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PROJECT ON PROPYLENE OXIDE

MAHATMA GANDHI MISSIONS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY KAMOTHE, NAVI MUMBAI. ACADEMIC YEAR: 2011-2012.

PROJECT REPORT ON MANUFACTURE OF PROPYLENE OXIDE

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Prof.: CYRUS K MISTRY

SUBMITTED BY-

MIKHIL MOHAN VINEET G. NAIR

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Department of Chemical Engineering MAHATMA GANDHI MISSIONS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY KAMOTHE, NAVI MUMBAI.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the following students,

MIKHIL MOHAN VINEET G. NAIR have successfully completed the project report entitled PROPYLENE OXIDE during the prescribed period in the academic year 2011-12. This Project report is submitted in the partial fulfillment of BACHELOR OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING of Mumbai University.

GUIDE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

PRINCIPAL

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This project would never have seen the light of the day if it hadnt been for support and encouragement of multitude of very exemplary people.

We would like to sincerely thank my guide & Head of Chemical Engineering Department Dr. CYRUS K MISTRY who is the driving force behind this project and discussion with him proved to be enlightening.

We express our sincere gratitude toward our principal Dr. GEETHA JAYARAJ, for providing us with the opportunity to chose this project. We would be failing our duty if we do not acknowledge the help extended by professors of Chemical Department of MGMS college of engineering and technology. Our heartfelt gratitude to library and their staff member.

MIKHIL MOHAN VINEET G. NAIR

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Sr. No. 1 2 Introduction

Topic

Page No. 4 7

Physical and Chemical Properties


2.1 Physical Data 2.2 Chemical Reactions

Manufacturing Processes
3.1 Chlorohydrin Process 3.2 Hydroperoxide Process

12

Process Selection And Description


4.1 Raw Materials Used 4.2 Flowsheet and Process Description

16

Manufacturers of Propylene Oxide in India

23

6 7

Applications And Uses


6.1 Derivatives

25 29

Material Safety Data Sheet


7.1 Hazard Identification 7.2 Primary Routes of Exposure 7.3 Signs and Symptoms of Over Exposure 7.4 Acute Health Effects 7.5 Chronic Health Effects 7.6 First Aid Measures 7.7 Handling and Storage 7.8 Disposal Considerations

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Chapter 1

Introduction

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Introduction of Propylene Oxide

Propylene Oxide (PO) is a highly reactive chemical used as an intermediate for the production of numerous commercial materials. It reacts readily with compounds containing active hydrogen atoms such as alcohols, amines and acids.

Its main derivatives include polyether polyols, propylene glycol (PG) and propylene glycol ethers but it has many other outlets. Propylene oxide is used in the production of poly-ethers (the primary component of polyurethane foams) and propylene glycol.
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Acute (short-term) exposure of humans and animals to propylene oxide has caused eye and respiratory tract Irritation. Dermal contact, even with dilute solutions, has caused skin irritation and necrosis in humans. Propylene oxide is also a mild Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant in humans. Inflammatory lesions of the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs and neurological effects have been observed in animals chronically (long-term) exposed to propylene oxide by inhalation. Propylene oxide has been observed to cause tumors at or near the site of administration in rodents, causing forestomach tumors following ingestion via gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach) and nasal tumors after inhalation exposure. EPA has classified propylene oxide as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. Other applications for PO include hydroxypropyl acrylates used in UV curable resins, inks, coatings and varnishes; iso-propanolamines employed as solvents in natural gas purification, metal working fluids and cosmetics; and propylene glycol alginates made with sea weed (kelp) for use as food grade thickeners, emulsifiers and stabilisers. Global demand for PO had been growing at 4-5%/year. Growth in Europe and the US had been around 3-4%/year while Asia, in particular China, had seen the strongest growth at 7-8%/year. In addition, growth came to an abrupt halt when markets collapsed in the second half of 2008 due to the economic crisis. Overall sales were said to be 5% down in 2008 compared to 2007 and a further decline of 5% is expected in 2009. As a result much capacity has been temporarily idled in this period. Markets are not expected to return to pre-crisis growth levels until 2011, according to some market sources.

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Chapter 2

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

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2.1 Physical Properties


Propylene oxide is a colorless, low-boiling (34.2 C) liquid. Table 1 lists general physical properties. Table 2 provides equations for temperature variation on some thermodynamic functions. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for binary mixtures of propylene oxide and other chemicals of commercial importance are available. References for binary mixtures include 1, 2propanediol, water, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-pentene), methyl formate, acetaldehyde, methanol, propanal, 1-phenylethanol, oxygen, nitrogen, and tertiary butanol. Reference 27 provides liquid-liquid equilibrium data for propylene oxide, water, and 1,2-dichloropropane. Physical Data

Property Molecular Weight Boiling Point at 101.325 kPa Freezing Point Critical Pressure Critical Temperature Critical Volume Flash Point Heat of Fusion Heat of Vapourisation (1 atm.) Heat of Combustion Specific Heat at 20 oC Refractive Index at 25 oC

Value 58.08 34.2 oC -111.93 oC 4.92 MPa 209.1 o C 186 cm3/mol -37 oC 6.531 kJ/mol 27.8947 kJ/mol 1915.6 kJ/mol 122.19 J/(mol-K) 1.36335

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2.2. Chemical Properties


Propylene oxide is highly reactive owing to the strained three-membered oxirane ring. The C-C and C-O bond lengths have been reported as 147 pm and 144 pm, respectively, while the C-C bond for the substituted methyl group is 152 pm. Although some reactions, such as those with hydrogen halides or ammonia, proceed at adequate rates without a catalyst, most reactions of industrial importance employ the use of either acidic or basic catalysts. Recovery of optically active propylene oxide from a mixture of enantiomers is accomplished by the action of micro-organisms. 2.2.3 Reactions

2.2.3.1 Water Propylene oxide reacts with water to produce propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and higher molecular weight polyglycols. This commercial process is typically run with an excess of water (12 to 20 mol ater/mol propylene oxide) to maximize the production of the mono-propylene glycol.

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2.2.3.2 Hydroxy-Containing Organics Propylene oxide reacts with the hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols to produce monoethers of propylene glycol. Suitable catalysts include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, tertiary amines, potassium carbonate, sodium acetate, boron trifluoride, and acid clays. Further addition of propylene oxide yields the di-, tri-, and poly (propylene glycol) ethers. Multiple hydroxyls (glycol, glycerol, glucose, etc) on the organic reactant lead to the polyether polyols discussed earlier. Propylene oxide and carboxylic acids in equimolar ratios produce monoesters of propylene glycol. In the presence of basic catalysts these monoesters can undergo trans-esterification reactions that yield a product mixture of propylene glycols, monoesters, and diesters.

Many natural products, eg, sugars, starches, and cellulose, contain hydroxyl groups that react with propylene oxide. To yield a variety of ether and ester products.

2.2.3.3 Ammonia and Amines Isopropanolamine is the product of propylene oxide and ammonia in the presence of water. Propylene oxide reacts with isopropanolamine or other primary or secondary amines to produce N- and N, N-disubstituted isopropanolamines. Propylene oxide further reacts with the hydroxyl group of the alkanolamines to form polyether polyol derivatives of tertiary amines or of secondary amines in the presence of a strong base catalyst.

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2.2.3.4 Carbon Dioxide Propylene oxide and carbon dioxide react in the presence of tertiary amine, quaternary ammonium halides, anion exchange resins having a quaternary phosphonium group, or calcium or magnesium halide catalysts to produce propylene carbonate. Use of catalysts derived from diethylzinc results in polycarbonates.

2.2.3.5 Polymerization to Polyether Polyols The addition polymerization of propylene oxide to form polyether polyols is very important commercially. Polyols are made by addition of epoxides to initiators, i.e., compounds that contain an active hydrogen, such as alcohols or amines. Some of the simplest polyols are produced from reaction of propylene oxide with propylene glycol and glycerol initiators. Polyether diols and polyether triols are produced, respectively.

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Chapter 3

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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Propylene oxide is produced by one of two commercial processes: the chlorohydrin process or the hydroperoxide process. The 1999 global propylene oxide capacity was estimated at about 5.78 106 t/yr, with about half came from each of the two processes. The chlorohydrin process involves reaction of propylene and chlorine in the presence of water to produce the two isomers of propylene chlorohydrin. This is followed by dehydrochlorination with caustic or lime to Propylene Oxide and salt. The Dow Chemical Company is the only practitioner of the chlorohydrin process in North America. However, several companies practice the chlorohydrin process at more than 30 locations in Germany, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Eastern Europe, and Asia.

3.1. Chlorohydrin Process

The chlorohydrin process is fairly simple, requiring only two reaction steps, chlorohydrination and epoxidation, followed by product purification. Propylene gas and aqueous chlorine solution in which HCl and HOCl are in equilibrium are reacted at a temperature of 35-50 oC and a pressure of 2-3 bar. It results in the formation of 4-6 % mixture of - and -propylene chlorohydrin (9:1 ratio) and a small amount of chlorinated organic co-products, chiefly 1, 2dichloropropane. Epoxidation, also called saponification or

dehydrochlorination, is accomplished by treatment of the chlorohydrin solution with an excess of alkali e.g. 10% lime water or dilute sodium hydroxide solution from NaCl electrolysis).

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Propylene oxide and other organics are steam-stripped from the resulting sodium chloride or calcium chloride brine. The brine is treated, usually by biological oxidation, to reduce organic content prior to discharge. The propylene oxide is further purified to sales specifications by removal of lights and heavies via distillation.

3.2. Hydroperoxide Process The hydroperoxide process to propylene oxide involves the basic steps of oxidation of an organic to its hydroperoxide, epoxidation of propylene with the hydroperoxide, purification of the propylene oxide, and conversion of the coproduct alcohol to a useful product for sale. Incorporated into the process are various purification, concentration, and recycle methods to maximize product yields and minimize operating expenses. Commercially, two processes are used. The co-products are tert-butanol, which is converted to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and 1-phenyl ethanol, converted to styrene. The co-products are produced in a weight ratio of 34:1 tert-butanol/propylene oxide and 2.4:1 styrene/propylene oxide, respectively. These processes use iso-butane and ethyl benzene, respectively, to produce the hydroperoxide. Other processes have been proposed based on cyclohexane where aniline is the final co-product, or on cumene with -methyl styrene as the final co-product.

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3.3 Hydrogen Peroxide Processes Since each of the commercial processes has issues of effluent treatment, by-product treatment, co-product sales, and cost, development of alternative processes that address one or more of these issues is on-going.

A titanium silicalite catalyst (TS-1) is used to produce propylene oxide from propylene and hydrogen peroxide. Alcohol or alcoholwater mixtures are used as solvent. Methanol is the preferred alcohol. Yields on peroxide are quantitative and propylene selectivity is high (95%). TS-1 is a molecular sieve having an average pore diameter of 0.55 nm and a TiO2 content of 2.6 wt %. The catalyst deactivates due to polymer formation and is regenerated by calcining or treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions. Propylene oxide selectivity is improved by treating the catalyst with neutral or basic salts, tin, or metal cations at the expense of catalyst activity. Peroxide decomposition to water and oxygen is reduced by use of chelating agents, but is increased by Pd in the catalyst. Fully integrated processes have been proposed that include hydrogen peroxide production, propylene reaction to propylene oxide, product purification, and solvent recycle. Peroxide formation can be from catalytic hydrogen and oxygen reaction in alcohol solvent or the anthraquinone process. Purification of propylene oxide by extractive distillation using water or propylene glycol effectively removes impurities such as acetaldehyde.

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Chapter 4

PROCESS SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION

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Up until the year 2005, both the Chlorohydrin process and the Hypoperoxide were used on an equal importance. But the recent technologies have found it useful to use the Hypoperoxide method. Also this method, Ethyl Benzene Hypoperoxide method in particular gives Styrene as a co-product. A continuing trend in the propylene oxide industry is the drive to develop and commercialize process routes that do not produce sizeable co-product quantities and do not use chlorine-based chemistry. The hydroperoxidation routes to propylene oxide that co-produce styrene monomer (POSM) and t-butyl alcohol (POTBA) are responsible for the majority of current global production as seen in the figure below. However, they require relatively large capital investments and present difficulties in balancing the markets for propylene oxide and the co-products, leading to considerable volatility in the economic performance of the operations over time. Existing hydroperoxidation plants continue to be operated and

incrementally improved, but new installations are more likely in less-developed regions. Although significant propylene oxide capacity is also based on the chlorohydrin process (CHPO), this route suffers from environmental liabilities and large capital investment requirements. Also, inexpensive electric power must be available for the integrated chloro-alkali facility.

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Ethylbenzene Hydroperoxide Process


4.1 Raw Materials Used Ethyl Benzene Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3. This aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, which in turn is used for making polystyrene, a common plastic material. Ethylbenzene has been used as a solvent for aluminium bromide in the anhydrous electrodeposition of aluminium. Ethylbenzene is also an ingredient in some paints, and solvent grade xylene (xylol) is nearly always contaminated with a few percent of ethylbenzene.

Although often present in small amounts in crude oil, ethylbenzene is produced in bulk quantities by combining benzene and ethylene in an acid-

catalyzed chemical reaction: C6H6 + C2H4 C6H5CH2CH3

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Approximately

24,700,000

tons

were

produced

in

1999. Catalytic dehydrogenation of the ethylbenzene then gives hydrogen and styrene: C6H5CH2CH3 C6H5CH=CH2 + H2

Properties of Ethylbenzene

Property Appearance Odour Colour Molecular Weight Density at 20 oC Boiling Point at 1013 hPa Freezing Point Kinematic Viscosity at 10 oC Dynamic Viscosity at 10 oC Critical Pressure Critical Temperature

Value Liquid Sweet, Aromatic Transparent, Colourless 106.17 868 kg/m3 136.2 oC -95 oC 0.9 mm2/s 0.78 m-Pas 3.701 mPa 343.05 oC

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4.2.2 Flowsheet and Process Description:

Figure above shows the process flow sheet for production of propylene oxide and styrene via the use of ethylbenzene hydroperoxide (EBHP). Liquidphase oxidation of ethylbenzene with air or oxygen occurs at 206275 kPa (30 40 psia) and 140 150 oC, and 22.5 hrs. are required for a 1015% conversion to the hydroperoxide. Recycle of an inert gas, such as nitrogen, is used to control reactor temperature. Impurities in the ethylbenzene, such as water, are controlled to minimize decomposition of the hydroperoxide product and are sometimes added to enhance product formation. Selectivity to by-products include 810% acetophenone, 57% 1-phenylethanol, and <1% organic acids. EBHP is concentrated to 3035% by distillation. The overhead ethylbenzene is recycled back to the oxidation reactor. Because the by-product organic acids

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decompose EBHP and decrease epoxidation catalyst activity, an alkali hydroxide or carbonate wash is used to neutralize the acids.

EBHP is mixed with a catalyst solution and fed to a horizontal compartmentalized reactor where propylene is introduced into each

compartment. The reactor operates at 95130C and 25004000 kPa (360580 psi) for 12 h, and 57 mol propylene/1 mol EBHP are used for a 9599% conversion of EBHP and a 9296% selectivity to propylene oxide. The homogeneous catalyst is made from molybdenum, tungsten, or titanium and an organic acid, such as acetate, naphthenate, stearate, etc. Heterogeneous catalysts consist of titanium oxides on a silica support.

After epoxidation, propylene oxide, excess propylene, and propane are distilled overhead. Propane is purged from the process; propylene is recycled to the epoxidation reactor. The bottoms liquid is treated with a base, such as sodium hydroxide, to neutralize the acids. Acids in this stream cause dehydration of the 1- phenylethanol to styrene. The styrene readily polymerizes under these conditions. Neutralization, along with water washing, allows phase separation such that the salts and molybdenum catalyst remain in the aqueous phase. Dissolved organics in the aqueous phase are further recovered by treatment with sulfuric acid and phase separation. The organic phase is then distilled to recover 1-phenylethanol overhead. The heavy bottoms are burned for fuel. Crude propylene oxide separated from the epoxidation reactor effluent is
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further purified by a series of conventional and extractive distillations to reduce the content of aldehydes, ethylbenzene, water, and acetone. The co-product 1-phenylethanol from the epoxidation reactor, along with acetophenone from the hydroperoxide reactor, is dehydrated to styrene in a vapor-phase reaction over a catalyst of silica gel or titanium dioxide at 250280
o

C and atmospheric pressure. This product is then distilled to recover purified

styrene and to separate water and high-boiling organics for disposal. Unreacted 1-phenyl ethanol is recycled to the dehydrator.

Acetophenone is separated for hydrogenation to 1-phenylethanol, which is sent to the dehydrator to produce styrene. Hydrogenation is done over a fixedbed copper-containing catalyst at 115120 oC and pressure of 8100 kPa (80 atm), a 3:1 hydrogen-to-acetophenone ratio, and using a solvent such as ethyl benzene, to give 95% conversion of the acetophenone and 95% selectivity to 1phenyl ethanol.

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Chapter 5

Manufacturers of Propylene Oxide in India

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Triveni Interchem Pvt. Ltd. in Vapi, Gujarat, India. Mulberry Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. in Mumbai, India. Suyash Herbs Export Private Limited in Surat, India. Arihant Chemicals in Mumbai, India. Alpha Chemika in Mumbai, India. Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. in Mumbai, India. Ksm Intertrade Agencies in Mumbai, India. Desmo Exports Ltd in Mumbai, India. N. R. Chemicals Corporation in Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, India. Chemix Speciality Gases And Equipments in Bangalore, India. Excel International in Mumbai, India. Sri Jayalaxmi Traders in Arcot, Tamil Nadu, India. Intersperse Industries in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Sunn Chhem in Pune, India. Bnh Gas Tank in Pune, India. Darshit Impex in Ahmedabad, India.

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Chapter 6

APPLICATIONS AND USES

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Propylene oxide is a useful chemical intermediate. Additionally, it has found use for etherification of wood to provide dimensional stability, for purification of mixtures of organo-silicon compounds, for disinfection of crude oil and petroleum products, for sterilization of medical equipment and disinfection of foods, and for stabilization of halogenated organics. Propylene oxide has found use in preparation of polyether polyols from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate), halide removal from amine salts via halohydrin formation, preparation of flame retardants, alkoxylation of amines, modification of catalysts, and preparation of cellulose ethers.

6.1 Derivatives:

6.1.1 Polyether Polyols:

Polyether polyols produced by polymerization of propylene oxide on polyhydric alcohols account for the largest use of propylene oxide. The starting polyhydric alcohols have from two to eight hydroxyl groups and can be mixtures of two or more alcohols. Molecular weights of the products range from about 400 to about 8000. Some of the polyether polyols may be made with copolymerization of ethylene oxide. The ethylene oxide can either be in blocks or randomly distributed in the polymer. The products are useful for making flexible and rigid urethane foams, adhesives, coatings, sealants, and reaction moldable products.

6.1.2 Propylene Glycol:

Propylene glycol, the second largest use of propylene oxide, is produced by hydrolysis of the oxide with water. Propylene glycol has very low toxicity and is, therefore, used directly in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, and
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indirectly in packaging materials. Propylene glycol also finds use as an intermediate for numerous chemicals, in hydraulic fluids, in heat transfer fluids (antifreeze), and in many other applications. Dipropylene glycol is produced in the manufacture of propylene glycol and finds utility as an indirect food additive, in brake-fluid formulations, cutting oils, soaps, and solvents. Tripropylene glycol also finds use as a solvent, as textile soaps, and as lubricants.

6.1.3 Poly (propylene glycol): Polymers of propylene oxide based on reaction with water or propylene glycol are liquids of 400 to about 4000 molecular weight. Viscosity increases and water solubility decreases with increasing molecular weight. Poly(propylene glycol)s find use in cosmetics, as synthetic lubricants, as metalworking fluids, antifoam agents, heat transfer fluids, nonionic surfactants, and chemical intermediates.

6.1.4 Glycol Ethers: Glycol ethers are produced by reaction of propylene oxide with various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, butanol, and phenol. The products are themono-, di-, and tripropylene glycol ethers. These products are used in protective coatings, inks, textile dyeing, cleaners, antiicing additives for jet fuel, and as chemical intermediates.

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6.1.5 Isopropanolamines: Reaction of propylene oxide with ammonia yields mono-, di-, and triisopropanolamines. These products find use as soluble oils and solvents, emulsifiers, waterless hand cleaners, cosmetics, cleaners, and detergents. In industrial applications isopropanolamines are used in adhesives, agricultural products, corrosion inhibitors, coatings, epoxy resins, metalworking, and others.

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Chapter 7

Material Safety Data Sheet

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7.1 Hazard Identification

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW

Clear, colorless liquid with a sweet, ether-like odor. Extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Vapors may cause flash fire and can form explosive mixtures with air. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire or in contact with incompatible materials. Corrosive in nature. Causes severe eye, skin and gastrointestinal irritation or burns and respiratory tract irritation with central nervous system effects. Harmful if swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Possible chance of cancer and reproductive hazard.

DANGER! Extremely flammable liquid and vapor. May form explosive mixtures with air. Causes severe eye and skin irritation with possible burns. May cause allergic skin reaction. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Inhalation may cause respiratory irritation and central nervous system depression. Harmful if swallowed. May cause burns to the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system depression. Aspiration may cause lung damage. Possible cancer hazard. May cause cancer based on animal data. Possible reproductive hazard.

HAZARD RATINGS: (0=minimum, 4=maximum)

HMIS Rating: Health = 3* Flammability = 4


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Reactivity = 2 Personal Protection Code = (Consult your supervisor or standard operating procedures for special handling directions.) NFPA Rating: Health = 3 Flammability = 4 Reactivity = 2 TWA (8-hr) STEL (15-min) OSHA 100 ppm None Exposure Limits: ACGIH 2 ppm None

7.2

PRIMARY

ROUTES

OF

EXPOSURE:

Inhalation,

eye,

skin

contact/absorption, ingestion.

7.3 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF OVEREXPOSURE Effects include severe eye, skin and respiratory irritation or burns, skin rash, blistering. Effects of central nervous system depression include excitement, headache, dizziness, incoordination, narcosis, drunkenness, nausea, vomiting, collapse, coma and respiratory arrest. Effects from swallowing may include severe irritation and burns to the gastrointestinal tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous system depression and difficulty breathing.

7.4 ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS: INHALATION: Inhalation of vapors or mists may cause mucous membrane or upper respiratory tract irritation with central nervous system depression.
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Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, coughing, narcosis, drunkenness, incoordination, nausea, vomiting, and collapse. High vapor concentrations may cause unconsciousness, coma or death. EYE CONTACT: Vapors and liquid may cause severe eye irritation with redness, tearing, burning, swelling of the conjunctiva and corneal burns. Damage may be permanent. SKIN CONTACT: Contact may cause severe irritation with redness, pain and severe burns or blisters. Propylene oxide may be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts causing systemic effects similar to those listed under ingestion and inhalation. Propylene oxide is a skin sensitizer and may cause an allergic skin reaction. Dilute solutions may be more irritating than undiluted materials. INGESTION: Swallowing may cause severe burns to the mouth, throat and stomach with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause central nervous system depression with headache, dizziness, drowsiness, drunkenness and collapse. May be fatal due to respiratory failure. Aspiration may occur during swallowing or vomiting resulting in lung damage.

7.5 CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS: SKIN CONTACT: Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause delayed secondary burns, ulcers or superficial scarring. EYE CONTACT: No data on chronic effects is available. INHALATION: Studies with animals have shown chronic effects such as growth depression, lung and slight liver injury. INGESTION: Studies with animals have shown chronic effects such as loss of body weight, gastric irritation and slight liver injury.

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7.6 FIRST AID MEASURES EYE CONTACT: Immediately flush eyes thoroughly with large amounts of water for at least 15-20 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Get immediate medical attention. SKIN CONTACT: Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Immediately wash exposed area with large amounts of mild soap and water. Flush with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. Get prompt medical attention. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse. INHALATION: Remove exposed person to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration then have qualified personnel administer oxygen, if needed. Get immediate medical attention.\ INGESTION: If patient is conscious and responsive, give 4 8 ounces of water or milk to dilute. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Keep head lower than hips to avoid aspiration, should vomiting occur. Get immediate medical attention. Do not give anything to an unconscious or drowsy person. MEDICAL CONDITIONS AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE: Persons with pre-existing skin, kidney, liver and respiratory disorders may be at increased risk from exposure to this substance.

NOTE TO PHYSICIANS: Propylene oxide is an irritant that may cause coughing, dyspnea, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, or chemical

pneumonitis. Cyanosis has occurred. Lung injury has been observed in experimental animals. Respiratory effects may be delayed. Evaluate for respiratory distress. Consider oxygen administration. If a chemical burn is present, decontaminate skin and treat as any thermal burn. No specific antidote is known; however, consider gastric lavage and administration of a charcoal slurry.

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7.7 HANDLING AND STORAGE HANDLING AND STORAGE PRECAUTIONS Wear all recommended protective clothing and devices when handling this material. Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in well ventilated areas. Do not get in eyes, on skin or on clothing. Do not ingest on inhale. Do not eat, drink or smoke in work areas. Shower, dispose of outer clothing and change into clean garments at the end of the shift. Avoid crosscontamination of street clothes. Keep product away from heat, sparks, flames and all other sources of ignition. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use non-sparking tools and equipment, including explosion proof ventilation. Empty containers retain product residues and can be dangerous. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames. Have established handling and emergency response procedures in place prior to use. ENGINEERING CONTROLS All electrical devices used in area processing and handling must be engineered and designed to all applicable local electrical and/or fire codes. Safeguards can include designing electrical devices as explosion-proof and/or intrinsically safe. ATTENTION Propylene oxide vapors are colorless and odorless above the OSHA PEL. An air monitoring system is recommended to determine airborne exposure limits. STORAGE SEGREGATION Store propylene oxide in a cool, dry well-ventilated area, away from incompatible chemicals and ignition sources. Store only in tightly closed

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containers. Protect against physical damage. Storage and use areas should be No Smoking areas. Outside or detached storage preferred.

INCOMPATIBILITIES Avoid acids, bases, peroxides, oxidizing agents, clay-based

absorbents, polymerization catalysts, epoxy resins, anhydrous metal chlorides, copper and copper alloys, brass, bronze and other acetylide forming metals.

7.8 DISPOSAL CONSIDERATION

WASTE MANAGEMENT/DISPOSAL Contaminated solids should be landfilled only at properly permitted disposal sites using registered contractors. Concentrated liquid waste may be incinerated (if safety precautions are taken because of very low flash point) in compliance with applicable air pollution control regulations. It is recommended that contaminated product, soil or water intended for disposal be handled as hazardous waste due to potentially low flashpoint. Disposal should be in accordance with applicable local, state and federal regulations. Return used containers to manufacturer only.

37 MGM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

PROJECT ON PROPYLENE OXIDE

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Propylene Oxide under Ethylene Oxide, in ECT 1st ed., Vol. 5, pp. 922923, by R. S. Aries, Consulting Chemical Engineer, and H. Schneider, R. S. Aries & Associates; Propylene Oxide in ECT 2nd ed., Vol. 16, pp. 595609, by L. H. Horsley, The Dow Chemical Co.; in ECT 3rd ed., Vol. 19, pp. 246274, by R. O. Kirk and T. J. Dempsey, The Dow Chemical Co.; Propylene Oxide in ECT 4th ed., Vol. 20, pp. 271302, by D. L. Trent, The Dow Chemical Company; Propylene Oxide in ECT (online), posting date: December 4, 2000, by D. L. Trent, The Dow Chemical Company. Dietmar Kahlich, Uwe Wiechern, Jrg Lindner Propylene Oxide in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002 by Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_239Article Online Posting Date: June 15, 2000 "Summary of Sumitomo process from Nexant Reports". Retrieved 200709-18. "New BASF and Dow HPPO Plant in Antwerp Completes Start-Up Phase". Retrieved 2009-03-05. Alex Tullo (2004). Dow, BASF to build Propylene Oxide. 82. pp. 15. "Usage of proplyene oxide, from Dow Chemical". Retrieved 2007-09-10. See The FDA Guidance Document For More Info Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA (30 March 2007). "Almonds Grown in California; Outgoing Quality Control

Requirements" (PDF). Federal "Safety data for propylene oxide".

Register 72 (61):

15,02115,036.

Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-22.

38 MGM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY