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Introduct|on to SDn

SuP (Synchronous ulglLal Plerarchy) ls a sLandard for LelecommunlcaLlons LransporL formulaLed
by Lhe lnLernaLlonal LelecommunlcaLlon unlon (l1u) prevlously called Lhe lnLernaLlonal Lelegraph
and 1elephone ConsulLaLlve CommlLLee (CCl11)

SuP was flrsL lnLroduced lnLo Lhe LelecommunlcaLlons neLwork ln 1992 and has been deployed
aL rapld raLes slnce Lhen lL's deployed aL all levels of Lhe neLwork lnfrasLrucLure lncludlng Lhe
access neLwork and Lhe longdlsLance Lrunk neLwork lL's based on overlaylng a synchronous
MulLlplexed slgnal onLo a llghL sLream LransmlLLed over flbreopLlc cable SuP ls also deflned
for use on radlo relay llnks saLelllLe llnks and aL elecLrlcal lnLerfaces beLween equlpmenL

1he comprehenslve SuP sLandard ls expecLed Lo provlde Lhe LransporL lnfrasLrucLure for
worldwlde LelecommunlcaLlons for aL leasL Lhe nexL Lwo or Lhree decades

1he lncreased conflguraLlon flexlblllLy and bandwldLh avallablllLy of SuP provldes slgnlflcanL
advanLages over Lhe older LelecommunlcaLlons sysLem 1hese advanLages lnclude

A reducLlon ln Lhe amounL of equlpmenL and an lncrease ln neLwork rellablllLy

1he provlslon of overhead and payload byLes Lhe overhead byLes permlLLlng managemenL of
Lhe payload byLes on an lndlvldual basls and faclllLaLlng cenLrallsed faulL secLlonallsaLlon

1he deflnlLlon of a synchronous mulLlplexlng formaL for carrylng lowerlevel
dlglLal slgnals (such as 2 MblL/s 34 MblL/s 140 MblL/s) whlch greaLly slmpllfles Lhe lnLerface Lo
dlglLal swlLches dlglLal crossconnecLs and adddrop mulLlplexers

1he avallablllLy of a seL of generlc sLandards whlch enable mulLlvendor lnLeroperablllLy

What |s SDn?


2

1hls documenL ls lnLended as an lnLroducLory gulde Lo Lhe Synchronous ulglLal Plerarchy (SuP)
mulLlplexlng sLandard
SLandards ln Lhe LelecommunlcaLlons fleld are always evolvlng lnformaLlon ln Lhls SuP prlmer
ls based on Lhe laLesL lnformaLlon avallable from Lhe l1u1 sLandardlsaLlon organlzaLlon
use Lhls prlmer as an lnLroducLlon Lo Lhe Lechnology of SuP ConsulL Lhe acLual maLerlal from
l1u1 paylng parLlcularALLenLlon Lo Lhe laLesL revlslon lf more deLalled lnformaLlon ls
requlred lor help ln undersLandlng Lhe language of SuP LelecommunlcaLlons a comprehenslve
Clossary appears aL Lhe end of Lhls documenL


Why sdh?























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kI NCI L LS CI 1nL SNCnkCNCUS DI GI 1AL
nILkAkCnILS


uesplLe lLs obvlous advanLages over Lhe uP SuP would have been unl l kel y L o
gal n ac cepL anc e l f l L s adopL l on had l mmedl aL el y made al l exlsLlng uP
equlpmenLs obsoleLe All pleslochronous slgnals beLween13 MblL/s and 140 MblL/s can be
accommodaLed excepL 8 MblL/s 1he ways ln whlch Lhey can be comblned Lo form a baslc
Lransmlsslon raLe of 133 32 Mbl L / s l s def l ned l n l 1u 1 8ec ommendaL l on
C 709 1he lnpuL slgnals are processed Lo have a baslc frame called Lhe synchronous
LransporL module (S1M1)

llgure lv

Shows Lhe mulLlplexlng sLrucLure as recommended by l1u1 1he SuP def l nes a number
of c onL al ner s " each cor r es pondl ng L o
aexl s L l ng pl es l ochr onous r aL e l nf or maLl on f rom L he pl es l ochr onous conLaln
er ls mapped lnLo Lhe relevanL conLalner 1he way ln whlch
Lhlsl s d o n e l s s l m l l a r L o L h e b l L s L u f f l n g p r o c e d u r e c a r r l e d o
u L l n a convenLlonal uP mulLlpl exer Lach conLalner Lhen added wl Lh
someconL r ol l nf or maLl on known as pa L h over head" 1he paL h over headby
Les allow Lhe operaLor Lo achl eve endLoend paLh monl Lorlng such as error
monlLorlng 1he conLal ner and Lhe paLh overhead LogeLher form a vlrLual ConLalner
(vC)
ln Synchronous neLwork all equlpmenL ls synchronl zed Lo an
overall n e L w o r k c l o c k l L l s l mp or L a n L L o n o L e h o we v e r L h a L L h e d e
l a y assoclaLed wlLh a Lransmlsslon llnk may vary wlLh Llme As a resulL Lhe locaLlon of vlrLual
conLalners wlLhln an S1M1 frame may noL be flxed 1hese varl aLlons are accommodaLed
by assocl aLl ng a polnLer Lo each 1he pol nLer lndl caLes Lhe posl Ll on of Lhe
beglnnlng of Lhe vC ln relaLlon Lo an S1M1 frame lL can be lncremenLed or decremenLed as
necessary Lo accommodaLe changes ln Lhe poslLlon of Lhe vCl1u1 recommendaLlon C709
deflnes dlfferenL comblnaLlons of vlrLual ConLalners whl ch can be used Lo flll up Lhe
pay load area of anS1M1 frame 1he process of loadlng conLalners and aLLachlng

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over head l s r epeaL ed aL s ev er al l evel s l n L he SuP r es ul L l ng l n L he"
nesLlng" of small er vC's wlLhln l arger ones 1hl s process ls repeaLed unLll Lhe
largesL slze of vC (vC4 ln lndl a) ls fllled and Lhl s ls Lhen loaded lnLo Lhe payload of
Lhe S1M1 frame When Lhe payload area ofS 1 M
1 f r a me l s f u l l s o me mo r e c o n L r o l l n f o r ma L l on b y L e s c a l l e d SecL l o
n Cverhead" ar e added 1he s ecL l on ov erhead by L es ar e so cal l ed
bec aus e L hey r emal n wl L h Lhe payl oad f or L he f l br e s ecL l on beL ween L wo
s ynchr onous mul L l pl exer s 1hel r pur pos e l s L o pr ovl de communlcaLlon
channels for funcLlons such as CAM faclllLles proLecLlon swlLchlng performance
monlLorlng frame allgnmenL and a number of oLher
funcLlonsWh e n a h l g h e r L r a n s ml s s l o n r a L e L h a n L h e 1 3 3 Mb l L / s ( S 1 M
1 ) l s r equl r ed l n a s ynchr onous neL wor k l s achl eved by usl ng a r el aLl v el y
sLralghLforward byLelnLerleaved mulLlplexlng scheme lollowlng hlerarchy levels are deflned
ln Lhe SuP


O S 1 M 1 1 3 3 3 2 M b l L / s

O S 1 M 4 6 2 2 0 8 M b l L / s

O S 1 M 1 6 2 4 8 8 3 2 M b l L / s

O S 1 M 6 4 9 9 3 3 2 8 M b l L / s












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|es|ochronous D|g|ta| n|erarchy (Dn)


1radlLlonally dlglLal Lransmlsslon sysLems and hlerarchles have been based Cn mulLlplexlng
slgnals whlch are pleslochronous (runnlng aL almosL Lhe same Speed) Also varlous parLs of Lhe
world use dlfferenL hlerarchles whlch lead Lo roblems of lnLernaLlonal lnLerworklng for
example beLween Lhose counLrlesuslng 1344 MblL/s sysLems (uSA and !apan) and Lhose
uslng Lhe 2048 MblL/s sysLem1o recover a 64 kblL/s channel from a 140 MblL/s uP slgnal lL's
necessary Lo demulLlplex Lhe slgnal all Lhe way down Lo Lhe 2 MblL/s level 8efore Lhe locaLlon
of Lhe 64 kblL/s channel can be ldenLlfled uP 8equlres sLeps" (14034 348 82 demulLlplex
28 834 34140 MulLlplex) Lo drop ouL or add an lndlvldual speech or daLa channel (See llgure
1) 1hls ls due Lo Lhe blLsLufflng used aL each level







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L|m|tat|ons of Dn

,u|t|p|ex|ng]Demu|t|p|ex|ng |s cumbersome (Stage w|se)

Insuff|c|ent capac|ty for network management as ||m|ted CA, operat|on

1here's no standard|zed def|n|t|on of Dn b|t rates greater than 140 ,b|t]s

1here are d|fferent h|erarch|es |n use around the wor|d Spec|a||zed |nterface
equ|pment |s requ|red to |nterwork the two h|erarch|es















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L|ements of sdh

W ConLalner (c)
W vlrLual ConLalner (vC)

W 1rlbuLary unlL (1u)
W 1rlbuLary unlL Croup (1uC)
W AdmlnlsLraLlve unlL (Au)
W AdmlnlsLraLlve unlL Croup (AuC)
W Synchronous 1ransporL Module n (S1M n)

Conta|ner

W lnpuL slgnals are placed lnLo Lhe conLalners
W lL adds sLufflng byLes for uP slgnals whlch compensaLes
lor Lhe permlLLed frequency devlaLlon beLween Lhe SuP
SysLem and Lhe uP slgnal
W C12 (2 Mbps C703)
W C11 (13 Mbps)
W C2 (6 Mbps)
W C3 (34 / 43 Mbps)
C4 (140 Mbps)




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I|rtua| Conta|ner

W lL adds overheads Lo a conLalner or groups of LrlbuLary unlLs LhaL provldes
faclllLles for supervlslon and malnLenance of 1he end Lo end paLhs
W vCs carry lnformaLlon end Lo end beLween Lwo paLh access polnLs Lhrough Lhe SuP
sysLem
W vCs are deslgned for LransporL and swlLchlng subSuP payloads









1r|butary Un|t

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W lL adds polnLers Lo Lhe vCs
W 1hls polnLer permlLs Lhe SuP sysLem Lo compensaLe for phase ulfferences wlLhln Lhe
SuP neLwork and also for Lhe frequency uevlaLlons beLween Lhe SuP neLworks
W 1us acLs as a brldge beLween Lhe lower order paLh layer and hlgher order paLh layer



1r|butary Un|t Group

W lL deflnes a group of LrlbuLary unlLs LhaL are mulLlplexed 1ogeLher
W As a resulL a 1u group could conLaln one of Lhe followlng ComblnaLlons
- 1hree 1u12s (1uC 2)
- Seven 1uC2s (1uC 3)




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Adm|n|strat|ve Un|t

W lL adds polnLer Lo Lhe vlrLual conLalners(slmllar Lo Lhe 1rlbuLary unlL)
W Au 3 (vC3 + polnLer)
W Au 4 (vC4 + polnLer)



Adm|n|strat|ve Un|t Group

O lL deflnes a group of admlnlsLraLlve unlLs LhaL are MulLlplexed LogeLher Lo form hlgher
order S1M slgnal

Synchronous 1ransport ,odu|e n

O lL adds secLlon overhead (8SCP MSCP) Lo a number of AuCs LhaL adds faclllLles for
supervlslon malnLenance of Lhe mulLlplexer regeneraLor secLlons
O 1hls ls Lhe slgnal LhaL ls LransmlLLed on Lhe SuP llne
O 1he dlglL n deflnes Lhe order of Lhe S1M slgnal

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SDn Irame Structure



1he S1M1 frame ls Lhe baslc Lransmlsslon formaL for SuP 1he frame LasLs for 123
mlcroseconds Lherefore Lhere are 8000 frames per second 1he S1M1 frame conslsLs of
overhead plus a vlrLual conLalner capaclLy (See llgure 2) 1he flrsL nlne columns of each frame
make up Lhe SecLlon Cverhead and Lhe lasL 261 columns make up Lhe vlrLual ConLalner (vC)
capaclLy 1he vC plus Lhe polnLers (P1 P2 P3 byLes) ls called Lhe Au (AdmlnlsLraLlve unlL)
8ows And 261 columns ls Lhe aLh Cverhead and Lhe ConLalner (see llgure 3) 1he llrsL
column ls for aLh Cverhead lL's followed by Lhe payload conLalner whlch Can lLself carry
oLher conLalners vlrLual ConLalners can have any phase allgnmenL wlLhln Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve
unlL and Lhls allgnmenL ls lndlcaLed by Lhe olnLer ln row four as descrlbed LaLer ln Lhe
olnLers secLlon WlLhln Lhe SecLlon Cverhead Lhe flrsL Lhree 8ows are used for Lhe
8egeneraLor SecLlon Cverhead and Lhe lasL flve rows are used for Lhe MulLlplex SecLlon
Cverhead 1he S1M frame ls LransmlLLed ln a byLeserlal fashlon rowbyrow and ls scrambled
lmmedlaLely prlor Lo Lransmlsslon Lo ensure adequaLe clockLlmlng conLenL for downsLream
regeneraLors

S1,1 frame structure



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O As lndlcaLed ln Lhe flgure Lhe S1M n slgnal ls mulLlples of frames conslsLlng of 9 rows
wlLh 270 byLes ln each row
O 1he order of Lransmlsslon of lnformaLlon ls flrsL from lefL Lo rlghL and Lhen from Lop
Lo boLLom
O 1he flrsL 9 byLes ln each row are for lnformaLlon and used by Lhe SuP sysLem lLself
1hls area ls dlvlded lnLo 3 parLs
O 8egeneraLor SecLlon Cverhead(8SCP)
O MulLlplex SecLlon Cverhead(MSCP)
O olnLers


SDn Cverhead

1he SuP sLandard was developed uslng a cllenL/server layer approach
(see llgure 4) 1he overhead and LransporL funcLlons are dlvlded lnLo layers
1hey are

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O 8egeneraLor SecLlon

O MulLlplex SecLlon

O aLh

1he layers have a hlerarchlcal relaLlonshlp wlLh each layer bulldlng on Lhe servlces provlded by
all Lhe lower layers 1hls secLlon deLalls Lhe dlfferenL SuP overhead lnformaLlon speclflcally
8egeneraLor SecLlon Cverhead MulLlplex Cverhead aLh Cverhead



kegenerator Sect|on Cverhead


1he 8egeneraLor SecLlon Cverhead conLalns only Lhe lnformaLlon requlred for Lhe elemenLs
locaLed aL boLh ends of a secLlon 1hls mlghL be Lwo regeneraLors a plece of llne LermlnaLlng
equlpmenL and a regeneraLor or Lwo pleces of llne LermlnaLlng equlpmenL 1he 8egeneraLor
SecLlon Cverhead ls found ln Lhe flrsL Lhree rows of Columns 1 Lhrough 9 of Lhe S1M1 frame
(see llgure 3) 8yLe by byLe Lhe 8egeneraLor SecLlon Cverhead ls shown ln 1able 4

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,u|t|p|ex Sect|on Cverhead

1he MulLlplex SecLlon Cverhead conLalns Lhe lnformaLlon requlred beLween Lhe mulLlplex
secLlon LermlnaLlon equlpmenL aL each end of Lhe MulLlplex secLlon (LhaL ls beLween
consecuLlve neLwork elemenLs excludlng Lhe regeneraLors) 1he MulLlplex SecLlon Cverhead ls
found ln 8ows 3 Lo 9 of Columns 1 Lhrough 9 of Lhe S1M1 frame (see llgure 6) 8yLe by byLe
Lhe MulLlplex SecLlon Cverhead ls shown ln 1able 3




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n|gherCrder ath Cverhead
(IC4]IC)


1he aLh Cverhead ls asslgned Lo and LransporLed wlLh Lhe vlrLual ConLalner from Lhe Llme
lL's creaLed by paLh LermlnaLlng equlpmenL unLll Lhe payload ls demulLlplexed aL Lhe
LermlnaLlon polnL ln a plece of paLh LermlnaLlng equlpmenL 1he aLh Cverhead ls found ln
8ows 1 Lo 9 of Lhe flrsL column of Lhe vC4 or vC3
(See llgure 7)



LowerCrder ath Cverhead (IC]IC1)

1he byLes v3 !2 n2 and k4 are allocaLed Lo Lhe vC2/vC1 CP 1he v3 byLe ls Lhe flrsL byLe of
Lhe mulLlframe and lLs poslLlon ls lndlcaLed by Lhe 1u2/1u1 polnLer 1he v3 byLe provldes Lhe
funcLlons of error checklng slgnal label and paLh sLaLus of Lhe vC2/vC1 paLhs 1he blL
asslgnmenLs for Lhe v3 byLe



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o|nters

SuP provldes payload polnLers Lo permlL dlfferences ln Lhe phase and frequency of Lhe
vlrLual ConLalners (vCn) wlLh respecL Lo Lhe S1Mn frame
Cn a framebyframe basls Lhe payload polnLer lndlcaLes Lhe offseL beLween Lhe vC
payload and Lhe S1Mn frame
1he polnLer value lndlcaLes Lhe offseL ln byLes from Lhe polnLer Lo Lhe flrsL byLe of Lhe
vC whlch ls Lhe !1 byLe
g polnLs are aL 3byLe lncremenLs for a vC4 payload 1byLe lncremenL for vC3
payload
1he posslble range ls
1oLal S1M1 byLes SecLlon Cverhead byLes olnLer value range
(2430 81) 2349 polnLer range
lor a vC4 payload Lhls polnLer ls locaLed ln columns 1 and 4 of Lhe fourLh row of Lhe
SecLlon Cverhead
lor a vC3 payload enLlre polnLer byLes are used



1he polnLer value ls carrled ln blLs 7 Lhrough 16 of Lhe P1P2 polnLer word
1he flrsL four blLs lndlcaLes an arblLrary change ln Lhe value of Lhe polnLer 1hese four
blLs Lhe nblLs are known as Lhe new uaLa llag

Use of o|nters

W lL lndlcaLes Lhe sLarLlng poslLlon of vC

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W lL ls also used for [usLlflcaLlon
W Au polnLer ls also used for concaLenaLlon

INU1 1C ,UL1ILLkLk


1he basl c lnpuL Lo a synchronous mul Llpl exer ls pl eslochronous slgnalfrom
Luropean or norLh Amerl can or !apanese hlerarchy and basl couLpuL ls
synchronous slgnal called Synchronous 1ransporL Modul e oflevel one (S1M1)
As Luropean sLandards for uP worklng ls followedln lndl a leL us conslder only
Luropean sLandards for uP raLes forexpl anaLlon 1he SuP mulLlpl exer only
accepLs only followlng uP blLraLes from Luropean hlerarchy

W 2048 kblL/s

W 34368 kblL/s

W 139 264 kblL/sSuP does noL accepL 8448 kblL/s uP slgnal


kINCILLS CI SNCnkCNCUS ,UL1ILLkING



1 h e S u P d e f l n e s a n u m b e r o f c o n L a l n e r s a L l L s b o u n d a r
y e a c h correspondlng Lo an exlsLlng pleslochronous raLe 1hese conLalners are fllled
ln wlLh Lhe lnformaLlon from a pleslochronous slgnal Lhe process l s c a l l e d
ma p p l n g 1 h e wa y l n wh l c h L h l s l s d o n e l s s l ml l a r L o L h e
[usLlflcaLlon procedure carrled ouL ln uP mulLlplexlng Lach conLalner ls Lhen
added wlLh conLrol lnformaLlon known as aLh Cverhead whl ch ls Lo hel p
Lhe servl ce provlder Lo achleve end Lo end paL h monl L orl ng 1he
conL al ner and L he paL h over head L ogeL her l s called vlrLual ConLalner
uependlng upon Lhe uP blL raLes varlous vC's ar e f or med lor ex ampl e vC 1

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vC 3 vC 4 ar e f or med f or Lur opean uP blL raLes 2 Mb/s 34 Mb/s and 140
Mb/s respecLlvely ln a synchronous neLwork all equlpmenL ls synchronl zed Lo
an overall neLwork clock Powever Lhere may be a sllghL delay assocl aLed
wlLh a Lransmlsslon ll nk Lhe locaLl on of vC's wl Lhln an S1M1 frame may noL
be flxed wlLh Llme 1hese varlaLlons are accommodaLed by assoclaLlng a polnLer wlLh
each vC whlch lndlcaLes Lhe poslLlon of Lhe beglnnlng of L he vC wl Lh r espec L L o
L he S1M 1 f r ame 1he pol nL er val ue c an be lncremenLed or decremenLed
as necessary Lo accommodaLe movemenLs of Lhe poslLl on of Lhe vC 1he vC and
Lhe pol nLer LogeLher ls called Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve unl L (Au) lf lL conLalns vC4
and 1rl buLary unl L(1u) lf lL conLalns vC3 or vC11u's are furLher comblned
ln a defl nlLe fashlon Lo obLaln vC4 and ln Lurn Au4 and AuC are obLalned
llgure x
Shows a geneLlc mul L l pl exl ng s L r ucL ur e s L andar dl z ed by l 1u 1 whl ch
L akes car e of boLh Amerlcan as well as Luropean uP raLes
llgure xl
Shows Lhe reduced mulLlplexlng sLrucLure whlch Lakes care of only Luropean uP
hlerarchy lurLher some more conLrol lnformaLlon byLes called SecLlon Cverhead (SuP)
ls added Lo provlde communlcaLlon channel for CAM proLecLlon swlLchlng frame
allgnmenL performance monlLorlng eLc An AuC and a secLlon overhead
L ogeL her f or m S1M1 ueL al l s of s y nchr onous mul L l pl exl ng L akl ngvarlo
us lnpuL blL raLes are explalned ln Lhe followlng secLlons


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24




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26


Compar|son of Dn (|es|ochronous D|g|ta|
n|erarchy)]SDn (synchronous dlglLal Plerarchy)












27



SCNL1

1ransmlsslon sLandards ln Lhe uS Canada korea 1alwan and Pong kong (AnSl) and Lhe resL
of Lhe world (l1u1) evolved from dlfferenL baslcraLe slgnals ln Lhe nonsynchronous hlerarchy
AnSl 1lme ulvlslon MulLlplexlng (1uM) comblnes LwenLy four 64 kblL/s channels (uS0) lnLo one
1344 MblL/s uS1 slgnal l1u 1uM mulLlplexes LhlrLy 64 kblL/s channels (L0) lnLo one 2048
MblL/s L1 slgnal (an exLra Lwo channels provlde frame allgnmenL and slgnalllng Maklng 32
LoLal) An lmporLanL lssue for Lhe l1u1 Lo resolve was how Lo efflclenLly accommodaLe boLh
Lhe 13 MblL/s and Lhe 2 MblL/s nonsynchronous hlerarchles ln a slngle neLwork sLandard 1he
agreemenL reached speclfled a baslc Lransmlsslon raLe of 31 MblL/s for SCnL1 and a baslc raLe
of 133 MblL/s for SuP Synchronous and nonsynchronous llne raLes and Lhe relaLlonshlps
beLween each are shown ln 1ables 13 and 14




SCNL1 and SDn n|erarch|es

SCnL1 and SuP converge aL SuP's 133 MblL/s base level deflned as S1M1 or Synchronous
1ransporL Module1" 1he base level for SCnL1 ls S1S1 (or CC1) and ls equlvalenL Lo 3184
MblL/s 1hus SuP's S1M1 ls equlvalenL Lo SCnL1's S1S3 (3 x 3184 MblL/s 13332 MblL/s)
Plgher SuP raLes of S1M4 (622 MblL/s) S1M16 (24 CblL/s) and S1M64 (10 CblL/s) have also
been deflned MulLlplexlng ls accompllshed by comblnlng or lnLerleavlng mulLlple lower
order slgnals (13 MblL/s 2 MblL/s eLc) lnLo hlgherspeed clrculLs (31 MblL/s 133 MblL/s eLc)
8y changlng Lhe SCnL1 sLandard from blLlnLerleavlng Lo byLelnLerleavlng lL became posslble
for SuP Lo accommodaLe boLh Lransmlsslon hlerarchles 1hls modlflcaLlon allows an S1M1
slgnal Lo carry mulLlple 13 MblL/s or 2 MblL/s slgnals and mulLlple S1M slgnals Lo be
aggregaLed Lo carry hlgher orders of SCnL1 or SuP LrlbuLarles


28





enef|ts of SDn
A LransporL neLwork uslng SuP provldes much more powerful neLworklng capablllLles Lhan
exlsLlng asynchronous sysLems 1he key beneflLs provlded by SuP are Lhe followlng

o|nters ,Uk]DL,Ux

As a resulL of SuP Lransmlsslon Lhe neLwork clocks are referenced Lo a hlghly sLable reference
polnL so Lhe need Lo allgn Lhe daLa sLreams uslng nondeLermlnlsLlc blLsLufflng ls unnecessary
1herefore a lower raLe channel such as L1 ls dlrecLly accesslble and lnLermedlaLe
demulLlplexlng ls noL needed Lo access Lhe blL sLreams lor Lhose slLuaLlons ln whlch

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synchronlsaLlon reference frequency and phase may vary SuP uses polnLers Lo allow Lhe
sLreams Lo floaL" wlLhln Lhe payload olnLers are Lhe key Lo synchronous Llmlng Lhey allow a
very flexlble allocaLlon and allgnmenL of Lhe payload wlLhln Lhe Lransmlsslon frame



keduced acktoack ,u|t|p|ex|ng

ln Lhe asynchronous uP sysLems care musL be Laken when rouLlng clrculLs ln order Lo avold
mulLlplexlng and demulLlplexlng Loo many Llmes slnce elecLronlcs (and Lhelr assoclaLed caplLal
cosL) are requlred every Llme an L1 slgnal ls processed WlLh SuP L1s can be mulLlplexed
dlrecLly Lo Lhe S1Mn raLe 8ecause of synchronlsaLlon an enLlre opLlcal slgnal doesn'L have Lo
be demulLlplexed only Lhe lndlvldual vC or S1M slgnals LhaL need Lo be accessed


Cpt|ca| Interconnect

A ma[or SuP beneflL ls LhaL lL allows mldspan meeL wlLh mulLlvendor compaLlblllLy 1oday's
SuP sLandards conLaln deflnlLlons for flbreLoflbre lnLerfaces aL Lhe physlcal level 1hey
deLermlne Lhe opLlcal llne raLe wavelengLh power levels pulse shapes and codlng 1he
currenL sLandards also fully deflne Lhe frame sLrucLure overhead and payload mapplngs
LnhancemenLs are belng developed Lo deflne Lhe messages ln Lhe overhead channels Lo
provlde lncreased CAM funcLlonallLy SuP allows opLlcal lnLerconnecLlon beLween neLwork
provlders regardless of who makes Lhe equlpmenL 1he neLwork provlder can purchase one
vendor's equlpmenL and convenlenLly lnLerface wlLh oLher vendors' SuP equlpmenL aL elLher
operaLor locaLlons or cusLomer premlses users may now obLaln Lhe S1Mn equlpmenL of Lhelr
cholce and meeL wlLh LhelrneLwork provlder of cholce aL LhaL S1Mn level



Groom|ng

Croomlng refers Lo elLher consolldaLlng or segregaLlng Lrafflc Lo make more efflclenL use of Lhe
neLwork faclllLles ConsolldaLlon means comblnlng Lrafflc from dlfferenL locaLlons onLo one
faclllLy whlle segregaLlon ls Lhe separaLlon of Lrafflc Croomlng ellmlnaLes lnefflclenL
Lechnlques such as backhaullng lL's posslble Lo groom Lrafflc on asynchronous sysLems

30

however Lo do so requlres expenslve backLoback conflguraLlons and manual or elecLronlc
crossconnecLs 8y conLrasL an SuP sysLem can segregaLe Lrafflc aL elLher an S1M1 or vC level
Lo send lL Lo Lhe approprlaLe nodes Croomlng can also provlde segregaLlon of servlces lor
example aL an lnLerconnecL polnL an lncomlng SuP llne may conLaln dlfferenL Lypes of Lrafflc
such as swlLched volce leased clrculLs for daLa or vldeo An SuP neLwork can convenlenLly
segregaLe Lhe swlLched and nonswlLched Lrafflc