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Um Interface and Radio Channels

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Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Contents
1. Overview 2. Processing of Voice Signal 3. Radio Channel

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

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Radio Interface
Another MSC BTS BSC
MS
PSTN ISDN

A-bis

MSC/VLR

MS

HLR/AUC Um
OMC SMC

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

In the Public Land Mobile communication Network (PLMN), the MS is connected with the network via the radio channel. In this way, the subscribers can access the network and obtain communication services. To achieve the interworking between MS and BTS, a set of standards are needed for signal transmission through the radio channel. This set of specifications which are related to the radio channel signal transmission, aim at Um interface. The Um interface is a kind of radio interface. It is responsible for the communication between the mobile station and the BTS and provides the interworking link between the mobile station and GSM system. Its physical connection is achieved via the radio waves. The Um interface is the most important interface among all the interfaces in GSM system. First of all, the complete and normative Um interface realizes full compatibility between MS of different venders and different networks. That is fundamental conditions needed in global roaming of the GSM system; second, the radio interface determines the rate of frequency spectrum utilization of GSM system. The name Um is derived from the name of the interface between the client terminal and the network in ISDN , in which the m means mobile.

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Hierarchical Structure of Um Interface


Communication management (CM) Network application layer (L3) Mobility and security management (MM) Radio resources management (RR)

Data link layer (L2)

Integrated management

RACH

BCCH

AGCH/PCH

SDCCH

SACCH

TCH

FACCH

Physical link layer (L1)

TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 SACCH TCH23 IDL Multiframe

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page4

The first layer is the physical layer, which is marked as L1 and is the lowest layer. This layer provides the radio link needed in transmission of bit stream. It defines the radio access capability of the GSM system and provides the most fundamental radio channel (logical channel) for the information transmission of higher-layer , including the traffic channel and control channel. For detailed description of logical channel, please refer to relevant documents. The second layer, marked as L2, is the data link layers and it is the middle layer. It applies the LAPDm protocol. This layer includes various types of data transmission structures. It controls the data transmission so as to ensure the reliable dedicated data links which are set up between the mobile station and base station. The LAPDm protocol is based on the D channel link access protocol (LAPD) in ISDN. For LAPDm, the radio transmission and control characteristics are suitable to the signal transmission at the Um interface. The third layer is the network application layer, which is marked as L3 and is the top layer. It includes various types of messages and programs for control and management of the services. That is to say, in this layer, specific messages of the mobile station and the system control processes are packed into different protocols and mapped to logical channels. L3 includes three sub-layers: the Radio Resources management (RR), Mobility Management (MM) and Communication Management (CM). These are the major contents of the messages transmitted via the Um interface. The CM sub-layer includes three major parts: CC (call control service), SS (supplementary service) and SMS (short message service).

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Radio Access Technology


CDMA
Time
Power
Ti m

CDMA
qu re cy en

Code Frequency

TDMA
Power
Ti m

Time TDMA
cy en qu Fre

FDMA

Frequency

Power

U Us ser Us User er e Us Use r s Us Uerer r er y


Ti m e

Time FDMA Frequency

u eq Fr

c en

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page5

The GSM Um interface applies the multiple access technology. With this technology, multiple subscribers can share the same public communication connection. Basically, there are three modes of channelization for multiple access, the frequency, time and code division multiple access connections respectively. They are frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) FDMA-frequency division multiple access: The frequency division is also called channelization sometimes. In this mode, the whole assignable frequency spectrum is divided into many single radio channels. Under the control of the system, each subscriber can be served by any one of these channels. The analogue cell system, AMPS, is a typical example that uses the FDMA technology. The digital cell system can also use the FDMA. The difference is that it only uses the frequency division mode, but the GSM system uses the FDMA also.

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Radio Access Technology


CDMA
Time
Power
Ti m

CDMA
cy en qu re

Code Frequency

TDMA
Power
Ti m

Time TDMA
y nc ue req F

FDMA

Frequency

Power

U Us ser Us User er e UUUse r s Us serer r er


Ti m e

Time FDMA Frequency

u eq Fr

cy en

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page6

TDMA-time division multiple access: The time division multiple access refers to dividing a broadband radio channel into several timeslot, so that every subscriber seizes one of the timeslots; and the signal is received (or transmitted) only in that specific timeslot. That is the reason why it is called time division multiple access. This multiple access mode is used in digital cell systems and GSM as well. CDMA-Code division multiple access: It is a multiple access mode in which the spread spectrum technique is used to form different code sequences. It is quite different from FDMA and TDMA. In FDMA and TDMA, the subscriber information is divided or separated based on the frequency and time, but CDMA mode can transmit information of multiple subscribers via the same radio channel at the same time.

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Contents
1. Overview 2. Processing of Voice Signal 3. Radio Channel

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Voice Signal Processing


8KHz,13bit
20 ms

13kbit/s

Voice
(A/D) A/D) Segmentation Speech coding Channel coding

22.8kbit/s

33.8kbit/s

Transmission

Interleaving

Encryption) Encryption)

Burst formatting

Modulation

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page8

The radio channel is quite different from the wired channel. First, the radio channel has a distinct time-change characteristic. The radio channel is exposed to the air, so it is vulnerable to the interferences in the air. The signal is influenced by various interferences, multi-path fading and shadow fading, so the error bit ratio is rather high. To solve the problems mentioned above, a series of forward and backward(uplink & downlink) transmission techniques are applied. The original subscriber data or signaling data are transformed before being carried by the radio waves. And at the other end of the transmission, a reverse transforming will be done. This can provide necessary protection to the transmitting signal. The transformation methods roughly include the channel coding/decoding, interleaving/de-interleaving, burst formatting, encryption/decryption, and modulation/demodulation. For the voice, to pass an analog-to-digital converter is actually a sampling process in the rate of 8KHz,after quantification each 125s contains 13bit of code stream; then speech coding is performed with every 20ms as a segment and the code transmission rate is reduced to 13Kbit/s, which becomes 22.8Kbit/s after the channel coding; then the voice becomes a code stream at 33.8kbit/s after code interleaving, encryption and burst formatting and is transmitted finally. The processing at the terminal is just the reverse of the above procedures.

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Analog-Digital Conversion

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Speech Coding
The Enhance Full Rate coding mode is called CELP (Code Excited Linear Code Predictive Coding) Coding The Full Rate coding mode is called RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excited-Long Regular RPEExcitedTerm Prediction). The Half Rate coding mode is called VCELP (Vector-Sum Excited Linear VectorPrediction) Prediction)

8KHz,13bit
20 ms

244 bits(EFR) bits(EFR) 260 bits(FR) bits(FR) 112 bits(HR) bits(HR)

12.2kbit/s 13kbit/s 5.6kbit/s

Voice
(A/D) A/D) Segmentation Speech coding

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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The voice compression coding technique is widely used in the modern digital communication systems. In this technique, a voice coder is used to set up a model to simulate the voice and noise produced by human vocal organs. The parameters to form the model will be transmitted through the TCH channels. The voice coder is based on the residual excited linear prediction (REIP) coder. Moreover, the long term predictor (LTP) is used to enhance the compression effect. LTP can make the coding of residual data more advantageous by removing the vowels from the voice. With 20ms as the unit, the voice coder outputs 260bits after compressed coding. Therefore, the code rate is 13kbps. According to the different classes of the importance of the information, the output bits can be classified into three categories: 50 very important bits,132 important bits and 78 ordinary bits. Comparing with the traditional PCM line on which the voice is coded directly and transmitted (64kbps), the 13kbps voice rate of the GSM system is much lower. The more advanced voice coder in the future can further reduce the rate to 6.5kbps (half-rate voice coding).

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Channel Coding
Block Coder

1:2 Convolutional Coder

8KHz,13bit
20 ms

244 bits(EFR) bits(EFR) 260 bits(FR) bits(FR) 112 bits(HR) bits(HR)

12.2kbit/s 13kbit/s 456bits(FR/EFR) 22.8kbit/s 228bits(HR) 11.4kbit/s 5.6kbit/s

Voice
(A/D) A/D) Segmentation Speech coding Channel coding

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page11

To check and correct errors during the transmission, redundancy data and the information calculated from the source data are added to the stream so as to increase the bit rate. For the voice, the length of these codes is 456 bits every 20ms. The bit rate of code stream output from the voice coder is 13Kbit/s, which is divided into many 20ms continuous segments with each segment containing 260 bits. They can be classified as: 50 very important bits; 132 important bits; 78 ordinary bits,

Redundancy processing is conducted, as shown in the above diagram. The block coder is applied with 3 bits of redundancy code; while the excited coder applies with 2 times redundancy and then adds 4 tail bits into the data stream. There are three channel coding modes in the GSM system: convolution coding, block coding and parity coding. For detailed information, please refer to related documents.

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Interleaving
B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455 456 ... 452 453 454 455 456

First interleaving:

B0 1 9

B1 2 10 . . . 450

B2 3 11 . . . 451

B3 4 12 . . . 452

B4 5 13 . . . 453

B5 6 14 . . . 454

B6 7 15 . . . 455

B7 8 16 . . . 456

....

. . . 449

....

Second interleaving:

{A4,B0} {A4,B0}

{A5,B1} {A5,B1}

{A6,B2} {A6,B2}

{A7,B3} {A7,B3}

{B4,C0} {B4,C0}

{B5,C1} {B5,C1}

{B6,C2} {B6,C2}

{B7,C3} {B7,C3}

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page12

If the voice signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding, due to the condition changes in mobile communication channel, a deep of the fading will influence a successive string of bits and cause high bit error rate. If the bits of a successive string are interfered or lost, the other end of the communication can not decode the interfered or lost bits. To solve this problem, some technique or method to separate the successive bits are required. Thus the successive bits in a message can be transmitted dispersedly so that the bit error should be discrete. In this way, even if errors occur, the errors are only concerned with a single or very short bit stream, which will not lead to that the whole burst or the whole message block cannot be decoded. In this case, the channel coding will take effect and recover the bit errors. This method is called interleaving technique. The interleaving method is the most effective coding method for dispersion of bit errors. The key point of interleaving is to disperse some bits( suppose there are b bits) of the code into some ( suppose to be n bursts) burst sequences so as to change the adjacent relationship between bits. The higher the value of n is, the better the transmitting works. However, the transmission delay is higher too. Therefore, a balanced consideration is needed, the interleaving is related to the purpose of the channel. In the GSM system, the second interleaving is applied.

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Interleaving
B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455 456 ... 452 453 454 455 456

First interleaving:

B0 1 9

B1 2 10 . . . 450

B2 3 11 . . . 451

B3 4 12 . . . 452

B4 5 13 . . . 453

B5 6 14 . . . 454

B6 7 15 . . . 455

B7 8 16 . . . 456

....

. . . 449

....

Second interleaving:

{A4,B0} {A4,B0}

{A5,B1} {A5,B1}

{A6,B2} {A6,B2}

{A7,B3} {A7,B3}

{B4,C0} {B4,C0}

{B5,C1} {B5,C1}

{B6,C2} {B6,C2}

{B7,C3} {B7,C3}

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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After channel coding, the extracted 456 bits are distributed into 8 groups with each group containing 57 bits. That is the first interleaving, also called internal interleaving as shown in the above diagram. Through the first interleaving, the successive messages in the groups are dispersed. One burst carries two segments of voice information composed of 57 bits. Obviously, if the two groups of 57 bits information from the first interleaving of a successive 20ms voice blocks are inserted to the same burst sequence, the loss of the burst will lead to loss 25% bits in the 20ms voice block. Therefore, one more interleaving is needed between two voice blocks, which is called the inter-block interleaving or second interleaving. Suppose that voice block B is divided into 8 groups: perform inter-block interleaving to the first four groups (B0, B1, B2 and B3) of block B and the last four groups (A4, A5, A6 and A7) of the previous voice block A ; thus, four bursts are constituted: (B0, A4), (B1, A5), (B2, A6) and (B3, A7); to break the adjacency relationship between successive bits, bits of block A occupy the even position of the burst while bits of block B occupy the odd position of the burst. For example, B0 occupies the odd bit of the burst while A4 occupies the even bit. Similarly, perform interleaving to the last four groups of block B and the first four groups of the next block C. After the second interleaving, a 20ms voice block is inserted into 8 different burst sequences respectively and then transmitted one by one. Even if a whole burst is lost during transmission process, only 12.5% of each voice block is influenced and the errors can be corrected through channel coding at the other end. In addition, the second interleaving for the control information is different. The interleaving mode is (B0, B4), (B1, B5), (B2, B6) and (B3, B7).

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Voice Burst
Tail bit Data Training sequence

3 57 encrypted bits bits

Dat a

Tail bit

Guard period

26 bits

57 encrypted bits

3 8.25 bits bits

8KHz,13bit

13kbit/s
20 ms Segmentation Speech coding 22.8kbit/s Channel coding

Voice

(A/D) A/D)

33.8kbit/s
Interleaving Encryption) Encryption) Burst formatting Modulation

Transmission

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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As shown in the diagram, the front and end 3 tail bits delimit the burst; the 26 bits are training sequence bits; and the bit at both sides of the training bits are used as bit stealing flags.

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Voice Signal Processing


Mobile equipment GSM Network Speaker

Transmitter Modulator 33.8 kbit/s Burst formatting Ciphering Interleaving 22.8 kbit/s Channel coding 13 kbit/s Speech coding Segmentation 8 kHz 13 bits A/D-conversion Microphone Transmitting part

Receiver Demodulator Adaptive Equalization De-ciphering De-interleaving Channel decoding Speech decoding D/A-conversion Receiving part

Receiver Demodulator Adaptive Equalization De-ciphering De-interleaving Channel Decoding Receiving part

Transmitter Modulator Burst formatting Ciphering Interleaving Channel coding 13 kbit/s D/D-conversion 8 kHz 8 bits 64 kbit/s PCM Transmitting part

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Timing Advance (TA)


The mobile phone should send the signal in advance!!

TA
Transmission delay t

Transmission delay t

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Page16

Transmission delay is unavoidable in the radio interface. If the mobile station moves away from the base station during a call, the further distance the more delay. The uplink is as the same. If the delay is too high, the timeslots of the signal from a certain mobile station and that of the next signal from another mobile station received by the base station will overlap each other, thus causing inter-code interference. To avoid this, during a call, the measurement report sent from the mobile station to the base station carries a delay value. Moreover, the base station should monitor the time when the call arrives and send an instruction to the mobile station via the downlink channel every 480ms so as to inform the mobile station the time of advance transmission. This time is the TA (timing advance), which ranges between 0~63 (0~233s ). The TA value is limited by the timing advance code 0~63bit of the GSM system. Therefore, the maximum coverage distance of the GSM is 35km. Its calculation is as follows: 1/2*3.7 s /bit*63bit*c=35km {In the formula, 3.7s /bit is the duration per bit (156/577); 63bit is the maximum bit number of the time adjustment; c is the light speed (transmission speed of the signal); and indicates that the go and return trip of the signal.} According to the above description, the distance corresponding to 1bit period is 554m. Influenced by the multi-path propagation and MS synchronization precision, the TA error may reach up to about 3bit (1.6km).

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Timing Advance (TA)


The mobile phone should send the signal in advance!!

TA
Transmission delay t Transmission delay t

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page17

When the MS is in idle mode, the time sequence within the MS can be adjusted via the SCH channel. However, the mobile station does not know how far it is away from the base station. If the distance between the MS and the base station is 30km, the time sequence of the MS will be 100s slower than that of the base station. When the mobile phone sends its first RACH signal, it is already 100s later. For there is still another 100s of transmission delay, when the signal reaches the base station, the total delay is 200s . It is very possible that the signal collides with the pulse of the adjacent timeslot around the base station. Therefore, RACH and some other channel access pulses will be shorter than other pulses. Only after receiving the time sequence adjustment signal (TA) from the base station, MS can send pulses of normal length. In this case, the MS needs to send signals by 200s in advance.

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency f0 f1 f2 f3 f4

Frame

Time

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Page18

When the voice signal is transmitted after being processed and modulated, the frequency hopping technique will be used too, i.e. the transmission carrier varies constantly at different timeslots (of course, the variation should comply with the frequency planning principles). The following two factors are considered in introduction of the frequency hopping technology: 1. For the fading process is related to the frequency band, the application of the frequency hopping in the system may reduce the effects of the rayleigh fading. 2. Due to the interference diversity, in areas with dense traffic, the cell capacity is restricted by the interference caused by the frequency multiplexing. In addition, the system is designed to meet the demands of subscribers, the maximum capacity of the system is calculated on the assumption that the quality of a certain number of calls is reduced distinctly due to interference. The lower the diversity measured around the specified C/I value, the larger the system capacity. The interference on a call is the average value of the interference level caused by many other calls. Thus, for a specified interference intensity, the more the interference sources, the better the system performance.

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Frequency Hopping
Frequency

f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame Time

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Page19

The radio interface of the GSM system is designed with the slow frequency hopping (SFH) technique. The difference between SFH and the fast frequency hopping (FFH) is that the frequency change of the latter is faster than the modulating frequency. During the whole burst sequence transmission period of the GSM system, the transmitting frequency remains unchanged. Therefore, it belongs to slow frequency hopping, as shown in the above diagram. The GSM system allows 64 types of different frequency hopping sequences. There are mainly two parameters involved in description of them: mobile allocation index offset (MAIO) and hopping sequence number (HSN). The values for MAIO can be as many as the frequencies in a group; and there are 64 different values available for HSN.

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DTX
DTX: Discontinuous Transmission
Shut off the transmission at voice intervals; Only transmit SID frames The transcoder at the RX terminal produces comfortable noise.

VAD: Voice Activity Detection


Implemented by the transcoder.

Prolong battery life and reduce interference

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page20

Actually, during the communication process, the mobile subscriber talks only 40% of the time and there is not much useful information transmitted during rest of the time. If all the information is transmitted to the network, it will not only be a waste of the system resources but also add more interference to the system. In order to overcome this problem, the DTX technique is used in the GSM system, i.e. the transmission of radio signals is prohibited when there is no voice signal being transmitted. This is to reduce the interference level and increase the system efficiency. In addition, this mechanism can also save the battery of the mobile station and prolong the standby time of the mobile station. Note that, the DTX function is not used for data transmission. There are two transmission modes for the GSM system: one is the normal mode. In this case, the noise obtains the same transmission quality as the voice; the other is the discontinuous transmission mode. In this case, the mobile station only transmits the voice signals. The noise at the receiving end is artificial. The artificial noise is used to inform the hearer that communication connection is ok when none of the subscribers are speaking. And the noise is designed as a comfortable noise which will not make the hearer uncomfortable. The comfortable noise transmission also meets the requirements of the system measurement. In DTX mode, only 260bit codes are transmitted per 480ms; while in normal mode, 260bit codes are transmitted per 20ms. In the DTX mode, these 260 bits will generate SID (Silence Descriptor) frames. These frames, like the voice frames, will be processed via channel coding, interleaving, encryption and modulation, and then be transmitted in 8 continuous bursts. In other time, there is no message transmitted.

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DTX
DTX: Discontinuous Transmission
Shut off the transmission at voice intervals; Only transmit SID frames The transcoder at the RX terminal produces comfortable noise.

VAD: Voice Activity Detection


Implemented by the transcoder.

Prolong battery life and reduce interference

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page21

The DTX mode is optional. However, the transmission quality will be reduced a bit in the DTX mode. Especially when both ends of the communication are mobile subscribers, the influence on the transmission quality will be more severe because the DTX will be used twice on the same path. In addition, to implement the DTX function, the system should be able to indicate when to start the discontinuous transmission and when to stop it; and when the DTX is active the coder should be able to detect whether the signal is a voice signal or a noise signal. Thus, the VAD technique has to be used. The VAD algorithm determines whether each output frame contains voice or background noise by comparing the measured signal energy with the threshold defined for it. The principle of the determination is that the noise energy should always be lower than the voice energy.

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Power Control
Prolong battery life Reduce network interference Include both uplink power control and downlink power control Level and quality are taken into account BSC or BTS is the final adjudicator
Signal level

BCCH Carrier is not involved in power control.

Target level value: e.g. -85 dm

Time

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page22

During the process of radio transmission of signals, to reduce the interference, to increase the utilization efficiency of the frequency spectrum, and to prolong the battery life, the transmission power can be adjusted, that is called power control. More specifically, the power control refers to adjust the transmission power of the mobile station or base station in the radio mode within a certain range. Its objective is the same as that of the DTX. When the receiving level and quality is rather strong, the transmission power at the TX terminal can be reduced appropriately so that the communication can be kept at a certain level. In this way, the interference on other calls around can be reduced. The specific process will be described in the subsequent content together with Huawei power control algorithm.

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Contents
1. Overview 2. Processing of Voice Signal 3. Radio Channel

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

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Frame and Channel


Frequency

200kHz

BP Slit 15/26ms
Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page24

Time

The major basic concept concerned with the radio path transmission of the GSM system is the burst sequence (simplified as Burst). It is a string of transmission units including more than 100 modulation bits. The burst sequence has a restricted duration and seizes a restricted radio frequency spectrum. They can be described as output from the time and frequency window. This window is called Slot. In other words, within the system frequency band, the central frequency of the slot is set every 200KHz (observed from the opinion of FDMA); while the slot occurs cyclically as the time evolves, which seizes 15/26ms (i.e. approximately 0.577ms) each time (observed from the opinion of TDMA). The intervals of these slots are called Time Slots and the duration of them is called the time unit (marked as BP, indicating the Burst Period). We can use the time/frequency chart to draw the slot as a small rectangle with the length of 15/26ms and width as 200KHz, as shown in the above diagram. Similarly, we can call the 200KHz bandwidth specified in GSM as Frequency Slot, which is equivalent to the Radio Frequency Channel (i.e. RF channel) in the GSM specifications. The two terms: timeslot and burst sequence are different to a degree in actual application. For example, the burst sequence is sometimes related to the time-frequency rectangular unit and sometimes to its content. Similarly, the timeslot has the meaning of time value or indicates that a slot in every 8 slots is used periodically. To use a specified channel means to transmit the burst sequence at the specified moment and frequency, i.e. the specified slot. Generally, the time of slots in a channel is discontinuous.

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Physical Channel of Logical Channel


TDMA FRAME

0
200K

577 s

Physical Channel
Logical channel Logical channel Logical channel Logical channel Logical channel

different message types

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

The physical channel is the medium over which the information is carried. The logical channel consists of the information carried over the physical channels.
A Physical Channel (a TS, defined by a fixed position (0-7) on a given TDMA frame) may be used to broadcast messages containing different kinds of information: traffic messages for speech and data, signaling messages for different procedures and supplementary services, synchronization messages for temporal and logical synchronization between the mobile stations and the BTS, measurements messages for uplink report of the downlink measurements, control messages to manage the access to the network. All these kinds of messages are classified in Logical Channels. Depending on the quantity of information to transmit and on their consistency, several logical channels may be mapped onto one physical channel, in order to use its successive Time Slots as much as possible (optimization of the resources number by maximizing the occupancy duration of each).

As a conclusion: Physical Channel = information container Logical Channel = specification of the information global content

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Burst
Access burst (AB): Used in MS initial access
Tail bit

8bit

41 synchronous bits

Data Tail bit 36 encrypted 3bit bits

Guard interval

68.25bit

Frequency correction burst (FB): Used in frequency synchronization between MS and BTS
Tail bit Data Tail bit Guard interval

3bit

142bit

3bit

8.25bit

Synchronous burst (SB): Used in timing synchronization between MS and BTS


Tail bit

3bit

Data 39 encrypted bits

64 synchronous bits

Data Tail bit Guard interval 39 encrypted 3bit 8.25bit bits

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

The Logical Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are used in transmission of different types of information between BS and MS, such as the signaling or traffic data. In GSM system, five different types of burst sequences are specified for different logical channels, which have different time-amplitude diagrams as shown in the above diagrams. The training sequence helps to discriminate radio channels with same frequency so as to help to demodulate the signals. However, there is no training sequence for FB and DB; for SB and AB, the training sequence is constant, i.e. the synchronous bit; for NB, there are 8 different training sequences specified in the specifications. These 8 different training sequences of NB are numbered from 0 to 7, which are called training sequence numbers. By allocating training sequences with distinct differences to channels of the same frequency used in cells that are close to and may interfere with each other, the cofrequency interference can be avoided efficiently during modulation.

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Burst
Normal burst (NB)
Used to carry the information of the traffic channel and the control channel except for RACH
Tail bit Data 57 encrypted bits Training sequence Data 57 encrypted bits Tail bit Guard interval

3bit

1 26bit 1

3bit

8.25bit

Frame stealing flag

Dummy burst (DB)


Used in transmission of filling frames by BTS at timeslots when there is no information delivered
Tail bit Tail bit Guard interval 142 modulation bits

3bit

3bit

8.25bit

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Logical Channel Type


GSM900 and DCS1800 have the same logical channel category
Logical channel

Common channel (CCH)

Dedicated channel (DCH)

Broadcast control channel (BCH)

Common control channel (CCCH)

Control channel

Voice channel (TCH)

FCCH

SCH

BCCH (system information)

PCH

AGCH

RACH

SDCCH

FACCH

TCH/F

TCH/H

SACCH

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As we know, every cell has several TRX and every TRX includes 8 timeslots (i.e. providing 8 basic physical channels). In the radio subsystem, the physical channel supports the logical channel based on the type of message transmitted . In this way, the physical channels are mapped as different logical channels. In the GSM system, the logical channel is classified as the dedicated channel (DCH) and the common channel (CCH). Sometimes, it can also be classified as the traffic channel and control channel. The traffic channel (TCH) carries voice or data, which are the full-rate traffic channel (TCH/F) and half-rate traffic channel (TCH/H). These two types of channels carry information at the rates of 13 kbit/s and 6.5 kbit/s respectively. The channel using half of the time slots of a full-rate channel is the half-rate channel. Therefore, a carrier can provide 8 full-rate or 16 half-rate traffic channels. The frequency correction channel (FCCH) carries the information for frequency correction of MS and BTS. The control channel (CCH) is used to transmit signaling or synchronous data. There are mainly 3 types of control channels: Broadcast Channel (BCCH), Common Control Channel (CCCH) and Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH).

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Downlink Logical Channel


FCCH Common Channel BCCH SCH BCCH CCCH PCH AGCH

SDCCH

Dedicated Channel

DCCH

SACCH FACCH

TCH

TCH/F TCH/H

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1. Frequency correction channel (FCCH) It carries the information for frequency correction for the mobile station. The MS can communicate with a cell and demodulate other information of the same cell just via FCCH. Moreover, the MS can also know whether the carrier is a BCCH carrier via FCCH. 2. Synchronous channel (SCH) After FCCH decoding, the MS will continue to decode the SCH channel message. This message includes the information for MS frame synchronization and BS identification: Base Station Identifying Code (BSIC). It seizes 6 bits, in which 3 bits are PLMN color codes ranging between 0~7; while the remaining 3 bits are Base Station Color Codes (BCC) ranging between 0~7. The simplified TDMA frame number (RFN) seizes 22 bits. 3. Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Generally, there is always a BCCH channel in every cell , which is responsible for broadcasting system information to the mobile station. These system information enable the MS to identify and access network at the idle mode.

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Downlink Logical Channel


FCCH Common Channel BCCH SCH BCCH CCCH PCH AGCH

SDCCH

Dedicated Channel

DCCH

SACCH FACCH

TCH

TCH/F TCH/H

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4. Paging channel (PCH) This is a downlink channel which is used to page mobile stations. When the network is to set up communication with a certain MS, it will send paging messages via the PCH channel to all cells in the LAC area in which the certain MS has currently registered, and indicates TMSI or IMSI of the certain mobile. 5. Access granted channel (AGCH) This is a downlink channel used in answering a network access request by the mobile station, i.e. allocation of an SDCCH or a TCH directly.

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Uplink Logical Channel


Common channel

RACH

CCCH

SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H

DCCH

Dedicated channel

TCH

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1. Random access channel (RACH) It is an uplink channel used for MS randomly access to network by requesting for an SDCCH. The request includes a 3bit setup reason (call request, paging response, location update request and short message request etc.) and a 5bit random reference number for MS to differentiate the access granted messages. 2. Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) It is a bi-directional dedicated channel used in transmission of signaling messages concerned with connection setup, location update message, short message, authentication message, encryption command, channel allocation message and various kinds of additional services etc. It can be divided into the Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SD/8) and the Dedicated Control Channel in combination with CCCH (SD/4).

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Uplink Logical Channel


Common channel

RACH

CCCH

SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H

DCCH

Dedicated channel

TCH

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3. Slow associated control channel (SACCH) It is used together with the traffic channel or SDCCH. It carries some specific information while transmitting the subscriber information. At the uplink, it mainly transmits the measurement report ; while at the downlink, it mainly transmits some system information. These messages include the quality of communication, LAI, CELL ID, BCCH signal strength of the adjacent cell, NCC permit, cell option, TA and power control level etc. 4. Fast associated control channel (FACCH) It is used together with TCH for providing signaling messages whose speed and timeliness are much higher than the slow associated control channel (SACCH) for the system during the transmission process. This channel uses frames borrowed from the traffic channel for its connection and transmits such instruction messages as handover. For the voice decoder can repeat the voice of the last 20ms, this kind of interruption due to frame stealing will not be detected by the subscriber. Besides the three types of control channels described above, there is a cell broadcast control channel (CBCH). It is used at the downlink and carries the short message service cell broadcast (SMSCB) information. This kind of control channel uses the same physical channel as that used in SDCCH.

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Use of Logical Channels


Power-on

Search for frequency correction burst Search for synchronous burst Listen to the system information

FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH FACCH

Idle mode

Monitor paging message Send access burst Allocate signaling channel

Dedicated mode

Set up the call Allocate voice channel Conversation Release the call

Idle mode

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Physical Combination of Logical Channel


26-frame multi-frame
TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/F (full-rate TCH) TCH/H+FACCH/H+SACCH/H (half-rate TCH)

51-frames multi-frame
FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH (main BCCH) FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/4 (combined BCCH) BCCH+CCCH (extended BCCH) SDCCH/8+SACCH/8 (main SDCCH)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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As shown above, CCCH=PCH+RACH+AGCH; downlink CCCH=PCH+AGCH; and uplink CCCH=RACH. In the above combinations, combination 3 and 4 must be allocated to slot 0 of the BCCH carrier configured for the cell; while combination 5 must be allocated to timeslots 2, 4 and 6 of the BCCH carrier. The FACCH works in the frame stealing mode, for which no fixed time sequence will be allocated. In addition, the cyclic multiframe period of SACCH/C4 and SACCH/C8 is 102 frames.

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Structure of Main BCCH


1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Downlink
Group3,4

Group Channel Frame Number


F 0 S 1

Group1

Group2

(same as Group2)

Grpup5

BX4 2-5

CX4 6-9

F 10

S 11

CX4 12-15

CX4 16-19

20-39

F 40

S 41

CX4 42-45

CX4 46-49

I 50

1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Uplink


Channel Frame Number R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R

10

11

12

13-46

47

48

49

50

F:FCCH; S:SCH; B:BCCH; C:CCCH; R:RACH; I:IDLE


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The TDMA/FDMA multiplexing is used in GSM, the information needed in the synchronization between MS and BTS is provided by FCCH+SCH. The MS determines the frequency of the BCCH carrier by searching for the frequency correction Burst transmitted via FCCH; then it finds the SCH (synchronization channel) according to the relationship between SCH and FCCH and decodes the current frame number and BSIC for synchronization with BTS. Furthermore, it determines whether the cell is barred or not and decodes the system information on BCCH. In the structure diagram of extended BCCH, except that the F and S timeslots are replaced by Idle timeslots, the rest of the structures are the same as that of the main BCCH.

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Structure of Combined BCCH


1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Downlink Group Group1 Group2 Group3 Group4 Grpup5 B 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 D0 4 D1 4 D2 4 D3 4 A0 4 A1 4

Channel

Channel

B 4

C 4

C 4 1215

C 4 1619

D0 4 2225

D1 4 2629

D2 4 3235

D3 4 3639

A2 4 4245

A3 4 4649

Frame Number

2-5

6-9

10

11

20

21

30

31

40

41

50

1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Channel Channel Frame Number D34 D04 R R R R A24 A04 A34 A14 RR RR

Uplink D14 D14 R R R R D24 D24

D04 D04

0-3

6-9

10-13

14-36

37-40

41-44

45

46

47-50

F:FCCH; S:SCH; B:BCCH; C:CCCH; D:SDCCH ; A:SACCH; R:RACH; I:IDLE


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It is used in the configuration of cells of low traffic density and small capacity. The Combined BCCH is only configured at timeslot 0. Channel combination: FCCHSCHBCCHCCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/4 SDCCH/4: Stand-alone dedicated control channel. Each TDMA multiframe with 51 frames has 4 SDCCH; SACCH/4: Slow SDCCH/4 associated control channel; Compared with the main BCCH channel, 4 signaling channels are added to the 51 frames. The functions of these 4 signaling channels are the same as those of the SDCCH8 channel. Therefore, this channel combination can be taken as a combination of the functions of the above two channels. This combination take effect on two aspects: first, this reduced the quantity of AGCH+PCH on CCCH and only a small-capacity system is provided; second, this combination provides a certain quantity of signaling channels in timeslot 0. Thus, it is unnecessary to assign SDCCH8 channels in a small-capacity system. This channel suitable for small-capacity systems. And it is also an example of the flexible GSM network configuration.

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Structure of Logical Channel Combination Frame-Main SDCCH


1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Downlink Channel D0 4 D0 4 0-3 D1 4 D1 4 4-7 D2 4 D2 4 8-11 D3 4 D3 4 1215 D4 4 D4 4 1619 D5 4 D5 4 2023 D6 4 D6 4 2427 D7 4 D7 4 2831 A0 4 A4 4 3235 A1 4 A5 4 3639 A2 4 A6 4 4043 A3 4 A7 4 4447 I I I

Channel Frame Number

48

49

50

1 multi-frame (51TDMA Frames) 235.38ms Uplink Channel A5 4 A1 4 0-3 A6 4 A2 4 4-7 A7 4 A3 4 8-11 I I I D0 4 D0 4 1518 D1 4 D1 4 1922 D2 4 D2 4 2326 D3 4 D3 4 2730 D4 4 D4 4 3134 D5 4 D5 4 3538 D6 4 D6 4 3942 D7 4 D7 4 4346 A0 4 A4 4 4750

Channel Frame Number

12

13

14

D:SDCCH; A:SACCH; I:IDLE


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Channel combination: SDCCH/8+ SACCH/C8 SDCCH/8: Stand-alone dedicated control channel. Each TDMA multiframe with 102 frames has 8 SDCCH. SACCH/C8: Slow SDCCH/8 associated control channel.

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Structure of Logical Channel Combination Frame-TCH


Case of one full rate TCH
1 multi-frame (26TDMA Frames) 120ms Channel Frame Number T T T T T T TT A T,,,T T T T T T T I

611

12

1318

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Case of two half rate TCHs


1 multi-frame (26TDMA Frames) 120ms Channel Frame Number T t T t T t Tt A T,,,t T t T t T t a

611

12

1318

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

T:TCH;A:SACCH; I:IDLE
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Channel combination: TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F TCH/F: Full-rate voice channel; FACCH/F: Full-rate fast associated control channel; SACCH/F: Fast TCH/F associated control channel.

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Frame
1 hyper frame=2048 super-frames=2715648TDMA frames (3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds and 760 milliseconds) TCH SACCH/T FACCH 0 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCCH 47 48 24 49 25 50 1 super-frame=1326TDMA frames (6.12 seconds) 0 0 1 2 1 3

1 multiframe=26TDMA frames (120ms) 0 1 24 25 0

1 multiframe=51TDMA frames (3060/13ms) 1 49 50

1TDMA frame=8 timeslots (120/26=4.615ms) 2 3 4 5 6

1 timeslot=156.25 bit duration (15/26=0.577ms) (1 bit duration: 48/13=3.68us) 26 training TB GP TB 58 information bits 58 information bits 3 8.25 Normal burst (NB) sequences 3 TB GP TB Frequency correction burst (FB) 3 Constant bit 142 3 8.25 TB GP TB Information bit 39 Extended training sequence 64 Synchronous burst (SB) Information bit 39 3 8.25 3 TB Synchronous sequence 41 TB GP 68.25 Information bit 36 3 Access burst (AB) 3

TB: Tail bit GP: Guard period

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One TDMA frame includes 8 basic timeslots, and each timeslot is a basic physical channel. The Physical Channel is a combination of FDMA and TDMA, which is composed of the timeslot streams between the base station (BS) and the mobile station (MS). The positions of these timeslots do not change in different TDMA frames. The above diagram shows the complete structure of the TDMA frame, including the timeslot and burst sequence. It should be remembered that the TDMA frame is the physical frame repeated on the radio link. Every TDMA frame includes 8 timeslots, which seize 60/134.615ms altogether. Every timeslot contains 156.25 bit duration, which seize is 15/260.557ms. Multiple TDMA frames constitute a Multi-frame, which has two types of structures including 26 or 51 coherent TDMA frames respectively. These multiframes should be used when different logical channels are mapping to one physical channel. The period of the multiframe containing 26 frames is 120ms, which is used in the traffic channel and the associated control channel. In these frames, 24 bursts are used for the traffic and the remaining two are used for the signaling. The period of the multiframe containing 51 frames is 3060/13235.385ms, which is used especially in the control channel.

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Frame
1 hyper frame=2048 super-frames=2715648TDMA frames (3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds and 760 milliseconds) TCH SACCH/T FACCH 0 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCCH 47 48 24 49 25 50 1 super-frame=1326TDMA frames (6.12 seconds) 0 0 1 2 1 3

1 multiframe=26TDMA frames (120ms) 0 1 24 25 0

1 multiframe=51TDMA frames (3060/13ms) 1 49 50

1TDMA frame=8 timeslots (120/26=4.615ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 timeslot=156.25 bit duration (15/26=0.577ms) (1 bit duration: 48/13=3.68us) TB 58 information bits 3 TB Frequency correction burst (FB) 3 TB Information bit 39 Synchronous burst (SB) 3 TB Synchronous sequence 41 Access burst (AB) 3 Normal burst (NB)
26 training sequences

58 information bits

TB GP 3 8.25 TB: Tail bit GP: Guard period

Constant bit 142


Extended training sequence 64 Information bit 36 TB

TB GP 3 8.25 TB GP Information bit 39 3 8.25 GP 68.25

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Multiple multi-frames constitute a Super frame, which is a coherent 5126TDMA frames. That is to say, one super frame can contain either 51 26TDMA multi-frames or 26 51TDMA multi-frames. The period of all super frames is 1326 TDMA frames, i.e. 6.12 seconds. Furthermore, multiple super frames constitute a Hyper frame, which contains 2048 super frames and its period is 12533.76 seconds, i.e. 3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds and 760 milliseconds. The hyper frame is used in encrypted voice and data. Each period of the hyper frame contains 2715648 TDMA frames, which are numbered in sequence from 0 to 2715647 successively. The frame number is transmitted in the synchronous channel, which is also a necessary parameter in the frequency hopping algorithm.

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Configuration of Common Control Channel

Downlink CCCH

Uplink CCCH

PCH

AGCH

RACH

How to determine the total CCCH resources of the cell? How to allocate AGCH and PCH reasonably?

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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The common control channel includes PCH, AGCH and RACH, in which AGCH and PCH are downlink while RACH is uplink. Its purpose is to send the access granted (immediate assignment) message, paging message and random access message. Based on the configuration of traffic channels in the cell and the traffic model of the cell, the CCCH channel can be borne by one or more physical channels. Moreover, the CCCH can share the same physical channel with the SDCCH channel. The combination mode for the common channel in the cell depends on the configuration parameter of the common channel. As a way for load control, the MS may be distributed to several different sub-groups by operators for access or other operation purposes. The CCCH grouping and paging grouping are two examples.

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Summary
In this course, we have learned:
Processing of Voice Signal Radio Channel in Um Interface Key Technical in Um Interface

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Thank you
www.huawei.com

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