disadvantages VI. How To Remove, Replace & Upgrade Laptops/Notebooks Parts VII. How To Assemble & Re-assemble Laptop/Notebook VIII. Troubleshooting Laptop/Notebook Problems & Solutions IX. Tips, Tricks & Techniques X. Preventive Maintenance XI. BIOS XII. FAQ

I.

COMMON & PROPER TOOLS NEEDED:


TOOLS NEEDED FOR LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK DIS-ASSEMBLY, RE-ASSEMBLY, PARTS UPGRADE, PARTS REPLACEMENT, TROUBLESHOOT AND REPAIR
Wrist grounding strap and conductive mat for preventing electrostatic discharge Small Philips screw driver Philips screw driver Flat head screwdriver Plastic flat head screw driver

- Hex screw driver - Tweezers


- Guitar Pick (Heavy)

Screws container Ballpen Notepad Documentation

OTHER TOOLS: FOR CLEANING, TROUBLESHOOTING & REPAIR


- Analog/Digital Multimeter - Desoldering Pump

- Soldering Iron - Soldering Stand


- Soldering Paste

- Soldering Lead
SET OF FLAT HEAD SCREW DRIVER

Paintbrush Toothbrush Paperclip Eraser


SET OF TWEEZER

SET OF HEX SCREW

SET OF PHILIP SCREW

LONGNOSE, CUTTER & PLIER

ALL IN ONE PACKAGE

GUITAR PICK (HEAVY)

DIGITAL & ANALOG MULTIMETER

PLASTIC CONTAINER FOR SCREW

ERASER

TOOTHBRUSH

SOLDERING SET

PAINTBRUSH

PAPER CLIP

SOFTWARE & UTILITIES MUST HAVE


Start-up or bootable disk Operating system Data recovery utility Hardware utility Hard drive partition utility System monitoring utility Registry utility

Anti-virus Anti-spyware
Application software System diagnostic utility Data back-up utility Driver back-up utility

Dead pixel utility


Updated hardware drivers collections

II.

BASIC ELECTRONICS:
VOM Multimeter is used to measure electrical resistance, direct current (DC) voltage, or alternating current (AC) voltage and Resistance ().

CAUTION!
- Always check your selector switch before testing components & electrical sources. - Set to specific type of voltage range (AC or DC) and always set to a much higher voltage than the actual voltage output. - Always check your positive (+) & negative (-) probe when testing DC voltage. AC Voltage Test = no polarity ( AVR output, wall outlet, UPS output, power cable connected to

wall outlet etc.)


DC Voltage Test = with polarity (laptop battery, CMOS battery, desktop power supply connector pins, AC adaptor connector etc.) Continuity test = no polarity & not connected to circuit (power cable, switch, fuse, wire, speaker, power jack connector, transformer etc.) Resistance test ( ohms) = with polarity ( diode, transistor, electrolytic capacitor etc.)

POWER CONNECTOR OF AN AC ADAPTOR

Commonly Used Connector Not Commonly Used

Voltage output measured near to voltage specs. means the AC Adapter is good.

End (Tip) to End (Tip) Test - No deflection means the wire is open (bad) - With deflection means the wire is good

X1

With deflection means the fuse is good

No deflection means the fuse is bad (wire is open)

No deflection at all in any of the two contact terminal means the Power Jack is bad (Open) With deflection in any one of the two contact terminal means the Power Jack is good

III.

PARTS FAMILIARIZATION & FUNCTION


FRONT VIEW

RIGHT PANEL

LEFT PANEL

REAR PANEL

BOTTOM VIEW

LOCK KEYS
The keyboard has 3 lock keys w/c you can toggle on & off.

TOUCHPAD
The built-in touchpad is a pointing device that senses movement on its surface. This means the cursor responds as you move your finger on the surface of the touchpad. The central location on the palmrest provides optimal comfort and

support.

1 = Left Click Button NOTE: If you are using an external USB mouse, you can press Fn- 2 = 4-Way Scroll Key Button F7 3 = Right Click Button
to disable the touchpad.

PARTS OF THE LCD SCREEN DISPLAY 1. LCD bezel/rear cover


2. LCD hinge/bracket with antenna

3. LCD cable 4. Wi-Fi antenna 6. LCD panel

5. LCD inverter/LED card 7. Backlight (CCFL)

8. Frame 9. Digitizer 10.Transparent PARTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keyboard bezel middle cover Keyboard bezel upper case Optical drive (UltraBay Plus CD/DVD) UltraBay Plus guide rail Microphone cable 6. Communications daughter card (CDC)

7. Bluetooth/modem

8. I/O bracket
9. 10. 11. 12.

13. Speakers 14. Lower case


17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Mini PCI access door Main battery (Li-ion) Backup (CMOS) battery DIMM access door

15. Bluetooth antenna

16. DDR SODIMM

25. Keyboard

802.11a/b Wi-Fi wireless card Motherboard CPU (Pentium M processor) Hard disk guide rails PC Card/CardBus slot CPU heatsink/fan Hard disk drive with tray Hard disk drive access cover

26. TrackPoint cap

27. Hinge cap

a. Communications daughter card (CDC) plate b. Modem cable c. Motherboard chipset heatsink d. Video chipset heatsink

Simple diagram that will help you to understand how a Laptop/Notebook display assembly works and how an image appears on the screen.

VIDEO CABLE
A video signal from the motherboard goes to the LCD screen through the video cable. The video cable connects to the motherboard (or video card) through the connector 1. The video cable connects to the LCD screen through the connector 2. The video cable (in most cases) is also responsible for supplying a necessary voltage for the FL inverter board. The video cable connects to the FL inverter board at the point 3.

FL INVERTER BOARD
This board is responsible for converting low voltage DC power (point 3) to high voltage AC (point 4), necessary to light up the backlight bulb.

CCFL (backlight bulb) Cold Cathode Flourescent Lamp


When the backlight bulb lights up, you can see an images on the LCD screen.

LID CLOSE SWITCH


The lid close switch is a small button that locates close to the display hinges. On some newer models there is no button, because the switch is magnetic. You can set up your laptop to go to a hibernation mode or to a standby mode when the LCD is closed. Its done through power management software. These modes are triggered when the display is closed and the lid close switch is pressed down.

COMPLETE HARDWARE PARTS OF A LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK

LCD SCREEN VIDEO FLEX CABLE

LAPTOP LI-ION BATTERY

HIGH CAPACITY EXTERNAL UNIVERSAL LI-ION BATTERY PACK

AC ADAPTOR
It provides power to the system and recharges the batteries when they are low. It comes with a detachable power cord. It encloses 2-pin or 3-pin plug type. Because in its universal, it can receive a range of AC voltage from 100 240 volts.

UNIVERSAL POWER ADAPTER

EXPRESS CARD ADAPTERS

PC CARD OR CARDBUS

LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK COOLING PAD

DOCKING STATION & PORT REPLICATOR

IV.

DESKTOP AND LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK COMPARISON


DESKTOP LAPTOP

DESKTOP SYSTEM UNIT

LAPTOP SYSTEM UNIT

CRT

LCD

DESKTOP MONITOR

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

DESKTOP KEYBOARD

LAPTOP KEYBOARD

DESKTOP PROCESSOR

LAPTOP PROCESSOR

DESKTOP MOTHERBOARD

LAPTOP MOTHERBOARD

3.5 IDE 40 PINS

2.5 IDE 44 PINS

DESKTOP HARDISK

LAPTOP HARDISK

DDR2 240 PINS DIMM DDR1 184 PINS DIMM

200 PINS SODIMM PINS

214 PINS MICRO SODIMM

DESKTOP MEMORY

LAPTOP MEMORY
INTERNAL WIRELESS CARD WIMAX PC CARD (WIFI CARD) WIRELESS LAN PCMCIA

CARD

DESKTOP PCI LAN CARD

LAPTOP LAN CARD

DESKTOP VIDEO CARD

LAPTOP VIDEO CARD

PCI INTERNAL MODEM INTERNAL MICRO PCI MODEM

PCMCIA MODEM

DESKTOP MODEM

LAPTOP MODEM

DESKTOP CD-ROM DRIVE

LAPTOP CD-ROM DRIVE


AC ADAPTOR LI-ION BATTERY PACK

DESKTOP BTX POWER SUPPLY

LAPTOP POWER SUPPLY

DESKTOP CPU HEATSINK FAN (HSF)

LAPTOP CPU HSF

DESKTOP OPTICAL MOUSE

LAPTOP TOUCHPAD
FLEX TYPE RIBBON TYPE

DESKTOP VGA CABLE

LAPTOP VGA CABLE

DESKTOP CMOS BATTERY

LAPTOP CMOS BATTERY

PCI SLOT

PCI EXPRESS SLOT

DESKTOP PCI SLOT

LAPTOP MICRO PCI SLOT

V.

LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


Speed Little bit expensive DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES Portabilit y Flexibilit y Light in weight


Low-Energy Consumption

Built-in UPS Integrated Design

Limited Hardware Upgrade or not easily upgraded Greater Risk of being loss & stolen Greater Risk of being damage Not ergo for extensive typing Limited hardware availability

Repair cost are expensive

Not easy to isolate or swap parts for troubleshooting

Upgradeable Laptop System Components


Component
Motherboard CPU

Upgradeable
No Yes

Notes
Nonstandard form factors prevent internal upgrades. Installing a faster CPU of the same type and model is usually
possible; however, there can be limitations due to voltage,

Memory Video adapter/chipset Video display Keyboard/pointing device

Yes No No No
1

thermal, and/or BIOS support issues, and clock speed increases will normally be small. Normally, only one or two SIMM/DIMM sockets are available. You may need to remove lower-capacity existing modules to upgrade.
Video is integrated into a non-upgradeable motherboard.

Hard disk Removable-media drives (floppy, CD/DVD, CDRW/DVD+-RW) USB, IEEE 1394
(FireWire/i.LINK), serial

Yes

Nonstandard form factors and connections prevent internal upgrades. Nonstandard form factors and connections prevent internal upgrades. Older systems might not have BIOS support for drives larger than 8.4GB. Many systems are limited to 9.5mm- or 12.5mmthick drives. Drive trays or caddies are often required for installation. Install these internally via modular bays or use external USB or IEEE 1394 (FireWire/i.LINK) drives. Install these via PC Card/CardBus or ExpressCard adapters.

Yes

(RS-232), parallel (IEEE 1284), SCSI, and so on 10/100/1000Mbps Ethernet LAN Wireless 802.11a/b/g (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth

Yes

Yes Yes

Install this via a PC Card or CardBus adapters. Install these via PC Card, CardBus, Mini PCI (internal) cards, or mobile daughter cards (MDCs). Internal cards may require preinstalled antennas.

1. It is normally possible to connect an external display and use it in lieu of or in addition to the existing internal display. 2. It is normally possible to connect an external keyboard and/or pointing device to use in lieu of or in addition to the existing internal devices.