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Techniques & Principles in Language Teaching

principles Method The Grammar Translation Method

1. Helps student for reading & appreciating TL literature. 2. Learning grammar of TL help students to be more familiar with grammar in NL; that help them to write & speak their NL better. 3. Grow intellectually; mental exercise would be beneficial way to use TL. 1. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The teacher & student are more like partner in teaching/learning process. The students do as the teacher The teacher is the 3. Relying on what the student already know. 4. Give what help is necessary. 3. Students use what they know. 4. Give an attention to the learning tasks. 5. Explore the language. 4. Sound color chart >> relying on what they know 5. Color coded fidel chart >> learn spelling 6. Color coded word director & controlling the 1. The students have to learn how to communicate in the TL. 2. Students should learn to think in the TL. 1. Use TL to communicate 2. Use TL automatically without thinking. 3. Form new habits in the TL and overcoming the old habits of their NL.

The Direct Method

The Audio Lingual Method

The Silent Way

4. Use language for selfexpression. 5. Students need to develop their independence from the teacher; to develop their own inner criteria for correctness. 6. Student become independent by relying on themselves.

Goals of the teacher

Role of the teacher

behavior of the student. 2. Responsible for providing the students with a good model for imitation. 1. Student are imitators of the teachers model. 2. They follow the teachers direction accurately as possible. 1. Demonstrate new words meaning through the use of realia or picz. 2. Never translate the words to their NL 1. Grammar taught inductively. 2. Vocabulary & structure pattern presented through dialogs.

Role of the student

says, so they can learn what she knows. 1. Student translate from

Characteristics of teaching

one language to another. 2. Study grammar Deductively; given the rule + memorize it + apply it.

3. Memorize NL equivalents for TL vocabulary words.

3. Communicate & speak in TL 4. Grammar taught inductively. 5. Using new words in complete sentences.

3. Dialogs are learned through imitation & repetition drills (repetition, backward up, chain, substitution, transformation, & Q-Ans) Most interaction between teacher students & is initiated by the teacher. Student student interaction in chain drills or take different role in the dialogue.

chart >> read & pronounce. 7. Use rods >> students make attention to the structure of language. 8. Spoken cues >> produced structure. Silent but active. ( listening attentively to the student, using gestures) Student student interaction is desirable & encouraged; cuz student can learns from one another. When students feeling interfere: 1. The teacher find ways for students to overcome

Teacher interaction

Most interaction from the teacher to the student

There is interaction with students.

Student interaction

Little interaction between student- student interaction.

There is interaction with teacher & themselves.

Feelings of the student

There are no principles

There are no principles

There are no principles

their negative feelings, which might interfere with their learning. 2. Feedback; students express how they feel.

Influenced by Each language has its

1. Languages share some features. 2. Each language hat its own unique reality. Reflect in their own unique world view, is connected form their language. 1. Pronunciation, vocabulary

Language viewed

Reading & writing.


descriptive linguists. own unique system.

History, Geography, and

Culture viewed Areas of language are

Literature & fine arts. Vocabulary & grammar are

information about the ppl who speak the TL. Vocabulary over the grammar.

Every day behavior & lifestyle of the TL speakers. Vocabulary & grammar


emphasized. 1. Reading & writing that the students work on. 1. Oral communication (speaking & listings) 2. Writing & reading. 3. Pronunciation. Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening. Oral/aural skills Pronunciation taught

2. Grammar, structure.

Language skills are emphasized

2. Speaking & listening << less attention. 3. Pronounciation receives little attention.

Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening.

receive more attention. form the beginning.

Role of student native language

Used when necessary; to help The students us NL mostly. Student shouldnt be used NL Student self correct by: 1. Teacher make a choice between what they said and the correct answer. 2. Teacher might repeat Incorrect answers are corrected what the student has said; using a questioning voice; to signal the student that sth wrong with it. 3. Teacher might repeat what the student has said, stopping before the error; the students know that the word is wrong. Errors are to be avoided if at all possible; through teachers awareness of where the students have difficulties of what they are taught to say. 1. The teacher use their error to decide where further work necessary. 2. Self correcting; cuz theyll not learn if the teacher give them the correct answer. Student shouldnt be used NL student to improve their pronunciation.

Students errors

by the teacher, or selected another student to correct the answer.