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CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES

Name: ________________________ ( )
Class: _______
Date: _____________

Candidates should be able to:


(a) define enzymes as proteins which function as biological catalysts
(b) explain enzyme action in terms of the ‘lock and key’ hypothesis
(c) investigate and describe the effect of temperature and of pH on enzyme activity.

WHAT ARE ENZYMES


o An enzyme is a biological or organic catalyst.
o It is a substance which can alter or speed up a
chemical reaction, without itself being chemically
changed at the end of the reaction.

SOURCES
o Enzymes may be extracted from any living organism.
Sources include bacteria, fungi, yeast, plants and
animals.

APPLICATIONS
o DETERGENT: We use enzymes in our
everyday life for example in detergents
containing proteases and lipases to remove
stubborn stains.

o FRUIT JUICES: Pectinase is added to digest pectin


(the “glue” that holds plant cells together) thus
reducing wastage, enhance clarity etc.

o MEAT TENDERIZER: Papain is extracted


from papaya and used as a meat
tenderizer.

o CLEAN UP OIL SPILLS: Certain enzymes


produced by microbes can digest
harmful oil and convert them into
harmless carbon dioxide and water.

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CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES
o ANIMAL FEED: Enzymes are added to animal feed to
increase digestibility.

WHAT ARE ENZYMES MADE OF?


o Enzymes are made of proteins.
o Proteins are made up of Amino acids.

WHY MUST FOOD BE DIGESTED


o Undigested foods are too large to be absorbed by our
body.
o Digestion is the process by which large, insoluble
food molecules are broken down into small, soluble
and diffusible molecules.

USES OF ENZYMES
o BREAKDOWN
Enzymes are used to breakdown complex
substances to simpler substances, for example
the oxidation of glucose to release energy and
form carbon dioxide and water.

o SYNTHESIS
Other enzymes are also used to synthesize
complex substances from simpler ones, for
example the build up of proteins from amino
acids.

CLASSIFICATION
Enzymes are classified according to the chemical reactions
they catalyze.

ENZYMES SUBSTRATE
CARBOHYDRASE carbohydrate
CELLULASE cellulose
PROTEASE protein
LIPASE lipids
AMYLASE starch
CHARACTERISTICS
1. ALTER OR SPEED UP THE RATE OF REACTION

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CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES
Enzymes alter or speed up the rate of a chemical
reaction.

2. POTENT
Enzymes are very potent. They remain
unchanged at the end of the chemical reaction
and can be reused. A small amount of enzyme
can bring about a large amount of chemical
reaction.

3. SPECIFIC
Enzymes are very specific in their action i.e. protease
acts only on proteins, lipase acts only on lipids and not
starch.

4. REVERSIBLE REACTIONS
Enzymatic reactions are reversible:
A+B C+D

HOW DO ENZYMES WORK?


THE LOCK AND KEY HYPOTHESIS
o The substrate is the substance on
which the enzymes act e.g. proteins,
lipids.
o The specificity of an enzyme is due to its
shape (surface configuration).
o The substrate binds at the active site of the
enzyme.
o It is believed that the enzyme molecule alters its
shape slightly when the substrate molecule fits in, so
as to facilitate the reaction.

FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY


1. TEMPERATURE
o The best temperature at which the enzyme work is
called the optimum temperature.
o At very low temperatures, the enzyme is inactive.
o As the temperature increases, the enzyme activity
increases (usually, the enzyme is twice as active for
every 10 °C rise in temperature until the optimum
temperature is reached).

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CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES
o However, beyond the optimum temperature, enzyme
activity decreases until the enzyme is completely
denatured (i.e. no enzyme activity).
Enzyme
activity

most active

Optimum
temperature

o Denaturation of enzymes: denature


d
- High temperature, various chemicals such as
inactiv
acids and alkalis can denature enzymes.
Temperature
e
- When the enzyme is denatured, the shape is
changed, the three-dimensional structure of the
enzyme is lost and the active site is altered.
- Extreme heat can bring about an irreversible
destruction of enzymes.

2. pH
o Enzymes are affected by the acidity or alkalinity of
the solutions in which they work.
o Different enzymes have different optimum pH. Some
enzymes work best in slightly acidic solutions (e.g.
pepsin and rennin in the stomach) while others
require slightly alkaline solutions (e.g. intestinal
enzymes).
o Extreme changes in pH denature the enzymes.

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CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES

Enzyme
activity
most active

Optimum pH

3. SUBSTRATE
denature& ENZYME CONCENTRATION denature
o At a d
substrate concentration of A, the enzyme
d
activity increases as substrate concentration
increases up till a point X. pH
o A further increase in substrate concentration does
not increase the rate any further because all the
enzyme molecules are used up (saturated). Enzyme
concentration is the limiting factor.
o The only way to increase enzyme activity is to
increase the enzyme concentration to B.
o But when it reaches point Y again, enzyme
concentration becomes the limiting factor again.
Enzyme
activity

Y
Enzyme
concentration
B
Enzyme
concentration
A
X

LIMITING FACTOR
Substrate
concentration 5
CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES
o Any factor that directly affects the rate of a
chemical reaction when its quantity is changed is
called a limiting factor.
o The value of the limiting factor must be
increased so as to increase the rate of
reaction.

COENZYMES
o Some enzymes require another compound called a
coenzyme to be bound to them before they can
catalyse reactions.
o Coenzymes are non-protein organic compounds,
most are vitamins (B complex vitamins are essential
components of many coenzymes)