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Applications of

Hydraulics &

Actuators
Actuators Limited-Rotary
Vane Piston
Hydromotor

Rotary
cylinder
gear

Linear

Single-acting

Pneumatics
By: Alireza Safikhani
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vane

Double acting

piston

Shock absorber

Linear Actuator: Principle of Application

Construction

The hydraulic cylinder converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. It generates linear movements. For this reason, it is also referred to as a linear motor.

Applications

Examples

Examples

Type of Cylinder
Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder

Type of Cylinder
Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder

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Type of Double Acting Cylinder

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Type of Double Acting Cylinder

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Type of Mounting
If the machine member moves in a straight line type motion, a fixed mount can be used. If the machine member is required to move in an arc a pivot mounting must be used.

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Mounting

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Mounting
Head Rectangular Flange End Lugs Head Rectangular

Foot Side Lugs

Head Tie Rod Extended

Cap Square Flange

Cap Rectangular Flange

Centerline Lugs

Cap Rectangle

Caped Fixed Clevis

Head & Cap Tie Rod Extended

Cap-Fixed Eye Intermediate Turn-on Side Tapped Cap Turn-on

Head Trunnion

Cap Tie Rod Extended

Cap Fixed Spherical Eye

Head Square Flange

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Mountings
A

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End position cushioning


Cylinders with end position cushioning are used to brake high stroke speeds. They prevent a hard impact at the end of the stroke. Cushioning is not required for speeds of v < 6 m/min. At speeds of v 6-20 m/min, cushioning is achieved by means of restrictors or brake valves. At speeds of v > 20 m/min, special cushioning or braking procedures are required.

AK

SS

SW

UF

UH

UL

US

NUT

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Considerations
Buckling Bearing Load Cushions Eccentric Loads

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Seals
The function of seals is to prevent leakage losses in hydraulic components. Since pressure losses also occur as a result of leakage losses, seals are of considerable importance for the efficiency of a hydraulic system. Static seals: O-rings for the cylinder housing Flat seals for the oil reservoir cover Dynamic seals: Piston and piston rod seals Rotary shaft seals on turning devices

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Seals
Identification of seals in a double acting adjustable cushioned cylinder

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Applications
Type Shape Features / Applications 1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces 2) Used for low and high pressure 3) Low resistance to sliding motion U-Shaped Packing

V-Shaped Packing

1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces 2) Used for low and high pressure (Depending on pressure, several are applied together.) 3) High resistance to sliding motion

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1 2 3 4 5 6

L-Shaped Packing

1) Used in external sliding surfaces 2) Used for low pressure 3) Low resistance to sliding motion

Cushion screw seal Cushion seal Wear ring Piston seal Barrel seal Piston rod/wiper seal

O-ring

1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces 2) Used for low and high pressure 3) Low resistance to sliding motion

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Sealing

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O' Ring piston seals


An O'-ring piston seal is a loose O'fit in the groove, with the outer diameter just in contact with the cylinder bore. When pressure is applied the O'-ring is pushed O'sideways and outwards to seal the clearance between the outer diameter of the piston and the cylinder wall.

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Cup seals
Used on medium and large bore cylinders. Seal in one direction only. One for single acting Two for double acting Low radial exertion to reduce the static break out friction High compliance

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Z Rings
Used for piston seals on smaller bore cylinders Seals in both directions Take up less space Z shape acts as a light radial spring providing low radial exertion and high compliance.

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O' Ring barrel seals


These are static seals and will be a tight fit in their groove locations Butt joint seal for tie rod construction. Screwed barrel and end cover

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Piston rod seals


One piece seal serves the dual role of pressure seal and wiper seal. Outer body of the seal is a pressure tight fit within the bearing housing. Cleaning action removes abrasive particles that can settle on the rod when outstroked. outstroked. Special seal for harsh environments

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Seal Material

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Piston rod bellows


Alternative to special wiper seals, also referred to as gaiters. Specify as original equipment, as the cylinder requires a slightly slightly longer than standard piston rod. Ideal solution where the out stroked piston rod is likely to be scratched or abraded by falling debris.

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Wear ring
A wear ring is an open band fitted around the piston. It is made from a hard plastic material. In the event of a high side load, it becomes a bearing that prevents excessive distortion of the seals. Protects against scoring of the barrel from the piston.

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Self Compensating Units


The principle of operation is progressive flow restriction. The piston is pushed in easily at first, oil is displaced through a large number of graduated metering orifices. As the stroke progresses fewer and fewer metering orifices are available.

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Example
s = 0.012 m

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Hydro motors
Hydraulic motors are components in the working section. They are drive components (actuators). They convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy and generate rotary movements (rotary actuator). If the rotary movement only covers a certain angular range, the actuator is range, referred to as a swivel drive. drive. Hydraulic motors have the same characteristic values as pumps. However, pumps. in the case of hydraulic values we speak of capacity rather than displacement volume.

F=100N

v = 1 m/s

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Hydro motors

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Animation

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Animation

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Applications

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Load Lifting

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Rotary Actuators
Used for turning components, operating process control valves, performing a wrist action in robotic applications. Provide angular reciprocating rotation up to 360o Rotary vane types Rack and pinion types Chain Types Screw Types

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Rotary vane
Double acting with 270o angle of rotation

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Rotary rack and pinion


Double acting rack and pinion

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Rotary rack and pinion


Double acting double torque

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Chain Type

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Screw Type

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Power Transmission: Open Loop

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Reversible Open Loop

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Close Loop with Make UP

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Close Loop with Gravity Make UP