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Vehicle Design II Vehicle Design II

(Course Overview)

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly


Automotive and Tractor Engineering Dept. College of Engineering, Minia University-61111 nouby.auto@gmail.com

Class Structure

Course Goals
Contribute to future developments in automotive technology through design of engine components

Course Topics
1. Introduction Design philosophy, an overview of engine design, Applications of Computer aided Design (CAD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Engine Design. History of automobile engines, Classification of engines, Principle of engine operation (SI & CI). Engine support mountings. (8hrs) (2Q) 2. Design of Cylinders Block and Cylinder liners, details of water jacket, dry and wet liners, Design of Cylinder head, Cylinder arrangement. (4hrs) (1Q). 3. Design of Piston Assembly, piston rings, piston pin - stress analysis, methods of manufacture, heat treatment, piston ring selection, limits of fit for pins. (4hrs) (1Q). 4. Design of Connecting rod assembly (small end- Big end- Shank) (4hrs) (1Q). 5. Design of Crank shaft, firing order, balancing and torsional vibration analysis, vibration dampers. (4hrs) (1Q). 6. Design of Flywheel; Camshaft - drives of cams, materials, Types. (4hrs) (1Q). 7. Design of Valve and valve mechanism, types of valve operating mechanisms, valve springs, guides, push rods, rocker arms, tappets, valve timing diagrams. (4hrs) (1Q)

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Shigley J.E. Mechanical Engineering Design McGraw Hill, 2003. 2. Garrett T.K., Newton K. and Steeds W. The Motor Vehicle Reed Educational and Professional Publishing, 2001. 3. Kolchin A., Demidov V. Design of Automotive Engines Mir Publishers, 1984. 4. Willard W. Pulkrabek Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine Prentice Hall, 1997. 5. Richard D. Atkins An Introduction to Engine Testing and Development SAE International, USA, 2009.

Lecture (1)
1. 2. 3. Design philosophy What is Design? How to design? Design Process Design process For Automotive Applications of CAD/CAM/CAE Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Engine Design.

Design Philosophy
What is Engineering? Engineering is not usually considered a science. Science is about discovering the natural. Engineering is creating the artificial. Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop solutions to problems. The main philosophy behind all of the engineering and engineering design activities is to serve the people, society and mankind. This is why the engineering design is defined as an activity to satisfy a need. A need is real only if it is defined and identified by a human.

What is Design?
Design is a interaction between what we want to achieve and how we want to satisfy them.

Design is a process of converting information that characterize the needs and requirements for a product into knowledge about the product.
Engineering design is creative at the beginning, and significance of creativity decreases towards the end of the process, Engineering design is iterative during the whole design process.
Scientific Principles and Technology Design Process Evaluation

Design Information

Feedback

Work

Product

How to Design?
What does the customer want?
Looks, safety, price, feeling, speed, Design, Efficiency, Features, Performance, Handling, Size, Extra service, Capacity, User reviews, Quality

How to Design?
What do you want to achieve and how?
Give people a vision about your car The car specifications
Engine, weight, efficiency, acceleration, topspeed, capacity

How to Design?
car classification:
Supermini Small family car Large family car Executive car Roadster Small Off-Roader Large Off-Roader

Engineering Design Process


Identify the Problem
Describe the challenge to be solved, including limits and constraints.

Explore
Research what others have done. Discover what materials are available.

Design
Use your knowledge and creativity to come up with many solutions. Choose one idea and draw or make a model of it.

Create
Make your solution.

Try It Out
Test your solution.

Make It Better
Evaluate how the solution worked and think of how to improve your design.

Engineering Design Process


Recognition of a customers need Market research identifies customers and needs R&D creates ideas that are relevant to an organizations capabilities Needs arise from dissatisfaction Technology push (examples : computers, audio) Definition of a problem or Task Design specification Selecting product ideas Compiling the requirement list Acquire & apply technical knowledge Identify resources Prioritize design goals & continue to refine

Engineering Design Process


Product definition Function Preliminary requirements list Solution requirements Cost target and budget

SOURCES CONSUMER COMPANY

SITUATION ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR SEARCH

DEFINE THE PRODUCT QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTION DESIGN

Engineering Design Process


Conceptual design This phase looks at the function requirement of the Product. The function are listed & complex functions are broken into simpler subfunctions. Determines the Principle of Solution. It is preceded by a Decision Procedure Abstract to identify essential problems Establish function structures Search for working principles to fulfill the sub-functions Combine working principles into working structures Select suitable combinations Evaluate against technical & cost criteria

Engineering Design Process


Design embodiment It starts from the concept and develops the definitive layout for the project Evaluate against Technical & Economic criteria Preliminary layout Optimize and complete form designs Check for errors and disturbing factors Prepare preliminary part list and production documents Embodiment design is characterized by repeated deliberation and verification. This requires approach that is progressive as well as iterative. The checklist Function, Working Principle, Layout, Safety, Ergonomics, Production, Assembly, Transport, Recycling, Maintenance, Costs, Quality control

Engineering Design Process


Prepare production documents :
Elaborate detailed drawings and parts list Complete production,assembly,transport and operating instructions Check all documents

Design review
Review and redesign focuses on achieving the performance, producibility, reliability and cost (As compared to what) objectives. Competitive benchmarking Reverse Engineering of competitors products Early bird gets the profit

BASIC STEPS IN MECHANICAL DESIGN PROCESS


1) Problem Definition Constraints , Whos the Customer? Data gathering: What is known, what is not. 2) Literature Search: What are possible solutions? 3) Analysis , Modeling 4) Develop ideas for a solution Solution Evaluation, Failure Mode Effect Analysis Optimization, Design for Manufacturability 5) Prototype Fabrication 6) Testing, Modification 7) Volume Production 8) Continuous verification and Testing, Customer Feedback 9) Take data to verify your gains or improvements Add this to your resume!

CAD/CAM/CAE
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a Design. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control manufacturing operations. Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry, allowing the designer to simulate and study how the product will behave.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)


Use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design Typical tools: Tolerance analysis Mass property calculations Finite-element modeling and visualization Defines the geometry of the design

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)


Use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry Allows designer to simulate and study how the product will behave, allowing for optimization Finite-element method (FEM) Divides model into interconnected elements Solves continuous field problems

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)


Use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control manufacturing operations Direct or indirect computer interface with the plants production resources Numerical control of machine tools Programming of robots

Integrated CAD/CAE/CAM Systems


Professional CAD/CAE/CAM Tools CATIA (Dassault Systemes - IBM) Unigraphics NX (Electronic Data Systems Corp - EDS) I-DEAS (EDS) Pro/ENGINEER (PTC) Other CAD and Graphics Packages AutoCAD Mechanical Desktop SolidWorks (CATIA) Solid Edge (EDS) MicroStation Intergraph

Pro/ENGINEER
One of the CAD/CAM/CAE industrys leading suppliers of software tools from Parametric Technology Corp. (PTC) A pioneer of the new feature-based, parametrically driven design paradigm in late 1980s, now industrial standard. A system used to automate the development of a mechanical product from its conceptual design through production. Offering integrated software technologies to reduce time to market, improve engineering process, and optimize product quality. One of the fastest growing companies in the mechanical design automation market Improved users interface in recent release.

Unigraphics- NX
A full spectrum design modeling, analysis, simulation, and manufacturing CAD/CAE/CAM software from Unigraphics Solutions One of the older and well-established CAD/CAE system. A software of choice for a wide variety of applications, especially in automotive and aerospace product development.

CATIA
A process-centric CAD/CAM software solution marketed exclusively by IBM and developed by Dassault Systems A system used to design and manufacture many complex 3D products. Today, 7 out of every 10 airplanes and 4 out of every 10 cars are designed using CATIA-CADAM Solutions, making it the de facto standard for these markets. A software of choice for a wide variety of applications ranging from consumer goods and machinery to plant design and shipbuilding. 300,000 CATIA users worldwide, nearly half in English language markets

Finite Element Analysis in Design


The continuum has an infinite number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), while the discretized model has a finite number of DOF. This is the origin of the name, finite element method. The number of equations is usually rather large for most real-world applications of the FEM, and requires the computational power of the digital computer. The FEM has little practical value if the digital computer were not available. Advances in and ready availability of computers and software has brought the FEM within reach of engineers working in small industries, and even students Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s (ABAQUS, ADINA, ANSYS, MARK, PAFEC) and 1980s (FENRIS, LARSTRAN 80, SESAM 80.)

Finite Element Analysis in Design


FEA programs simulate static, dynamic, linear, nonlinear, thermal, modal, and random vibrations, and more. FEA solves many different problems out of which structural and thermal problems are most common for mechanical engineers. "Structural analysis finds deformations, strains, and stresses caused by structural loads such as force, pressure, and gravity. Thermal analysis finds temperatures, temperature gradients, and heat flow caused by thermal loads such as heat flux or heat power. Boundary conditions such as prescribed temperatures and convection coefficients also affect results.

Finite element model of the gasoline SI engine

Applications in FEA

Questions?