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Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 1

English Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots

Prefixes: pp. 1 3 Suffixes: pp. 4 6 Roots: pp. 7 - 10

ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, as-, ata-, anab-, absambi-, amphi to, toward, near, adjacent to aside (adverb): to or toward the side accompany (verb): to go with someone as a companion adjust (verb): to correct, to move closer to a correct position apolitical (adjective): without interest in politics anarchy (noun): without a ruler, absence of government abrupt (adjective): unexpected change abnormal (adjective): not normal ambidextrous (adjective): able to use both hands equally well amphibian (noun): an animal with characteristics of both fish and reptiles anterior (adjective): before or near the front antiwar (noun): against war archenemy (noun): the principal enemy audiorecording (noun): a recording of sound autobiography (noun): writing about yourself automotive (adjective): related to self-propelled machines bicycle (noun): a vehicle with two wheels biped (noun): a two-footed animal bibliography (noun): a list of books referred to in a text category (noun): a class or set to which a thing belongs catalogue (noun): a book or pamphlet that lists and describes circumvent (verb): to manage to get around a situation circumference (noun): the distance around a circle cognate (adjective): related, similar in nature collaborate (verb): to work together correlation (noun): a relation between two or more things contradict (verb) to state the opposite cosmopolitan (adjective): having a worldwide rather than a limited scope decrease (verb): to grow smaller, to become less desensitize (verb): to take away sensitivity dentist (noun): a doctor specializing in teeth, jaws, and mouth diameter (noun): the distance across a cirle diagonal (adjective): passing through two non-adjacent corners

not, without

away from, off

both sides


before against chief, principal, extreme hearing, sound self



bibli-, bibliocat-, cata-, cathcircum-

book down, with


co-, cog-, col-, com-, con-, corcontracosmode-

together, with

against, opposite universe to do the opposite, to take away from tooth through, across

dent-, denti-, dentodia-

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 2

di-, dif-, disapart, separate, two, opposite of, not, exclude divide (verb): to separate into two or more parts differ (verb): to be unlike distrust (verb): to have no confidence or trust disagree (verb): to not agree with someone or something emit (verb) to send out expel (verb): to force out exclude (verb): to close out of, keep out ecology (noun): the study of the environment enamor (verb): to cause to love, to "put" someone "into" love empower (verb): to give power, to put into power equator (noun): a line that divides the world into two equal halves extraordinary (adjective): going beyond normal foresee (verb): to see beforehand geology (noun): the study of the earth hemisphere (noun): half of a sphere heterosexual (adjective): attracted to someone of the opposite sex homogeneous (adjective): having a uniform structure of composition hydroelectric (adjective): producing electricity using waterpower hyperactive (adjective): being excessively active illegible (adjective): cannot be read inaction (noun): lack of motion, idle instead (adverb): in place of, an alternative import (verb): to bring into a country from another country interject (verb): to throw something between other things international (adjective): between nations malfunction (noun): when something does not work properly microscope (noun): an instrument used to see very small objects misinterpret (verb): to interpret incorrectly monolingual (adjective): using or knowing only one language multiply (verb): to increase in number nonsense (noun): something with no meaning or no sense obtain (verb): to gain or get, to get a hold of oppose (verb): to be against, to stand in the way of something omnivorous (adjective): eats both plants and animals

e-, ex-

out, out of, from

ecoen-, em-

habitat, environment put into

equa-, equiextrafor-, forege-, geohemiheterohomohydr-, hydrohyperil-, im-, in-, ir, in-, im-, ilinter-

equal beyond before earth, ground, soil half different same water above, beyond not, in

in, into

between, among

malmicr-, micromismono multinonob-, oc-, of-, opomni-

bad small wrong one many not, no toward, against, in the way all, universally

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 3

overpanparaperphot-, photopostpreproquadrreretrosemi sub-, suc-, suf-, sup-, sur-, sus supersyn-, symtele-, teltranstriununiutilexcessive, above all, completely beside through light after before for, forward four back, again backward half under, beneath, near, from below, secretly, above, up over, above together, at the same time distant, over a distance across, beyond, change three not, against, opposite one use overwork (verb): to have too much work pandemic (adjective): occurring over a wide geographic area paralegal (noun): someone who works alongside a lawyer perform (verb): to carry out an act photography (noun): producing an image by exposing film to light postpone (verb): to put off to a later time, to delay precede (verb): to go before, to come in front of propel (verb): to push forward quadrilateral (adjective): having four sides redo (verb): to do again retrospect (noun) to look back at past events semiannual (adjective): occurring twice a year submarine (adjective): underwater support (verb): to hold up, too keep up superimpose (verb): to place on top of something else sympathy (noun): sharing another person's feelings telephone (noun): a device to transmit sound over a distance transform (verb): to change shape tripod (noun): a three-legged stand unceasing (adjective): never ending, continuous uniform (adjective): having the same form or consistency utility (noun): something useful or designed for use

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 4

Suffixes to Create NOUNS
-acy, -cy -age -al -an -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency state or quality privacy: the state of being alone infancy: the state of being a baby or young child courage: having the spirit to overcome fear referral: the action of directing a person to another place artisan: a craftsperson resistance: the action of opposing something independence: the state of not being under the control of others vacancy: an empty room or position agency: the capacity to exert power or influence, a position or person that performs a function disinfectant: something that cleans dependent: a thing supported or determined by another candidate: a person nominated for an office or position specialization: the result of being distinguished by one quality or ability wisdom: possessing knowledge

activity, or result of action action, result of action person action, state, quality or process state, quality or capacity

-ant, -ent -ate -ation -dom

an agent, something that performs the action state, office, fuction action, resulting state place, state of being

-er, -or -ful -ian, -an -ia -iatry -ic, -ics -ice -ing

person or thing that does something an amount or quanity that fills related to, one that is names, diseases art of healing related to the arts and sciences act material made for, activity, result of an activity condition or action doctrine, belief, action or conduct person or member product or part state or quality

baker: a person who bakes collector: a person who collects or gathers things mouthful: an amount that fills the mouth politician: a person works in politics phobia: an illogical fear of something psychiatry: branch of medicine dealing with the mind and emotions arithmetic: a branch of math dealing with non-negative numbers economics: the social science related to studying business malice: the desire to do evil swimming: the activity of swimming through water building: the result of making a structure abduction: the action of carrying someone away by force formalism: a belief in sticking to prescribed forms podiatrist: a foot doctor graphite: a black material used in making pencils novelty: something new or unusual

-ion -ism -ist -ite -ity, -ty

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 5

-ive -ment -ness -ology -or -ory -ship -ure -y condition condition or result state, condition, quality the study of condition or activity place for, serves for status, condition act, condition, process, function state, condition, result of an activity native: a person born in a specific place document: official paper showing proof or evidence of something kindness: the quality of being kind or nice biology: the study of life valor: bravery, courage territory: an area around a place friendship: the state of being a friend exposure: the condition of being exposed or unprotected society: companionship victory: the result of winning something

Suffixes to Create VERBS

-ate -ed -en -er, -or cause to be past tense to cause to become action graduate: to give a degree to, to pass from one stage to the next attained: something that has been reached or grasped moisten: to cause to become moist or damp ponder: to think about clamor: to make noise, to call for loudly specify: to name or indicate in detail depicting: showing, describing with images or pictures fantasize: to create images in the mind conjecture: to come to a conclusion by supposition or guesswork

-ify -ing -ize -ure

cause present participle cause act

Suffixes to Create ADJECTIVES

-able, -ible -al, -ial, -ical -ant, -ent, -ient -ar, -ary -ate -ed worth, ability solvable: able to be solved or explained incredible: not able to be believed, amazing structural: related to the physical make up of a thing territorial: related to nearby or local areas categorical: related to a category, absolute important: indicating value or worth dependent: relying upon something else spectacular: related to something that is eye-catching or amazing unitary: related to units or single groups representing quantities inviolate: not disturbed, pure terraced: having terraces or steps

quality, relation

indicating, being

resembling, related to

kind of state having the quality of

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 6

-en -er -est material comparative superlative silken: made from silk, a fiber produced by worms brighter: more light strongest: having the most strength

-ful -ic -ile -ing -ish -ive, -ative, -itive -less -ous, -eous, -ose, -ious -y

having, giving, marked by quality, relation having the qualities of activity having the character of, about, almost having the quality of

fanciful: marked by imagination generic: related to a whole group projectile: something thrown with an outside force cohering: the act of sticking together newish: modern, recent festive: having the quality of a festival or party cooperative: being able or willing to work together sensitive: easily felt, responsive to the senses penniless: a person without any money adventurous: characterized by the desire to seek adventures courageous: characterized by courage, brave verbose: having more words than needed hungry: having hunger, marked by a desire

without, missing having the quality of, relating to

marked by, having

Suffixes to Create ADVERBS

-fold -ly -ward -wise in a manner of, marked by in the manner of in a direction or manner in the manner of, with regard to fourfold: being four times as great fluently: marked by ease of movement, effortlessly smooth homeward: toward home timewise: with regard to time

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 7

A act, ag
am, ami anim annu, enni auc, aug, aut aud, audit, aur do, act, drive (Ltn) love, like (Ltn) mind, life, spirit, anger (Ltn) yearly (Ltn) to originate, to increase (Ltn) hear (Ltn) good, well, gentle (Ltn) life (Grk) book (Grk) short (Ltn) to take, to seize, to hold (Ltn) go, yield (Ltn) time (Grk) shout (Ltn) know to know (Ltn) body (Ltn) active (adj): moving about amorous (adj): loving animal (n): a living creature annual (adj): yearly augment (vb): to increase, to add to audible (adj): can be heard benefit (n): something that gives a good advantage biography (n): a book written about a person's life bibliophile (n): a person who likes or collects books abbreviate (vb): to shorten receive (vb): to take in, to acquire exceed (vb): to go beyond a limit, to be greater than chronological (adj): arranged in order of time or sequence clamor (vb): to make noise recognize (vb): to know, to identify corporate (adj): formed into a body or association, united in one group create (vb): to originate, to produce through imagination incredible (adj): unbelievable occur (vb): to happen, to come to mind indicate (vb): to show, to point out docile (adj): obedient, easily taught dogma (n): an established opinion decent (adj): conforming to standards, suitable, good conduct (vb): to lead or guide, (n) - a person's behavior appendectomy (noun): the surgical removal of the appendix medieval (adj): related to the Middle Ages (500 - 1500 AD) feasible (adj): capable of being done infer (vb): to come to a conclusion from looking at facts, to guess

B bene, ben
bio, bi bibli, biblio brev

C cad, cap, cas,

ceiv, cept, cid ceas, cede, ceed, cess chron clam, claim cogn, gnos corp

cre, cresc, cret cred cour, cur, curr, curs dic, dict, dit doc, doct dog, dox dec, dign duc, duct

grow (Ltn) trust, believe (Ltn) run, course (Ltn) say, speak (Ltn) teach, prove (Ltn) thought, idea (Grk) suitable (Ltn) lead (Ltn) surgical removal time, age (Ltn) make do, do (Ltn) bear, carry (Ltn)

E -ectomy
ev, et

F fac, fact, fec,

fic, fas, fea fer

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 8

fict, feign, fain fid fig flu, fluct, flux form fract, frag, frai shape, make, fashion (Ltn) belief, faith (Ltn) shape, form (Ltn) flow (Ltn) shape (Ltn) break (Ltn) to give birth, kind (Grk) earth (Grk) to gather, to bring together (Grk) step, go, move (Ltn) write, draw (Grk) to stick (Ltn) disease or inflammation to throw (Ltn) to join (Ltn) law (Ltn) choose, gather, select, read (Ltn) place, area (Ltn) say, speech, word, reason, study (Grk) light (Ltn) hand, make, do (Ltn) recall, remember (Ltn) mind (Ltn) device for measuring little, small (Ltn) send (Ltn) move (Ltn) to be born (Ltn) name (Ltn) fiction (n): something produced from imagination, an invented story confide (vb): to trust, to trust another person with a secret figure (n): shape, pattern, drawing (vb) - decide, plan, decipher fluid (adj): capable of flowing, a smooth easy style (n) - a liquid format (n): the shape and size of something fracture (v): to break, like a bone generate (vb): to produce, to create geography (n): a science that describes the earth's surface category (n): a class or set in which a thing is placed degree (n): a step or stage in a process graphic (adj): written, drawn, vividly shown adhere (vb): to stick arthritis (n): inflammation of the joints reject (vb): to throw out, unwilling to accept junction (n): a place at which two things join legal (adj): based on law collect (vb): to gather, to bring together location (n): a place, a position occupied logic (n): the study of reason, reasoning translucent (adj): permitting some light to come through manage (vb): to handle with skill, to be able to do memory (n): the ability to recall or to bring to mind mental (adj): related to the mind hygrometer (n): a device for measuring humidity minor (adj): less important, lesser admit (vb): to accept, to allow entry motion (n): act of moving, action native (adj) - belonging to a particular place by birth nominate (vb): to name for office

G gen, gin
geo gor grad, gress, gree gram, graph, graf her, hes itis

jac, ject, jet jug, junct, just

L lex, leag, leg

lect, leg, lig loc log luc, lum, lust

M man
mem ment meter min mit, miss mob, mov, mot

N nasc, nat,

gnant, nai nom, nym

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 9

nov new (Ltn) work (Ltn) fasten or hold novice (n): a beginner or newcomer operate (vb): to work, to perform impact (vb): to strike together forcefully compact (vb): to press together passion (n): a strong feeling or emotion sympathy (n): sharing another person's feelings impede (vb): to hinder, to slow down claustrophobia (n): fear of enclosed spaces podium (n): a platform, an area raised above the surrounding ground repel (vb): to drive away or push back append (vb): to add or correct phantom (n): something seen but having no physical existence, a ghost philosopher (n): a person who seeks (loves) wisdom phonetic (adj): related to speech sounds picture (vb): to paint or draw import (vb): to bring in from a foreign country reply (vb): to respond, to answer postpone (vb): to put off to a later time psychology (n): study of how the mind works query (vb): to ask questions rupture (vb): to break or burst conscious (adj): aware, having knowledge of oneself script (n): handwriting, something written sentiment (n): a thought prompted by feeling sequence (n): a continuous series insist (vb): to be firm about something needed, to demand sociable (adj): inclined to seek friendship, companionship solitary (adj): being alone solve (vb): to find an answer

O oper P pact
pat, pass path ped phobia pod pel, puls pend, pond phan, phas, phen, fan, phant, fant phil phon pict port pli, ply pon, pos psych

feel, suffer (Ltn) feel (Grk) foot (Ltn) fear (Grk) foot (Grk) drive, push (Ltn) to hang, weigh (Ltn) show, make visible (Grk)

love (Grk) sound (Grk) paint, show, draw (Ltn) carry (Ltn) fold (Ltn) put, place (Ltn) mind (Grk) seek, ask (Ltn) break (Ltn) to know (Ltn) write (Ltn) feel, think (Ltn) follow (Ltn) to withstand, make up (Ltn) to join, companions (Ltn) alone (Ltn) loosen, explain (Ltn)

Q quir, quis, R S

quest, quer rupt sci, scio scrib, scrip sent, sens sequ, secut, sue sist soci sol solv, solu, solut

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots 10

spec, spi, spic, spect spir stab, stat strain, strict, string, stige stru, struct, stroy tact, tang, tig, ting tend, tens tain, ten, tent, tin term terr test therm tor, tors, tort tract, trai, treat uni look (Ltn) breath, soul (Ltn) stand (Ltn) bind, pull (Ltn) build (Ltn) touch (Ltn) stretch (Ltn) hold, keep, have (Ltn) end, boundary, limit (Ltn) earth (Ltn) see, witness (Ltn) heat (Grk) twist (Ltn) pull, draw (Ltn) one (Ltn) empty (Ltn) come (Ltn) true (Ltn) word (Ltn) turn,change (Ltn) see (Ltn) live (Ltn) call (Ltn) roll, turn (Ltn) spectator (n): a person who watches respiration (n): breathing stature (n) - height of a standing body, importance of position constrict (vb) - to squeeze, to make narrow destroy (vb): to ruin, to pull down tactile (adj): related to the sense of touch contend (vb): to strive or reach for, to argue retain (vb): to keep, to hold in place exterminate (vb): to kill off, to get rid of territory (n): area of land attest (vb): to provide proof, to say something is true thermometer (n): a device for measuring heat torsion (n): twisting of the body attract (vb): to draw toward, to arouse interest unite (vb): to make one, to join together vacant (adj): empty, not occupied convene (vb): to assemble, to come together verify (vb): to confirm that something is true verbalize (vb): to express in words, to put into words versatile (adj): capable of changing or adapting, useful visible (adj): able to be seen, divide (vb): to separate vital (adj) - necessary for life vocal (adj): spoken or uttered by the voice revolve (vb): to turn around

V vac
ven, vent ver verb, verv vers, vert vid, vie, vis vit, viv voc, voke volv, volt, vol

Last revised: October 13, 2005 Adapted from: Caglioti, C. "Preparation for an American University Program: Vocabulary Workshop" Southampton College of Long Island University. http://www.southampton.liu.edu/academic/pau/course/webesl.htm