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Islamic Medicine:

Khan, Muhammad Salim. Islamic Medicine. Boston: Routledge and

Kegan Paul, 1986.
This source, although a little dated and small is very useful, in that it provides a basic
source for an overview of Islamic medicine and its foundations and discoveries.

***all direct quotes***

11-Umayyad Period: In the first forty years of the Islamic calendar (661AD), Muawiya,
grandson of the Umaiyyh of the Quraish tribe took over political control. The period that
followed is generally referred to as the Umayyad Era.

11-It was in this period that translations of the ancient medical works begun. The
Umayyad prince, Khalid Bin Yazid, grandon of Muawiya was instrumental in this work.
He had a passion for alchemy and medicine. He instructed a group of greek scholars in
Egypt to translate greek-egyptian medical literature 12- into Arabic

12- khalid himself worked on medicine. It was during this period (737-812 AD) that the
most celebrated physician and alchemist, Jabr Ibn Hayan lived, a student of the well-
known Iman, Jaffar Saqid.

12-Walid B. Abdal-Malik who in 707AD began a broad health care program. Walid had
homes built for the blind and lepers. He isolated the lepers from other patients and
provided medical facilities. He also built a hospital and appointed physicians who
provided healthcare to all citizens and travelers on a free basis. This was the beginning of
free medical care on a mass level, supported from government funds.

12-The development of botanical medicine was very height in Msulim Spain. Physicians
like Ibn al-Baytar, born in Malaga 1197 AD spent his early life in Andalusia working on
different plants. He wrote an independent treatise concerning simple medicaments, which
dealt with some 1400 different items used in treatment.

12-Abu Bakr Ibn Samghun or Cordoba, philosopher and physician, 14- In Bajjah, and
Abul-Hassan Al-Andaluci also wrote extensively on plant remedies.

14-Spain had a high level both of general medical practice and surgery. Abdul Qasim Al-
Zahrawi was one of the most capable surgeons. His work Kitab al-Tasrif- “the bok of
consessions” was a definitive guide for surgeons.

14-The dev of medicine in its varied forms was a particularly important contribution of
Umayyad muslim spain. There were original contributions to surgery and internal
medicine and the creationof new disciplines and speicalities such as midwifery.
14- 750 AD the Umayyad were overthrown by Abdul Abbas al-Abbas, who was
descended from a paternal uncle of the Prophet. Major medical dev during this period.

14-The most significant event was the founding of Baghdad in 754 AD. In the oldest
suburb of this city, karkh. Here was built the Bimaristan-the hospital which became the
metropolitan hospital and the cradle of the Baghdad school of medicine.

14-Here lectured and practiced al lthe great physicans from the time of Bukt Yishu, chief
physicians form Jundishapur, to the most celebrated clinician and master of Arabic
medicine, Razi.

16- the second phase of the development in medicine dated from the est of Bayt al-
Hikmah- the royal library- which became an important center of translation of medical
knowledge, based in Baghdad, the abassid capital. It was within this library that
systematic and authentic translation and compilation was undertaken by competent
scholars and physicians.

17- Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, a student of Ibn Masawayh, was a prolific writer on medicine. He
translated, from the greek,hippocrates, galen, and the Alexandrian summaries into Arabic.

17-Within the two centuries under the abbassides the medical heratige of ancient
civilizations became accessiblt to Arabic scholars. The next three centuries saw the
sythesis and creation of new therapies. There were a number of original thinkers and
practitioners whose contribution to islaimc medicine remains alive and pulsating.

17-Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi became 18- responsible for the main hospitial in

18- abu alinn ibn sina was known as the “prince of physicians” he was bron in bukara in
980AD and traveled through Persia. He wrote the cannon of medicine.

18-It was during the abbasid period that the examinationand licensing of physicnas and
surgeons was formally organized.

18- after the devastation of Baghdad the history of isalim medicine becomes much more
diverse 1240

18-the core concepts and practices of islaim medicine continued to be common to various
areas, althought there were unique characteristics to each locatlity.

18-Iran continued to be a source of medical inspiration for many years with a botable
physician such as sayyid zany al-din ismail al-husayni al-jurjani who wrote “the treasur
of medicine”
19- In Egypt, Ibin Nafis was the first to expamin accurately the minor circulation of the
blood. He was born in 1210

18-Ottoman turkey was also an important center of Islamic medical knowledge. Similary
to other parts of the muslim world, the turks built numberous hospitals that were open to
all ppl.