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TENSES:

001. Present simple TO BE (am, is, are).


+ I am (m) He/She/It is (s) We/You/They are (re) I am not (m not) He/She/It is not (s not) (isnt) We/You/They ? Am I ? Is He/She/It ? Are Short answer Yes Yes, I am. Yes, He/She/It is. Yes, Short answer No No, Im not. No, He/She/It isnt. No,

are not (re not) (arent) We/You/They ? We/You/They are. We/You/They arent. TO BE (Tener) Its hot/cold day. Im 35 years old. Are the children asleep? Im right (tengo razn). Im afraid (tengo miedo). Im in a harry (tengo prisa). Thats, theres, heres Thats very kind of you (Es muy amable de tu parte). Look! Theres Chris. (Ah esta) Heres your key. (Aqu tienes) Whats, Wheres, Whos, Hows Whats the time? (Qu hora es?) Wheres Lucy? (Dnde esta Lucy?) Whos that man? (Quin es ese hombre?) Hows your father? (Cmo est tu padre?)

TO BE (Ser/estar) Is your mother at home? Is it late? No, its only 9:00. Decir la hora Its one oclock. Its 8.15. Its half past ten.

002. Present continuous (am, is, are + -ing.).


+ I am (m) doing. He/She/It is (s) working. We/You/They are (re) going. I am not (m not) doing. He/She/It is not (s not) (isnt) working. We/You/They are not (re not) (arent) going. ? Am I doing? Is He/She/It working? Are We/You/They going? Short answer Yes Yes, I am. Yes, He/She/It is. Yes, We/You/They are. Short answer No No, Im not. No, He/She/It isnt. No, We/You/They arent.

Expresa un hecho o una accin en curso: Why are you wearing a coat (p.q. llevas abrigo)? Who are you waiting for (a quin ests esperando)? Formacin de la forma ing: [come-coming; write-writing] [stop-stopping; run-running; sit-sitting; swim-swimming; lie-lying] No tienen Present continuous los verbos estticos (Stative verbs): [believe, know, think, understand][belong, have, own][appreciate, hate, like, love][smell, see, hear, taste][seem, look, mean, cost, need, want, remember, depend, prefer, forget].

003. Present simple (do, does).


+ I/We/You/They (work, watch, do, have,) He/She/It (works, watches, does, has,) I/We/You/They dont (work, watch, do, have,). He/She/It doesnt (work, watch, do, have,) ? Do I/We/You/They (work, watch, do, have,)? Does He/She/It (work, watch, do, have,)? Short answer Yes Yes, I/We/You/They do. Yes, He/She/It does. Short answer No No, I/We/You/They dont. No, He/She/It doesnt.

Expresa cosas que son verdaderas en general, o bien que ocurren con cierta frecuencia: How often do you wash your hair? What does this word mean? Formacin del presente simple: [pass-passes; finish-finishes; watch-watches; study-studies; try-tries; do-does; go-goes]. El presente se usa con Always/never/often/usually/sometimes: Sue always gets to work early (Sue llega siempre temprano al trabajo). I never eat breakfast. We often go away at weekends. He usually plays football. I sometimes walk to work.

004. Present simple vs. Present continuous.


Present simple (actions that happen all the time (habits, always true), often, sometimes, never,...): I work in an office. We start work at nine. He looks like his father. Ice forms at 0 degrees.

Affirmative I/You/We/They work. He/She/It works.

Negative I/You/We/They dont work. He/She/It doesnt work.

Question Do I/You/We/They work? Does He/She/It work?

Short answer Yes Yes, I/You/We/They do. Yes, He/She/It does.

Short answer No No, I/You/We/They dont. No, He/She/It doesnt.

3rd person singular: Add s after most verbs: live lives; play plays; work - works Add -es after -ch, -sh, -s, -x: watch - watches; finish - finishes Delete -y and add -ies after a consonant + y: study - studies Irregular forms: do - does; go - goes; have - has

Present continuous (actions that are in progress at/around the moment of speaking): I'm not working now. I'm having lunch. My job is getting more (es cada vez ms) difficult to do. House prices are going up. Affirmative Im working You/We/They are working He/She/It is working Negative Im not working You/We/They arent working He/She/It isnt working Question Am I working? Are You/We/They working? Is He/She/It working? Short answer Yes Short answer No Yes, I am. Yes, You/We/They are. Yes, He/She/It is. No, Im not No, You/We/They arent. Yes, He/She/It isnt.

Spelling: ing-forms: Delete -e and add -ing for verbs that end in e: have - having, make - making. Add a consonant +ing for verbs that end in one vowel + one consonant: run - running, stop - stopping.

005. Past simple TO BE (was/were).

+ I/He/She/It was We/You/They were

I/He/She/It was not (wasnt) We/You/They were not (werent)

? Was I/He/She/It ? Were We/You/They ?

Short answer Yes-No I/He/She/It Yes, No, was (wasnt). We/You/They were (werent).

WAS/WERE (ser/estar): Where was Kate yesterday? (Dnde estubo Kate ayer?). The weather was good last week. (La semana pasada hizo buen tiempo). They werent here last Saturday. (No estuvieron aqu el domingo pasado).

WAS/WERE (tener): When I was child, I was afraid a dogs. (Cuando era pequeo, tena miedo a los perros). We werent hungry after the journey. (No tenamos hambre despus del viaje). Was the weather nice? (Hizo buen tiempo?). No, it wasnt.

006. Past simple (did).

+ I/we/you/they/he/she/it (watched, had, did, went)

I/we/you/they/he/she/it didnt (watch, have, do, go)

? Did I/we/you/they/he/she/it (watch, have, do, go)?

Short answer Yes-No Yes, (No), I/we/you/they/he/she/it did (didnt).

Regular verbs: work-worked, clean-cleaned, start-started, dance-danced, stay-stayed, need-needed; try-tried, study-studied, copy-copied, stop-stopped, plan-planned. Irregular verbs: begin-began; brake-broke, bring-brought, build-built Yesterday it rained all morning. It stopped at lunchtime. (llovi Par) We enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people. The party finished at midnight. (Nos divertimos en la fiesta. Bailamos hablamostermin). We did a lot of work yesterday. (Hicimos); I usually get up early, but last Saturday I got up at 9 oclock (me levant).

007. Past continuous (was, were + -ing).

Affirmative I/He/She/It was working You/We/They were working

Negative I/He/She/It wasnt working You/We/They werent working

Question Was I/He/She/It working? Were You/We/They working?

Short answer Yes Yes, I/He/She/It was. Yes, You/We/They were.

Short answer No Yes, I/He/She/It wasnt. Yes, You/We/They werent.

You can use the past continuous to describe a longer activity that was in progress when other past events happened. You usually use it in contrast with the past simple. I saw her when I was driving home. They were playing tennis when it started raining. Jack was reading a book when the phone rang. In 2001 we were living in Gav. (vivamos).

008. Present perfect (have, has + -ed). Been & Gone. Just, already, yet. How long?
Affirmative I/You/We/They ve (have) worked He/She/It s (has) Worked Negative I/You/We/They havent worked He/She/It hasn't worked Question Have I/You/We/They worked? Has He/She/It worked? Short answer Yes Yes, I/You/We/They have. Yes, He/She/It has. Short answer No No, I/You/We/They haven't. No, He/She/It hasn't.

You can use the present perfect to talk about completed actions in time up to now. You dont focus on when. Accin del pasado que cuyos resultados tienen efecto en el presente. Time up to now: The past Now

Ive done a lot of silly things in my life. (He hecho un montn de cosas tontas en mi vida). Can I take this newspaper, have you finished with it? (Has terminado de leerlo?). Common time expressions which describe time up to now:

today, this week, recently, never, ever, at any time, in last 2 weeks, over the years.
With these time expressions you usually use the present perfect: My brother has never been to a pop concert. I havent seen any good films recently. Been & Gone: Been is the past particible of be, but you can also use it as a past participle of go: Hes been to Rome = He went and came back. Hes gone to Rome = He went and is in Rome now. Finished time: The past Now

I did a lot of silly things when I was at university. (Hice un montn de tonteras cuando estaba en la universidad). Common time expressions which describe finished time:

yesterday, last month, in 1990, a few minutes ago, a few moments ago, when I was student.
With these time expressions you use the past simple: She called you a few minutes ago. I didnt go to mountains last summer.

Present Perfect + just (acabar de ): Is tom here? No, Im afraid hes (has) just gone (se acaba de ir) Present Perfect + already (ya = antes de lo esperado): Yes, theyve already arrived (Ya han llegado.) Present Perfect + notyet (an/todava no): Are they here? No, they havent arrived yet. (An no han llegado). Pr. Perf. + yet? ( ya? yet siempre al final de la frase): Has Nicole started her new job yet? (Ha empezado ya su trabajo?). Pr. Perf. (Have been/have had/have played) para un perodo de tiempo q se extiende desde el pasado hasta ahora, por ejemplo la vida de alguien: Have you ever been to France? No, I havent (Has estado en Francia (en tu vida)?) She has had many different jobs and has lived in many places. Present perfect. How long have you + V-ed (p.participle)?: How long has she been in London? (Cunto tiempo lleva/est en Londres?). She has been in London since Monday (for 3 days). Present perfect continuous. How long have you been + V ing?: How long have you been learning German? (Cuanto tiempo hace que ests aprendiendo Alemn?). Its been (=It has been) raining since this morning (Llueve/est lloviendo desde esta maana).

009. Present perfect vs. past simple.


Past simple (I did) con el perodo terminado (yesterday, last week). Present perfect (I have done) de un tiempo hasta ahora (up to now). With time expressions that do not specify the exact time (ever, never, already, yet, sin, just, recently, in the last few weeks, during/in/over weeks, years, months): I have lost my keys (no la encuentro ahora). I lost my key last week. Have you ever been to Spain? (alguna vez en el pasado). Did you go to Spain last year? Ben has gone home (no est aqu ahora). Ben went home ten minutes ago. The letter hasnt arrived yet. The letter didnt arrive yesterday. Some time expressions can refer to both finished time and unfinished time. Have you done anything interesting this morning? (=It is still the morning) Did you do anything interesting this morning? (=The morning is now finished) Other expressions that we can use with both tenses include today, this week, this month, etc. Se usa el past simple en las preguntas que comienzan por When? o What time?: When did you buy your computer? What time did Andy go out?

010. Irregular verbs.


TRANSLATION ser/estar golpear, batir volverse empezar doblar apostar morder soplar romper traer construir quemar explotar comprar poder coger escoger venir costar cortar negociar cavar hacer dibujar beber conducir comer caer alimentar sentir luchar encontrar volar olvidar perdonar congelar conseguir dar ir crecer colgar tener oir esconder golpear sujetar herir mantener arrodillarse saber/conocer colocar dirigir aprender dejar/irse prestar VERB be beat become begin bend bet bite blow break bring build burn burst buy can catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay lead learn leave lend PAST SIMPLE was/were beat became began bent bet bit blew broke brought built burned/burnt burst bought could caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led learned/learnt left lent PAST PARTICIPLE been beaten become begun bent bet bitten blown broken brought built burned/burnt burst bought been able caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone/been grown hanged/hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led learned/learnt left lent TRANSLATION dejar/permitir tumbarse encender perder hacer significar encontrar deber/haber pagar poner leer montar sonar/telefonear levantar correr decir ver vender enviar colocar sacudir brillar disparar mostrar contraer cerrar cantar hundirse sentarse dormir deslizarse hablar deletrear gastar/pasar derramar dividir echar a perder esparcir estar de pie robar hincar jurar hinchar nadar tomar/llevar ensear desgarrar decir pensar tirar entender despertar llevar puesto ganar escribir VERB let lie light lose make mean meet must pay put read read ring rise run say see sell send set shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spell spend spill split spoil spread stand steal stick swear swell swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write PAST SIMPLE let lay lit lost made meant met had to paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot showed shank shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt split spoiled/spoilt spread stood stole stuck swore swelled swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote PAST PARTICIPLE let lain lit lost made meant met had to paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt split spoiled/spoilt spread stood stolen stuck sworn swollen/swelled swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

011. Present perfect simple vs. continuous.

Affirmative
I/You/We/They

Negative
I/You/We/They havent worked. He/She/It hasnt worked. I/You/We/They havent been working. He/She/It hasnt been working.

Question
Have I/You/We/They worked? Has He/She/It worked? Have I/You/We/They been working? Has He/She/It been working?

Short answer Yes


Yes, I/You/We/They have. Yes, He/She/It has. Yes, I/You/We/They have. Yes, He/She/It has.

Short answer No
No, I/You/We/They havent. No, He/She/It hasnt. No, I/You/We/They havent. No, He/She/It hasnt.

Present Perfect Simple

have worked. He/She/It has worked. I/You/We/They

Present Perfect Continuous

have been working. He/She/It has been working.

Present perfect continuous: You usually use the present perfect continuous to describe the duration of continuous or repeated action from a point in the past up to now. And to talk about actions which started in the past and are still in progress now. Weve been studying Greek or ten years. Shes been going to the same hairdresser since the 1990s. To describe the period of time between the start of the action and now, we can use for and since. We use for + an expression that describes the length of time (for five years/a long time/3 weeks). We use since + an expression that refers to the time when the action started (since 2002/2 oclock). We use how long in questions to ask about the length of time (how long have you been living here?). Stative meanings: You dont use the present perfect continuous for verbs with stative meanings. Use the simple form. Shes known Tom since they were at school. Theyve had the same computer since 2003. You can also use the simple form to indicate unchanging, permanent situations. Compare: Ive been living here since the summer. Ive lived here all my life.

012. Future forms (will, be going to).


(be) going to and present continuous: Affirmative Im going to work. You/We/They re going to work. He/She/It s going to work. Negative Im not going to work. You/We/They re not going to work. He/She/It isnt going to work. Question Am I going to work? Are you/we/they going to work? Is he/she/it going to work? Short answer Yes Short answer No Yes, I am. Yes, you/we/they are. Yes, he/she/it is. No, Im not. No, you/we/they aren't. No, he/she/it isn't.

You can use (be) going to to talk about your future intentions. You have made a decision about a future event and you are talking about that decision: One of this days Im going to get fit. Hes going to tell me all about his holidays. You can use the present continuous to talk about future arrangements (planes o acuerdos). You have arranged future event and you are talking about that arrangement: Are you doing anything on Thursday? Were meeting the President this afternoon at 2.00 p.m. Hes arriving tomorrow. She isnt coming with him tonight. Se utiliza el present perfect para horarios, espectculos, trenes, autobuses, etc: The train arrives at 7:30 (llega). The concert starts at 7:30 (empieza a las 7:30). What time does your train leave? (A qu hora sale tu tren). Will/shall (future).

Affirmative
I/You/He ll (will) work.

Negative
I/You/He wont (will not) work.

Question
Will I/You/He work?

Short answer Yes Short answer No


Yes, I/You/He will. No, I/You/He wont.

You can use will (modal verb) to talk about the future when there is no present plan, intention or arrangement. Compare: What are you doing/going to do this weekend? (=I think you have plans, intentions or arrangements). What will you do this weekend? (=I dont think you know.)

Will cuando decidimos hacer o no hacer algo, cuando nos ofrecemos: Ill carry it for you (Yo te lo llevo/llevar). I think Ill go to bed early tonight (Creo que me acostar pronto esta noche). Ill phone you tomorrow. Shall (=will): Se puede utilizar slo para I y We: Shall I? Shall we? Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo o para ponerse hacer alguna cosa: I shall be late tomorrow. I think we shall win. Shall I open de window? (Abro/quieres que habr?). Shall I phone you this evening? Shall we go for a walk?

013. Past perfect (narrative verb) (had + -ed).

Affirmative
I/You/He d (had) worked.

Negative
I/You/He hadnt (had not) worked.

Question
Had I/You/He worked.

Short answer Yes


Yes, I/You/He had.

Short answer No
No, I/You/He hadnt.

You use de past perfect when you are talking about the past and you want to refer to an earlier past time. The past perfect clearly shows that one past event happened earlier than other past events. Id had breakfast when I got to work this morning. (Yo haba desayunado cuando llegu al trabajo) Earlier past Past Now

This lesson had started when I arrived. (Esta leccin haba empezado cuando yo llegu).

014. Imperative.
Do this! Dont do that! Lets do this! Go Away! (Vete!). Please wait for me (esprame.) Have a good holiday! (Que tengas buenas vacaciones!). Please dont go (no te vayas). Lets: Cuando queremos hacer algo conjuntamente con alguien (Lets = Let us). Lets go out (salgamos). Lets not go out (=Dont lets go out) (No salgamos.).

015. Tense and auxiliary verbs. Summary.

Tense and auxiliary verbs present simple: do/does. (facts, habits, routines) present continuous: am/are/is. (activities in progress now) present perfect: have/has. (completed actions in time up to now) Present perfect continuous: have/has been. (to describe the duration of continuous or repeated action from a point in the past up to now) past simple: did. (completed actions at specific past time) Past continuous: was/were. (longer activity that was in progress when other past events happened) Past perfect: had. (to show that one past event happened before another past event). Past perfect continuous: had been. (when we talk about a situation that happened over a period up to a particular past time). Future (be) going to: am/are/is. (future plans and intentions) Future (will): will/shall. (to talk about the future when there is no present plan, intention or arrangement)

I dont like the name. People arent changing.

? Do you like the name? Are people changing? Have you chosen?

I like the name.

People are changing.

I have chosen.

I havent chosen.

He has been working.

He hasnt been working.

Has he been working?

She named me.

She didnt name me.

Did she name me?

I/She was working.

I/She wasnt working.

Was I/She working?

The film had started when I arrived. He was just 23 and had never been driving.

The film hadnt started when I arrived. He hadnt been travelling for 12 hours. Im not going to call.

Had the film started when you arrived? Had he been travelling for 12 hours? Are you going to call?

Im going to call.

He will work.

He wont work.

Will he work?

016. Passive voice.


We use the passive voice: To talk about an action when the agent (the person or thing that goes the action) is unknown or unimportant. To talk about actions when it doesnt matter (or you dont know) who performed them. The captain was shown (vio) the red card in the second minute of the game. My shoes were designed in Italy. All the furniture is made of ice. To emphasize what happened rather than (en lugar de) who did it (quin lo hizo). The first World Cup was held (se celebr) in Uruguay in 1930. If we want to name the agent, we use by. We name the agent when it is important or unusual, or because we want to make this information more noticeable. The gold medal was won by Michael Johnson. I was bitten by a dog. In passives sentences, the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Active Subject verb object Somebody built the first Ice Hotel in 1990 Active Present simple Present continuous Past simple Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect Future (going to) Future (will) Modal verb (must) Modal verb (can) Modal verb (should) Have to Had to Infinitive They play tennis indoors. They are holding the next games in Russia. They changed the rules. Officials were showing them around the city. Theyve done it. She said that somebody had stolen her car. Theyre going to cancel the games. Well finish it soon. You must write it down They cant repair my watch. You should wash this sweater by hand. Somebody has to wash these clothes. They had to take the injured man to hospital. I want you to help me. The games are going to be cancelled. Itll be finished soon. It must be written down. My watch cant be repaired. This sweater should be washed by hand. These clothes have to be washed. The injured man had to be taken to hospital. I want to be helped. Passive subject verb The first Ice Hotels was built in 1990. Passive Tennis is played indoors. The next games are being held in Russia. The rules were changed. They were being shown around the city. Its been done. She said that her car had been stolen.

Was/were born: En ingls se dice was/were born (=nac/naciste): I was born in BCN in 1974. Where were you born? In BCN.

017. Present Participle to combine two sentences. (Seeing, finding).

We can combine two sentences that have the same subject with a present participle. Regular customers saw the sign. They were not surprised. Seeing the sign, regular customers were not surprised. They found no trace of him. They pronounced him dead. Finding no trace of him, they pronounced him dead.

VERBS:
018. I have / I have got. Its (It is...) / (It has...).
When have/has means to own or possess, you can also use have/has got: (Do you have a car? Yes, I do. No, I dont.) = (Have you got a car? Yes, I have. No I havent.). I have a motorbike (=I have got a motorbike). Does she have a car? Yes, she does. (=Has she got a car? Yes, she has.). Its (it is) a small flat, but its got (it has got) a nice view (pero tiene una buena vista). Everybodys got to learn sometimes (Todo el mundo tiene que aprender a veces). Compare: I have (got) a new shower (Tengo una ducha nueva). I have a shower every morning (Me ducho cada maana).

019. I used to
Affirmative
I/You/He

Negative
I/You/He

Question
Did I/You/He use to work?

Short answer Yes Short answer No


Yes, I/You/He did. No, I/You/He didnt.

used to work. didnt use to work.

You can use used to + infinitive to talk about past habits (repeated actions in the past) or past states. It describes things that were true in the past, but are probably not true now: I used to go school by bus. I didnt use to enjoy English lessons. What sort of car did you use to have? It isnt possible to use used to + infinitive to talk about a single action in the past. You use the past simple: One weekend we went to Paris (NOT One weekend we used to go to Paris).

020. Look/feel/smell/taste/sound + adjetive. Look(s) / look(s) like.


Los verbos que se refieren a la vista, al odo, al sabor, al olor, al tacto o a sensaciones y van seguidos de adjetivo, a veces equivalen a parecer: You look tired. I feel tired. You sound happy. It sounds very interesting. It smells good. It tastes good. look(s) + adjective: look(s) like + noun: look(s) as if/as though + phase: You look tired (pareces cansado). She looks like a student ((te) pareces (a) un estudiante). She looks as if she needs a holiday.

Some English speakers use like instead of (en vez de) as if/as though. Many people, however (sin embargo), think this is incorrect. She looks like she needs a holiday.

021. Theres/Therere; Its (It is); There was/were; there has/have been; there will be.
Theres / There are (=hay...): Theres a man on the roof (Hay un hombre en el tejado). Theres a train at 10.30 (hay un tren a las 10.30). Its (es, est, hace): I like this book. Its interesting. (Me gusta este libro. Es interesante). Compare: Whats that noise? Its a train. (Its = that noise). Theres a lot of salt in this soup. Theres a train at 10.30. Its a fast train (Its = the 10.30 train). I dont like this soup. Its too salty (It = this soup). There was/were (=Haba/hubo): There was a good film on TV last night (hubo una Buena pelcula). Were there any phone messages for me yesterday? (hubo?) There wasnt anything. There has/have been (=ha habido): Theres been (there has been) an accident (Ha habido). This road is very dangerous. There have been many accidents (ha habido) There will be (=habr): There will be rain tomorrow afternoon (habr). The manager of the company is leaving, so there will be a new manager soon (pronto habr un nuevo director).

022. Would you like?/Id like (quieres?/Quisiera); Do you like?/I like (te gusta? /Me gusta); Would you mind.
Se usa would you like? para ofrecer algo o para invitar a alguien (=Quieres?/ Te gustara?): Would you like coffee? (Quieres?) Id like (=I would like manera educada de pedir algo). Se usa do you like? para preguntar se le gusta algo (te gusta?): What do you like to do at weekend? (Qu te gusta hacer?) Do you like going to the cinema? (Te gust air al cine?). Respuesta I like (me gusta).

For polite, natural and casual situations Can you Will you Could you Would you Go to the store for me?

For polite and very polite situations (would you mind + V-ing)

Would you mind (not)

Getting me some ice cream?

023. I want you to; Would you like me to?; I told you (not) to
I want somebody to + inf (=Quiero que + sustantivo): I want you to be happy (Quiero que seas feliz). They didnt want anybody to know their secret (no queran que nadie supiera su secreto). Would you like me to? (=te gustara que?): Would you like me to lend you some money? (Te gustara que te prestara dinero?). Lend (prestar algo a alguien) Borrow (alguien te presta algo) I told you (not) to(=te dije); Jane told me to wait for her (Jane me dijo que la esperaba). Paul told Sue not to wait for him (Paul le dijo a Sue que no lo esperara).

024. Verbs patterns (patrones).


1. Verbs with two objects: Verbs with two objects. buy, send, give, lend + somebody (indirect object) something (direct object) Eddie bought a foot spa for his sister. I never lend my car to anybody. = Eddie bought his sister a foot spa. = I never lend anybody my car.

Common verbs with the pattern verb + thing + to + person: give, lend, offer, pass, read, send, show,

teach, tell.
Could you send the money to me? Ive told that joke to everybody! We showed our holiday photos to him. Can you lend your bike to Sue?

Common verbs with the pattern verb + thing + for + person: buy, find, get, make. My dad bought this for me for my birthday. I dont want to make breakfast for him. You can't use the word order verb + person + thing with certain verbs: describe, explain, say, suggest. (+to +person): He explained the situation to me. (NO He explained me the situation). She said hello to us. (NO She said us hello). Ian is getting some ice creams for us.

2. (Verbs + ing-form). (Verbs + to-infinitive). Verbs + (ing-form) (gerundio): Avoid (evitar), can't stand (no soportar), don't mind, enjoy, hate* (odiar), like*, love*, star*, prefer*, begin*, continue*, spend time, look forward to, stop, finish, suggest, waste time: I can't stand shopping. I really enjoy walking in the rain.
*(pueden llevar to + inf. o ing.)

Verbs + (to-infinitive): Agree, plan, try, expect (esperar, aguardar), offer, promise, refuse, learn, can't afford (no me lo puedo permitir), choose (escoger), decide, forget, manage (gestionar, arreglrselas), refuse, would like, hope, need, want, begin (empezar), claim (reclamar, demandar), deserve (merecer), manage (arreglrselas), pretend (fingir), refuse (rechazar, negarse a), seem (parecer), try (intentar). I can't afford to buy it. I need to see a doctor. You forgot to switch off the light. The judges decided that he deserved to die. Would + (like, love, prefer, hate) + to infinitive: She would like to meet you (Le gustara conocerte). Id love to go NZ (Me gustara ir a NZ). Id hate to lose my job (No me gustara perder...).

025. Focus on verbs + ing-form or to-infinitive with a change in meaning.

Ing-form remember/forget + ing-form: An action that somebody did. I dont remember getting home last night! He never forgot kissing her for the first time. (forget+ing-form is nearly always used with never). Stop + ing-form: An action that has stopped. At last its stopped raining. Note:

To-infinitive form remember/forget + to-infinitive: An action that somebody is/was supposed to do. Dont forget to post those letters! Could you remember to lock the door when you go out? Stop + to-infinitive: The reason why sb has stopped an action. I must stop to buy some petrol on the way home.

Begin, hate, like, love, prefer and start are verbs that can take the ing-form or the to-infinitive, usually with little change in meaning. We use the ing form of the verb after love/like/enjoy when we talk about long-term activities. I love travelling. She enjoys skiing. We dont like working on Saturday. Do you like cooking?

026. Get.
get + adjective = become: It doesnt get dark till 10.00 p.m. in the summer. Hes getting better at English. This room never gets warm enough.

phrasal verbs with get: He never gets up before 10.00 p.m. We dont get on with our neighbours. The whole familiy gets together at Christmas. get + noun = buy, obtain, or receive: Did you get my text message? I got my new shoes in the sale. Shes trying to get a new job. get (to)= arrive: What time do you get to work? I got home very late last night. Well never get there in time. Expressions with get + past participle: Where can I get changed? They got married in a hotel. I always have breakfast before I get dressed.

027. Focus on do, get, go, have, make, take, play.

Get better (mejorar) Get change (obtener el cambio) Get dressed (vestirse) Get lost (extraviarse) Get married (casarse) make a decision (tomar una decisin) make a living (ganarse la vida) make a promise (hacer una promesa) make mistake (cometer un herror) make money (hacer dinero) take a bus (coger el bus) take a photo (tomar una foto) take an exam (hacer un examen) take responsibility (asumir) take risks (asumir riesgos)

have a go (intentar/tener que ir) have a good time (pasar un buen rato) have a laugh (reirse) have a rest (tener un descanso) have lunch (almorzar/comer) do a course (hacer un curso) do research (hacer una investigacin) do some homework (hacer deberes en casa) do the housework (hacer tareas domstic) do the shopping (hacer la compra) go for a drink (ir a tomar una copa) go for a walk (dar un paseo) go home (ir a casa) go to bed (acostarse) go mad (volverse loco) go to sleep (dormirse) go skiing (ir a esquiar) go out for a meal (ir a comer fuera)

Do: Athletics, exercise, sport, judo. Go: Cycling, fishing, swimming, windsurfing, skiing, snowboarding. Play: Basketball, golf, rugby, tennis, volleyball, football, soccer. Expresiones con do y make: an exam / a test (un examen) a course (un curso) homework (los deberes) housework (las labors de casa) Do (hacer) somebody a favour (un favor a alguien) an exercise/sport (un ejercicio/deporte) the shipping (la compra) the washing (lavar la ropa) the shopping the accounts Do: Se usa para hablar de actividades de modo general: What are you doing this evening? I did a lot of things yesterday. What do you do? (=A qu te dedicas?) Make: Elaborar, fabricar, crear: Shes making coffee. He has made a cake. I make clothes. I make dresses and jackets. Colocation of take: Take a look at (sth) (echar un vistazo). Take advantage of (sth) (aprovecharse de). Take (sbs) advice (consultar). Take (sbs) breath away (sin aliento). Take (sbs) word for (sth) (tomar la palabra). Take time (tomarse un tiempo). Take part (participar). a mistake (cometer un error) an appointment (concertar una cita) a phone call (llamada telefnica) a noise (hacer ruido) Make a bed (hacer la cama) a list (hacer una lista (de la compra)) a cup of tea a donation a mess

028. A modal verb: can/could (for permision); have to/had to (for obligation); must and should (for advice); dont need to; Might/may. Speculation.

Permission: can/could; cant/couldnt Permitted Present You can do it Past Not permitted You cant do it

Obligation: have to/dont have to; had to/didnt have to Necessary You have to do it Not necessary You dont have to do it You didnt have to do it Short answer Yes Yes, I//He can. Yes, I//He could. Yes, I/You/We/They do. Yes, I/You/We/They does. Yes, I//He did. Yes, I//He must. Yes, I//He should. Short answer No No, I//He cant. No, I//He couldnt. No, I/You/We/They dont. No, I/You/We/They doesnt. No, I//He didnt. No, I//He mustnt. No, I//He shouldn't.

You could do it You couldnt do it You had to do it Affirmative I//He Negative I//He cant work I//He couldnt work I/You/We/They dont have to work He/She/It doesnt have to work I//He didnt have to work I//He mustnt work I//He shouldn't work Question Can I//He work? Could I//He work? Do I/You/We/They have to work? Does I/You/We/They have to work? Did I//He have to work? Must I//He work? Should I//He work?

PERMITTED (OR NOT)

can work I//He could work I/You/We/They have to

NECESSARY, OBLIATORY (OR NOT)

work He/She/It has to work I//He had to work I//He must work I//He should work

ADVICE

You can use can/cant, could/couldnt to talk about permission. Could is the past form of can: Affirmative form means something is permitted: its OK. In the UK, you can leave school when you are sixteen. When I was fourteen I could stay out as long as I wanted. Negative form means something isnt permitted: it isnt OK. You cant vote until you are eighteen. Swiss women couldnt vote in elections until 1971. You use have to/dont have to, had to/didnt have to to talk about necessity or obligation. Affirmative form means something is necessary or its obligatory. In the UK, you have to drive on the left. I had to wear uniform at school. .Negative form means something isnt necessary or it isnt obligatory You dont have to wear a helmet o a bicycle. In the 1960s you didnt have to wear a helmet on a motorbike.

You can use must and should to give advice. Must is stronger than should. Ought to es otro modo de decir debera/deberas. You must lose weight (or youll die)! You should lose weight (because youll feel much healthier). Its a good film. You ought to go and see it. (must = have to) but (mustnt dont have to). S + dont need to + v. inf.(do something) (no es necesario (hacer algo)). You dont need to go yet. (An no es necesario que te vayas). S + Might (not) + v. inf para expresar algo que es posible y que quiz suceda: Posibilidad: I might play tennis tomorrow (es posible que). She might phone later (es posible que). I may go to the cinema this evening (Quiz vaya). Seguridad: Im playing tennis tomorrow (estar jugando). Shes going to phone later (voy a llamar). Im going to go to the cinema (voy a ir). May: Se puede usar may con el mismo valor que might (I may = I might). Para pedir permiso se usa may I? (=puedo..?) (=Can I?): May I ask a question? (Puedo hacer una pregunta?) May I sit here? (=Can I sit here). We can use modal verbs to make guesses (conjeturas, suposiciones, adivinanzas) about the present, the past and the future. The choice (eleccin, seleccin) of modal verb shows how sure we are about our guess. Sure Must (deber, tener que) Could (podra) might (not) (podra) cant (no puede) less sure may (not) (puede) sure (seguro)

We use the modal verb + infinitive to make guesses about the present or the future. You must be very tired (debes estar muy cansado). I might need your help later (podra necesitar tu ayuda mas tarde). He cant be serious (no puede ser grave/serio). We use the modal verb + be + -ing form to make guesses about actions in progress now. She must be having problems at work. Im not sure where he is. He could be having a bath. She might be working for the CIA.

We use the modal verb + have + past participle to make guesses about the past. They must have arrived by now (tiene que haber llegado ya). He might not have known her true identity (l no podra haber conocido su verdadera identidad). It cant have been a surprise (no puede haber sido una sorpresa).

029. Verbs with dynamic and stative meanings.


Dynamic meanings: actions Most verbs have dinamic meanings. They describe actions: something happens. You can use them with simple forms to talk about habits or routines, or continuous forms to talk about

activities in progress. I recycle all paper, plastic and bottles. Were destroying the planet. The phone is ringing.
Stative meanings: states Some verbs can only be used in the simple form. These are called stative vebs. They often describe emotions, opinions, knowledge or possession. The sense and states do not change. They describe states: nothing happens. You cannot use them with continuous forms. I love you (not I am loving you). He seems friendly (not he is seeming friendly). I want a fairer system (quiero un sistema ms justo). I dont feel strongly about politics. Common verbs with stative meanings: feelings: thoughts: possession: senses: appearance: others: hate, like, dislike, love, prefer, want, agree, matter (me importa) believe, feel, know, think, understand, remember, belong (pertenecer), have, own (poseer), contain, last (durar) feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste. appear (aparecer, parecer), look (like), seem (parecer), fit (adaptar) be, cost, forget, mean, need, realize (dares cuenta), spend (pasar, gastar).

Some verbs can have both dynamic and stative meanings (have, be, feel, see, smell, look, think): Rosie is having a great time at university. (have = experience, dynamic meaning). Brain has a beautiful house. (have = own, stative meaning).

030. Work (trabajar)/job (trabajo).


Work: Would you like to work abroad? Job: Have you ever had a part-time job? applied for, looked for, lost, resigned from. Do you know anybody who has a dangerous job? badly-paid, boring, stressful, well-paid. from home, in marketing, outdoors.

QUESTIONS:

031. Question forms. Subject & object questions. (Wh- questions).

The usual word order in questions is: Wh-question auxiliary verb subject verb + question mark Who What Which party does do did he you you work for? do on New Years Eve? vote for?

These questions are called object questions because the question words (who, what, which party) are the object of the verb.

Statements You You Your name are have left-handed. speak English. been to Peru. Your mother can

Questions Are Can What does you left-handed? been to Peru? mean? your mother speak English? your name

Have you

means first child

(red auxiliary verbs) (blue subject) In some Wh- questions, the question word (who, which, what, whose or how many) is the subject of the verb. These are called subject questions. With a subject question, we do not need an auxiliary verb (do, does or did) with the present simple and the past simple. John (subject) hates cars (object). Subject question: Object question: Silvia saw Paul. Who saw Paul? Who did Silvia see? Who thinks the test is a good idea? What happens on New Years Eve? Which party won the last election? How many people vote for the fovernment? How long have you been learning English? Whose (de quien) advice do you listen to most? Who hates cars? What does John hate?

032. Like.

What + be + somebody/something + like = asking for a description: Whats your new teacher like? Hes really nice. What was the weather like? Terrible. It rained every day. verb + like = similar to somebody/something: She looks like her mother. They have the same eyes. Its plastic, but it feels like leather. like (+ this/that) = in this or that way: Click on the send icon, like this. Cut the paper into squares. No, not like that, like this! like + noun/pronoun = somebody/something pleases you: I really like Harry Potter. Ive seen all the films. I dont like her very much and she doesnt like me. like + ing = enjoy an activity: We like going out every Saturday night. I like cooking but I dont like washing up. would like + noun = want something: Would you like a drink? Yes, Id like a glass of cold water, please.

033. Whats it like? / What are they like? (= Cmo es? / Cmo son?).
Cuando se dice What is it like?, like es una preposicin (=cmo). No es el verbo like: Theres a new restaurant in our street. What is it like? Is it good (Cmo es?). Whats your new teacher like? (Cmo es tu nueva profesora?). Compara: What is Helen like? (Cmo es Helen?) Shes very nice. How is Helen? (Cmo est Helen?) Describing people: What is she like? (=We are asking for a general description of the person) What does she look like? (=We are asking for a description of the persons appearance) What does she like? (=We are asking about the persons preferences or interests) Shes very well.

034. Question tags.


We can use tags after a sentence to check information that we think is true. Wimbledon is in London, isnt it? You went there last year, didnt you? We use a negative tag after a positive main verb, and we use a positive tag after a negative main verb. Youve already given some money, havent you? You didnt call me this morning, did you? Tom will be here soon, wont be? We use an auxiliary verb in the tag. We use do/dont/does/doesnt if the main verb is in the present simple. We use did/didnt if the main verb is in the past simple. I can pay by credit card, cant it? He works with you, doesnt he? She isnt waiting for us, is she? They didnt know, did they?

OK, I forgot to tell you yesterday, but Im telling you now, arent I? You use they to refer to somebody, anybody/everybody and nobody. Somebody must have seen her, musnt they? Nobody wants to look like that, do they?

You use a positive question tag after never, hardly, little. He never gives up, does he? You can use will/would or can/cant/could after imperatives. Get me some milk from the shop, would you? Other cases: Lets go out for dinner, shall we? Nothing can go wrong, can it? The voice (intonation) falls on the tag to show that we are checking (estamos buscando) information. Answer the phone, will you? Theres no time left, is there?

035. Mostrar inters o sorpresa con have you? Is it? Cant he?... (de verdad?).
En una conversacin se puede decir have you? Is it? Cant he?... (de verdad?, ah, s/no?) para mostrar inters o sorpresa: A: I was ill last week. A: Bill cant drive. A: Im not hungry. B: Were you? I didnt know that. B: Cant he? I didnt know that. B: Arent you? I am.

Se usa do/does con el present simple y did para el past simple: A: I speak four languages. A: Tim doesnt eat meat. A:Nicole got married last week. B: Do you? Which ones? B: Doesnt he? Does he eat fish? B: Did she? Really?

036. So am I ((y) yo tambin)/ (ni yo tampoco) neither do I. Similarities & Differences.

Similarities. We can make short statements that begin with so and neither to show a similarity or agreement between what we think and a statement made by another person. We use so after an affirmative statement, and we use neither after a negative statement. The auxiliary verb in the first statement is repeated in the statement that begins with so or neither. Im working. I was late for work today. We was to the cinema last nigh. I wont be here tomorrow. I never go to the cinema. I cant swim. So am I. So was Sam ((y) Sam tambin). Did you? So did we. ((y) nosotros tambin). Neither/Nor will I ((ni) yo tampoco). Neither/Nor do I ((ni) yo tampoco). Neither/Nor can my brother.

If the first statement is in present simple, the second statement will include do/dont/does/doesnt. If the first statement is in the past simple, the second statement will include did/didnt. I like this place. So do I. I didnt understand. Neither did I. Differences. When we want to say the opposite of another statement, we do not use so or neither. We use a pronoun followed by an auxiliary verb. We stress both the pronoun and the ausiliary verb. I cant swim. Im not hungry. I can. I am. I dont like hamburgers. He wants a divorce. They arrived early. I do! She doesnt. You didnt!

He hasnt got a car. She has.

037. Give something to somebody / Give somebody something.


Con los verbos give (dar), lend (prestar a alguien), pass (pasar), send (enviar), show (mostrar, ensear) se pueden dar dos estructuras. Give something to somebody (dar algo a alguien): Thats my book. Give it to me (dmelo). I gave the key to Sarah. Give somebody something (darle a alguien algo): Give me that book. Its mine. I gave Sarah the keys. Tambin con buy/get: I bought my mother some flower. Can you get me a newspaper when you go out?

038. Verbs with two objects.

Some verbs can have two objects: an indirect object and a direct object. indirect object She sent She made her father indirect object me direct object a letter. direct object a special cake.

With these verbs, we can also put the direct object immediately after the verb. When we do this, we need to use to or for befor the indirect object. She sent a letter to her father. She made a special cake for me. Other verbs that can have two objects (and are used with to) include: bring, give, offer, pay, promise, read, send, show, teach, tell, write. Other verbs that can have two objects (and are used with for) include: buy, find, get, keep, make, write. When we use these verbs in the passive voice, both the direct and indirect objects can become the subject of the sentence. Active: They gave him a lot of support. Passive 1: He was given a lot of support. Passive 2: A lot of support was given to him.

039. Causative (have something done).


We use the causative to talk about an action that you ask someone else to do for you. She has her hair cut every Friday (=She pays someone to cut her hair). We had champagne brought to our room (=We asked room service to bring champagne to our room). We do not usually need to say who does the action, because this is usually understood from the context. We use by if we want to say who does the action. He has his suits made by the most expensive tailor in town. They had the tickets delivered by special courier (correo, mensajera).

Subject

Verb is/are having had is/are going to have

Object Past participle the car repaired the TV it mended fixed

He/She/They has/have

040. Indirect questions = Polite questions.


We can use a phrase like Could you tell me, Do you know, Do you think, Do you mind telling me, Id like to know or Would you say to ask for information in a polite way. Note the word order. Question Where is the station? Polite question Report Could you tell me where the station is? I asked where the station was(?).

What image are you trying to achieve? Could you tell me what image youre trying to achieve? What(=subj.) is more important for you: 1 or 2? Id like to know what is more important for you: 1 or 2? What was the last thing you bought? Yes/No answer If/whether- clause. Have you ever sewn a button on a shirt? Id like to know if you have ever sewn a button on a shirt? Have you ever been in trouble with the police? Do you mind telling me whether you have ever been? Do you know what the last thing you bought was? Subject verb

041. Reported speech (estilo indirecto) and thought. Say, tell, ask, If/whether.
We use reported speech (estilo indirecto) to report someones words or thoughts. Direct form: Im very tired, she said. Direct form: Its boring, he thought. Reported form: She said, she was very tired. Reported form: He thought it was boring.

We usually change the verb form into the past in reported speech and thought. However, this is not always necessary. Direct form I work Im working Ive worked I worked I was working Ill work Im going to work I must work I can work Reported form She said she worked She said she was working She said she had worked She said she had worked She said she had been working She said she would work She said she was going to work She said she had to work She said she could work

When we are reporting, we often need to change pronouns and time expressions. Direct form: Reported form: Im going to see my doctor tomorrow. She said she was going to see her doctor the following day.

Because the time of the reporting may be different from the time of the direct speech or though, we may need to change the expression to make the meaning clear. Direct form: Ill do it now Reported form: She said shed do it immediately.

Other time expressions that may chage include the following: Now (immediately), today (that day), yesterday (the day before), tomorrow (the following day), this (that), last (the before), next (the following). Two very common verbs for reported speech are say and tell. Say is followed immediately by the reported speech. We do not refer to the person we were talking to. Tell is followed by an object (the person we were speaking to), and then the reported speech. He said (that) he loved her (not he said her that he loved her). He told her (that) he loved her (not he told that he loved her).

Reported questions: When we report questions, we also move the verb form into the past. drop the question mark. change the word order. Direct form: Reported form: Whats the time? She asked what the time was.

In the reported form, we put the subject before the verb, so we do not need to use the auxiliaries do/does/did in present and past tenses. Direct form: Where do you live? Reported form: She asked me where I lived (not she asked me where I did live). With yes/no question, we use if or whether to introduce the question. Direct form: Reported form: Do you read the financial newspapers? He asked me if/whether I read the financial newspaper.

Tell & ask with infinitive: To report instructions, orders or requests, we can use tell/ask + object + (not) to + infinitive. Direct form: Can you harry up? Direct form: Dont be late. Reported form: She told/asked me to harry up. Reported form: I told/asked them not to be late.

Reporting verbs: Claim (reclamar), Complain (quejarse), Deny (denegar), Inform (informar), Insist, Warn (advertir, avisar).

042. Contable/Uncontable nouns. Singular/Plural. A/an. Quantity expressions (a lot, much, many, (a) few, (a) little, (not) enough).

Contable nouns: Regular forms Singular A place A city Plural Two places Ten cities Spelling Add s. Add es after -ch, -sh, -s, -x. Add ies after a consonant + y. Irregular forms Singular A person A child A man A woman A foot A leaf Ten thousand leaves Add ves after vowel +f. A tooth A fish A mouse - a/an: With singular noun a before a consonant sound: a town, a university. You use an before a vowel sound: an airport, an office. - plural nouns: Some nouns are always plurals and dont have a singular form. You cant use a/an or put a number in front of them. Common plural nouns: Plural Two people Two children Two men Two women Two feet Two teeth A lot of fish Some mice

A church Three churches

That sheep Those sheep

Clothes, glasses, jeans, knickers, pants, pyjamas, scissors, shorts, sunglasses, tights, trousers, luggage.
I have some pink jeans (NOT a pink jeans). We use them with a singular verb form (is, was, have...).

Uncontable nouns: They only have a singular form (without plural forms). You cant use a/an or put a number in front of them. Common uncountable nouns: Advice, architecture, food, furniture, homework, information, knowledge, love, money, music, news,

work, weather, traffic, nightlife, public transport.


We had bad weather (NOT We had a bad weather).

Quantity expressions: With countable nouns: (too) many, lots, a lot, not many, (a) few (unos pocos/pocos), not enough. How many people? Ive got a few friends (unos pocos = bastantes). Ive got few friends (pocos = casi ninguno). With uncountable nouns: (too) much, a lot, lots, not much, (a) little (un poco de/poco), not enough. How much traffic? Ive got a little money (un poco = bastante). Ive got little money (poco = casi nada). A little vs a bit of (un poco de): Hes a bit of all right (se est buensimo (para comrselo)). So much to do, so little time (tanto que hacer y en tan poco tiempo). Enough (suficiente/bastante): Enough + sustantivo: I havent got enough money to buy (not for buy) a new car. Adjective + enough: Is your English good enough to have (not for have) a conversation?

043. Very (muy) / too (demasiado).

Use very + adjective/adverb to emphasise something: We were very late (but we caught our train). Use too + adjective/adverb to show that there is a problem: Something is excessive or more than necessary. We were too late (so we missed our train). She speaks too fast for me to understand.

044. So/such (tan).

Use so + a negative or positive adjective for emphasis:

- Its so romantic. Use such + a negative or positive noun phrase for emphasis: - Its such a romantic city.

045. For (durante)/ Since (desde/desde que)/ Ago.

For + a period of time (when you give the length of the time): Seala cunto tiempo dura una accin. Introduce un perodo de tiempo (3 days, 2 years, a week, a long time). Cuando acompaa al present perfect equivale al espaol desde hace: Richard has been in Canada for six months (est desde hace seis meses)(Present Perf. presente). Weve been waiting for a long time (estamos esperando desde hace mucho tiempo).

Since + a point in time (when you give the beginning of the time): Introduce el comienzo de la accin (Monday, 9 oclock, Christmas, I was ten years old,): Richard has been in Canada since January (est desde enero). Weve been waiting since 9 oclock (estamos esperando desde las nueve).

Ago: Se usa con el past simple y corresponde a hace en espaol: Life was very different a hundred years ago. (hace cien aos). Susan started her new job three weeks ago ( empez hace tres semanas).

Diferencias: When did Jane arrive in Ireland? She arrived in Ireland three days ago (Lleg a Irlanda hace tres das). How long has she been in Ireland? She has been in Ireland for three days (Lleva tres das en Irlanda).

046. Fromto (desdehasta). Until (hasta/hasta que).

Fromto (desde hasta):

We lived in Japan from 1992 to 2001. I work from Monday to Friday.

Until (hasta/hasta que): Theyll be away until Friday (Estarn fuera hasta el viernes). Wait here until I come back (Espera aqu hasta que vuelva). (=Wait here till I come back).

047. Before (antes). During (durante). While (mientras). For (durante + periodo de tiempo). After (despus).

Before (antes/antes de): Everybody feels nervous before exams. Dont forget to close the window before you go out. During (durante) + nombre: I fell asleep during the film (Me dorm durante la pelcula). We didnt speak during the mail (durante la comida) While (mientras) + verbo: We didnt speak while we were eating ( mientras comamos). I often fall asleep while Im reading (mientras estoy leyendo). For (durante) + expresin que indica un perodo de tiempo: We player tennis for two hours (durante dos horas). I lived in London for a year (durante un ao). Before (antes de) y after (despus de) pueden llevar detrs ing o una frase completa, nunca inf.: Before eating the Apple, I washed it carefully (NO before to eat). I started work after reading the newspaper (NO after to read).

048. Adjectives ending in ed or ing.

Adjectives ending in ed (esta/estan) Bored (aburrido/os) Interested (interesado/os)

Adjectives ending in ing (es/son) Boring (aburrido/os) Interesting (interesante/es)

Depressed (deprimido/os) Embarrassed (avergonzado/os) Annoyed (molesto/os) Frightened (espantado/aterrado) Surprised (sorprendido) Excited (excitado/emocionado) Tired (agotado/cansado)

Depressing (deprimente/es) Embarrassing (vergonzoso/os) Annoying (molesto/os) Frightening (espantoso/aterrador) Surprising (sorprendente) Exciting (excitante/emocionante) Tiring (agotador)

Confused (confuso/confundido/se confunde) Confusing (confuso)

Positivos. You (verb) me! Amaze (asombrar) Amuse (divertir) Captivate (encantar) Challenge (desafiar) Charm (encantar) Confort (confortar) Concern (afectar) Convince Encourage (animar) Enchant (encantar) Energize Entertain Enthrall (cautivar) Excite (entusiasmar) Exhaust Fascinate Flatter (halagar) Fulfill (cumplir con) Gratify Humiliate Interest Intrigue Move (conmover) Please (complacer) Relax Relieve (aliviar) Satisfy Soothe (calmar) Surprise I'm (verb-ed)! Amazed (asombrado) Amused (entretenido) Captivated Challenged Charmed (encantado) Comforted Concerned (preocupado) Convinced (convencido) Encouraged Enchanted Energized Entertained Enthralled Excited Exhausted Fascinated Flattered Fulfilled Gratified Humiliated Interested Intrigued Moved Pleased Relaxed Relieved Satisfied Soothed Surprised How (verb-ing)! Amazing (asombroso) Amusing (divertido) Captivating (cautivador) Challenging Charming (encantador) Comforting Concerning (acerca de) Convincing (convincente) Encouraging (alentador) Enchanting (encantador) Energizing Entertaining Enthralling (cautivador) Exciting Exhausting Fascinating Flattering (halagador) Fulfilling (que satisface) Gratifying Humiliating Interesting Intriguing Moving pleasing (pleasant) Relaxing Relieving Satisfying Soothing (relajante) Surprising A surprise A pleasure Relaxation A relief Satisfaction What (noun)! Amazement (asombro) Amusement (diversin) A captivation A challenge (un desafo) Charm (encanto) Confort (comodidad) Concern (asunto) Conviction (convincin) Encouragement (nimo) Enchantment (encanto) Energy Entertainment (diversin) Enthrallment Excitement (emocin) Exhaustion Fascination Flattery Fulfillment (satisfaccin) Gratification Humiliation Interest Intrigue

Tempt (tentar) Touch Thrill (estremecer) Titilate (excitar)

Tempted Touched Thrilled Titilated

Tempting Touching Thrilling (emocionante) Titilating

Temptation A thrill (emocin) Titillation (excitacin)

To be amazed (at) (quedarse asombrado (ante)). To my amazement (para mi asombro/sorpresa). To keep somebody amused (entretener a alguien). Its no concern of yours (no es asunto tuyo). To whom it may concern (a quien corresponda). Flattery will get you nowhere (con halagos no vas a conseguir nada)! He has a fulfilling job (tiene un trabajo que le satisface). To tempt somebody to do something (tentar a alguien a hacer algo). Negativos. You (verb) me! Aggravate Alarm Annoy Bewilder (desconcertar) Bore Confuse Depress Devastate Disappoint (decepcionar) Discourage (desanimar) Disgust Dismay (consternar) Displease (disgustar) Distress (angustiar) Disturb (molestar) Embarrass (avergonzar) Fatigue Frighten (asustar) Frustrate Horrify Irrtate Mystify Overwhelm (abrumar) Perplex Perturb Puzzle (desconcertar) Shock Sicken (ponerse enfermo) Terrify I'm (verb-ed)! aggravated alarmed annoyed Bewildered bored confused depressed devastated disappointed discouraged disgusted dismayed Displeased (disgustado) Distressed (aflijido) disturbed embarrassed fatigued frightened frustrated horrified irritated mystified overwhelmed perplexed perturbed Puzzled (perplejo) shocked sickened terrified How (verb-ing)! aggravating alarming annoying bewildering boring confusing depressing devastating disappointing discouraging disgusting dismaying displeasing Distressing disturbing embarrassing fatiguing frightening frustrating horrifying irritating mystifying overwhelming perplexing perturbing puzzling shocking sickening terrifying What (noun)! aggravation alarm annoyance Bewilderment boredom confusion depression devastation Disappointment Discouragement disgust Dismay (consternacin) Displeasure (disgusto) distress disturbance Embarrassment fatigue Fright (susto) frustration horror irritation mystification overwhelmingness perplexity perturbation Puzzlement a shock Sickness (enfermedad) terror

Threaten (amenazar) Tire (cansar) Trouble (preocupar) Unnerve (desconcertar) Unsettle (inquietar) Upset (afectar, sentar mal) Vex (fastidiar)

threatened tired Troubled (preocupado) unnerved Unsettled (intranquilo) Upset (disgustado) vexed (vext)

threatening tiring Troubling unnerving unsettling Upsetting (molesto) vexing

a threat (amenaza) Tiredness (cansancio) Trouble (problema) unsettledness vexation

Please do not disturb (se ruega no molestar). Im sorry to trouble you (disculpe las molestias). Hes feeling unsettled in his job (no est del todo agusto en su trabajo).

049. Focus on that. Some uses or that.

That (+ noun) to refer to a person or thing not near you: Whos that girl? Look at that car. That = relative pronoun: Its an insect that makes honey. The woman that phoned me spoke French. Expressions with that: Hi. This is Jo. Is that Tanya? You are Irish, arent you? Yes, thats right.

050. Adverbs of manner (-ly) & Adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often,).
Adverbs of manner: Adjetive + -ly: Badly, carefully, angrily, quickly, suddenly, heavily. Exceptions: Adjective Good (bien) Late (tarde) Fast (rpido) Hard (duro) Adverb Well (bien) Late (tarde)(lately=ltimamente) Fast (rpidamente) Hard (duramente)( hardly=apenas)

Early (pronto/temprano) Early (pronto/temprano)

Adverbs of frequency:
always - usually - normally often (a menudo) - sometimes - occasionally - rarely - hardly ever never seldom (apenas/casi no). Adverbs before main verb (delante del verbo principal), but to be & auxiliary verbs before adverb (pero to be y vebos auxiliares delante): We don't usually drive. I'm always tired. Have you ever been to Egypt?

Tambin con also (tambin), just (...acabar de...), already (ya), still (todava), all (todos), both (ambos).

051. Time linkers. (While, as, when) (the momento, as son as, when) (by the time).

We can use while, as and when to show that two actions happen at the same time. He was reading a letter while/as/when the doctors were deciding what to do next. We can use the moment, as soon as and when to show that one action happens immediately after another one. The boy fell asleep the moment/as soon as/when he climbed onto the sofa. We can use by the time to show that one action has happened before another. The party had finished by the time we arrived.

052. Subordinate clauses.

Future time clauses. When you are talking about the future, you use a future form in the main clause but you use a present tense in the subordinate clauses after when, if, as soon as, before (antes), after (despus), while (mientras) etc. Two different sentences formations are possible:

Conjunction Subordinate clause When If he gets home, it rains tomorrow,

Main clause hes going to have a bath. well play at the weekend.

Main clause Hes going to have a bath. Well play at the weekend.

Conjunction Subordinate clause when if he gets home, it rains tomorrow,

053. Defining relative clauses with the relative pronouns (that, which, who).

A relative clause can define or identify the thing or person introduced in the main clause.

It comes immediately after the person or thing it is describing.

A cheetah is an animal that can run at 100 kilometres an hour. The woman who does my hair is called Muriel.

The relative pronoun (that, which, who) becomes the subject of the verb in relative clause. You use that (or which) for things and who (or that) for people.

Subject verb

Subject verb

People who come from Manchester are called Mancunians. A butchers is a shop that sells meat. Emma lives in a house which is 400 years old. An aeroplane is a machine which flies.

That/who/which no son necesarios cuando son objeto: The film (that) we saw was very good. Everything (that) I said was true (todo lo que dije era cierto).

054. Unreal conditionals. If-clauses and a main clauses with would + infinitive.

You can use a conditional sentence to talk about a present or future situation that is imaginary or not probable. These sentences are usually called unreal conditionals. They have two clauses; an if-clause and a main clause:

If-clause:
When we want to refer to a hypothetical situation in present or future time, we use a past tense in conditional clauses. Real situation I am not an animal. I live in an apartment. Imaginary situation If I was/were an animal If I lived in an igloo

Note: If I/he/she/it were is more formal than If I/he/she/it was. You always use were in the fixed expression. If I were you

Main clause
You usually use would + infinitive in the main clause. If-clause If I had $1million, I/You/He d (would) Main clause Id travel round the world. I/You/He wouldnt (would not) Would Yes, No,

I/you/he, I/You/He I/You/He

work.

work.

work?

would.

wouldnt.

These sentences are sometimes called second conditional sentences. If I could live anywhere, Id choose somewhere hot. Compara: (Si tengo tiempo) (Te ayudar) If I have / if it is /... (presente) Ill help you if I can (si puedo). If I had / If it was / ... (pasado) Id help you if I could (si puediera), but I cant.

If I have time, I will go (ir) today. If I had (tuviera) time, I would go today (ira hoy).

When we want to refer to a hypothetical situation in the past, we use the past perfect (had + past participle) in the conditional clause. These clauses express the opposite of what actually happened. If you had listened to me (=but you didnt listen to me). If he hadnt missed the train (=but he missed the train) We use would + have + past participle in the main clause of the sentence to talk about the consequence or result of the hypothetical situation. If you had listened to me, you wouldve understood. You wouldve understood if youd listened to me. If he hadnt missed the train, he would have been on time. These sentences are sometimes called third conditional sentences.

055. Comparatives and superlative adjectives.

Adjective Short adjectives: add -er/-est Adjectives ending in a consonant or e Adj. ending in -y new nice healthy good/well bad/badly (malo/mal) Irregular adjectives far (lejano) much/many (mucho) little (poco) Long adjectives: add more / the most Exciting

Comparative newer nicer fitter healthier better worse (peor) further (ms lejano) more (ms) less (menos)

Superlative the newest the nicest the fittest the healthiest the best (el major) the worst (el peor) the furthest (el ms lejano) the most (el ms) the least (el menos)

Adj. ending in a single vowel + a single consonant fit

(bueno/bien) (mejor)

more exciting the most exciting

You use comparative adjectives to compare people/things with other people/things: Fernando Alonso is older than Lewis Hamilton. You can use more than (ms que/de) less than (menos que/de): Theyve got more money than they need. You go out less than me (sales menos que yo). You can use a bit or much to modify comparisons: Wembley Stadium is a bit bigger than the Stade de France. Cristiano Ronaldo is much better-looking than Wayne Rooney. You use not as + adjective + as to make a negative comparisons: Golf is not as dangerous as motor racing. You use superlative adjectives to compare people/things with all the other people/things in their group: Mohamed Ali was the greatest sportman of all time. Football is the most popular sport in the world. At least (al menos) At last (por fin). At least your illness isnt serious, otherwise (de lo contrario) youd be in hospital. Weve arrived at last (hemos llegado al fin).

056. "It" to talk about the hours, days, dates, distances and weather conditions.

Hours: What time is it? Its half past ten. Its late. Its time to go home. Days and dates: What day is it? Its Thursday. Its 16 March. It was my bithday yesterday. Distances: How far is it from NY to LA? We can walk home. It isnt far. Weather conditions: Its raining. Its dark. Its cold. Its windy. Its warm. Does it snow very often? It vs. there:

It rains a lot in winter (llueve mucho en invierno). There is a lot of rain in winter (Hay mucha lluvia en invierno). Its + adj. + to: Its nice to see you again. Its imposible to understand her. It wasnt easy to find your house (no fue fcil encontrar tu casa). El sujeto it no tiene equivalente en espaol: It is late (es tarde). Is it true that youre going away? (es verdad que te vas?).

057. Too (tambin) /not either (tampoco).

Too (tambin); not either (tampoco): Se usa too detrs de un verbo afirmativo. Se usa either detrs de un verbo negativo. I enjoyed the film. Jane is a doctor. Im not happy. I cant cook. Bill doesnt watch TV. I enjoyed it too. Her husban is a doctor too. Im not happy either (yo tampoco soy feliz) I cant either (Yo tampoco s) He doesnt read newspapers either.

058. Both (ambos), either (uno de los dos), neither (ninguno de los dos).

We use both and neither to compare two people or things. The meaning of both is positive and the meaning of neither is negative. Both of them have a good job (=He has a good job and she has a good job). Neither of them has a good job (=He doesnt have a good job and she doesnt have a good) We use a plural verb when both is the subject of the sentence. We normally use a singular verb when neither is the subject of a sentence. When we name the two subjects, both is used with and. Neither is use with nor. Both Ceri and Philip speak Spanish.

Neither Ceri nor Philip speaks Slovenian. Both can be used in two positions in a sentence. Both of them have children. They both have children.
Both (ambos) + plural (windows/books/children,): Rebecca has two children. Both are married. Last year I went to Paris and Rome. I like both cities very much. Either (uno de los dos)/neither (ninguno de los dos) + singular (window/book/child,): First I worked in an office, and later in a shop. Neither job was very interesting (ninguno de los dos). There are two ways from here to the station. You can go either way (cualquiera de los dos). Pron. posesivos + demostrativos both either neither (of) of the these/those my/your/Pauls Pron. personales both either neither of them us you

I like both (of) those pictures. Both of them are married. I havent read either of these books. Neither of my parents is British. Neither of us was hungry.

059. Las preposiciones (to, for, about, with,) al final de las preguntas con Who?, What?, Where?, Which?

Where are you from? (De donde eres?). What was he afraid of? (De qu tena miedo?). Who do these books belong to? (A quien pertenecen?). Which hospital is he in? En qu hospital est?). Who is she going with? (Con quin va (ella)?). What do you want to talk about? (De qu quieres hablar?).

060. How long does it take?

does (se tarda) How long (Cuanto) did (se tard) will (se tardar) It take to? (en?) It

a week takes (se tarda) took (se tard) will take (se tardar) doesnt (no se tarda) didnt (no se tard) a long time three hours take long to (en)

wont (no se tardar) How long will it take to get from here to the hotel? Cunto se tarda en llegar desde aqu al hotel?

does (tardas) How long (Cuanto) did (tard Tom) will (tardarn) How long will it take me to learn English? (Cunto tardar en aprender ingls?) It take you Tom them to? (en?) takes (tardo) It took (tard) will take (tardarn) me Tom them

a week a long time three hours to (en)

061. I/me/my/mine.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS I/we/you/ I know Tom. We know Tom. You know Tom. He knows Tom. She knows Tom. They know Tom. It is a nice place. Why are you looking at her? Do you want to go with them? Youre sitting on it (ests sentado encima). Tom knows him. me/us/you/ This letter isnt for me. Do you want to come with us? Tom knows you. he/she/they/it him/her/them

POSESIVES PRONOUNS my/our/your/ his/her/their/its My legs ache (me dueles las piernas). We cant find our keys. How often do you clean your teeth? He always has his hands in his pockets. Shes got a small scar on her face. They like their house. Oxford (=it) is famous for its university. Tom was in the restaurant with a friend of his. I didnt have a book, so she left me hers (as que me dej el suyo). We went in our car, and they went in theirs. mine/ours/yours/ his/hers/theirs I went out to meet a friend of mine. (un amigo mo). Its their problem, not ours. (Es su problema, no el nuestro). Are those people friends of yours?

062. Reflesive pronouns (myself/yourself/themselves); by myself; each other.

Myself (m mismo/me), himself (s mismo/se),

I loked at myself in the mirror (Me mir). He cut himself with knife (se cort).

herself (s misma/se), yourself (t mismo/te (Vd.) s mismo/se), yourselves (vosotros mismos/os), ourselves (nosotros mismos/nos), themselves (ellos mismos/ellas mismas/se); Please, help yourself (Por favor, srvete t mismo).

By myself/by yourself (a solas/solo): I went on holidays by myself (Fu de vacaciones solo). Was she with friends? No, she was by herself (No, estaba sola).

Each other (el uno al otro): They know each other well (Se conocen bien). They hurt each other (Se hicieron dao mutuamente). They hurt themselves (Los dos se hicieron dao).

063. Whose? (de quien?)

Whose? (=De quien?): Whose Money is this? Whose is this? Its mine. Whose shoes are these? Whose are these? Theyre Johns.

064. Demostrative pronouns (This, these, that, those). Like this/like that.
This (este, esta, esto);

Do you like this picture? This hotel is expensive but its very nice. Al telfono: Hi Sarah, this is David (soy David). En presentaciones: Brian, this is Chris (ste es Chris). These (estos, estas); These flowers are for you. Do you like these shoes. Which shoes do you preferthese or those (estos o aquellos)? Tomorrow we have to deliver these reports. That (ese, esa, aquel, aquella, aquello); Do you like that picture? Whos that girl? Algo que ocurri: That was a really nice meal (ha sido una comida estupenda). Those (esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas, aquellos); Those apples look nice. Who are those people? Those exercises were difficult. Like this/like that = as (de este modo/de ese modo); Dont do it like that. Do it like this. (No lo hagas as. Hazlo as). Dont look at me like that. (No me mires as).

065. The definite article the, , a, an. The determiners some, any.

We use the definite article, the to refer to something or someone because we have already mentioned it, or it is defined by context of the sentence. The Office of Statistics draws up (elabora, redacta) a list of goods. The list is designed to reflect the nations buying habits. to refer to something or someone when its the only one in the context. In the consumer world of the twenty-first century We use the zero article () with uncountable or plural nouns to talk about things in general. They replace them with new products. We prefer lighters. The es el artculo determinado para el singular y para el plural, corresponde normalmente a el/la/los/las; The cats are in the house. The sky is blue and the sun is shinning. No utilizaremos the en los casos siguientes: Colores: Comidas: I dont like red or white (No me gusta el rojo ni el blanco). I never have breakfast. What time do you have lunch? Dinner is ready.

Ttulos:

Do you know Mrs Smith? Uncle Robert is ill. Captain Cook discovered Australia. Do you work on Sundays?

Das de la semana: Ill be away from Monday to Friday (Estar fuera desde el lunes hasta el viernes). Next/last: TV: Im not working next week. Did you have a holiday last summer?, next/last (+week, month, year, summer, Monday,) I watch TV a lot. Whats on TV tonight? university whe he leaves school. He had to go to hospital. Im going home. Sentido general: I like music. Life is not possible without water. I hate exams. Toms brother is studying physics and chemistry. Cuando nos referimos al televisor, la radio o internet se utilize the; Can you turn off the television? I listen to the radio a lot. Whats on the radio tonight? Do you use the internet much? Hay lugares y profesiones en las que se utilize the: The cinema the theatre the bank the post office the station the airport the city center the doctor the dentist the north the south. Lugares de trabajo: Im going to work now. What did you learn at school today? Helen wants to go

We use the indefinite article, a or an To talk about things in general (with singular nouns). The basket does no contain a box of matches. To introduce new information or to refer to something for the first time (with singular countable nouns) The Office of Statistics draws up a list of goods. To refer to one of a group of things. to see if youre a part of modern Britain. A/An se usa con sustantivos contables en singular: Se usa a delante de una consonante (b/c/d//y); Can I ask a questions? (Puedo hacer una pregunta?). Se usa an delante de una vocal (a, e, i, o, u) (hay h que no se pronuncian); an hour, a hat, an umbrella, a university, a European. Se usa a/an para designar cosas o personas; The sun is a star.

Y delante de los nombres de profesiones: a dentist, an engineer, a composer En algunos casos se usa a/an + sustantivo contable en singular pero no tiene traduccin; What a big cat! (Qu gato tan grande?). Shes got a cold. (Est resfriada). En exclamaciones: What an awful day! (Qu da tan malo!). Detrs de with/without; a hotel with a swimming pool, a house without a garaje. Con los nmeros 100 y 1000; There are a hundred pence in a pound (Hay cien peniques en una libra). Para expresar relaciones de frecuencia-tiempo; precio-cantidad, etc; Three lessons a week, 1.5 a kilo, 90 kilometres an hour.

We use the determiners some and any to describe an unspecified number or quantify (with uncountable and plural nouns). We should get some mineral water. Some families are spending more on organic food. Some is common in positive sentences. In negative sentences and questions, any is more common. It does not contain any luxury goods like caviar. Have you bought any coffee recently? Some se usa en sustantivos contables en plural (cars, apples, shoes,) y en sustantivos incontables (wter, money, music,); I need some new shoes. Would you like some cheese (or a piece of cheese)? I need some water. En ingls son incontables y no tiene plural; advice, bread, furniture, hair, information, news, weather, work; Its nice weather today. I need some advice.

We can also use any in positive sentences to show that quantity is not important. If you see any special offers at the shops, let me know (=it doesnt matter how many/which special offers).

066. Quantifiers. Some, any, many, most, all, enough, plenty (of), no.

We can use the quantifiers some, any, many, most and all in two different ways: with or without of. With of Some Any Many Most All Some of the shops are very expensive. I dont know any of your friends. the + noun of my/his/het/etc. + noun them/us/you Without of Some Any Many Most All Some people hate shopping. Are there any shops that sell souvenirs? + noun + the + noun

My brother spends most of his money on presents for his new girlfriend.

We use none to talk about no amount or quantify of something. When none is followed by a noun or pronoun, we always use of. the + noun none of my/his/het/etc. + noun them/us/you None of the shops are open (not none shops are open). None of my friends smoke. None of them has time to help you.

When none is the subject of a sentence, it is used with an affirmative verb. The verb can be singular or plural. We use no followed by a noun without an article or a possessive adjective. There were no parking facilities (instalaciones). No website is better for cheap flights.

Quantifiers that can be used with both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns: A lot of, lots of, enough, not enough, plenty of (mucho).

Enough means the quantity is sufficient for the purpose. Do we have enough money to go out for a meal? I think youve probably had enough time. Plenty of means the quantity is more than sufficient for the purpose. Youve got plenty of time to catch the train. Theres plenty of room for everybody. Quantifiers with plural countable nouns Many, not many, too many, a few, few Quantifiers with uncountable nouns --, not much, too much, a little, little

We do not usually use much in affirmative sentences in modern English. We use a lot of/lots of of instead (en lugar de). They gave us a lot of advice (not They gave us much advice).

We use too many/too much when we want to be critical of something. There were too many people (= I was not happy about this).

A few and a little mean a small amount (importe) or quantity. Few and a little without the indefinite article mean not many or not much. Compare: A few beaches are really nice (= a small number of beaches). Few beaches are really nice (= not many). Few and little (without a) are usually used with an affirmative verb.

067. All, every, most, some, any, no, no-one, none.

Se usa some para frases afirmativas y any para frases negativas; We made some mistakes. We didnt make any mistakes. I didnt take any photographs, but Jane took some. Utilizaremos some en preguntas de tipo Would you like some? Can I have some? El resto any; Would you like some coffee? Can you lend me some money? Do you need any help? Utilizaremos Somebody (alguien) something (algo) en frases afirmativas (y en algunas preguntas) y anybody y anything en frases negativas y en la mayora de preguntas; She said something. I saw somebody. Would you like something to eat? Somebodys at the door (Hay alguien en la puerta). She didnt say anything. Has anybody seen her? Se usa no (=not any) especialmente detrs de have (got) y there is/are; There are no cars in the car park. Weve got no coffee. Its a nice house, but there is no garden. none (nada, ninguno/a) responde a las preguntas How much? How many?; How much money have you got? None. How many people did you meet? None. no-one (=nobody) (nadie) responde a la pregunta Who?; Who did you meet? No-one (or nobody). Utilizaremos every (cada uno, todos individualmente) + singular sust./verbo; Every house in the street is the same. You look different every time I see you. Every country has a national flag. all (todos globalmente);

All countries have a national flag. It rained all day yesterday. I watched Tv all evening. Se dice all morning/night/summer (no all the mornings).

Para hablar en general all most some any no of cities children books money Most children like playing. I dont want any money. Some books are better than others. Most people drive too fast. Some birds cant fly.

Para hablar de cosas determinadas all most some any none of (of) the this/that these/those my/youretc. Most of the children at this school are under 11 years old. I dont want any of this money. Some of this books are very old. None of my friends live near me.

Con pronombres personales all most some any no of it them us you Do you know those people? Most of them, but not all of them (la mayor parte pero)

068. El genitivo sajn y el genitivo elptico (-s).


Se aade (s) a los sustantivos singulares (incluso los que terminan en s) y a los sustantivos plurales sin s. Se usa normalmente con personas para expresar posesin, relacin familiar, dependencia o grupos e instituciones. En espaol se indica esta relacin con la preposicin de: Johns birthday. My bosss secretary. Childrens feelings. Britanys economy. Tambin se puede utilizar para cosas que se sobreentienden (genitivo elptico): Sophies hair is longer tan Kates. Whose umbrella is this? Its my mothers. Si utilizamos un nombre en plural acabado en s (friends, parents, students,) aadimos slo el apstrofo (-): The horses stables. My friends house (la casa de mis amigos) My friends house (la casa de mi amigo).

069. Here/there.
Here (aqu) designa el lugar donde se encuentra la persona que habla; Ive already been here for half an hour. There (all, all) designa un lugar alejado de la persona que habla; I hope the weather in London will be nice when I get there.

070. One/ones.
Se utilizan one/ones (unos/unos) para evitar repetir un sustantivo; I need a pen. Have you got one? Is there a bank near here? Yes, theres one at the endo of the street. Would you like one? Singular & plural; Which one? (=which hat?) Which ones? (=Which flowers?). The one/the ones (el/la que est, los/las que estn); Which hotel did you stay? The one opposite the station. Which flowers do you want? These ones or those ones? The + adjective + one (or ones); I dont like the black coat, I like the brown one. I dont like the red shoes, I like the green ones. A/An + adjective + one (or some + adjective + ones); This cup is dirty. Can I have a clean one? These cups are dirty. Can we have some clean ones?

071. Connectors. And (y/e), but (pero), or (o/u), so (por eso/ as que), because (porque).

And/but/or conectan dos frases con el mismo sujeto: I bought a newspaper, but I didnt read it. He doesnt like her, and she doesnt like him. So (por eso/as que) indica un resultado: They dont like travelling, so they havent been to many places.

It was late and I was tired, so I went to bed. Because (porque) indica la causa, tambin puede ir al principio (como): Because it was very hot, I opened the window. I always enjoy visitibg London, but I wouldnt like to live there because its too big.

072. At, on, in.

At: Para decir la hora: At 8 oclock. At 10:30. At midnight. Tambin: At the weekend. At night. At Christmas. At Easter. At the end of at the moment (ahora). Where will you be at Christmas? (pero on Christmas Day). Are you busy at the moment? At (a place) = En (un lugar), pero no dentro de ese lugar o rodeado por el mismo: Theres somebody at the bus stop/at the door (en la parada del autobs/en la puerta). The car is waiting at the traffic lights (en el semforo). Jane is working at her desk (en su escritorio). Write your name at the top/at the bottom of the page (en la parte superior/inferior de la pgina). My house is at the end of the street (al final de la calle). Pero tambin: At home. At work. At school. At university. At college. At the station. At the airport. At Janes house. At the doctors/At the hairdressers (en un lugar de trabajo). At a concert/At a party/ At a football (En una acontecimiento, reunin o espectculo). At (the age of) 21/ at 50 kilometres an hour/ at 100 degrees, etc.

On: Para das y fechas: On Sunday(s). On 25 April. On New Years Day. On Monday morning(s). On = En (sobre, encima de): There are some books on the shelf and some pictures on the wall (en la estanteraen la pared). There are a lor of apples on those trees (en esos rboles). Dont seat on the grass (en la hierba). Its wet. There is a stamp on the envelope (Hay un sello en el sobre).

Who is that man on a horse/on a bicycle/on a motorbike? Pero tambin: On a bus/On a train/On a plane/On a ship. On the ground floor/On the first floor. On the way to (de camino a). On the right/On the left. On holiday, on TV, on the radio, on the phone, on fire, on time. On foot.

In: Para meses, aos y estaciones: In April. In 1974. In spring. Tambin: In the morning (por la maana). In the afternoon (por la tarde). In the evening (por la noche). (dentro de) In five minutes. In a few days. In six weeks. In two years. In (a place) = En (un lugar) rodeado pore se lugar: Wheres David? In the kitchen/In the garden/In London. Whats in that box/in that bag/in that cupboard (armario)? I went for a swim in the river/in the sea/in the pool. Milan is in the north of Italy. Naples is in the south. I live in a big city, but Id like to live in the country (en el campo). You look sad (triste) in this photograph/in this picture. Detrs de un superlative in corresponde normalmente a de: Whats the largest city in the world? (Cual es la ciudad ms grande del mundo?). Arrive in/at Arrive in + pas/ciudad: Arrive at + otros lugares: They arrived in England (in Paris,) last week (Llegaron a Inglaterra) What time did you arrive at the hotel (at the station, at work)?

073. Prepositions (at, with, for, of, without, after, in) + -ing.

Im not very good at telling stories (No se me da bien contar historias). Are you fed up with doing the same thing every day? (Ests harto de hacer lo mismo?) Thank you for helping me (Gracias por ayudarme). Mark is thinking of buying a new car. Tom left without saying goodbye (Tom se fue sin decir adios). After doing the shopping, they went home. Are you interested in learning English?

074. Prepositions of place: Next to (junto a), beside (al lado de), between (entre), in front of (delante de), opposite (enfrente de), behind (detrs de), by (=nexto to, beside), under (debajo), above (por encima de, sin contacto), below (por debajo de, sin contacto).

Netx to, beside, by

Between

In front of

Opposite

Behind

Under

Below

Above, over

On

In

Into

Out of

Near

No confudir opposite (=enfrente de) con in front of (=delante de). B A C A is sitting in front of B (delante de) A is sitting opposite C. C is sitting opposite C. (enfrente de)

075. By (=next to / beside). By car/by bus A book by /a painting by /a piece of music by

By (=next to/beside). Our house is by the sea. (al lado del mar). Who is the man standing by the window? (junto a la ventana?). If you feel cold, why dont you sit by the fire? (Porqu no te sientas junto al fuego?).

By car / by bus / by plane / by bike / pero on foot (a pie). Do you like travelling by train? You cant get there by car. You have to go on foot. A book by / a painting by / a piece of music by Have you read any books by Charles Dickens? Who is that painting by? (De quin es esa pintura?). By (=por) se usa tambin con la voz pasiva. I was bitten by a dog.

076. Through/across (=a trevs de).

Normalmente throught se usa para algo vertical (una ventana, un bosque, etc.) y across se suele usar para algo horizontal (un valle, la calle, un ro, etc.). A bird flew into the room throught a window. The old road goes through the village (la carretera vieja atraviesa el pueblo). The dog swam across the river (el perro atraves el ro nadando). We ran across de road.

077. Phrasal verbs.

The term phrasal verbs usually refers to all multi-word verbs, consisting of a verb + particle(s). Phrasal verbs can be divided into 3 basic types.

1. Verb + particle (INTRANSITIVE): Some phrasal verbs are intransitive and dont take (no llevan) direct object. Sit down and enjoy it. When are you going to grow up?

2. Verb + object + particle (TRANSTIVE SEPARABLE): The biggest group of phrasal verbs is transitive. These verbs take a direct object. With separable verbs, when the direct object is a noun, you can put it before or after the particle. Take off your shoes. OR Take your shoes off. OR Take them off.

When the direct object is a pronoun, you have to put it between the verb and the particle. Switch it off, please (NOT Switch off it.)

3. Verb + particle + object (TRANSITIVE NOT SEPARABLE): With this type of phrasal verb you always put the direct object (noun or pronoun) after the particle. She looks after her grandmother. I ran after the bus, but it didnt stop. Deal with it (hacerle frente). Normalmente un phrasal verb corresponde a una sola palabra en espaol: Go in/walk in = entrar go out = salir go/come back = regresar

A veces corresponde a un verbo reflexivo o pronominal: Get up = levantarse stand up = ponerse de pie sit down = sentarse go/walk away = aleajarse Go in (entrar, ponerse en, colocarse). I waited outside the shop. I didnt go in (No entr). Get in (entrar, subirse a un coche). She opened the door of the car and got in (subi (al coche)). Get out (salir, bajarse de un coche). The car stopped and a woman got out (baj (del coche)). Get on (subirse a un bus). The bus came, and I got on (sub (al bus)). Look out (mirar hacia afuera, buscar). I went to the window and looked out (mir fuera). Fall off (caerse, perder la fe). Be careful! Dont fall off (no caigas (de la bici)). Fall down (caerse, derrumbarse, fracasar). The picture fell down (se cay). Fall over (caerse, tropezar con). I fell over (me ca (al perder el equilibrio) because my shoes were too big for me. Sit down (sentarse). Would you like to sit down (Quieres sentarte)? Stand up (levantarse, ponerse de pie). He stood up (se puso de pie) and left the room.

Lie down (acostarse, tumbarse, echarse). Lie down (tmbate) on the floor. Get up (levantarse, ponerse en pie). I usually get up (me levanto) early. Look up (mirar para arriba, buscar). We looked up (alzamos la vista) at the stars in the sky. Run away (huir, escaper) The thief ran away (El ladrn huy, escap corriendo). Drive away/off (arrancar y partir, ahuyentar). She got into the car and drove away (=drove off) (Subi al coche y se march). Go away (desaparecer, marcharse) He has gone/been away (se ha ido/ha estado) for few days. Be back (estar de vuelta). He is away. Hell be back (estar de vuelta/regresar) on Monday. Come back (volver, regresar). Go away and dont come back (Vete y no vuelvas)! Go back (volver, regresar). We went out for dinner and then went back (regresamos) to our hotel. Climb over (pasar por encima). The wall wasnt very high, so we climbed over (lo saltamos (por encima)). Look around (mirar a su alrededor, volver la cabeza). Somebody shouted my name, so I look round (=around) (me volv, mir alrededor). Put on (ponerse, vestirse). It was cold, so I put on my coat (=I put my coat on). Heres your coat. Put it on (Pntelo). Take off (despegar, quitarse) Im going to take off my shoes (=take my shoes off). Your shoes are dirty. Take them off (Qutatelos). The plane took off (despeg) from the runway (pista). The plane took off (despeg) 20 minutes late, but landed on time. Turn on (encender, conectar, prender). It was dark, so I turned on the light (=I turned the light on).

Turn off (apagar, desconercar, cerrar). I dont want to watch this programme. You can turn it off. Turn up (aparecer, subir, poner ms fuerte). Something will turn up (algo saldr). Can you turn the radio up (subir (el volumen))? I cant hear it. Turn down (bajar, rechazar). The music is too loud. Can you turn it down (puedes bajar (el volume))? He was turned down for the job (no le dieron el puesto). Turn over (entregar, volcar, pasar). Turn over (pasa (la pgina)) and look at the next page. Turn around (girar, volverse). We went for a long walk. After an hour we turned round/around (dimos la vuelta) and went back. Switch on/off (encender/apagar). I switched on the light and switched off the television. Pick up (recoger, adquirir). Those (esas) are my keys on the floor (en el suelo). Can you pick them up (coger/recoger) for me? Put down (dejar sobre, sofocar, acabar con). I stopped reading and put my book down (dej el libro (en la mesa)). Put out (apagar, extinguir) The fire brigade arrived and put the fire out (apagaron (un incendio, un cigarrillo)). Bring back (devolver, restaurar). You can take my umbrella, but please bring it back (devulvemela, traela de vuelta). Take back (regresar, devolver). I took my new sweater back (devolv, llev) to the shop. It was too small for me. Give back (devolver). Ive got Rachels keys. I have to give them back (devolver, dar, entregar) to her. Put back (volver a poner, devolver). I read the letter and then put it back (volv a ponerla) in the envelope. Carry on (continuar, seguir adelante). Carry on (sigua, contina) along this road and turn right at the lights.

Dont stop here. Go on/Walk on/Drive on (seguir/seguir andando/seguir conduciendo). Come on (vamos/venga/date prisa)! Everybody is waiting for you. How was your exam? How did you get on (Cmo te ha ido)? Hold on (aguantar, resistir, esperar). Can you hold on (esperar (al telefono)) a minute? Go off (estallar, explotar, sonar reloj/alarma). A bomb went off (explot) and caused a lot of damage. A car alarm goes off (suena) if somebody tries to break into (entrar forzando) the car. Give up (renunciar, rendirse, darse por vencido). I know its difficult, but dont give up (no desistas, no te des por vencido). Sue gave up (dej) her job when her baby was born. Grow up (crecer, hacerse mayor) What does your son want to do when he grows up (sea mayor, crezca)? Hurry up (darse prisa). Hurry up (date prisa)! We havent got much time. Speak up (hablar ms alto). I cant hear you. Can you speak up (hablar ms alto), please? Wake up (despertarse). I often wake up (me despierto (somebody who is sleeping)) in the middle of the night. Wash up (fregar los platos, lavarse las manos). Do you want me to wash up (Quieres que lave los platos)? Slow down (ralentizar, reducir la velocidad). Youre driving too fast. Slow down (reduce la velocidad)! Break down (romper, descomponer, analizar) Sue was very late because her car broke down (se averi, se estrope). Fill in (llenar, rellenar). Can you fill in (rellenar) this form, please? Cross out (tachar, rayar). If you make a mistake cross it out (tchalo). Try on (probarse).

This is a nice jacket. Shall I try it on (voy a porbarmela (en una tienda))? Look up (buscar palabras). I didnt know the meaning of the word, so I looked it up (la busqu (una palabra en)) in a dictionary. Knock down (derribar, destruir). They are going to knock down (van a derribar (un edificio)) the school and build a new one. Knock over (tirar, voltear, atropellar). Be careful. Dont knock your cup over (No tires (hacer caer objetos o personas)). There was an accident at the end of the road. A man was knocked over (fu atropellado) by a car. Throw away (tirar, desechar). These apples are bad. Shall I throw them away (las tiro (a la basura = rubbish))? Put away (guardar). After they finished playing, the children put their toys away (put something away = guardar algo). Pay back (devolver dinero). Thank you for lending me the money. Ill pay you back next week (pay sb back = devolver dinero). Ill never be able to pay you back for all youve done (nunca podr pagarte por lo que has hecho). Ill pay you back for this (me las vas a pagar)! Show (a)round (hacer de gua). We visited a factory last week. The manager showed us round (show sb (a)round =hacer de gua). Draw up (redactor, preparer). The Office of Statistics draws up (elabora, redacta) a list of goods.

078. Asking for directions, giving directions and asking for travel information.

Asking for directions: Excuse me, wheres (the main square)? is there (a chemists) near here? how do I get to (the post office)? is this the way to (the car park)? where can I find (a bank)? Giving directions: Go along (this street). Turn left/right at the (station, chuch).

over (the bidge). past (the museum). straight on. past the roundabout (traffic circle = rotunda). Asking for travel information: Whats the fare (Cul es la tarifa)? Could you tell me the time of the next train/bus? How long does the journey take? Can I get a bus anywhere near/round here? Have you got change for a ten-pound note? One single/A return to the town center, please.

first/second right/left. Take the first on the right. the second on the left.

Do you go to (the city center)? Can you tell me when to get off (bajarme) Does this bus go to the airport? Has the 11.40 for North Park left yet? Id like a cab for the Pizzeria, please?

Which platform does it leave from (desde qu anden sale)? Can you take me to (), please?

079. Introductions, greetings, goodbyes & invitations.

Introductions: Can I introduce you to (Natxvader)? This is (Natxvader). Can I introduce myself? Let me introduce myself. My name is Natx Fan. Nice Pleased Nice Pleased to meet you, too. to meet you.

Greetings: How is it going? morning. Good afternoon. evening. Hello/Hi. Its good to see you again. Its nice to be here again. How are you? Hows the family? Pretty well. And you? Very well, thanks. Fine, thanks.

Hows everything? Fine, thanks.

Goodbyes: It was nice meeting you. I enjoy meeting you, too. It was great seeing you. Have a good trip. I hope to see you again soon. See you again soon. Goodbye. Bye. Good night.

Invitations: Inviting Would you like to (visit our new head office)? Would you have (dinner) with me? How about (doing some sightseeing)? What about (joining us for lunch)? Saying yes Ty. That would be interesting. Ty. Id enjoy that. Thats a good idea. Great idea. OK. Fine.

Saying no Thanks for asking me, but Im afraid Id love to, but unfortunately Im sorry, but

+ reason Ive got something planned (Tengo algo planeado). I have to leave tomorrow (Tengo que salir maana). Ill be away (voy a estar lejos).

080. Making and changing arrangements (acuerdos, planes).

Making an arrangement. Can we arrange a meeting (podemos organizar una reunin)? When are you free? Friday is OK. Is Monday possible for you? Yes, thats fine. What about Tuesday? No, Tuesday isnt possible. How about Thursday? No, Im sorry, Im busy on Thursday. What time do you prefer? See you on Wednesday, then. Changing an arrangement. Im very sorry, but Ive got a problem on Thursday. Can we change the date of our meeting?

081. Offers and requests (pedir, solicitar), eating and drinking.

Offering. Can I take your coat? Shall I explain the programme (te explico el programa)?

Replying. Thanks. Yes, please do.

Would you like a drink? What would you like to eat?

Yes, please. Not at the moment, thanks. Id like

Requesting (pidiendo, solicitando, tener inters en). Can I use your phone? Yes, of course. Could I borrow your video camera (me podras dejar tu cmara de vdeo)? Sorry, but Can you bring us two coffees, please? Certainly (por supuesto). Could you wait a minute?

Ordering food/drinks. Ill have the soup, please. Id like the fish, please. Can I have a glass of white wine? Could I have a side salad (me podra dar una ensalada)?

082. Suggestions (sugerencias), telephoning and giving website.

Suggesting How about playing tennis? What about coming to a party? Why dont we go to the sports centre? Lets go to the cinema. Use -ing verb form Use infinitive without to.

Telephoning. Starting a call. Good morning/Hello,,,/This is/Its Is that Maria Torralba? Can I speak to Mr. Castresana? Could I speak to Mark? Can I have extension 271? Mr. X, I have a call for you. Im phoning about Im calling about Im sorry, the lines busy. Yes, speaking. Whos calling, please? Just a moment, please. Ill try to put you through. Hold on, please. Bear with me.

Im afraid the lines engaged (me temo que la lnea est ocupada). Will you hold (on)? No, Ill call again later (ring back later). Im sorry, but shes in a meeting.

Leaving a message. Can I take a message? Can I leave a message? Could you ask her to call me? Could you spell your name, please? Sorry, could you say that again? Ill give her your message.

Giving telephone numbers. 01865665567 = oh one eight six five, double six double five six seven. Numbers in telephone numbers are given separately. 0 is sometime given as oh, as well as zero. Double is sometimes used for repeated numbers.

Mobile phone conversations. Am I disturbing you (te molesto)? Is this a good time to call (te llamo en buen momento)? Am I interrupting anything? Is it OK to talk now? Sorry, we lost the connection. I cant hear you. Can you hang up and Ill call you again? The lines breaking up. Ill call you back. I thing my mobile phone needs recharging. Network (red, covertura).

Giving website and email addresses. . Work-place / \ @ Work_place Workplace dot (punto) work dash (guin) place slash backslash at work underscore place workplace-thats all one word

Writing emails and faxes: Starting. Following your phone call (Despus de su llamada) Thank you for your fax Thanks for your email. Saying why youre writing. I am writing to tell you that I am pleased to tell you that This fax is to confirm your visit This email is to get in touch again. Requesting (solicitando). Could you please send me details of Would you please email me a list of Please fax me your price me Please let me know if theres a problem Giving bad news. I am sorry to inform you Unfortunately

Ending. Hoping to see you soon. Looking forward to meeting you next week (esperando reunirnos la prxima semana).

Apologizing. Sorry about the mistake.

Please contact us again if you should like further information. I apologize for the change of plans.

083. Welcoming a visitor.

The visitors journey. How was your journey? I hope you had a good flight? Did you have a good trip?

The visit. Are you here on business or on holiday? Is this your first visit to BCN? Is this your first time in BCN? How long are you here for?

Home town/country. Do you come from Dublin? Do you live in Paris? Where were you born?

Work. What do you do? Who do you work for (para quien trabajas)? Where do you work?

Travel and holidays. Do you travel a lot for work? Do you travel abroad much? Do you enjoy travelling?

Accommodation (alojamiento). Whats your hotel like (cmo es tu hotel)? Is everything at the hotel OK?

Where do you spend your holidays? (BrE) Where do you go on vacation? (AmE)

084. Numbers & Dates.

Numbres. Cardinal 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten Ordinal 1st first 3rd third 4th fourth 5th fifth 6th sixth 7th seventh 8th eighth 9th ninth 10th tenth Cardinal 11 eleven Ordinal 11th eleventh 12th twelfth 14th fourteenth 15th fifteenth 16th sixteenth 17th seventeenth 18th eighteenth 19th nineteenth 20th twentieth Cardinal 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety Ordinal 21st twenty-first 22nd twenty-second 30th thirtieth () 40th fortieth 50th fiftieth 60th sixtieth 70th seventieth 80th eightieth 90th ninetieth

2nd second 12 twelve 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eightteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty

13 thirteen () 13th thirteenth () 30 thirty ()

100 a hundred 100th hundredth

Note the pronunciation of thirteen () and thirty ()

101 1,000 3,473 100,000 1,000,000 a half

a hundred and one a thousand three thousand, four hundred and seventy-seven a hundred thousand a million a quarter 1/3 a third

1,000,000,000 a billion 10.5% ten point five per cent 60.25% sixty point two five per cent 0.05% zero point zero five per cent Dates & Hours. (BrE) 10th June 2002, 10/06/02 (AmE) June 10 2002, 06/10/02 Half-hour (media hora), Hourly (cada hora), Quarter of an hour (cuarto de hora), Second (Segundo), Timer (reloj automatico), Watch (reloj), Have you got the (right) time (tiene hora)? the tenth of June two thousand and two, June the tenth June tenth two thousand and two, June tenth twenty oh two.

Its 6 oclock/half past 6 (son las 6/las 6 y media). Its 10 past 6/10 to 6 (son las 6 y 10/las 6 menos 10). To putt he clock forward/backward (adelantar/retrasar el reloj). Days: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Bank holiday (da festivo). Boxing day (da de San Esteban). Christmas (Navidades). Christmas Day (Da de Navidad). Christmas Eve (Nochebuena). Easter (Semana Santa). Easter Sunday (Domingo de Resurreccin). Good Friday (Viernes Santo). Halloween (vspera de Todos los Santos, la noche de las brujas). Independence Day (da de la Independencia, 4 de julio). Labor Day (da del trabajador). New Years Day (da de Ao Nuevo). New Years Eve (Nochevieja). Pancake Day (martes de carnaval). St. Valentines Day (Da de San Valentn). Thanksgiving (Da de Accin de Gracias).

Months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. Seasons (estaciones del ao): Spring, summer, autumn (BrE), fall (AmE), winter. Others words and phrases: AD (Anno Domini, despus de Cristo), BC (Before Christ, antes de Cristo), age (edad), century (siglo), decade (dcada), leap year (ao bisiesto), month (mes), monthly (mensual), season (estacin), year (ao), day (da), fortnight (quincena, quince das), today (hoy),

tomorrow (maana), yesterday (ayer), week (semana), weekend (fin de semana), weekly (semanalmente), weekday (da laborable), schedule (horario), the day after tomorrow (pasado maana), the day before yesterday (anteayer), next/last Saturday (el sbado que viene/pasado), what are you doing at the weekend (que haces este fin de semana)? a year ago (hace un ao), in the 21st century (en el siglo veintiuno), afternoon (tarde, a primera hora), a.m. (de la maana), p.m. (de la tarde/noche), daily (diario), dawn (alba), early (temprano), evening (tarde, al anochecer), late (tarde), to be early/late (llegar pronto/tarde), midday (medioda), noon (medioda), midnight (medianoche), morning (por la maana), night (noche), sunrise (salida del sol), sunset (puesta del sol), nowadays (hoy da), once (una vez), shortly (dentro de poco), shortly before/after (poco antes/despus), tonight (esta noche), whats the date (a qu da estamos)? anniversary (aniversario), bachelor party (despedida de soltero), stag party (despedida de soltero), hen party (despedida de soltera), baptism (bautismo), christening (bautizo), best man (padrino de boda, acompaa al novio), bride (novia), groom (novio),

bridesmaid (dama de honor), engagement (noviazgo), wedding (boda), silver wedding (bodas de plata), golden wedding (bodas de oro), honeymoon (luna de miel), marriage (matrimonio), to retire (jubilarse), retirement (jubilacin),

085. Asking for help.

How do you spell colleague (cmo se deletrea)? Sorry, can you repeat the question? Excuse me, can you say that again, please? How do you say autopista in English, please? Can you write the word on the board, please? Can I borrow your dictionary, please (me prestas tu dicionario)? What does the word leisure (ocio, tiempo libre) mean? Im sorry, I dont understand. Borrow is the opposite of lend

086. Student profile (perfil). Interview.

Whats your name? Whats your surname/family name/second name? Where are you from? Where do you come from? Where do you live? What is your address? What is your telephone number? email? What do you do? When were you born? What is your date of birth? What languages do you speak? How well do you speak/read/write them? What qualifications do you have? Have you done any extra courses/preparation? What work experience do you have? Do you have any extra abilities? What do you do in your free time? What are your hobbies? Why are you interested in this job?

What qualities do you think that you have for this post? What are your expectations of this job? Can you describe yourself as a person? Why do you think you are suitable (apto, adecuado) for this post?

087. Family tree (rbol genealgico); Relatives (familiares-parientes):

Father (padre) Mother (madre) Grandfather (abuelo) Grandmother (abuela) Nephew (sobrino) Niece (sobrina) Step-father (padrastro)

Brother (hermano) Sister (hermana) Son (hijo) Daughter (hija) Grandson (nieto) Grandaughter (nieta) Step-daughter (hijastra)

Uncle (to) (Your parents brother) Aunt (ta) (Your parents sister) Brother-in-law (cuado) (Your wifes brother) Sister-in-law (cuada) (Your wifes sister) Boyfriend (novio) Girlfriend (novia) Step-brother (hermanastro) Step-sister (hermanastra) Father-in-law (suegro) Mother-in-law (suegra) Great-grandfather (bisabuelo) Great-grandmother (bisabuela) Widower (viudo) Widow (viuda)

Step-mother (madrastra) Step-son (hijastro) Cousin (primo/a) Parents (padres) Godfather (padrino) Godmother (madrina) Husband (marido) Wife (mujer(esposa)) (Soltera) (single) Maiden. (Apellido de soltera) Maiden name. (Lazos-vnculos familiars) Family ties. Son-in-law (yerno) Daughter-in-law (nuera) Grandparents (abuelos) Grandchildren (nietos) Partner (pareja) Twin (gemelo)

(Mi hermano mayor/menor) My elder/younger brother. (Soy el mayor/menor de cuatro) Im the eldest/youngest of four. (Salir con alguien) Dating. (Conocer a alguien por 1 vez) Meet someone for the firts time. (Mis padres me pusieron el nombre por mi abuelo) My parents named me after my grandfather. (Mis amigos me llaman Natx) My friends call me Natx. (Aniversario) anniversary. (Despedida de soltero) bachelor party. (Despedida de soltero) stag party. (Despedida de soltera)hen party. (Bautismo)baptism. (Bautizo) christening. (Padrino de boda, acompaa al novio) best man.

(Novia) bride. (Novio)groom. (Novio/novia en boda) fianc/fiance. (Dama de honor) bridesmaid. (Noviazgo) engagement. (Boda) wedding. (Bodas de plata) silver wedding. (Bodas de oro)golden wedding. (Luna de miel) honeymoon. (Matrimonio) marriage. (Jubilarse) to retire. (Jubilacin) retirement.

088. Useful language to improve your writing.

Describing people. He gives the impression of being (da la impresin de ser)... Shes really keen on (ella est realmente interesada en)... Hes really good at (el es muy bueno en)... Her most prominent feature is (su caracterstica ms destacada es)... Describing towns & cities. One of the most popular places with visitors is (uno de los lugares ms populares entre los visitantes) Other interesting historical landmarks include (otros monumentos de inters histrico son) When the weather is good, why not? A must for all visitors is the (una visita obligada para todos los visitantes es el) For people looking for a night out, there is/are Narrative language. First of all, we are confident that (estamos seguros que) Initially Eventually In the end Before long (en poco tiempo) (antes de tiempo), After a few minutes Later that afternoon (por la tarde), After a while (despus de un tiempo) (al poco tiempo), But despite (pero a pesar de) There are a lot of advantages to For a star, For example, Secondly, In addition (adems), However (sin embargo), What is more (adems), Finally, To sum up (en resumen)

Finding no trace of him, they pronounced him dead (Al no encontrar rastro de l, le declararon muerto). Advertising a service (publicidad de un servicio). We offer you unbeatable choice (le ofrecemos la eleccin inmejorable)

Our service is second to none (nuestro servicio es insuperable). Our friendly and professional staff (personal amable y profesional) will be only too pleased to help. You can rely on us (puede confiar en nosotros) to make this a memorable experience for you. With prices starting at $10, you wont find a better deal (no encontrar una oferta major). All of this at discount rates (todo esto a precio de descuento). Advertising a holiday. X is situated near X is located not far from X is on the west/east/south/north coast. X is set in (se encuentra en) X is a short drive from/to Language for giving advice. Have you thought about (ha pensado en)? I think you should (creo que debera) Why dont you? Have you tried (has probado)? Theres no harm in (no hay nada de malo en) You could start by If I were you, Id Language for giving results. As a result, Consequently, Therefore (por lo tanto), He was short of money as a result of losing his job. He was short of money because he had lost his job.

Language for complaining (quejarse). I am writing to complain about (para quejarme sobre) I am afraid this is totally unacceptable. I am particularly disappointed (decepcionado) because Although (a pesar de) I ordered them well in advance (con bastante antelacin), they will not arrive in time. I was informed (se me inform de que) the order would arrive three weeks late. However, this is totally unacceptable (sin embargo, esto es totalmente inacceptable). To resolve the problem I would like to request a full and immediate refund (quisiera solicitor un reembolso total e inmediato). If I do not hear from you within the next five days, I will be forced to contact my solicitor (si no tengo noticias tuyas en los prximos cinco das, me ver obligado a ponerme en contacto con mi abogado). Language for explaining.

Most runners take part in order to raise money for charity (la mayora de corredores participant con el fin de recaudar dinero para caridad). Many or the runners wear strange costumes so that they can be recognized by their friends. Runners train (entrenan) for many months so as to be fit enough to take part. Central London streets are closed in order that runners do not have problems with the traffic. Report language. The survey is held (se lleva acabo) once a year / once every two years The report (informe) compares and People generally spend more on People do not generally spend a lot of money on Older people generally spend much less (mucho menos) than younger people (on) The same is not true of (lo mismo no es el caso de) The money spent on decreases / increases with age. The under 30s / over 40s tend (tienden) to spend more on The results show (muestran)

089. Although (aunque, a pesar de) and however (sin embargo, no obstante).

We use although and however to contrast two pieces of information. We use although to join the two pieces of information in one sentence. Although I ordered them in advance, they will not arrive in time. We use however to show the connection between two sentences. I was informed that the order would arrive in three weeks. However, I am afraid this is totally unacceptable. When we use however at the beginning of a sentence, it is always followed by comma.

090. In order to, so as to, so that. (para, con el fin de, de manera que)

We can use in order to, so as to and so that to show the reasons for an action. Use in order to/so as to + infinitive Most of the runners take part in order to (con el fin de) raise money for charities. Use in order that/so that + clause Many wear strange costumes so that (para que) they can be recognized by their friends.

091. Prepositional phrases. By, in, on.

Do you ever meet friends in the street by chance? Have you ever telephoned the wrong number by mistake? At what time of the day are you most often in a harry? Have you ever solved a problem by accident? What organizations have information about you on file (en los archivos)? Have you ever been in danger of losing your job? Do you ever leave your bedroom in a mess? Have you ever been in trouble at school?

092. Funtional language. Complaints (quejarse, reclamar).

Im having problems (+ -ing form) Im having problems finding anything. I think theres a problem with I think theres something wrong with (hay algo mal/estropeado con) the power Ive got a problem with My Ipad doesnt work. What seems to be the problem/the trouble/the matter (qu pasa, cual es el problema)? Ill see to it/look into it (me encargar de esto). Ill get back to you (me pondr en contacto con usted). Could you ask/get someone to + infinitive? (podra pregungar/conseguir que alguien) Could I speak to (podra hablar con)? Im afraid thats not good enough. Its totally unacceptable. Id like a refund (quisiera una devolucin, un reenvolso) I want to have my money back.

093. Shopping.

Corner shop (tienda de barrio). You hate big supermarkets and prefer to buy at the local corner shop. Discount shop (economato). I often go to the d.s. where things are cheaper than in the supermarket. High street shopping (calle commercial) Online shopping. You prefer online shopping. Its quicker and often cheaper.

Shop assistant (dependiente, empleado). Do you know that Carrie has got a job as a shop assistant? Shopaholic (adicto a las compras). You enjoy shopping so much, you are a shopaholic. Shoplifter (ladrn de tiendas). Catching all the sl. who walk off with CDs up their jumpers? Shopping centre (centro commercial). You love spending time in a s.c. looking at shops. Shopping mall (centro commercial) Window-shopping (escaparate). You cant understand people who like w-s, whats the point?

094. Containers (recipientes)

Bottle (botella). A bottle of mineral water. Some bottles of beer/olive oil/whisky. Box (caja). A box of tissues (pauelos)/matches (cerillas). Can (lata). A can of cat food/carrot soup/tuna. Carton (cartn). A carton of low-fat milk/cranberry juice (zumo de ardanos)/free-range eggs. Jar (tarro). A jar of strawberry jam (mermelada)/coffee. Packet (paquete). A packet of nappies (paales)/peanuts (cacahuetes)/biscuits/crackers. Tin (lata). A tin of lemonade/tuna. Tub (tarrina). A tub of olive oil based-margarine/ice cream. Bag (bolsa). A bag of pre-washed salad leaves (ensalada de hojas pre lavadas). Basket (cesta, cubo de basura).

095. Advantages and disadvantages.

The pros and cons of + noun/-ing form The good/bad thing about + noun/-ing for is The advantage of + noun/-ing form The benefit/benefits of + noun/-ing form Theres a lot to be gained from (hay mucho que ganar) + -ing form Theres nothing to be gained from (no hay nada que ganar) + -ing form The disadvantage of + noun/-ing form The drawback (inconveniente) of + noun/-ing form The trouble with + noun/-ing form Theres no point in (no tiene sentido)/There isnt any point in (no hay ningn punto en)+ -ing form

096. Illusions-Magician

Act Audience (audiencia, public, auditorio) Fake (falso, fingir) Magician Perform (realizar) Pretend (fingir)

Public Reveal (revelar) Stage (escenario, etapa) Trick (truco) Vanish (desaparecer)

097. The table of speculation

Adjetive possible probable Likely (probable) Certain (cierto, exacto, seguro) Definite (definido/a)

Noun possibility probability Likelihood (probabilidad) Certainty (certeza, seguridad)

Negative adjetive impossible improbable Unlikely (improbable) Uncertain (incierto, inseguro)

Negative noun Impossibility (imposibilidad) Improbability

Adverb Possibly (posiblemente) probably

Uncertainty (incertidumbre)

Certainly (indudablemente) Definitely (definitivamente)

098. Saying is one thing, doing it is another (del dicho al hecho hay mucho trecho).

No sooner said than done (dicho y hecho) Bright and early (temprano, muy de maana) Drag your feet (dar largas) Get cracking (ponerse manos a la obra) Get to the point (ir al grano, llegar al punto). Do you get the point (entiendes por donde voy, entiendes lo que quiero decir)? Whats the point? (para qu? a cuento de qu?) High point (punto lgido) Play it safe (ir a lo seguro, no arriesgar)

099. Sports word list.

Athletics Baseball Beat Boxing Catch Champion Championship Coach Dive (buceo) Field (campo) Finalist Football Gym (gimnasio)

Gymnast (gimnasta) Gymnastics (gimnasia) Hang-gliding (ala delta) Hit Jump Kick Marathon Medal Paraglider (parapente-persona) Paragliding (parapente-deporte) Pass Penalty Polo

Player Race Racket Rugby Run Semi-final Serve Skydiving (paracaidismo) Snowboarding Throw (lanzar, tirar) Water polo

0100. Body.

Chest (pecho). Eyes (ojos). Ear (odo, oreja). Mouth (boca). Nose (nariz). Teeth (dientes). Tooth (diente). Throat (garganta). Blink (parpadear). In the blink of an eye (en un abrir y cerrar de ojos). Breathe (respirar). Now we can breathe again (ahora podemos respirar tranquilos). Chew (masticar). Be sure to chew your food completely (asegurarse de masticar la comida completa/). Cough (toser). To have a bad cough (tener mucha tos). Calling in sick (finger enfermedad). Sick day (das por enfermedad en el trabajo). Worried sick (preocupado por la salud). Upset (sentar mal, disgustar). I have an upset stomach (tengo el estmago revuelto).

0101. Nouns and adjectives. Describing people.

Agile-Agility. She can really move very quickly and very easily. Ambitious-Ambition. Ive never known anyone who wants so much to be successful. Determined-Determination. He will not let anything stop him from doing what he has decided to do. Enthusiastic-Enthusiasm. Hes always really interested in and excited by his sport. Intelligent-Intelligence. She thinks clearly and quickly. Powerful-Power. She is very, very strong. Talented-Talent. She has so much natural ability. Ruthless (despiadado, cruel)- ruthlessness (crueldad). The only think that is important to him is success. He doesnt mind is other people suffer in the progress. Constant, perseverance, discipline, methodical. Bald (calvo), blond, dark, healthy, shiny (brillante), slim (delgado), tanned (bronceado), wade (ancho). Hair blond, shiny, wavy. Head bald, round, shaved. Nose pointed, prominent, straight.

0102. Health. How do you feel?

Dizzy (mareado). Youre making me dizzy (me ests mareando). To feel dizzy (marearse). Drowzy (adormilado). These tablets will make you drowsy (estas pastillas le producirn somnolencia). Exhausted (agotado). Weak/weakness (dbil/debilidad). To have a weakness for sth (tener debilidad por algo). To feel weak. Blink (parpadear). In the blink of an eye (en un abrir y cerrar de ojos). Breathe (respirar). Now we can breathe again (ahora podemos respirar tranquilos). Chew (masticar). Be sure to chew your food completely (asegurarse de masticar la comida completa/). Cough (toser). To have a bad cough (tener mucha tos). Shiver (temblar). It sent shivers down my spine (me di escalofros). Swallow (tragar). To swallow ones pride (tragarse le orgullo). Make sense (tener sentido). It makes sense to me (a m me parece lgico). High/low blood pressure (presin arterial). To take sbs blood pressure (tomar la tension a alguien). A rash (erupcin, sarpullido). Ive got a rash on my chest (tengo un sarpullido/erupcin en el pecho). Scratch (rascarse). Shes scratching her leg because she was bitten by a mosquito. Hiccup (hipo). It gives me hiccups (me da hipo). Sneeze (estornudar). You should cover your mouth when you sneeze. Symptom (sntoma). A physical change (such as a fever) that is caused by an illness. Mild (templado, leve). The opposite of strong.

Severe (estricto, severo). Rare/Common (raro, extrao/comn). Flu (gripe). Ive got flu (tengo gripe). Cold (resfriado). Ive got a cold (estoy resfriado). A plaster (tirita, escayola). With his leg in plaster (con la pierna escayolada). Sticking plaster (tirita). Homesick (nostalgic). Im homesick, I miss my parents. Airsick, carsick, seasick (marearse en avin, coche o mar).

0103. Social expressions.

All the best. Another day/time, maybe. Bad news, Im afraid. Congratulations! Excellent news! Good luck for Guess what? Have a safe journey (tener un viaje seguro). I must be going (tengo que irme).

Ill keep my fingers crossed. Keep in touch. My pleasure. Never mind. Not at all. Say cheese. The same to you. What a shame (que vergenza)!.

0104. About money.

Bank account (cuenta bancaria) Cash machine (cajero aut.) Dependent (dependiente-trabajador) Earnings (ganancias) Financial Financially Get into debt (tener deuda) Invest (invertir) Investment (inversion) Make money

Open an account (abrir cuenta) Pay a bill (pagar una factura) Save Savings account (cuenta de ahorros) Share Stock Take out a mortgage (obtener una hipoteca) Withdraw (retirar, sacar) Write a cheque

0105. Other words & phrases

Lesson 7 World Link: Boss around (dar rdenes a). To tell someone what to do. Cutting class (faltar a clase, hacer novillos). Ground (=punish) someone (castigar sin salir). My parents have grounded me. Treat like (tratar como a). They treat me like a baby. Take care (cuidar, tener cuidado). I can take care of myself (puedo cuidar de mi mismo). Care about (preocuparse). They care about you (se preocupan por ti). Might as well (mas vale que). You might as well listen to your parents. Lesson 1: Consider (considerer, pensar en). I consider myself happy (me consider feliz). Describe (describer). I would describe myself as a lucky person. Proud (orgulloso). Im proud that I did it on my own (estoy orgulloso de haberlo hecho solo). Average (medio, promedio). Of average height (de estatura media). Accounts (cuenta, factura). To charge sth to sbs account (cargar algo en cuenta a alguien). Approachable (accessible) Beefeater (alabardero de la torre de Londres). Branch (rama). Branch office (sucursal). Budget (presupuesto). Businesslike (serio, formal). Cashier (cajero). Challenge (desafo). To take up a challenge (aceptar un desafo). I will take up (asumir) that challenge. Challenger (aspirante, contrincante). Guilt (culpa). Guilty (culpable). To have a guilty conscience (tener remordimientos de conciencia). Get away (poder salir, escapar). The thieves getaway car (el coche en que huyeron los ladrones). Get away with (salir impune, quedarse sin castigo). We mustnt let them (dejar que) get away with it. Chew (masticar). Chewing gum (chicle, goma de mascar). Citizen (ciudadanos). Citizenship (ciudadana). Clever (inteligente). Dont be clever with me (no te hagas el listo conmigo)! Cope (arreglrselas, poder con). I cant cope with all this work. Crossword (crucigrama) Define (definer). How would you define yourself politically (cmo te definiras politicamente)? Dial (marcar un nmero de telfono). Delightful (encantador). Expense (gasto, costo). With all expenses paid (con todos los gastos pagados). Eye-opened (revelacin, sorpresa grande). Fake (falsificacin, impostor, farsante). To fake an illness (fingirse enfermo). Fidget (no parar de moverse) Fidgety (nervioso, inquieto). Stop fidgeting (estte quieto)! Fireworks (fuegos artificiales). Flatly (rotundamente, categricamente). We are flatly opposed to it (nos oponemos terminantemente). Fuss (jaleo, escndalo). A lot of fuss about nothing (mucho ruido y pocas nueces). Give (sb) away (regalar algo a alguien, deshacerse de algo). Headquarters (cuartel general, sede central) Impress (impresionar). He is not easily impressed (no se deja impresionar fcilmente).

Investment (inversion). Judgement (sentencia). To pass judgement on sb/sth (pronunciar o dictar sentencia sobre algo). Likeable (encantador, simptico, agradable). Live off (vivir a costa de). He live off the royalties of a hit song that his father wrote years ago. Mayor (alcalde). Mess (sb) around (fastidiar a alguien). They kept messing me around over the dates. Noodle (fideos, tallarines). Reckless (temerario). Reckless driving (conduccin temeraria). Refugee (refugiado). Refugee camp (campamento para refugiados). Right-wing (de derechas). Scare (susto). Im scared of spiders (tengo miedo a las araas). Scary (que da miedo). Thats a scary thought (sa es una idea espeluznante). Self-important (prepotente). Snottiness (vileza). Soft (suave, blando). To have a soft spot for sb (tener debilidad por alguien). Spot (darse cuenta de, observar). I spotted a mistake (descubr un error). Stage (escenario, etapa, fase). That was no accident, it was staged (estaba montado/organizado). Stand for (representar, significar, admitir). I wont stand for that (eso no lo admito). Stick to (seguir con, no abandoner). To stick to a promise (cumplir una promesa). Stubborn (cabezota). As stubborn as a donkey. Sweaty (sudoroso). Stumble (tropezar, dar un traspi). To stumble against sth (tropezar contra algo). Telltale (revelador, indicador). Tight (hermetic, apretado). A tight spot (en un aprieto, entre la espada y la pared). Till (caja registradora). Till receipt (ticket de caja). Watch out (tener cuidado). Watch out for thieves (cuidado con los ladrones). White lie (mentira piadosa).

Lesson 9: Accessible (accessible) Accurately (con precision) Analyze (analizar) Appeal (recurso) Association (asociacin) Bargain (ganga, oferta). Take a look at our bargain basement (seccin de ofertas) for more information. Basement (stano) Basket (cesta) Buff (pulidor) Burger (amburguesera) Cater (abastecer) Catch up (alcanzar, ponerse al da, atrapar). The police finally caught up (atrap) the thief (ladrn). Chain (cadena) Chart (grfico)

Classic (clsico) Complaint (queja) Connoisseur (conocedor) Contact (contacto) Council. The local council (ayuntamiento) is planning to develop (desarrollar) a new shopping area. Cracker (galleta) Cranberry (arndano) Crisp (crujiente) cross off (tachar) cut (sth) short (interrumpir algo) cybernaut (cibernauta) decaffeinated (descafeinado) delivery (entrega) discount (descuento) electronic (electrnico) exception (excepcin) fraud (fraude) free-range (de corral) frustrated (frustrado) gift (regalo) gin (ginebra) greeting (saludo, recuerdos) guarantee (garanta) hand-made (hecho a mano) herb (hierba) hot-air balloon (globo de aire caliente) household (casa, familia). Its a household word (es el pan de cada da). Its a hh name (conocidsima). Item (artculo) Landscape (paisaje) Leaf (hoja, pgina). To turn over a new leaf (pasar pgina, hacer borrn y cuenta nueva). Lemonade (limonada) Lighter (ms ligero) low-fat (bajo en grasa) luxury (de lujo) margarine (margarina) marmalade (mermelada) memorabilia (recuerdos) monopoly (monopolio) olive oil (aceite de olive) organic (orgnicos) out of favor (cado en desgracia) outskirts (afueras) parade (desfile) peak (pico)

peanut (cacahuete, man) precious (precioso) priority (prioridad) product (producto) proposal (propuesta) query (consulta) queue (cola) range (rango) refrain from (abstenerse de) release (liberacin). On his release from prison (al salir de la carcel) salad (ensalada) sale (venta). screenplay (guin) security (de seguridad) slice (rebanada) souvenir (recuerdo) spice (especial) spill (derrame) statistic (estadstica) switch on (encender) system (sistema) technophobe (tecnfobo) tidy up (poner en orden) tissue (pauelo de papel, klnex, tejido). A tissue of lies (una sarta de mentiras). Trilogy (triloga) Trolley (carrito, camilla de hospital). To be off ones trolley (estar chiflado). Tuna (atn) unconventional (poco convencional) vegetarian (vegetarian) vodka what a cheek (que cara dura)! Wheelchair (silla de ruedas) wish list (lista de deseos) wrap (envolver) wrapper (envoltorio, envase) Lesson 10: Accuse (acusar) Admit (admitir) Alien (aliengena) ape (mono, simio) archaeological (arqueolgico) army (ejrcito) bullying (intimidacin)

bury (enterrar) calm down (calmarse) compartment (cuarto, habitacin) confidentiality (confidencialidad) crazy (loco) dating agency (agenda de contactos) deaf (sordo), blind (ciego) and dumb (mudo) float (flotar) grave (tumba) hack into (piratear, conseguir intrar) hang (colgar) heel (talon, tacn) hoot (bocinazo ) imposter (impostor) in the long/short term (a lago/corto plazo) knight (caballero) murder (asesinato) murderer (asesino) painful (dolorido) phone-in (llamar), rabbit (conejo, jugador hbil) record (registro, expediente). Your employment record (registro). Your school record (expediente). reveal (revelar) ruin (ruina), scan (explorer, escanear), scandal (escndalo) scare (asustar/susto), secrecy (el secreto), skilled (expertos, cualificados) spoil (estropear, echar a perder), spy on (espiar) suspect (sospechoso) traitor (traidor) understandably (comprensiblemente), upset (alterar, perturbar, hacer dao), vandalism (vandalismo) viewers (espectadores) weapon (arma) within (dentro de). I want it back within three days (quiero que me lo devuelvas dentro de tres das). worth (vale la pena), worthless (sin ningn valor, intil). Lesson 11: Acceptance (aceptacin, acogida)

Achievement (logro, xito) Award (adjudicacin, premio) Bet (apostar) Casual (informal, occasional) Charitable (benfico, caritativo) check out (pagar y marchar) childhood (infancia) courier (mensajera, correo) devote (dedicar) disability (discapacidad) downhill (cuesta abajo) dress up (vestirse de etiqueta) dye (tinte) fed up (harto) fill in (rellenar) gang (banda, pandilla) host (anfitrin, presentador) in the meantime (mientras tanto) increasingly (cada vez ms) Spanish food is becoming increasingly popular. iron (hierro, planchar) majesty (majestad) outlook (perspectiva, panorama) relief (aliviar, liberar) shave (afeitado) strawberry (fresa) tiny (diminuto, pequeo) trainers (formadores, entrenadores) unpaid (pendientes de pago) Lesson 12: Agitated (agitado) Appeal (recurso de apelacin) as a matter of fact (prctico, cuestin de hecho) astonishing (sorprendente, asombroso) attract (atraer) beggar (mendigo) cheek (mejilla) chin (barbilla) close down (cerrar definitivamente) companionship (compaerismo) cruise (crucero) damages (daos y perjuicios) distress (angustia) duty (deber)

freeway (autopista) gentle (suave, de carcter dulce) help out (ayudar, echar una mano) heroin (heroina) homeless (persona sin hogar) kick out (echar a patadas) lounge (sala de estar) manufacturer (fabricante) mens room (servicio de hombres) motor home (autocaravana) outline (esquema, perfilar) pickles (encurtidos) plaintiff (demandante) report (informe, informar) reported speech (estilo indirect) settlement (liquidacin, acuerdo) siblings (hermanos/hermanas), steady (constant, regular) a steady job (empleo fijo) sue (demandar) to sue for divorce (solicitor el divorcio) suitable (adecuado, arpopiado) survey (encuesta) target (diana, blanco, objetivo) tear (lgrima) theme park (parquet temtico) throw out (tirar, echar la basura) unfair (desleal, injusto)

0106. Writings

WRITING No. 1. Write about a favourite teacher from your past. (125 word) When I finish my studies of sound technician, I started the university career. I choose industrial engineer in the textile field. And it was there where I met a great teacher and a much better person. He was called Armand Basi, a famous Designer and businessman. He not only taught me industrial design, but also he taught me how to behave with the people. He explained to me how to handle a job interview, how to shake hands, how to dress and how to talk. He also helped me to interprete the body language interviewer. The following year, Armand Basi had no time to be a university teacher and he resigned. Three years later, I only had to study four subjects to finish my university career. As I had free time, I went to see him in his office to ask for a work. It was difficult to talk to him but in the end I got it. Everything went well and he told me where I could find a job. In my first job interview I got a good job in Lacoste (enterprise). Armand Basi died seven months ago in January. I hope he rests in peace. He was one of the best teachers that I have ever had.

WRITING No. 2. A strange event. Write a story for your local newspaper about an unsolved mystery or strange event. Use adverbs of manner. (150 word). 3 Meter shark found alive on Playafels beach. A harmless (inofensivo) shark appeared close to the shore (costa, orilla) and it was seen by surfers and swimmers as it jumped out of the water three times. It was early in the morning when a resident of Playafels spotted a shark. He said: I was sitting on my surfboard and I felt something pushing me from behind. I thought it was another surfer but I turned and I spotted (me di cuenta, comprov) a shark fin (aleta). After that, the shark disappeared under the water and the surfer started to paddle to reach the shore. At that time, the shark bumped into him and he saw the creature face to face. Nervously, he fell off his board and swam out of the sea. The lifeguards started shouting for him to get out of the water. It was like a scene out of the movie Jaws. At the end nothing happened but the surfer said: I think the shark was looking for food and it confused my surfwear with a seal. They dont usually bother (molestar) people. I was surprised, I have been here for five years and I have never seen anything like it before. Although it caused some alarm, in fact this type of shark is well-known around the Mediterranean Sea. It had a grey back and a white belly (vientre) and it normally lives in the ocean depths.

WRITING No. 3. Imagine you have just found a prestigious new job. Write an e-mail to a friend describing your new job. Include as many details as you can about it, e.g. your responsibilities, salary, office, colleagues, etc.

Hello Vito! How are you? Im writing this email because your cell phone was switched off and I didnt know where I could find you. Well, I have to tell you good news. Do you remember that I had many problems with my boss? Well, thats over. I have found a much better job. Yes, I got it!!! I started to work as a product manager & quality manager in R&C last Monday. R&C is a factory of corporate identitys signs. We are manufacturers and fitters (instaladores) of elements for corporate identity. Im responsible for the quality, research (investigacin), development (desarrollo) and innovation departments. My new boss is a great person. Hes instructing me how to organize the employees of the factory (and moreover he pays me very well). But instead, the receptionist is a gossip girl. She always asks me about my personal life, if I have a girlfriend and if I like any girl from the factory. I think I will give her your mobile number (as you always have it switched off!!). Nothing else, I see you next week, give a hug (abrazo) to everyone.

Writing: A bit something about me.


My name is Jos Ignacio but my friends call me Nacho. Im from Barcelona but Ive been living in Viladecans with my partner since 2002. Im not married but I consider my partner as my wife. Im 36 (years old) and Ive got a brother only 14 months younger than me. My parents live in Gav, near Viladecans and whenever we can we eat together. We havent got any pets because Im allergic to animal hair. Im an industrial engineer but Im unemployed right now. At the end of this summer I hope to find a good job, I believe that my work experience, my qualifications and the English course will make me a very competitive candidate for a position in a good company. I have succeeded as a product manager and general manager in factories of over a hundred workers and Im ready for a new challenge. I also have experience in new technologies as an IT (information technology) technician and I like to test any kind of electronic gadgets. In my free time I used to play different sports, every Tuesday I used to play soccer, every Thursday we play tennis and every Saturday we play paddle, always with friends. In summertime I love going to Zarautz beach to surfing the best waves in northern Spain. But my favorite sport is basketball and although I stopped playing a long time ago, I love the NBA (standings, statistics, custom shop, etc.). In fact last May one of my dreams came true, I was able to see an NBA game in the Staples Center between the L.A. Lakers and the Phoenix Suns. That match was incredible with 3 extra times (over time). Apart from sport, my hobbies are basically 2, listening to music and traveling. I would like to visit the 7 wonders of modern world; I have actually visited 6 out of 7 wonders (the Taj Mahal is the only one that I have not been able to visit, maybe next year). Finally, the last song I purchased in iTunes (the internet music shop) is called music is everything, when I was younger I worked as a disk jockey to pay for my degree college career, I dont think I have anything more to add. Write about how to change a bad health habit or solve a health problem. I would like to write about how to give up smoking. First of all, we should know bear in mind that 50.000 people died last year in Spain because of cigarettes, as many as if every day a plane crashes with carrying a hundred passengers had crashed every day. There are many ways to give up smoking and the consequences are always positive; you breathe better, stop coughing, and do not smell like of smoke, you have a better quality of life, save money and soon etc.But Id like to explain my own experience. I had a friend (he was killed in a s been dead by car accident for eight years ago) whose job was preparing dead bodies for funeral who worked make-up dead man, and one day he let me see the lung of a smoker. Ill never forget it.

Write the beginning of two speeches. Use these expressions: Today Id like to, Ill begin by, Ill provide an overview, Then Ill list, Lets first talk about, One of the main causes, Another cause, and And finally. 1. Too many students in each class. Today Id like to talk to all of you about problems with students. Ill provide an overview. One or the other, not both Ill begin by describing the causes of failure rate. Lets first talk about student grant. None of the student got won the student grant. Why? Ill list three causes. One of the main reasons is too many students in each class. Another cause is too few teachers to teach with guarantees for students to pass the exams. And finally we need more facilities to accommodate students and teachers. 2. (You choose a topic). Today Id like to talk about problems with new musicians. Ill provide on overview. Ill begin by describing the causes of why the new singers and musicians can not sell their music. Lets first talk about new technologies such as an ipods, ipads, iphones and Internet. These new technologies hurt music sales in physical format (CD, DVD, cassette type and vinyl). Then Ill list three more causes. One of the main causes is that record companies have stopped making money and cannot invest in new artists. Another cause is that the institution that controls the music in Spain (SGAE) is under suspicion of fraud. And finally young people dont want to be musicians because its not fashionable and they dont make money. Write about a problem in your country (or in the world) and how to solve this problem. Once upon a time a living being that started to wonder why. Why am I alive? Which is why I am here? What was the beginning of everything? As he had no answers he believed that a divine being created the universe. It was the beginning of the human races great problem in the last 5000 years; Religion. Its a serious problem because every religion has different symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intented to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life. That involves different ways of living and Im sure that was the cause of most wars that have been doing in the world. Nowadays, a common God for all of us are replacing our ancestral religions. Is money our present and future religion? In a hundred years religion will no longer a problem because there will be fewer and fewer believers, but the problem of the global economy will be difficult to solve.

Write about something important that you bought. When I was 18, my father and I went to the bank and set up an account to save my money. My father told me not to withdraw the money unless I invest in a house. A year later I was able to invest in a car park place because I didnt have enough money to buy a house. When I was 22 I had three car park places and I rented two of them. Three years later I bought premises (local) to open a shop but I also rented because I had a good job. Last year I finished paying the mortgage payments and Im thinking of investing in a frozen food store. I never ignore the good advice of my father.

Vocabulary: Que hay en un nombre? Encuesta Mostrando inters Prestando atencin Aspecto Apariencia Tmido Las lecturas graduales son perfectas. Cerebro Dar una vuelta. Cunto ganas? Crees en la vida despus de la muerte? Dos amigos comentando el fin de semana. Eso parece (suena) interesante. Nunca he odo hablar de l (eso). Men diario. Multa de aparcamiento. Se han ido? Llegaron tarde? Conocimiento Puedo tomarle algunos datos? Puente Parking Iglesia Fuente Rascacielos Biblioteca Mezquita Mar Centro comercial Plaza Manantial Moderno (actual) Moneda Encantado Estoy bromeando Ciudad aburrida Lavar los platos Hoja/rama Bragas a bridge a car park a church a fountain high-rise building a library a mosque a sea a shopping centre a square spring up-to-date currency delighted Im kidding dull city washing up leaf knickers Whats in a name? Survey Showing interest Pay attention Forehead Appearance Shy Graded readers are perfects. Brain. Have a go. How much do you earn? Do you believe in life after death? Two friends discussing the weekend. That sounds interesting. I have never heard of it. The daily specials. Parking ticket. Have they left? Were they late? Knowledge Can I just take some details?

Estamos demasiado centrados en nosotros mismos. Were too focused on ourselves.

Medias/pantys Pantalones Diente

tights trousers tooth connectors (links) I joined the army. canteen anyway go out together each other so She didnt even know whether I was alive. even realise He rang me up. soon move in together chat somebody up fancy somebody have a row split up (a relationship) fall in love host host contestants as you know What was going on when come into shout sick have a shower He came up to him. He went up to him. He was right again. Plasctic bag. A pot of paint. A pair of scissors. find out. affair hide She pored thick white paint. all over fine wines cellar Whether

Yemas de los dedos fingertips Conectores (enlaces) Me un al ejercito. Cantina (comedor) De todos modos Salir juntos El uno al otro (entre s) Por tanto (por consiguiente) Ella ni si quiera saba si yo esta vivo. Si Incluso Darse cuenta l me llam (por telfono) Pronto Irse a vivir juntos Charlar con alguien Encapricharse con alguien Tener una bronca Romper, dividir (una relacin) Enamorarse Presentar en televisin Presentador Concursantes Como saben Lo que estaba sucediendo cuando Entrar en Gritar Enfermo Ducharse l se acerc a l. Tena razn de nuevo. Bolsa de plstico. Bote de pintura. Un par de tijeras Averiguar, descubrir Aventura, asunto, caso Ocultar, esconder Por todas partes Estupendos vinos Bodega

Ella derram espesa pintura blanca.

Stano Colocar Bastante Como era de esperar Al principio Furioso Rpidamente Sileciosamente Tarde ltimamente Ordenadamente Alto En voz alta Resaca Yo tambin Yo tampoco Quizs Desde luego! Claro que s! En el extranger Tmido Nosotros acordamos reunirnos en Ocupado Travieso Adolescentes Hornear Panaderia Extrao, sobrante, desparejado Hundirse, naufragar Tirar Traer un ramo una caja un par un paquete un trozo una botella un tarro una lata libro de cocina casi nunca busy at first ungrily place rather

basement

Ella llegaba cada vez ms tarde. She got later and later. unsurprisingly

quickly quietly late lately Tidily loud loudly hangover so do I, so am I, me too neither do I, me neither maybe Certainly abroad shy We arranged to meet in

Qu haces para ganarte la vida? What do you do for a living?

naughty teenagers bake bakery odd sink throw bring a bunch of a box of a pair of a packet of a piece of a bottle of a jar of a can of cookery book hardly ever flowers, grapes(uvas), keys chocolates, matches(cerillas), tissues(clinex) socks(calcetines), scissors, jeans cigarettes, crisps, biscuits cake, furniture, wood wine, perfume, whisky jam, instant coffee, mayonnaise beans(frijoles), petrol(gasolina), tomatoes

Nos metimos en muchos problemas.We got into many problems.

Cual es el disparejo (desigual)? Which is the odd one out?

oculto sensato sensible con motivos (dibujos) a rayas (grandes) a rayas (finas-diplomticas) con flores a cuadros sin dibujo corbatas de colores brillantes calcetines botas pendientes collar sandalias pauelo-bufanda pauelo-bufanda a cuadros guantes de piel marrones sombrero camisa camisa blanca de algodn chaqueta vaquera azul jersey jersey de lana con dibujos pantys medias falda impermeable pantalones chaleco rebeca vestido a topos gorro de lana a rayas corbata de seda a cuadros chaqueta de rayas finas camisa de cuadros ni siquiera tendencias receta recibo la cuenta/factura vestirse desvestirse cambiarse de ropa

hidden sensible sensitive patterned striped pinstriped floral checked plain brightly coloured tie socks boots earrings necklace sandals scarf a checked scarf brown leather gloves hat shirt a plain white cotton a blue denim jacket jumper a patterned woollen jumper tights stockings skirt raincoat trousers waistcoat cardigan a polka dot dress a striped woollen hat patterned silk ties a pinstriped jacket a checked shirt nor even trends recipe receipt bill, note, invoice get dressed (put your clothes on) get undressed (take your clothes off) get change (take your clothes off and put different clothes on)

talla correcta ropa que queda bien probarse ropa Que clase (tipo) de cosas... prctico de fiar valioso pierna delgado divertido perezoso confiar campo deportivo pista de tenis piscina de hecho instalaciones 500 7,184 1,500,000 3/4 0.25 0.33 1 1/2 1/8 1/4 1.5 0.125 1/3 0.75 maneras de desestresarse sugerencia quitarse (el reloj) hacerse cargo de parecerse apagar encender sentare ponerse guardar, recoger inventar, maquillar correr detrs de tirar, desechar, desacerse de donar, regalar

clothes fit you (clothes are the right size for you) clothes suit you (clothes are the right colour, shape and style) try something on (put something on to see if it fits/suits you) What sort of thing... convenient reliable valuable leg thin funny lazy trust sport field tennis court swimming pool in fact facilities five hundred seven thousand, one hundred and eighty-four one million five hundred thousand Three quarters. Nought point two five. Nought point three three. One and a half. An eighth A quarter. One point five. Nought point one two five. A third. Nought point seven five. ways to de-stress suggestion take off (your watch) take over take after switch off switch on sit down Put on Put away make up run after throw away give away

devolver renunciar, dejar colgar subir (el volumen) arreglar(lo), limpiar(lo) hacer(les) frente rellenar(lo) anula(lo) recoger djalo ir Solicitar cuidar de buscar (diccionario) agarrarse, cogerse a, esperar llevarse (bien) recupearse criar, educar Ellos me criaron crecer Cuando vas a crecer? averiguar, descubrir planchar probarse ordenado ordenadamente me mantiene despierto. Que debo hacer con... desorden formulario de solicitud el club de la risa liberar darse cuenta de repente te das cuenta tirar la bola Ponte de pie en la tabla. ir con cuidado camiseta de deporte casco baador (pantaln) traje de bao gafas de piscina atleta atletismo cancha, patio

give back give up hung up turn up (the volume) clear (it) up deal with (it) fill (it) in call (it) off Pick up let it go. apply for look after look up (dictionary) hold on Get on (well) get over bring up They brought me up grow up When are you going to grow up? find out ironing try on tidy tidily It's keeps me awake. What shall I do with... mess appliation form laughter club release realize suddenly realise throw the ball Stand up on the board. be careful (take care) a running vest a helmet swimming trunks swimming costume goggles athlete athletics court

pista campo golfista de arriba ballena azul Groenlandia camarera la taquilla de la oficina Cuanto tiempo te lleva... Cuantos sobrinos tienes? Cuanto dinero (en efectivo) llevas? A qu distancia est de tu casa? A qu velocidad va tu coche? Qu edad tiene la persona ms vieja... Cmo de bien conoces tus... si (conjuncin) remar correr (hacer futing) senderismo hacer turismo tumbarse en la playa En un da normal Promedio Escaleras Al menos una hora Ir en bicicleta (pasear en bicicleta) Una vez al mes Podra ser peor Peor Ms hacia el norte Tratar de hacer reir a los dems. l es muy pacfico Nadie puede venir No te rindas, intntalo de nuevo. Reir hasta cuatro veces al dia. Mantener al mdico alejado. Impulsar, aumentar Pulmones Ejecutivo de publicidad Ponerse en contacto s tan ligero como una pluma. s tan slido como una roca. s tan viejo como las montaas.

track pitch golfer above blue whale Greenland waitress ticket office How long does it take you to... How many cousins do you have? How much cash do you have? How far is it from your house? How fast does your car go? How old is the oldest person... How well do you know your... whether rowing Go jogging Go hiking Go sightseeing Lie on the beach In an average day average stairs at least one hour cycle once a month could be worse worse further north To try to make each other laugh. hes very paceful. nobody can come. Dont give up, try again. Laugh up to four times a day. Keep the doctor away. Boost lungs advertising executive to get in touch Its as light as a feather. Its as solid as a rock. Its as old as the hills.

Con qu frecuencia viajas con el coche. How often do you travel by car?

cirujano canicero veterinario campesino, granjero cocinero director gerente arquelogo salto y giros pierna casco protector ropa de diseo congelacin msculos esbelto, delgado fuerte ropa holgada feo recolecta de fruta dia libre critica decepcionado media jornada repartir tener algo de tiempo libre tomar una decisin hacer dinero ganarse la vida dormir siesta descansar hacer un descanso de 15 minutos tienes que ser bueno pedir consejo pedir aumento de sueldo pedir permiso de un tiempo hasta ahora tonterias no seas tonto bien hecho alimentar dimitir, renunciar jubilarse alcanzando la edad de jubilacin solicitud de un puesto de trabajo

a surgeon a butcher a vet farmer cook managing director a archaeologist jumps and turns leg crash helmet designer clothes freezing muscles slim strong baggy clothes nasty fruit-picking day off review upset part-time handed out to have some time off to make a decision to make a money to make a living to have a nap to have a rest to have a fifteen-minute(adj. sin plural) break You have to be good to ask for advice to ask for a pay-rise to ask for permission up to now silly things dont be silly well done feed resign to retire reached retirement age application for a job

encontrar/perder/conseguir un trabajo find/lose/get a job

mejorar adjunto en el mismo sobre un nuevo desafio a la espera de una audiencia solicitado deseara solicitar mal pagado anuncio puesto de trabajo estara disponible incluso atentamente desempleado

improve inclosed in the same envelope a new challenge look forward to hearing applied for would like to apply for badly-paid advertisement a position I would be available even yours faithfully unemployed I work as a bodyguard and I'm based in London involves foreign abroad I run the photography department I'm in charge of... basket a bin a briefcase a filing cabinet a folder a hole punch a note pad a stapler book shelf intray & outray attach two pieces of paper outdoors job work carry I like being on stage in... showing to sell be allowed Before they are allowed to run... earn less than... Im quite pleased with the way things turned out. ancient

trabajo de guardaespaldas con base en L implica en el extranjero en el extranjero llevo el departamento de fotografia Soy el responsable de... papelera de papel papelera de basura maletn archivador carpeta perforador bloc de notas grapadora biblioteca estanteria bandejas de entrada y salida adjuntar/enganchar dos folios al aire libre trabajo (nombre) trabajar (verbo) llevar (encima) me gustaria estar en el escenario de... ensear vender permitir Antes de que se les permita dirigir... ganar menos que... estoy bastante agradecido de como sucedieron las cosas Antigua

Oportunidad, casualidad Autnomo (trabajador) Cobrar (dinero) I cant stand Casi Tambin Sin embargo Ambos Mientras, considerando que Por otra parte Amable Quiero un sistema ms justo. Planes o acuerdos futuros Todo el mundo La mayora de las personas Un gran nmero de personas Varias personas Un pequeo nmero de personas (slo) a unas cuantas personas Nadie Pertenecer Poseer Por cierto Tareas domsticas Cocinar Lavar los platos Lavar la ropa Poner la mesa Barrer el piso Pasar la mopa por el suelo Fregar el suelo Limpiar los muebles Sacar la basura Tender la ropa Dar de comer a las mascotas Aspirar la alfombra Aprendiz Labios rojos sangre Clientes Extrangeros Pensin (casa de huesped) Entretener Adolescente Y despus?

chance self-employed charge (money) no soporto almost also however both whereas on the other hand kindest I want a fairer system. future arrangements Everybody Most people A large number of people Several people A small number of people (only) a few people Nobody belong own By the way housework cooking washing up the dishes doing laundry setting the table sweeping the floor mopping the floor scrub the floor cleaning the furnitures taking the garbage putting clothes on the line (clothesline). feeding the pets (or baby) vacuum the carpet (hoovering) trainee blood red lips costumers foreigners boarding house entertain teenager And what about later?

Como cualquier otro/a En estos tiempos Suspender examenes Obedecer Molestar He regretted it afterwards Una beca para estudiar No tenemos prisa Jurar Consejo Evitar Hacer algunas investigaciones Esfuerzo Saludar Apretn de manos Un firme apretn de manos Quick Mejilla Compartir Gustos Tema(de conversacin)/asignatura Dbil Instrucciones/direcciones Permanecer/quedarse Fingir/disimular/pretender Anciano No estoy tan seguro/a Permitirse el lujo Etapas de la educacin Ir a la guardera Empezar la escuela primaria Ir a la escuela secundaria Ir a la universidad Tomar un ao sabtico Obtener un ttulo (universitario) Tos (toser) Avergonzar Embarazoso Mostrar/demostrar l no es suficientemente bueno para ti En todo momento Cejas finas/gruesas Ojo eye

like anybody else nowadays fail exams obey disturb l se arrepinti ms tarde a grant to study Were not in a harry swear advice avoid do some research effort greet handshake a firm handshake rpido cheek share tastes subject weak directions remain pretend elder Im not so sure afford stages of education go to nursery school start primary school go to secondary school do a vocational course go to university take a gap year get a degree cough shame / embarrass embarrassing show Hes not good enough for you at all times thick/thin eyebrow

Hacer un curso de formacin profesional

Arrugas/patas de gallo Nariz Mejilla Hoyuelo Voca Diente Dientes alineados/blancos Barbilla/mentn Cabello rizado/lacio/ondulado Tobillo Trasero Pecho Codo Dedo (de la mano) Frente Tacn Cadera Rodilla Labio Ua Cuello Hombro Estomago Pulgar (de la mano) Dedo (de los pies) Cintura Mueca Pestaa Vigote Deseame suerte Cruza los dedos por mi Slo te estoy tomando el pelo Puedes echarme una mano Investigacin Dar confianza Educado Falso Tensar los msculos Descarado Seguro Timido Sensible Sensato

wrinkles nose cheek dimple mouth tooth straight/white teeth chin curly/straight/wavy hair ankle botton chest elbow finger forehead heel hip knee lip nail neck shoulder stomach thumb toe waist wrist eyelash moustache wish me luck keep your fingers crossed for me I bet it cost an arm and a leg can you give me a hand? research encourage polite fake tighten the muscles cheeky confident (certain about his or her abilities) shy (nervous in the company of other people) sensitive (cares about other peoples feelings) sensible Im just pulling your leg

Apuesto que vale un ojo de la cara

Ambicioso Mandn Tranquilo Leal Sociable Fiel Adictivo Afectoso Agresivo Molesto Desagradable Egoista Tormentoso/acalorado Tejido/pauelo de papel Esperar con inters A menudo/con frecuencia Cap Maletero Parachoques Palanca de cambios Freno de mano Matrcula Asiento Cinturn de seguridad Volante Techo solar Pneumtico Rueda Parabrisas Limpiaparabrisas Motor Descapotable

ambitious (really wants to become successful, rich, or famous) bossy (tells other people what to do all the time) easy-going (relaxed, calm and not easy to upset) loyal (continues to support a person in difficult times) sociable (nervous in the company of other people) faithful addictive affectionate aggressive annoying nasty selfish stormy tissue look forward to often bonnet boot bumper gear stick handbrake number plate seat seat belt steering wheel sunroof tyre wheel windscreen windscreen wipers engine convertible give somebody a lift get stuck in a traffic jam rush hour run out of petrol overtake somebody, speed up and go past them. breaks down hitchhiker hes full of beans. theyre like chalk and cheese hes not my cup of tea its a piece of cake We were packed in like sardines

Darle una vuelta a alguien (en coche) Estar en un atasco Hora punta Quedarse sin gasolina Adelantar a alguien Averiarse (un coche) Autoestopista Est eufrico/excitado Son como la noche y el da l no es mi tipo Es pan comido Parecamos sardinas enlatadas

Rebanar Crudo Cerezas Naranjas Uvas Melocotones Setas Lechuga Espinacas Zanahorias Coliflor Berenjena Pimientos rojos Pepino Cebollas Ajo Trucha Gambas Frijoles/judias Frutos secos Legumbres Nueces Avellanas Piones Almendras Pltano Sanda Fresas Caminata a paso ligero Llevar una vida sana Un joven Antepasados Pedir Entonces podras considerarlo Nadie tiene prisa Redes Criar nios Quejarse Prohibir Intil Potro (caballo) Pollito (gallina) Ternero (vaca) Gatito (gato) complain ban useless

slice raw cherries oranges grapes peaches mushrooms lettuce spinachs carrots cauliflower aubergine red peppers cucumber onions garlic trout prawns beans nuts pulses walnuts hazelnuts pinenuts almonds banana watermelon strawberrys brisk walk lead a healthy life a youth ancestors ask then you might consider it nobody is in a harry networks to raise children

a foal (a horse) a chick (a hen) a calf (a cow) a kitten (a cat)

Cachorro (perro) Cordero (oveja) Hormiga Abeja Mariposa Cucaracha Mosca Mosquito Araa Avispa Ciervo Oso Piel Tail Cartera (billetera) Pata (de perro o gato) Elefante Delfin Guepardo Jirafa Tortuga Pulpo Pavo Loro Cerdo Buey Conejo Mapache Tiburn Tigre Ballena Lobo Gusano Buitre Toro guila Murcielago Rana Serpiente Ratn Reno El hijo mayor Recordar Liberar/soltar

a puppy (a dog) a lamb (a sheep) an ant a bee a butterfly a cockroach a fly a mosquito a spider a wasp a deer a bear fur cola wallet paw an elephant a dolphin a cheetah a giraffe a tortoise an octopus a turkey a parrot a pig an ox a rabbit a racoon a shark a tiger a whale a wolf a worm a vulture a bull an eagle a bat a frog a snake a mouse (mice) a reindeer eldest son remind release

Darse cuentra Poner/fijar Ponme en libertad>/librame Inoxidable Arreglarselas/gestionar Vela/navegar El clima/tiempo Fro Calor Clido Caliente Hirviendo Brisa Ventoso Nube Nublado Gris/aburrido Oscuro Niebla Nebuloso Humedad Humedo Hielo Helado Bruma Brumoso Lluvia Lluvioso Ducharse Tormenta Tempestuoso Mojado Sol Soleado Seco Viento Ventoso Nieve Cubierto de nieve Derretirse/fundirse Maravilloso Horrible Husped/invitado Avergonzado wet sun sunny dry wind windy snow snowy mist misty rain rainy fog foggy set

realise set me free/release me stainless manage sail weather cold/chilly heat warm hot boiling breeze breezy cloud cloudy dull dark

humidity humid ice icy

shower storm stormy

melt away gorgeous awful guest embarrassed

Asustado Enfadado Enfermo Triste Preocupado Deprimido Ciudad natal Acuerdo Adjuntar Respuesta

frightened angry ill sad worried depresed hometown arrangement attach/add reply/answer

NIVEL 1-1: (Hola, soy Jane.) Hello, its Jane. (Ah, hola Jane.) Oh, hi, Jane. (Pescado o Ternera?) Fish or beef? (Pescado, por favor.) Fish, please. (Mira ese perro.) Look at this dog. (Oh, es precioso.) Oh, hes lovely. (Eres estudiante?) Are you student? (S.) Yes. (Me gusta tu vestido rojo.) I like your red dress. (Gracias.) Thank you.

(Me gusta este zumo de naranja) I like this orange juice. (A m tambin.) So do I. (Hola, puedo hablar con Mike?) Hello, may I speak to Mike? (Soy yo.) Speaking. (Puede decirme su nombre?) May I have your name? (Tom Green.) Tom Green. (Cuntas manzanas compraste?) How many apples did you buy? (Cunto cuesta esta camisa?) How much is this shirt? (Cuesta 20 libras.) Its 20 pounds. (Vamos de compras este viernes.) Lets go shipping this Friday. (Buena idea!) Good idea! (De donde eres?) Where do you come from? (Soy de Londres.) Im from London. (Te gustara un poco ms de pur de patatas?) Would you like some more mashed potato? (No, gracias.)

No, thank you. (Me puedes llevar a casa?) Could you drive me home? (Por supuesto.) Of course.

(Cathy, Te quieres casar conmigo?) Cathy, will you marry me? (Mark, me encantara) Oh, Mark, Id love to. (Pero no tienes trabajo) But you dont have a job. (Has estado alguna vez en Nueva York?) Have you ever been to New York? (S, he estado all muchas veces) Yes, Ive been there many times. (Me encanta ese lugar) I love that place. (No he dormido bien esta noche.) I didnt sleep well last night. (No?) You didnt? (Yo tampoco.) Neither did I. (Voy a ir a Hawai este invierno) Im going to Hawaii this Winter. (No me digas! Qu envidia!) Wow! I envy you! (De qu estis hablando?) What are you talking about?

(Estamos hablando sobre el nuevo jefe.) Were talking about our new boss. NIVEL 1-2: (Susie, Por qu llegas tan tarde?) Susie, why are you late? (lo siento, me qued dormida) Im sorry, I overslept. (Te gust la novela?) Did you like the novel? (No, era muy aburrida) No, it was really boring. (Cuanto tiempo llevis casados?) How long have you been married? (Bueno, la verdad es que no estamos casados.) Well, actually, were not married. (Cual es el propsito de su viaje? What is the purpose of your trip? (Solo turismo.) Just sightseeing. (Te importara abrir la ventana?) Would you mind opening the window? (En absoluto. Aqu hace mucho calor.) Nota t all. Its so hot in here. (Gira a la derecha en la esquina.) Turn right at the corner. (No puedo. Es una calle de sentido nico.) I cant. Its a one-way street. (Avsame si necesitas alguna cosa). Let me know if you need any help.

(Gracias, lo har.) Thank you. I Hill.

(Cundo empieza la reunin?) When does the meeting start? (Justo a las 3 en punto.) At 3 oclock sharp. (Por qu no nos tomamos un pequeo descanso?) Why dont we take a short break? (Buena idea.) Thats a good idea. (En cunto tiempo estars listo? ) How soon will you be ready? (Dame 5 minutos.) Give me 5 minutes. (A qu restaurante podemos a ir? ) Which restaurant shall we go to? Qu tal si probamos el nuevo restaurante de sushi?) How about trying the new sushi restaurant? (Cul es la fecha lmite de entrega para el ensayo?) What is the deadline for the essay? (Tengo que terminarlo antes del prximo lunes ) I have to finish it by next Monday (Puede coger alguien el telfono? ) Can somebody answer the phone? (S, lo cojo yo.) All right. I will. (Cunto le damos de propina al camarero? ) How much should we tip the waiter?

(No tenemos que dar nada.) We dont have to give him anything. (Fue un maleducado.) He was rude. (Quieres leche y azcar en el caf?) Would you like sugar and milk in your coffee? No, gracias. Lo quiero solo. No, thanks. Id like it black. (Qu hace tu novio?) What does your boyfriend do? (Pues no hace nada.) Well, nothing. (Qu planes tienes para el fin de semana?) What are your plans for this weekend? (Estoy pensando en ir de compras.) Im planning to go shopping. (Por qu no me llamaste ayer por la noche?) Why didnt you phone me last night?. (Lo siento. Estuve ocupado preparando el examen.) Im sorry. I was busy preparing for the exam. (Me pasas la sal, por favor?) Would you pass me the salt, please? (Claro, aqu tienes.) Certainly. Here you are. NIVEL 1-3: (Hola, Podra hablar con el Sr. Smith?) Hello, May I speak to Mr. Smith? (Un momento, por favor.) Hola on please.

(Qu haces esta noche? ) What are you doing tonight? (Nada en especial. Por qu?) Nothing in particular. Why? (Le puedo ayudar?) May I help you. (No, dolo estoy mirando.) No, thanks. Im just looking. (Creo que usted est sentado en mi asiento. ) I think youre sitting in my seat. (Ah, s? Lo siento) Really? Sorry. (Adis, Jane.) Goodbye, Jane. (Saluda a tus padres de mi parte.) Give my regards to your parents. (Lo hare, Mike. Adis) I will. Mike. Goodbye. (Cul es tu tipo de msica preferida?) Whats your favorite kind of music? (Me gusta el heavy metal.) I like heavy metal. (Queda algo de helado en el congelador?) Is there any ice cream left in the freezer? (No. Te lo comiste todo anoche.) No. You ate all of it last night. (No nos hemos visto antes?) Havent we met before? (No estoy segura/o. Usted cree?)

Im not sure. Have we? (A qu hora acaba la reunin? ) When will the meeting end? (No lo s. Espero que acabe antes de las 3.) I dont know. I hope it will be over by 3. (Henry, no te preocupes. Al final todo saldr bien.) Dont worry, Henry. Everything will be all right in the end. (Gracias. Ojal sea as.) Thank you. I hope so, too. (Dnde estabas cuando comenz el incendio? ) Where were you when the fire started? (Estaba en el cuarto de bao.) I was in the bathroom. (Fue realmente aterrador. ) It was really frightening. (Que tal si vamos al cine despus del trabajo?) Why dont we go to the cinema after work? (Ojal pudiera.) I wish I could. (Hoy tengo que terminar este informe. ) I have to finish this report today. (Qu te parece esta chaqueta? ) What do you think of this jacket? (No te queda bien.) It doesnt suit you. (Cunto tiempo se quedar aqu?) How long will you be staying here? (3 das. Estoy aqu por negocios.) 3 days. Im here on business.

(Cmo estuvo el tiempo durante el viaje? ) How was the weather during your trip? Llovi todos los das. It rained every day. (Podemos hablar? por supuesto. Qu sucede? ) Can I have a word with you? of course. Whats wrong? (Te gusta vivir en Pars? Es apasionante!) How do you like living in Paris? Its exciting! (Me podra decir cmo se va al Museo Nacional?) Could you tell me the way to the National Museum? (Slo siga bajando por esta calle unos 10 minutos.) Just walk down this street for about 10 minutes. (Me duele mucho la cabeza.) I have a terrible headache. (Por qu no te tomas alguna medicina? Why dont you take some medicine? NIVEL 2-1: (Pap, tengo muchsimas ganas de tener un perro.) Dad, I really want to have a dog. (Quin lo va a cuidar?) Whos going to take care of it? (Yo lo cuidar. Lo pasear todos los das. Lo prometo!) I will. Ill walk it every day. I promise! (Podra hablar con el Sr. Smith, por favor?) May I speak to Mr. Smith, please? (Lo siento pero ahora est fuera. Quiere que le deje un recado?) Im sorry, hes out right now. Can I take a message? (No. Le llamar ms tarde de nuevo.) No. Ill try again later.

Hola Anna. Qu tal ests hoy? Hi Anna. How are you today? (Bien gracias, Y t?) Fine, thanks. And yourself? (Yo?. Fatal.) me? Terrible. (Que tengas un buen fin de semana!) Hace a nice weekend! (Gracias. Tu tambin.) (Gracias. Hasta el lunes.) Thank you. You too. Thanks. See you Monday. (Me puedes ayudar?) Can you help me? (Claro. Que quieres que haga?) Sure. What do you want me to do? (Ven a la cocina y friega los platos.) Come to the kitchen and wash the dishes. (Hace buen tiempo, no?) (Sin duda.) Nice weather, isnt it? It certainly is. (Normalmente hace ms fro en esta poca del ao.) Its usually much cooler at this time of year. (Alguna novedad, Nancy?) Whats new with you, Nancy?

(Nada en especial. Y tu?) (Lo mismo.) Nothing really. How about you?. Same here. (Querra algunas de estas rosas.) Id like some of these roses. (Las rojas?) (S, quisiera 5, por favor) The red ones? Yes. Id like 5, please. (Son un regalo para mi mujer.)

Theyre a present for my wife. (Sr. Brown, aqu tiene la llave de su habitacin.) Mr. Brown, here is your room key. (Dnde puedo desayunar?) (En el primer piso.) Where can I have breakfast? On the first floor. (El desayuno se sirve de 7 a 10.) Breakfast is served from 7 to 10. (Necesito que me llamen para despertarme)(Claro. a qu hora?) (A las 5 en punto.) Ill need a wake-up call, please. Certainly. What time? 5 oclock. (Tengo que coger el primer tren.) I have to match the first train. (Cathy, me podras planchar esta camisa?) Will you iron this short for me, Cathy? (Lo siento, ahora no tengo tiempo.) (Vale, la planchar yo mismo.) Sorry, I dont have time now. Ok, Ill do it myself. (Qu estas haciendo? Has acabado los deberes?). What are you doing? Have you finished your homework? (No todava no. Los hago despus) No, not yet. Ill do it later. (Hazlos ahora!) Do it right now. (Tienes algo con que escribir?) (Te vale este boli? Do you have anything to write with? Will this pen do? (Hola. Me gustara comprar un billete para Pars). Hello. Id like to buy a ticket to Paris. (Ida o ida y vuelta?) (Ida y vuelta, por favor.) Single or return? Return, please. (Jenny, he odo que ests saliendo con Tom.) Jenny, I heard that youre going out with Tom.

(Quien te ha dicho eso?) (Me lo ha dicho Sam.) Who told you that? Sam did. (Te gustara cenar conmigo esta noche? Yo invito) Would you like to have dinner with me tonight? Its on me. (Me encantara. Adnde quieres ir?) Id love to. Where would you like to go? (A donde t quieras.) Anywhere you like. (Perdone, Cunto cuestan estos vaqueros?) Excuse me, How much are these jeans? (Estn de rebajas. Solo 22 libras.) Theyre on sale. Theyre only 22 pounds. (Se los quiere probar?) (S, por favour.) Would you care to try them on? Yes, please. (Perdone, le importara sacarnos una foto?) Excuse me, could you take our picture, please? (Sin ningn problema) (Gracias, solo pulse este botn No problem. Thank you. Just press this button. (Le importa que cierre la ventana?) Would you mind if I closed the window? (Mmm, preferira que la dejase abierta. Hace mucho calor aqu dentro.) Um, Id rather you didnt. Its very hot in here. (Cmo te encuentras esta maana?)(Mucho mejor, gracias.) How are you feeling this morning? Much better, thanks (Eso est bien, Te preparar un poco de leche caliente.) Thats good. Ill make you some warm milk. NIVEL 2-2: (Eh, mira!) Hey, look!

(El mar va a estar agitado maana) The seas gonna be rough tomorrow. (Otra tormenta se est acercando) Another storms approaching. (S. Esta va a ser ms fuerte que la ltima.) Yes, this one will be stronger tan the last one. (Meg, quieres venir a dar un paseo con nosotros?) Do you want to go for a walk with us, Meg? (Vale.) Sure. (Pero tengo que enviar unos correos electrnicos antes de que nos vayamos.) But I have to send some e-mails befor we go. (Te estaremos esperando en la entrada). Well be waiting for you down the hall. (Te pasa algo, Mark?) Is something wrong, Mark? (Ests plido.) You look a little pale. (Tengo un poco de fiebre y me duele la cabeza). I have a slight fever and a headache. (Vaya, qu pena.) Thats too bad. (Es mejor que hoy te quedes en cama). Youd better stay in bed today. (Te enteraste de que Jim tuvo un accidente la noche pasada?) Did you hear that Jim had an accident last night? (S, me enter). Yes, I did. (Me alegro de que no se lastimase.) Im glad he wasnt hurt.

(S, yo tambin. Tuvo suerte.) So am I. He was lucky. (Mr. Anderson, este es nuestro consejero delegado, Brian Smith.) Mr. Anderson, this is our CEO, Brian Smith. (Cmo est, Sr. Smith?) How do you do, Mr. Smith? (Encantado de conocerle, Sr. Anderson.) Its nice to meet you, Mr. Anderson. (Ahora tengo que irme.) I have to be going now. (Fue un placer hablar con usted, profesora Jenkins.) Its been really nice talking to you, profesor Jenkins. (Para m tambin. Hasta la prxima semana.) I enjoyed it, too. See you next week. (Profesor, podra hablar un poco ms alto, por favor?) Professor, could you speak a little louder, please? (S, claro.) Oh, all right.

(Me escucha ahora?) Can you hear me now? (S, gracias.) Yes, I can. Thank you. (Bob habla espaol muy bien, no?) Bob speaks Spanish very well, doesnt he? Est saliendo con Mara, una chica espaola. Hes seeing a Spanish girl, Maria. Ahora entiendo. So thats why.

Te gusta mi peinado? How do you like my hair? Ayer me hice la permanente. I had it permed yesterday. S, te queda muy bien. Well, it looks very nice. Mark, dira que no te gusta. Mark, you dont like it, do you? Tengo hambre. Im hungry. El estmago me ruge. My stomach is growling. El mo tambin So is mine. Salgo a comprar algo para comer? Shall I go and buy something to eat? Ah, gracias Mark. Oh, thank you, Mark. Qu tal va todo, Ted? Hows everything, Ted? No podra ir mejor. Couldnt be better. Acabo de recibir una interesante oferta de trabajo. I just got an interesting job offer. Qu bien! Good for you! Que tal el concierto de anoche? How was the concert last night? Fantstico. Fantastic.

Fu el mejor concierto al que he ido en mi vida. It was the best concert Ive ever been to. De verdad? Really? Debera haber ido contigo. I should have gone with you. Aqu tiene la cuenta, seor. Heres your bill, sir. Thank you. Gracias. Aceptan tarjetas de crdito? Do you accept credit cards? Me temo que no. Im sorry we dont. Podra pagar en metlico, por favor? Could you pay in cash, please? Parece que Henry no est de buen humor hoy. Henry isnt in a good mood this morning, is he? He escuchado que se pele con su mujer y ella le ha dejado. I heard that he and his wife had a big fight and she left him. Vaya! No lo saba. Oh! I didnt know that. Sales, Jack? Are you going out, Jack? S, voy a la oficina de correos. Yes. To the post office. Vuelvo en 10 minutos. Ill be back in 10 minutes. Llvate el abrigo.

Take your coat. Fuera hace un fro que pela. Its freezing outside. Bueno, ya es hora de volver a la oficina. Well, its time to ge back to the office. S, hasta luego, Cathy. OK, see you later, Cathy. Espera! Oh, wait! No es este tu telfono mvil? Isnt this your mobile phone? Ay, madre ma! Oh, my goodness. S, es mo. Gracias. Yes, its mine. Thanks. Qu ponen en la televisin esta noche? Whats on TV tonight? Djame ver la gua de televisin. Let me check the TV guide. Hay un consurso en el canal 8, una pelcula en el canal 10 Theres a game show on Channel 8, a film on Channel 10 Vale. Veamos el concurso del canal 8. OK, lets watch the game show on channel 8. He perdido toda la informacin! Ive lost all my data! No hiciste una copia de seguridad? Didnt you make a backup? Ayer te dije que la hicieras. I told you yo do that yesterday.

Ya lo s. I know. La debera haber hecho, pero no la hice. I shouldve done it but I didnt. Qu tipo de casa est buscando? What kind of house are you looking for? Una casa que tenga garaje, cerca de la Universidad. A house with a garaje, near the University. Ya veo. I see. Voy a hacer una consulta. Let me ask around. Me haras un favor? Would you do me a favor? That depends. Depende. Qu necesitas? What do you need. Me gustara que me prestases tu coche el prximo fin de semana. Id like to borrow your car next weekend. Tengo una cita con Maria. Ive got a date with Maria.

NIVEL 2-3: Tomar patatas fritas y una hamburguesa con queso. Ill have a cheeseburger and french fries. Para comer aqu o para llevar? To eat here or to take away? Para comer aqu. To eat here.

Algo para beber? Anything to drink? Caf, por favor. Coffee, please. Con quin hablabas por telfono? Who was that on the phone? Con el Sr. Brown, mi Nuevo jefe. Mr. Brown, my new boss. Me ha dicho que vaya a la oficina. He told me to come to office. Ahora? Pero si estamos cenando! Now? But were having dinner! Te vas? Are you going? Lo siento mucho. Im really sorry. An no he acabado de escribir la presentacin. I havent finished wrinting the presentation yet. Tmate tu tiempo. Take your time. Podemos esperar. We can wait. Gracias. Thank you. Creo que la puedo terminar antes de las 3. I think I can finish it by 3. Deprisa! Hurry up! No quiero llegar tarde al partido.

I dont want to be late for the game. Vale. All right. A que hora empieza? What time does it start? A las 6 en punto. 6 oclock. Slo tenemos 20 minutos. We only have 20 minutes left. No puedo aguantar este calor! I cant stand this heat! Hace demasiado calor! Its too hot! Lo s. I know. Por qu no compras un aparato de aire acondicionado? Why dont you get an air conditioner? No me lo puedo permitir. I cant afford one. Me podra cambiar el aceite, por favor? Could you change the oil, please? S. All right. Quiere que revise los frenos? Do you want me to check the brakes? No, gracias. No, thank you. Es maravillosa! Shes gorgeous!

Quien? Who? Hablas de la chica que lleva el abrigo negro? You mean the lady wearing the black coat? S. Yes. Eh, me est mirando! Hey, shes looking at me! Hola. Quisiera un anillo. Hello. Id like a ring. Es un regalo de cumpleaos para mi novia. Its a birthday present for my girlfriend. Le puedo preguntar qu posible precio tiene en mente? May I ask what Price range you have in mind? Bueno, unas 30 libras. Well, around 30 pounds. Gracias por su consejo. Thank you for your advice. No hay de qu. Dont mention it. Si necesita algo ms, no dude en llamarme. If you need any more help, dont hesitate to call me. Es usted muy amable. Thats very kind of you. Disculpe pero, podra bajar la msica, por favor? Excuse me, but could you turn your music down, please? Que? Sorry? Baje el volumen. Turn the volume down.

Ah, lo siento. Oh, sorry. No me cuenta de que estaba tan alto. I didnt realice it was so loud. Est este sitio ocupado? Is this seat taken? Eeh, no. Uh, no. Entonces, le importa que me siente? Then do you mind if I sit down? En absolute. Not at all. Te gusta el estofado, Henry? Do you like the stew, Henry? Oh, s. Est muy rico. Uh, yes. Its very nice. Quieres un poco ms? Would you like some more? No, gracias Cathy. No thanks, Cathy. Estoy lleno. Im full. Mike, ayer por la noche no te vi en la fiesta de Jenny. Mike, I didnt see you at Jennys party last night. Dnde estabas? Where were you? Me qued en casa. I stayed home. Por qu no viniste?

Why didnt you come? Bueno, no estaba invitado. Well, I wasnt invited. Creo que ella an est enfadada conmigo. Shes still angry with me, I think. No vas hoy al colegio? Arent you going to school today? S, claro que voy. Yes, of course I am. Entonces, por qu ests todava aqu? Then why are you still here? Hoy no tenemos clases de maana, mam. We dont have morning clases today, Mum. Te quedas a hacer horas extra esta noche? Are you working overtime this evening? No, vuelvo a casa. No, Im going home. Quieres que te lleve? Do you need a lift? Muchas gracias por ofrecerte, pero quiero caminar. Its nice of you to offer, but I want to walk. Puedo ver su pasaporte? May I see your passport? Aqu tiene. Here you are. Tiene algo que declarar? Do you have anything to declare? No. Slo compr un poco de chocolate. No. I just bought some chocolate.

Mary, lleva la ropa a tu habitacin. Mary, take your clothes to your room. Un momento, mama. Just a second, Mum. Estoy al telfono. Im on the phone. Hazlo tan pronto como cuelgues. Do it as soon as you hang up. Vale. Got it. Adnde vas tan arreglada? Where are you going all dressed up like that? Voy a una boda. Im going to a wedding. Una boda de quin? Tuya? Whose wedding? Yours? No. De mi hermana. No, my sisters, actually. James, ven rpido! James, come here, quick! Qu pasa, Cathy? Whats the matter, Cathy? Hay una araa destrs de la Cortina. Theres a spider behind the curtain. Haz algo! Do something! La coger y la llevar afuera. Ill take it outside. Qu te pasa, Emily? Whats the matter, Emily?

Pareces cansada. You look tired. No dorm mucho esta noche. I didnt get much sleep last night. Estuviste trabajando hasta tarde? Were you working late? Estuve jugando a los videojuegos. I was playing computer games. NIVEL 3-1:

Emergencias - Emergencies Llame/Llama (formal/informal) a un doctor! Call a doctor! Llame/Llama (formal/informal) una ambulancia! Call an ambulance! Llame/Llama (formal/informal) a la polica! Call the police! No puede respirar. He can't breathe. No puede moverse. He can't move.

No se detuvo. He did not stop. El se tropez conmigo. He ran into me. El iba conduciendo muy rpido He was driving too fast. Se cort. He has cut himself. No puedo mover mi brazo. I can't move my arm. No puedo mover mi pierna. I can't move my leg. Me robaron. I've been robbed. Detengan ese ladrn! Stop that thief! Me robaron el pasaporte. My passport has been stolen. Me robaron el dinero. My money has been stolen. Me robaron el auto. My car has been stolen. Hay un incendio! There's a fire! Dnde est el hospital ms cercano? Where is the nearest hospital? Dnde est la estacin de polica ms cercana? Where is the nearest police station?

POLITENESS Excuse me: Con permiso (al ir a ocasionar una molestia). Im sorry to trouble you: Siento molestarle. I dont want to trouble you: No quiero molestarle. Dont trouble: No se moleste. Allow me: Permtame. May I come in? Se puede? (al entrar en una habitacin). With pleasure: Con mucho gusto. Not at all: De nada. Dont mention it: No hay de qu. Youre welcome: No hay de qu (americano) Its no trouble at all: No es ninguna molestia Thats very Kind of you: Es usted muy amable. Im sorry! Lo siento! (Esta frase y las dos siguientes se emplean despus de haber ocasionado una molestia) Sorry! Lo siento Im so sorry! Cuanto lo siento! I beg your pardon! Le pido perdn (con tono varia significado puede repetirlo) Pardon me: Al corregir a otra persona. I must apologize: Debo pedir perdn Will you excuse me? me permite? Its a pleasure: Es un placer Yes, please: Si gracias al aceptar algo que se ofrece. No, thank you: No gracias (al rehusar algo que se ofrece) Please: por favor If you please: Si hace el favor After you: Usted primero

TAKING LEAVE (despedirse) Good-bye: Adis ByeBye: Forma familiar So long: Hasta luego Till later: Hasta mas tarde See you later: Te ver luego Ill be seeing you: Hasta otro rato. Ill see you tomorrow: Hasta maana Till Tomorrow: Hasta maana Till the day after tomorrow: Hasta pasado maana Until the day after tomorrow: Hasta pasado maana Ill see you on Monday: Hasta el lunes Till next monday: Hasta el lunes

Good night: Buenas noches Im afraid its too late: Temo que sea demasiado tarde. Im afraid I really must go: Temo que no tenga ms remedio que marcharme I must be going now: Tengo que irme ya Say goodbye to Mr Brown for me: Despida al Sr Brown en mi nombre Must you go so soon? Debe usted marcharse tan pronto? Dont go yet No se marche an Dont be long: No tardes Dont be too long: No tardes demasiado

WHEN YOU LIKE SOMETHING Its nice: es bonito Its wonderful: es maravilloso Its beautiful: Es hermoso Its fine: Es magnifico How nice! Que bonito! How wonderful! Que maravilloso! How beautiful! Que hermoso! How fine! Que magnifico! How pretty! Que mono! How lovely! Que encantador! What a beautiful thing! Que cosa tan Hermosa! I like it Me gusta I do like it: Pues claro que me gusta Of course I like it: Desde luego que me gusta That sounds very nice: Me parece estupendo. It seems all right: Me parece bien. Its worth seeing: merece la pena verlo Its simply wonderful: Es sencillamente maravilloso Nice, isnt it? No es bonito? I dont dislike it: No me desagrada Thats just what I like: es precisamente lo que me gusta Thats an excellent idea: Es una idea estupenda

WHEN YOU DISLIKE SOMETHING

I Dont like it: No me gusta I dont like it at all: No me gusta de ninguna manera. I dislike it: Me disgusta I hate it: Lo odio

Its very ugly: es muy feo What a nasty thing! Que cosa tan desagradable! How nasty! Que desagradable! How awful! Qu horroroso! How horrible! Que horrible! How ugly! Que feo! Horrible, isnt it? No es horrible! I cant bear it o lo puedo soportar I cant stand it No lo puedo resistir Its unbearable: Es insoportable Im fed up with it: Estoy harto de ello How disgusting! que asco! How boring! Que aburrido! I find it very boring: lo encuentro muy aburrido

WHEN SOMETHING DOESNT MATTER I dont care: No me importa I dont mind: No me importa I dont mind at all: Me tiene sin cuidado It doesnt matter: No importa Never mind: No importa It make no difference: No veo la diferencia It doesnt matter much: No tiene mucha importancia Its the same to me: Me es lo mismo Its all the same to me: Me da igual Its not worth bothering about: No merece la pena molestarse Im not interested in it: No me interesa

WHEN SOMETHING HAS BEEN LOST where is it? Dnde est? Do you Know where is it? sabes dnde est? I cant find it: no lo encuentro I cant find it anywhere: No lo encuentro por ningn sitio Where can I have put it? dnde puedo haberlo puesto? Ive lost it: Se me ha perdido I must have lost it: debo de haberlo perdido I think Ive lost it: creo que lo he perdido Im afraid Ive lost it: Me temo que lo haya perdido It cant be lost: No puede haberse perdido Have you seen it anywhere? lo ha visto usted en algn sitio?

I cant remember where i left it: No me acuerdo dnde lo dej Here is it! Aqu est Ive got it! Ya lo tengo Ive found it! Ya lo he encontrado!

ASKING FOR SOMETHING Give it to me: demelo Give it to me, please: haga el favor de drmelo Give it to me, will you? Dmelo, quiere? Will you give it to me please? Quiere darmelo por favor? Can you give it to me, please? puede drmelo por favor? Would you mind giving it to me? le importara darmelo? Could you give it to me please? podra drmelo por favor? Would you give it to me, please? querra drmelo por favor? May I have it, please? querra drmelo por favor?

DONT WORRY ABOUT IT Never mind: No importa It doesnt matter: No importa It makes no difference: no hay diferencia It isnt important: No es importante It doesnt matter at all: No importa nada absolutamente Dont worry: No se preocupe Dont bother: No se preocupe Dont worry about it: No se preocupe por eso Dont bother about it: No se preocupe por eso You neednt worry: No tiene por qu preocuparse Theres no need to worry: No hay por que preocuparse Stop worrying about it: deja de preocuparte por eso I wouldnt worry about that if I were you: si yo estuviera en su lugar no me preocupara por eso I cant see that it matters much: No veo que eso tenga tanta importancia Dont think any more about it: No pienses ms en ello

WHEN YOU DONT BELIEVE SOMETHING

I dont believe it: No lo creo I cant believe it: No puedo creerlo I cant believe my ears: No puedo creer lo que oigo

I dont believe a word of it: No creo ni una palabra de eso Nobody can believe it: Nadie lo puede creer I cant believe its true: No puedo creer que sea verdad Its hard to believe: Es dificil de creer Believe it or not: Si lo crees como si no Its not true: No es verdad It cant be true: No puede ser verdad I doubt it lo dudo I rather doubt it: Estoy por dudarlo Its incredible: Es incredible Its almost incredible! Es casi increble

WHEN YOU HAVE UNDERSTOOD

I understand: Comprendo I quite understand: Entiendo perfectamente I see! Ah ya! Right! Entendido I know what you mean: Ya s lo que quiere usted decir Yes I Know: S ya s Yes I see: Si ya s Its quite clear: Est claro

WHEN YOU CANT FIND THE RIGHT WORD

Do you understand? Entiende? Do you Know what I mean? Sabe usted lo que quiero decir? I cant think of the right word: No se me ocurre la palabra exacta I Think you understand what I mean: creo que entiende lo que quiero decir The thing is that la cuestion es que Or whatever you call it: o como se llame or something like that: o algo por el estilo

MEETING A FRIEND Its so nice to see you again: que agradable volverte a ver! I havent seen you for such a long time! Hace tanto tiempo que no te veo I havent to see you for years: Hace aos que no te veo How are you getting on? Cmo te va?

Hows life treating you? Cmo t eva la vida? Hows things? Cmo van las cosas? What are you doing now? A qu te dedicas ahora?

ASKING FOR PERMISSION

May i do it? puedo hacerlo? Could I do it? podra hacerlo? Would you allow me to do it? me permitira usted hacerlo? Would you let me do it? Me permitira usted hacerlo? Would you mind if I did it? Le importara que lo hiciera? Do you mind my doing it? Le importa que lo haga? May I ask a question? Puedo hacer una pregunta? May I come in? se puede? May I Borrow it? Me lo prestas?

GIVING PERMISSION

Yes, do it! S, hagalo! You may do it if you like: puede hacerlo si quiere I dont mind you doing it: no me molesta que lo haga Do it, by all means: Hgalo sin ninguna duda Of course you can do it: Desde luedo que puede hacerlo Ive no objection: No tengo nada que oponer

BEGINNING A CONVERSATION

I want to speak to you: Quiero hablar con usted. Id like to speak to you: Quisiera hablar con usted. I want to ask you something: Quiero preguntarle una cosa. Theres something Id like to ask you: Hay algo que me gustara preguntarle Are you very busy? est usted muy ocupado? Ive got something to tell you: Tengo algo que decirle May I have a word with you? Puedo hablar con usted? Could I speak to you for a few minutes? podra hablar con usted unos minutos? May I interrupt you for a few minutes? Puedo interrumpirle unos minutos? I should like to speak to you: Quisiera hablar con usted de un asunto muy importante.

I shant Keep you long: No le entretendr mucho tiempo. It wont take long: No llevar mucho tiempo. I wont be long: No tardar mucho. Its only for a few minutes: Solamente unos minutes

WHEN YOU HAVENT HEARD WHAT SOMEBODY HAS SAID

Pardon: Perdn cmo dice? Emplese entonacin ascendente. I beg your pardon: Perdn como se dice. Say it again, please: Reptalo, por favor. What did you say? cmo ha dicho? What was that? cmo ha dicho? What did you say it was called? cmo ha dicho que se llamaba? Im sorry I didnt catch your name cmo ha dicho que se llamaba usted? Would you mind saying it again? le importara repetirlo? Sorry I didnt catch the last word: Perdn no entend la ltima palabra. Sorry, I didnt understand what you said? Perdn no entend lo que dijo I didnt get it: No le he oido bien I didnt catch it: No le he oido bien

HE IS A VERY PLEASANT MAN He is a very pleasant man: Es un hombre muy agradable Hes very nice: Es muy simptico Hes one of those nice people: Es una de esas personas agradables Hes very Kind: Es muy amable Hes a very interesting person: Es una persona muy interesante Hes one of the nicest persons I Know: es una de las personas ms simpticas que conozco. Hes very intelligent: Es muy inteligente. Hes very Clever: es muy listo He means well: Tiene buenas intenciones I dont dislike him: No me desagrada Hes very amusing: Es muy gracioso.

I CANT STAND HIM

I Cant stand him: No lo puedo soportar I cant bear him: No lo puedo aguantar Hes unbearable: Es insoportable Hes a fool: Es tonto Hes foolish: Es tonto Hes quite stupid: Es muy estpido He puts me off: No me es simptico Hes very rude: Es muy descorts I detest him: Le detesto I hate him: Le odio I dont trust him: No me fio de l Hes always boasting: Siempre est hablando de s mismo He shows off: Es un vanidoso I dont mind him: Me es indiferente He talks too much: Habla demasiado Im fed up with him: Estoy harto de el Im sick of him: estoy harto de l Ha has a quick temper: En seguida se enfada Ha has a bad temper: Tiene mal humor Hes very dull: Es muy aburrido He annoys me intensely: Me fastidia enormemente You cant trush him: No se puede confiar en l How can you bear him? Cmo le puedes soportar?

AN APPOINTMENT

I shall be very pleased to see you: me alegrar mucho de verle Ill call and see you if you like: Ir a verle si quiere Let me Know when youre free: Digame cando est usted libre. I shall ring you up: Le llamar por telefno Ring me up at eleven: Telefoneme a las once Give me a ring whenever you like: Llamem a la hora que guste. Can you make it later in the evening? podras arreglarlo para ms tarde por la noche? Can you make it an hour earlier? podras arreglarlo para una hora antes? Where shall we meet? dnde nos encontramos? Will six oclock suit you? Le conviene a las seis? I hope you havent been waiting long? Espero que no haya esperado mucho

Are you free this afternoon? est usted libre esta tarde? Are you free today? Esta usted libre hoy? At what time shall I see tomorrow? A qu hora le ver maana?

HEALTH

You dont look very well; whats the matter? No tienes buen aspecto que te ocurre? Im not feeling well: No me siento bien You look ill: Parece que estas enfermo I hope the doctor will put me right: Espero que el medico me ponga bien Do you normally sleep well? duerme usted bien normalmente? Ive always slept well till lately: Siempre he dormido bien hasta hace poco Arent you feeling well? No se siente usted bien? Ive got a terrible headache: tengo un terrible dolor de cabeza My head aches and I think Ive got temperature: Me duele la cabeza y me parece que tengo fiebre Ive caught a cold and my throat hurts a little: He cogido un resfriado y me duele un poco la garganta. Ive had a cold and ive got a persistent cough: He tenido un resfriado y tengo una tos persistente. Does your throat still feel sore? tienes la garganta an mala? Its quite painful: Duele mucho How are you feeling today? cmo se encuentra usted hoy? Im better thank you: estoy mejor, gracias Im feeling a bit better, thank you: Me encuentro un poco mejor gracias Im so so: Estoy regular Im worse: estoy peor Im much better: Estoy mucho mejor I hope you will soon be well again: espero que pronto estar usted bien de Nuevo Get well soon! Que se mejore APOLOGIZING

Im sorry! Lo siento! Sorry! Lo siento Im very sorry! Lo siento mucho! Im awfully sorry! Lo siento mucho Im so sorry! Cuanto lo siento I beg your pardon! Perdn! I do apologize! Pido perdn! Im sorry but I couldnt help it: Lo siento pero no pude evitarlo I must apologize: debo pedir excusas I hope you will forgive me: Espero que usted me perdonar I really didnt mean that at all: en realidad, no quise de ninguna manera decir eso

It was quite unintentional: fue sin querer Im sorry Im late: Siento llegar tarde Im afraid Im late:Me temo que me ha retrasado I couldnt catch my bus in time: No pude coger el autobs a tiempo Im sorry to have Kept you waiting: Siento haberle hecho esperar I hope I havent Kept you waiting long: Espero no haberle hecho esperar mucho tiempo I couldnt get here before: No pude llegar antes I tried to get here before, but I couldnt : trat de llegar antes pero no pude.

GIVING AN OPINION

That sounds very sensible: Me parece muy sensato I think so: Me parece que s I dont think so: Me parece que no I believe so: as lo creo I dont believe so: No lo creo as I expect so: As lo espero I dont expect so: No lo espero as I hope so: Esa esperanza tengo Good idea! Buena idea Thats a grand idea: Es una idea estupenda! I think it would be wonderful: Creo que sera magnifico I think youre right: creo que tiene usted razn I suppose so: As lo supongo I dont suppose so: No lo supongo as I imagine so: As lo imagino I dont imagine so: No lo imagino as I dare say its all right: Me atrevera a decir que esta bien I doubt whether itll be all right: Dudo si estar bien Of course! Desde luego Of course not! Desde luego que no!

ASKING FOR AN OPINION

What do you think of it? Que le parece a usted? Dont you think so? No lo cree usted as?

Dont you think its a good idea? No cree usted que es una Buena idea? Whats your opinin? cal es su opinin? Do you think thats right? Cree usted que esta bien? Do you agree whith what Ive said? esta usted de acuerdo con lo que he dicho?

AVOIDING GIVING AN OPINION Not bad: No est mal I couldnt say: No podra decir I suppose so: Supongo que s I expect so: Espero que s Im afraid I cant tell you: Temo que no le pueda decir Perhaps: Quiz COMMANDS Look! Mira! I say! Oiga Look here! Oiga Come on! Vamos! Listen! Escuche Get out! Sal Be quiet! Estate quieto Silence, please! silencio! Hurry up! date prisa! Be quick! deprisa! Follow me Sigame! Go out! Sal Come out! Sal Be good! Se bueno Get up! Levantate Wake up! Despiertate Get dressed! Vistete Wait! Espera Wait a moment! Espera un momento! Stop! Para! Mind! Cuidado Look out! Cuidado Be carefull! ten cuidado! Dont drop it! No lo tires! Come in! Adelante Go in! entre Lets go! Vamonos!

Go on! Continue Shut up! Callate! Dont! No (lo hagas) Stand up! Ponte de pie! Sit down! Sientate Rub it out! Borralo! Cross it out! Tchalo! Write it in ink! Escribelo con tinta! Put on your coat! Ponte la chaqueta! Take off your coat! Quitate la chaqueta Go away! Marchat Eat it up: Cometelo todo Turn on the light! enciende la luz! Turn off the light! Apaga la luz! Lets take a vote on in! Echemoslo a votos! Lets toss for it! Echemoslo a cara o cruz!

EXCLAMATIONS

Oh!Oh Oh bother! Que lata! Confound it! Maldita sea! I see! Ah ya! Here you are! Aqu tienes! I give up! Me doy por vencido! Nonsense! Que tontera! How strange! que extrao! What bad luck! que mala suerte! Well I never! Nunca lo hubiera creido! What cheek! Que cara dura! How funny! Que gracioso! Of course! Desde luego! Well done! Bien hecho! At last! Por fin! Good luck! Buena suerte! Quite right! Perfecto! Congratulations! Enhorabuena No wonder! No me choca! Im not surprised! No me sorprende! What a shame! Que pena! What a pity! Que pena! What a nuisance! Que fastidio!

How annoying! Que fastidio! How frightful! Que miedo! What a thing! vaya cosa! Certainly! Pues claro! What! Como! My goodness! Caramba

APPROVAL

Yes: S Yes, sir: S seor Well: Bien Very well: Muy bien Very good: Muy bien Quite right: Muy bien O.K: Muy bien Thats right: Conforme All right! Conforme Of course! Desde luego I think so! Creo que s Right: tiene usted razon! Youre right: Tiene usted razn Right you are : Tiene usted toda la razn I think youre right: Creo que tiene usted razn Youre quite right: Ciertamente tiene usted razn Certainly: Claro que s! Good idea! Buena idea Thats a good idea! Es una Buena idea What a good idea! Que Buena idea What bright ideas you have! Que ideas tan luminosas tiene usted I agree with you! Estoy deacuerdo con usted I quite agree with you! Estoy de completo acuerdo con usted! Theres no doubt about you! No hay duda de eso Thats my opinin too: Esa es tambien mi opinin Thats just what i think! Eso es precisamente lo que pienso Thats what Ive always thought: Eso es lo que siempre he pensado Thats true: Eso es cierto Thats quite true: Eso es completamente cierto As you like: Como guste Just as you like: Haga lo que le parezca Do what you like Haga lo que le parezca

Thats splendid! Es magnifico! I should think so! As lo espero

I DONT AGREE WITH YOU No: No No, sir: No seor Oh, no! Oh no! No of course not! No, desde luego que no! Very bad! Muy mal! Its very bad! Est muy mal Its wrong! Est equivocado! Its of no use: De nada sirve It isnt worth while: No merece la pena Its quite absurd! Es completamente absurdo Nonsense! Tonteras How nasty! Que desagradable! I dont agree with you! No estoy deacuerdo con usted I disagree with you: No estoy deacuerdo con usted I dont think youre right: No creo que tenga usted razn I dont think so: Me parece que no Youre wrong: Esta usted equivocado Im afraid youre mistaken: Me temo que est usted equivocado

DOUBT

Perhaps: Quiz I suppose so: supongo que s I hope so: As lo espero Im not sure: No estoy seguro I cant tell you: No le puedo decir I cant remember: No me acuerdo Im afraid I cant tell you: Me temo que no le puedo decir I dont exactly know: No s exactamente I cant tell you for certain: No le puedo asegurar

CERTAINTY Im sure: estoy seguro

Im certain: Estoy seguro Im quite sure: Estoy completamente seguro Im quite certain: Estoy completamente seguro Its absolutely certain: Es completamente cierto Theres no doubt about it: No hay duda alguna

IGNORANCE I dont Know: No s I really dont Know: No s en realidad I dont Know anything about it: No s nada de eso I Know nothing about it: No s nada de eso I admit I dont Know anything about it: Confieso que no s nada de eso Im afraid I cant tell you: Me temo que no le pueda decir I havent got the slightest idea: No tengo ni la menor idea I havent any idea: No tengo idea

PROTEST

I protest : Protesto No, Im not: No, no lo soy No I dont: No, yo no No excuse me: Perdone, pero no Oh! But I say! Pero oigame DESIRE I want it: Lo quiero I wish I could do it: Ojal lo pudiera hacer I wish I could speak English better! Ojal supiera hablar ingls mejor! I should like to have it: Me gustara tenerlo Im longing to have it: Estoy deseando tenerlo Im anxious to have it: Estoy deseando tenerlo

POSSIBILITY Perhaps: Quiz Maybe: Quiz Its quite likely: Es muy posible

Its quite possible: Es muy posible He may do it: Puede que lo haga Hes likely to do it: Es posible que lo haga He is very likely to do it: Es muy posible que lo haga Theres a possibility that he will do it: Hay una posibilidad de que lo haga

IMPOSSIBILITY

I cant : No puedo I cant do it: No puedo hacerlo I cant possibly do it: Me es imposible hacerlo Im afraid I cant do it: Me temo que no puedo hacerlo Its quite impossible: Es completamente imposible It cant be done: Eso no se puede hacer It isnt possible:No es possible PROMISE I promise you: Se lo prometo Of course Ill do it: Desde luego que lo har Ill do what I can: Har todo lo que pueda Ill do my best: Har todo lo possible You can rely on me: Confie en mi I give you my word of honour: Le doy mi palabra de honor

GIVING A SUGGESTION shall I do it? Lo hago What do you say to doing it? Que le parece si lo hiciramos What about doing it? Que le parece si lo hiciramos Why not do that? Por qu no hacer eso? Lets do it, shall we? Vamos a hacerlo que le parece? Shall we go for a walk? Vamos de paseo? Why not tomorrow? por que no maana? Would you like me to do it? le gustara que lo hiciera? Shall we do it together? Lo hacemos juntos? FRIENDS Hes a friend of mine: Es amigo mo Hes a great friend of mine: Es un gran amigo mio

Hes a good friend of mine: Es un buen amigo mo Hes my best friend: Es mi mejor amigo I Know him very well: le conozco bien I Know him intimately: Intimamente Were on very good terms: Nos llevamos my bien Ive Known him for years: Hace aos que le conozco We went to school together: Nosotros fuimos juntos a la escuela We get along quite well together: nos llevamos muy bien

BUSY Im busy: Estoy ocupado Im very busy: Estoy muy ocupado Im very busy all the time: Estoy siempre muy ocupado I havent had time to do it yet: Todava no he tenido tiempo de hacerlo I havent time: No tengo tiempo I dont get enough time for it: No dispongo de bastante tiempo para ello I havent enough time to do: No tengo bastante tiempo para hacerlo I have very little spare time: Me sobra muy poco tiempo I wish I had time! Ojal tuviera tiempo I should like to have time: Me gusta

WAITING

Will it take long? tardar mucho? How long will it take you to do it? Cunto tardar usted en hacerlo? It wont take long: No se tardar mucho You wont have to wait long: No tendr usted que esperar mucho How many hours are there still to go? Cuntas horas faltan? Theres still an hour to go: An falta una hora How long is it to Christmas? Cunto falta para navidad? Christmas is still a long way off: An falta mucho para Navidad Christmas is only a month away: Slo falta un mes para Navidad Its three weeks to Christmas: Faltan tres semanas para Navidad It will only take ten minutes: Solamente se tardar diez minutes Will you wait a few minutes? quiere usted esperar unos minutes? Do you mind waiting a few minutes? le importara esperar unos minutes I shall be ready in a minute: Estar preparado en un momento

OFFERING HELP what can I do for you? en qu puedo servirle? Shall I be able to help you? Podr ayudarle? Can I help you? Puedo ayudarle? Is there anything I can do for you? Hay algo que pueda hacer por usted Shall I help you? le ayudo? Do you want me to help you? quiere usted que le ayude? Do you need any help? Necesita usted ayuda? Cant I do anything for you? No puedo hacer algo por usted? Allow me please: Permitame por favor Let me help you: Permitame que le ayude

WHATS YOUR NAME?

Whats your name? cmo se llama usted? Spell your name, please: deletree su nombre por favor How old are you? qu edad tiene usted? Whats your weight? cunto pesa usted? Where do you come from? de dnde es usted? What town of england do you come from? de qu ciudad de inglaterra es usted? Where do you live? dnde vive usted? Whats your address? Cuales son sus seas? Whats your telephone number? Cal e ssu nmero de telfono? What are you? Que es usted? Who are you? Quin es usted? Whats your nationality? cal es su nacionalidad? Where were you born? dnde naci usted? I was born in Madrid: Nac en Madrid Write your name and address here: Escriba su nombre y seas aqu Sign here: Firme aqu How long have you lived here? Cunto tiempo hace que vive usted aqu? Have you lived here long? hace mucho tiempo que vive usted aqui? I have lived here all my life: He vivido aqu toda mi vida How many children have you? cuntos hijos tiene usted? Have you got any brothers or sisters? tiene usted hermanos?

TRYING TO SPEAK ENGLISH Im afraid I dont understand: me temo que no lo entiendo

Speak slowly, please: Hable despacio por favor Speak more slowly, please: Hable ms despacio por favor I dont Known much English: No s mucho ingles I can just make myself understood: nicamente puedo hacer que me entiendan. Its very difficult for me to understand: Lo encuentro muy dificil de entender I can understand quite well: Lo entiendo bastante bien I can understand when people speak slowly: Lo entiendo cuando hablan despacio Is there anybody who speaks English? hay alguien que hable ingls? I dont understand you when you speak so fast: No le entiendo a usted cuando habla tan deprisa My English is rather elementary: Mi ingls e sbastante elemental Your English is quite good for a beginner: Su ingls es bastante bueno para ser principiante I dont hear English spoken much: No oigo hablar mucho ingls Can you speak English? Habla usted ingles? Do you speak english? Habla usted ingls? How do you spell it? cmo se escribe? Do you understand me? me entiende? Is this expression all right? Es correcta esta expression Is there any other form of saying it? Hay otra forma de decirlo? What does this word mean? Qu quiere decir esta palabra? Whats the meaning of this word? qu quiere decir esta palabra? Whats the english word for cartera? cmo se dice en ingls cartera I cant remenber the english word for cartera No recuerdo como se dice. Which syllable is stressed in photographer? Qu slaba se acentua en photographer How do you say that in english? Cmo se dice eso en ingls? What do you call that in english? Cmo se llama eso en ingls? How do you spell that word in English? cmo se escribe esa palabra en ingls? How do you pronounce it? Cmo se pronuncia? Where is the stress? Dnde se acenta? Spell it, please: Deletrelo por favor Havent I pronounced it? No lo he pronunciado bien? When did you start learning english? Cuando empez usted a aprender ingles

HURRY Hurry up! Date prisa Be quick! Date prisa! Come on! Vamos no te entretengas! Im in a hurry! Tengo prisa! Im in a great hurry! Tengo mucha prisa! Why are you in a such hurry? por qu tiene usted tanta prisa? Im late: Voy tarde Its late: Es tarde Its getting late: Se hace tarde

I must go: Tengo que marcharme Ive got to go: Tengo que marcharme Im sorry but I must go: Lo siento pero tengo que marcharme I must leave you: Tengo que dejarle I must start at once: Debo marcharme enseguida I must be off: No tengo ms remedio que irme Are you in a hurry? tiene usted prisa? Its time for me to go: Es hora de que me vaya I cant stay any longer: No puedo quedarme ms tiempo Sorry, I cant stop now: Lo siento pero no puedo entretenerme ahora I must hurry off: Tengo que salir corriendo Sorry, I cant stop; somebody is waiting for me: Alguien me esta esperando I shall have to hurry if I want to catch the bus: Tendr que darme prisa si quiero coger el autobus Im afraid I shant get yhere in time: Espero que llegar a tiempo I have to be there in time: Tengo que llegar a tiempo I had no idea it was so late: No tena ni idea de que fuese tan tarde

TIME Its early: es temprano Its late: Es tarde Its very late: Es muy tarde. Its too late: es demasiado tarde Its time: Es hora Its time to go: Es hora de marcharse Theres plenty of time: Hay tiempo de sobra Whats the time? Qu hora es? Whats the time by your watch? qu hora tiene su reloj? Do you Know the time? sabe usted que hora es? Is your watch right? Va bien su reloj? My watch is five minutes fast: Mi reloj va cinco minutos adelantado My watch is five minutes slow: My reloj va cinco minutos atrasado Its at least ten minutes slow: Por lo menos va diez minutes atrasado My watch says a quarter to seven: Mi reloj tiene las siete menos cuarto What day is it today? Qu da es hoy? What date is it today? A cuntos estamos? What is the date? Que fecha es? What day of the month is it today? En qu da estamos? What day of the week is it today? Qu da de la semana es hoy What month is it now? en qu mes estamos? Its the first of december today, isnt it? Hoy es el primero de diciembre verdad? Todays Monday: Hoy es lunes Yesterday was Sunday: Ayer fue domingo

Tomorrows Tuesday: Maana es martes Time passes quickly: El tiempo pasa rpido Time flies! El tiempo vuela

ASKING SOMEBODY NOT TO DO SOMETHING

Dont do it: No lo haga Please, dont do it: Por favor no lo haga This is Mr. Brown: Le presento al Sr. Brown Let me introduce Mr. Smith to you: Permitame que le presente al Seor Smith Allow me to introduce my friend to you: Permitame que le presente a un amigo This is my friend: Le presento a mi amigo How dyou do? Mucho gusto Do you Know Mr. Armstrong? Conoce usted al Sr. Amstrong? Have you met Mr. White? Le han presentado al Sr. White I dont think youve met Mr. Willians: Me parece que no le han presentado al Sr. Williams Ive often heard about you: He oido hablar de usted a menudo Ive always wanted to meet you: Siempre he deseado conocerle Im so glad to have the opportunity of meeting you: Me allegro de tener la oportunidad de conocerle Excuse my introducing myself, my name is Wilson: permitame que me presente yo mismo, me llamo Wilson Im pleased to meet you: Encantado de conocerle

LATE Its getting late: Se est haciendo tarde Is it a late as that? es tan tarde? Excuse my being late: Perdone que llegue tarde Im afraid Im rather late: Temo que llegue algo tarde I do apologize for being so late: Pido perdn por llegar tan tarde You are late! Que tarde llegas Ive been held up by the traffic: me ha detenido el trfico I got caught in a traffic jam: Me cogi un embotellamiento Youll be late if you dont hurry up: Llegaras tarde si no te das prisa

BIRTHDAY Whens your birthday? cuando es tu cumpleaos? Is it your birthay today? Es hoy tu cumpleaos? Its my birthday tomorrow. Maana es mi cumpleaos

How old are you? cuantos aos tienes? Ill be thirty tomorrow: Maana cumplir treinta Ill be twenty in June: Cumplir los veinte en junio How old will you be next birthay? Cuntos vas a cumplir? Many happy returns of the day! Qu cumplas muchos!

HOLIDAYS

Are you going to have a holiday this year? vas a tomarte vacaciones este ao? Where are you going to spend your summer holidays? dnde vas a pasar las vacaciones este verano? Im going to spend my holidays in England: Voy a pasar mis vacaciones en inglaterra Where did you spend your summer holidays? dnde has pasado las vacaciones este verano? Have you had a holiday this year? has tenido vacaciones este ao? Ive had a short holiday: Me he tomado unas cortas vacaciones When do the summer holidays begin? Cuando empiezan las vacaciones de verano When do we break up? cuando se termina el curso?

INVITING SOMEBODY This calls for a celebration: Esto se merece que lo celebremos Lets go and have a drink: Vamos a tomar algo Would you like a drink? Quieres tomar algo? What about having a drink? Y si tomaramos algo? What do you say to a drink? que te parece si tomramos algo? What would you like to have? Qu quieres tomar? What are you going to have? qu vas a tomar? TOURISTS Did you enjoy your day in Toledo yesterday? lo pasaste bien en Toledo ayer? Did you enjoy seeing Madrid? te gusto Madrid? Are you going to stay here long? va usted a estar mucho tiempo aqui? What European countries have you visited? Qu pases europeos ha visitado usted? SHOWING THE WAY (mostrando el camino) This way, please: Por aqu por favor This way to the right: Por aqu a la derecha Go straight on: Siga derecho Youre going the wrong way: Va usted mal Youre going the right way: Va usted bien

Turn to the left: Vuelva a la izquierda Go along this street: vaya por esta calle Cross over: Cruze la calle Go on until you come to Oxford Street: Siga hasta que llegue a la calle oxford Go straight along this street: Vaya derecho por esta calle Go right to the end of this street and then turn left: Vaya usted hasta el final de esta calle y entonces vuelva a la izquierda

Actividades

Where can I go to listen to music? Would you like to dance? Let's go to ______. I like ______.

Dnde puedo escuchar msica?

Quieres bailar?

Vamos a ______.

Me gusta ______. Has trado el/la ______? A qu hora abre? A qu hora cierra? Conoces alguna discoteca agradable? Sabes cmo jugar a ______?

Did you bring the ______? What time does it open? What time does it close?

Do you know of a good nightclub? Do you know how to play ______? I like to ______.

Me gusta ______. Necesitamos equipo. Dnde puedo ver el partido de ______?

We need some equipment. Where can I see the ______ game?

Will you teach me to play ______? I'm exhausted.

Me ensears a jugar ______?

Estoy agotado. Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas?

Is there a wheelchair ramp? ______ is fun. I need sun lotion.

______ es divertido. Necesito crema solar. Navegas? Necesito ______. Dnde se renen los estudiantes?

Do you know how to sail? I need ______.

Where's the students' common room? How much is it to get in? Do you have ______? How much is this?

Cunto cuesta la entrada? Tiene ______?

Cunto cuesta esto? Aceptan tarjetas de crdito? Aceptan cheques de viaje? Me gustara probrmelo. Me gustara comprar ______. De qu est hecho? Necesito la talla ______. Coger ______ para esto?

Do you take credit cards?

Do you accept travelers checks? I'd like to try it on ... please. I'd like to buy ______. What's it made of? I need size ______.

Will you take ______ for this?

Can you recommend a shop that sells ______?

Me podra recomendar una tienda que venda ______?


It's too expensive.

Es muy caro. Dnde puedo comprar ______?

Where can I buy ______?

Can you please alter this?

Me lo puede arreglar? Dnde hay un buen sitio para ir de excursin?

Where's a good place to go for a hike? Where's the camping site? Can we camp here?

Dnde est el campamento? Podemos acampar aqu? Se puede hacer fogatas aqu?

Is it allowed to make a camp fire here? I like ______.

Me gusta ______. Me gustara un/una ______.

I'd like a ______. Please wait.

Por favor ... espere. Puedo ayudarle? Me quedar con doce de esos.

May I help you?

I'd like to have 12 of those ... please. What kind of movies do you like? What kind of literature do you like? What kind of music do you like? May I bring a friend?

Qu tipo de pelculas te gustan? Qu tipo de literatura te gusta? Qu tipo de msica te gusta?

Puedo traer un amigo/una amiga? Te gustara salir conmigo hoy?

Would you like to go out with me tonight? May I see that? This is very amusing! This is a beautiful sunset!

Puedo ver eso? Esto es muy entretenido! Es una bonita puesta de sol! Quieres algo del/de la...

Do you want something from the ______? Good luck!

Buena suerte! Enhorabuena! Me puedes dar el balcn ... por favor?

Congratulations!

May I have seats in the balcony section?

I would rather not sit in the balcony section. Where can I buy sunblock? Look at this.

No quiero balcn ... gracias.

Dnde puedo comprar crema protectora del sol?

Ve esto

Alimentacin

I need a ______ ... please. Is there a wheelchair ramp? I'd like to make a booking. Where's the dining hall?

Necesito un/una ______. Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas? Me gustara hacer una reserva. Dnde est la cafetera? Se puede fumar o no?

Is this smoking or non-smoking? Do you have ______? How much is this?

Tiene ______? Cunto cuesta esto? Aceptan tarjetas de crdito? Aceptan cheques de viaje?

Do you take credit cards?

Do you accept travelers checks? What's it made of?

De qu est hecho? Coger ______ para esto? Me gustara pedir ______. Me podras pasar ______ ... por favor?

Will you take ______ for this? I'd like to order ______.

May I have the ______ ... please? I didn't order that.

Yo no he pedido esto. Me gustara beber ______.

I'd like to have some ______ to drink please. Which way is it to the restaurant?

Dnde est el restaurante?

Cheers!

Salud! De qu son estos cargos? Podra ver la carta de vinos? Qu me recomienda? Tienen ______? Podemos reservar una mesa? Est includa la propina? Creo que la cuenta est incorrecta.

What are these charges for? May I see your wine list? What do you recommend? Do you serve ______? Can we book a table?

Is service included in the bill? I think the bill is added up wrong. Is the fish fresh? I'd like a ______.

Es fresco el pescado? Me gustara un/una ______. Qu tipo de carne tienen?

What sort of meat do you have? This is delicious.

Est delicioso. Esto no est bueno.

I'm sorry ... this doesn't taste good. Where's the greengrocer? I'd like a sweet. I'm hungry.

Dnde puedo comprar verdura?

Me gustara tomar postre. Tengo hambre. Volver pronto. Puedo ayudarle? Me quedar con doce de esos. Yo tomar un caf corto. No me lo puedo comer todo. Me das la cuenta ... por favor?

I'll be back shortly. May I help you?

I'd like to have 12 of those ... please. I'll have half a cup of coffee. I'm sorry ... I can't eat all of it. Can we get the bill ... please?

Bill ... please. I am thirsty.

La cuenta ... por favor. Tengo sed. Qu hermoso color!

What a beautiful colour. I need food.

Yo necesito comida. Puedes recomendar un buen restaurante?

Can you recommend a good restaurant? May I have the recipe? What are the ingredients? How do you cook this?

Puedo tener la receta? Cules son los ingredientes? Cmo se cocina esto?

Emergencia

Thanks for your help. Can you help me ... please? Stop.

Gracias por tu ayuda. Me puedes ayudar ... por favor?

Parar. Atencin por favor.

May I have your attention ... please? Go straight down the road.

Siga la calle recto. Dnde est el lavabo? Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas? Cul es el nmero de telfono de ______?

Where's the men's/ladies' toilets? Is there a wheelchair ramp?

What's the telephone number of ______? Wear your lifejacket. Is it safe to swim here? Is it allowed? Is it prohibited?

Ponte el salvavidas. Es seguro nadar aqu?

Est permitido? Est prohibido?

Police!

Polica! Pide hora con el doctor.

Make an appointment to see a doctor. I have a ______.

Tengo un/una ______. Apyate en mi hombro.

Put your head on my shoulder. I can hear you. She hurt her ankle. My ______ hurts. This is an emergency. What's the problem?

Te oigo. Ella se ha hecho dao en el tobillo. Me duele ______. Esto es una emergencia. Cul es el problema? Llama a una ambulancia ahora mismo. l tiene problemas para respirar.

Call the ambulance straight away. He's having trouble breathing. I'm allergic to ______. I feel sick.

Soy alrgico a ______.

Me encuentro mal. Llevame al mdico.

Take me to the doctor. Help!

Socorro! Dnde est la comisara?

Where's the police station? Is it serious?

Es grave? Quiero informar al consulado. Cmo puedo llegar al hospital?

I want to notify the consulate. How can I get to the hospital? My car broke down.

Mi coche se ha estropeado. Alguien me ha robado ______.

Somebody stole my ______. I lost my ______.

He perdido mi ______.

Who is in charge? Help!

Quin est al mando?

Socorro! Alguna persona habla ingls?

Does anyone here speak English?

Gente Let's go to ______. I like to ______.

Vamos a ______. Me gusta ______. Necesitamos equipo.

We need some equipment. I'm exhausted.

Estoy agotado. Necesito un/una ______.

I need a ______ ... please. Mr. Mrs.

Seor. Seora Cmo puedo ir a la playa? Ponte el salvavidas. Navegas? Es seguro nadar aqu? Mi nmero de habitacin es ______. Podra hacernos una foto? Pide hora con el doctor.

How do I get to the beach? Wear your lifejacket. Do you know how to sail? Is it safe to swim here? My room number is ______. Will you take a photograph of us?

Make an appointment to see a doctor. This is my ______. I'm married.

Este/esta /esto es mi.

Estoy casado/casada.

I have ______ children. I have one child. Are you married?

Tengo ______ hijos.

Tengo un hijo. Ests casado/casada? Tienes hijos? Me gustara probrmelo.

Do you have children? I'd like to try it on ... please. What's it made of? I need size ______.

De qu est hecho? Necesito la talla ______. No me gusta el color.

I'm sorry ... I don't like the colour. Can you please alter this?

Me lo puede arreglar?
I'm hungry.

Tengo hambre. Eso es mo ... gracias. Dnde hay un veterinario? Me quedar con doce de esos. Cuntos sois en tu familia?

That's mine ... thank you. Where would I find a vet?

I'd like to have 12 of those ... please. How many people in your family? My stomach is empty.

Mi estmago est vaco. Apyate en mi hombro.

Put your head on my shoulder. She hurt her ankle. My ______ hurts. Look at this.

Ella se ha hecho dao en el tobillo. Me duele ______.

Mira esto. Llevame al mdico. Dnde est la comisara? Quiero informar al consulado.

Take me to the doctor. Where's the police station?

I want to notify the consulate.

Here's my business card.

Aqu tienes mi tarjeta. Tengo una cita con ______. Es un placer hacer negocios con usted. Me podra dar su tarjeta?

I have an appointment with ______. It's a pleasure doing business with you. May I have your business card ... please? Who is in charge?

Quin est al mando? Puedo invitarte a comer/cenar?

May I invite you to dinner/lunch? May I bring a friend? May I buy you dinner? You look very nice.

Puedo traer un amigo/una amiga? Puedo invitarte a cenar? T te ves muy bien Te gustara salir conmigo hoy?

Would you like to go out with me tonight? What is your sign? May I see that?

Cul es tu signo del zodiaco? Puedo ver eso? Yo quiero escribir una carta a...

I want to write a letter to ______. I am thirsty.

Tengo sed. Qu hermoso color! Yo quiero ir a dormir. Yo voy al pueblo Yo voy al/a la... De qu color son tus ojos? De qu color es tu cabello?

What a beautiful colour. I want to go to sleep. I am going into town. I am going to the ______. What colour are your eyes? What colour is your hair? I am divorced.

Yo estoy divorciado Mi marido/esposa llega maana.

My husband/wife arrives tomorrow.

My children arrive tomorrow. I need food.

Mis nios llegan maana.

Yo necesito comida. Yo quiero montar en el/la...

I want to take the _____. May I go with you?

Puedo ir contigo? A qu te dedicas?

What do you do for a living?

Gramtica

What time does it open? What time does it close? I'm exhausted. How old are you? Today. Tomorrow. Yesterday. In the morning. At night.

A qu hora abre? A qu hora cierra?

Estoy agotado. Cuntos aos tienes?

Hoy. Maana. Ayer. Por la maana. Por la noche. Pasado maana. Anteayer.

The day after tomorrow. The day before yesterday. This week. Next month. Last year.

Esta semana. El prximo mes. El ao pasado.

Here. There.

Aqu. All ... all. No lo entiendo.

I'm sorry ... I don't understand. I see. Mr. Mrs.

Lo entiendo. Seor. Seora Podra escribirlo?

Could you please write it out? The ______ is broken.

El / la ______ est roto/rota.

Will you give me an alarm call at ______ o'clock ... please?

Me podran llamar a la/las ______ en punto ... por favor?


How old is it? Do you speak ______?

Cuntos aos tiene? Hablas ______? A qu hora empieza el viaje?

What time does the excursion start? What time do we get back? What are the hours? I'm married.

A qu hora volveremos? A qu horas se puede visitar?

Estoy casado/casada. Tengo ______ hijos.

I have ______ children. I have one child. Are you married?

Tengo un hijo. Ests casado/casada? Tienes hijos?

Do you have children? How much is this?

Cunto cuesta esto? Esto es muy bonito.

It's very beautiful here. I'm hungry.

Tengo hambre.

I don't speak ______. I speak ______ a little.

No hablo ______. Hablo un poco de ______. Hay alguien que hable ______? Lo podra repetir por favor?

Does anyone here speak ______? Could you repeat that ... please? Please speak more slowly. Look at the ______. Hello. Yes. No.

Por favor hable ms despacio.

Mira el/la ______.

Hola. S. No. Buenas tardes. Adis. Gracias. Bienvenido/bienvenida. Buenas tardes. Me llamo ______.

Good Evening. Good-bye. Thank you.

You're welcome. Good Afternoon. My name is ______. How are you?

Cmo ests?
Very well ... thank you.

Muy bien ... gracias.


My pleasure.

Encantado/encantada.
Excuse me ... please.

Me perdona ... por favor.


I'm fine ... thank you.

Estoy bien ... gracias.


What time is it?

Qu hora es?
What's your name?

Cmo te llamas?
How long have you been here?

Desde cundo ests aqu?


How long will you be staying?

Cunto tiempo estars?


I'm sorry.

Lo siento.
Perhaps.

Quizs.
That's interesting!

Muy interesante!
Wonderful!

Maravilloso!
The time is 1 o'clock.

Es la una.
How many people in your family?

Cuntos sois en tu familia?


I'm ______ years old.

Tengo ______ aos.


I can hear you.

Te oigo.
She hurt her ankle.

Ella se ha hecho dao en el tobillo.


My ______ hurts.

Me duele ______.

Look at this.

Mira esto.
I'm allergic to ______.

Soy alrgico a ______.


I feel sick.

Me encuentro mal.
This is a big house.

Esta casa es grande.


The time is 2 o'clock.

Son las dos.


May I see that?

Puedo ver eso?


This is very amusing!

Esto es muy entretenido!


For one week.

Por una semana.


I am thirsty.

Tengo sed.
It's sunny outside.

Est soleado afuera.


It's cold outside.

Hace fro afuera


It's raining outside.

Est lloviendo afuera


It's dark outside.

Est oscuro afuera


This is soft.

Esto es suave.
This is hard.

Esto es duro

This is uncomfortable.

Esto es incmodo
This is comfortable.

Esto es cmodo
I am from ______.

Yo soy de....
My nationality is ______.

Mi nacionalidad es...
What a beautiful colour.

Qu hermoso color!
This is a beautiful sunset!

Es una bonita puesta de sol!


I see the ______.

Yo veo el/la _____.


I have the ______.

Yo tengo el/la _____.


How do you spell ______?

Cmo se deletrea _____?


What colour are your eyes?

De qu color son tus ojos?


What colour is your hair?

De qu color es tu cabello?
Good luck!

Buena suerte!
Congratulations!

Enhorabuena!
Does anyone here speak English?

Alguna persona habla ingls?


My husband/wife arrives tomorrow.

Mi marido/esposa llega maana.


My children arrive tomorrow.

Mis nios llegan maana.


This is a big hotel.

ste es un hotel grande.


Tomorrow in the morning.

Maana por la maana.


How do you say ______?

Cmo se dice _____?


When is ______?

Cundo es...?
I speak ______.

Yo hablo _____.

Lugares

Let's go to ______. Where's the ______?

Vamos a ______. Dnde est el/la ______? Necesitamos equipo. Qu tiempo hace? Podra hacer una llamada a cobro revertido?

We need some equipment. How's the weather?

Can I make a reverse charge call ... please? Do you have computer services? Is there a wheelchair ramp? Can I leave a message?

Tienen servicio informtico? Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas?

Podra dejar un mensaje?


Please take the letter to the post office.

Por favor lleve la carta a la oficina de correos.

I need to go to the bank.

Necesito ir al banco.
Is it safe to swim here?

Es seguro nadar aqu?


Do you have any rooms available?

Tienen habitaciones libres?


I'd like to make a booking.

Me gustara hacer una reserva.


My room number is ______.

Mi nmero de habitacin es ______.


How much is it per night?

Cunto cuesta por noche?


May I see the room?

Podra ver la habitacin?


What time do we have to vacate the room?

A qu hora hay que dejar el hotel?


The ______ is broken.

El / la ______ est roto/rota.


May I have a room with a view?

Me podra dar una habitacin con vistas?


What size is the bed?

De qu tamao es la cama?
Is there air conditioning?

Hay aire acondicionado?


Do you have a single room?

Tiene habitacin para una persona?


Do you have a room for ______ people?

Tiene una habitacin para ______ personas?


Do you have a room with a private bath?

Tiene una habitacin con bao?


Is breakfast included in the price?

El desayuno est includo en el precio?


Is there room service?

Hay servicio de habitacin)?


May I have the key ... please?

La llave ... por favor.


Will you give me an alarm call at ______ o'clock ... please?

Me podran llamar a la/las ______ en punto ... por favor?


Can you recommend a good hotel?

Me podra recomendar un buen hotel?


I'm from ______.

Yo soy de ______.
Where are you from?

De dnde eres t?
Where's the library?

Dnde est la biblioteca?


How old is it?

Cuntos aos tiene?


Do you have a guidebook in ______?

Tiene una gua en ______?


Can we go inside?

Podemos ir dentro?
The museum is closed today.

El museo est cerrado hoy.


Is the next town far away?

Est lejos el prximo pueblo?


Is this smoking or non-smoking?

Se puede fumar o no?


Where's a good place to go for a hike?

Dnde hay un buen sitio para ir de excursin?


It's very beautiful here.

Esto es muy bonito.


What's the weather forecast?

Qu tiempo har?
Where's the camping site?

Dnde est el campamento?


Are there any wild animals here?

Hay animales peligrosos aqu?


Can we camp here?

Podemos acampar aqu?


Is it allowed to make a camp fire here?

Se puede hacer fogatas aqu?


Where can we dispose of our litter?

Dnde podemos tirar la basura?


Are there any showers here?

Hay alguna ducha aqu?


I like ______.

Me gusta ______.
I eat ______ for breakfast.

Yo Como ______ para desayunar.


I'm on a business trip.

Estoy de viaje de negocios.


Just a minute ... please.

Un momento ... por favor.


Where's the bus stop?

Dnde est la parada de autobs?


Where's the station?

Dnde est la estacin de trenes?

Where's the petrol station?

Dnde est la gasolinera?


Are pets allowed?

Estn permitidos los animales?


How long will you be staying?

Cunto tiempo estars?


Enjoy your visit.

Psatelo bien.
May I help you?

Puedo ayudarle?
How can I get to the hospital?

Cmo puedo llegar al hospital?


This is a big house.

Esta casa es grande.


Where's the wardrobe?

Dnde est el armario?


Please draw the curtains.

Por favor corre las cortinas.


What's your address?

Cul es tu direccin?
Will you fax this for me?

Podras enviarme este fax?


I need to send an e-mail on the internet.

Necesito enviar un E-Mail por Internet.


Here's my business card.

Aqu tienes mi tarjeta.


I have an appointment with ______.

Tengo una cita con ______.


It's a pleasure doing business with you.

Es un placer hacer negocios con usted.

May I have your business card ... please?

Me podra dar su tarjeta?


Who is in charge?

Quin est al mando?


It's sunny outside.

Est soleado afuera.


It's cold outside.

Hace fro afuera


It's raining outside.

Est lloviendo afuera


It's dark outside.

Est oscuro afuera


This is uncomfortable.

Esto es incmodo
This is comfortable.

Esto es cmodo
My nationality is ______.

Mi nacionalidad es...
What is your nationality?

Cul es tu nacionalidad?
This is a beautiful sunset!

Es una bonita puesta de sol!


I want to go to sleep.

Yo quiero ir a dormir.
I am going into town.

Yo voy al pueblo
I am going to the ______.

Yo voy al/a la...


Where do you live?

Dnde vives?

My husband/wife arrives tomorrow.

Mi marido/esposa llega maana.


My children arrive tomorrow.

Mis nios llegan maana.


My room number ... please.

Mi nmero de habitacin ... por favor.


I like museums.

A m me gustan los museos.


This is a big hotel.

ste es un hotel grande.


Where is the courtyard?

Dnde est el patio?


Where is the patio?

Dnde est la terraza?


Bedspread.

Colcha
Please leave a message at the front desk.

Por favor deja un mensaje en la recepcin.


Can you recommend an inexpensive hotel?

Puedes recomendar un hotel que no sea caro?


This is a Central Processing Unit.

Esto es una Unidad central de procesamiento


This is a keyboard.

Esto es un teclado
This is a computer monitor.

Esto es un monitor de ordenador

Naturaleza

How's the weather?

Qu tiempo hace?
In the morning.

Por la maana.
At night.

Por la noche.
How do I get to the beach?

Cmo puedo ir a la playa?


Can we rent a boat?

Podemos alquilar un barco?


Wear your lifejacket.

Ponte el salvavidas.
I need sun lotion.

Necesito crema solar.


Do you know how to sail?

Navegas?
Is it safe to swim here?

Es seguro nadar aqu?


Is it allowed?

Est permitido?
Is it prohibited?

Est prohibido?
This is my ______.

Este/esta /esto es mi.


I'm sorry ... I don't like the colour.

No me gusta el color.
It's very beautiful here.

Esto es muy bonito.

What's the weather forecast?

Qu tiempo har?
Where's the camping site?

Dnde est el campamento?


Are there any wild animals here?

Hay animales peligrosos aqu?


Can we camp here?

Podemos acampar aqu?


Is it allowed to make a camp fire here?

Se puede hacer fogatas aqu?


Are there any showers here?

Hay alguna ducha aqu?


This is delicious.

Est delicioso.
I'm sorry ... this doesn't taste good.

Esto no est bueno.


Do you have any pets?

Tienes algn animal de compaa?


I have a ______.

Tengo un/una ______.


Look at the ______.

Mira el/la ______.


Where's the zoo?

Dnde est el zoolgico?


What's your pet's name?

Cmo se llama tu mascota?


Are pets allowed?

Estn permitidos los animales?


Where's the pet shop?

Dnde est la tienda de animales?

Where would I find a vet?

Dnde hay un veterinario?


That's interesting!

Muy interesante!
Wonderful!

Maravilloso!
I'm allergic to ______.

Soy alrgico a ______.


It's sunny outside.

Est soleado afuera.


It's cold outside.

Hace fro afuera


It's raining outside.

Est lloviendo afuera


It's dark outside.

Est oscuro afuera


This is soft.

Esto es suave.
This is hard.

Esto es duro
What a beautiful colour.

Qu hermoso color!
This is a beautiful sunset!

Es una bonita puesta de sol!


Where can I buy sunblock?

Dnde puedo comprar crema protectora del sol?


How do you cook this?

Cmo se cocina esto?


May I go with you?

Puedo ir contigo?
Look at this.

Ve esto
How do you say ______?

Cmo se dice _____?


Nivel Bsico

What's your name?

Cmo te llamas?
How old are you?

Cuntos aos tienes?


Happy Birthday.

Feliz cumpleaos.
Turn ______ at the corner.

Gira ______ en la esquina.


Go straight down the road.

Siga la calle recto.


Today.

Hoy.
Tomorrow.

Maana.
Yesterday.

Ayer.
In the morning.

Por la maana.
At night.

Por la noche.
The day after tomorrow.

Pasado maana.

The day before yesterday.

Anteayer.
This week.

Esta semana.
Next month.

El prximo mes.
Last year.

El ao pasado.
Here.

Aqu.
There.

All ... all.


Mr.

Seor.
Mrs.

Seora
What's the exchange rate?

Cul es el tipo de cambio?


Where's the telephone box?

Dnde est el telfono?


What's the telephone number of ______?

Cul es el nmero de telfono de ______?


How do I get to the beach?

Cmo puedo ir a la playa?


Could you please write it out?

Podra escribirlo?
The ______ is broken.

El / la ______ est roto/rota.


I'm from ______.

Yo soy de ______.

Where are you from?

De dnde eres t?
I want to learn ______.

Quiero aprender ______.


Where's the library?

Dnde est la biblioteca?


Is the next town far away?

Est lejos el prximo pueblo?


I need size ______.

Necesito la talla ______.


I'm sorry ... I don't like the colour.

No me gusta el color.
Where can I buy ______?

Dnde puedo comprar ______?


Can you please alter this?

Me lo puede arreglar?
Cheers!

Salud!
I like ______.

Me gusta ______.
Where's the greengrocer?

Dnde puedo comprar verdura?


Which way is it to the ______?

Cmo puedo llegar a ______?


Could you repeat that ... please?

Lo podra repetir por favor?


Please speak more slowly.

Por favor hable ms despacio.


First class.

Primera clase.

Second class.

Segunda clase.
Look at the ______.

Mira el/la ______.


Where's the zoo?

Dnde est el zoolgico?


Hello.

Hola.
Good Evening.

Buenas tardes.
Good-bye.

Adis.
You're welcome.

Bienvenido/bienvenida.
Good Afternoon.

Buenas tardes.
My name is ______.

Me llamo ______.
How are you?

Cmo ests?
Very well ... thank you.

Muy bien ... gracias.


My pleasure.

Encantado/encantada.
Excuse me ... please.

Me perdona ... por favor.


I'm fine ... thank you.

Estoy bien ... gracias.


What's your name?

Cmo te llamas?
Where are you staying?

Dnde ests?
The time is 1 o'clock.

Es la una.
I'm ______ years old.

Tengo ______ aos.


Where's the police station?

Dnde est la comisara?


How can I get to the hospital?

Cmo puedo llegar al hospital?


The time is 2 o'clock.

Son las dos.


Four o'clock am

Cuatro en punto de la madrugada


One fifteen am

La una y quince de la madrugada


One forty five am

La una y cuarenta y cinco de la madrugada


One o'clock pm

La una del medioda


One thirty am

La una y media de la madrugada


One week ago

Hace una semana


One year ago

Hace un ao
Ten minutes past one am

La una y diez de la madrugada


Three o'clock am

Las tres de la madrugada


Three o'clock pm

Las tres de la tarde


Two months ago

Hace dos meses


Two o'clock pm

Las dos de la tarde


Two years old

Tiene dos aos


What is your sign?

Cul es tu signo del zodiaco?


May I see that?

Puedo ver eso?


For one week.

Por una semana.


This is soft.

Esto es suave.
This is hard.

Esto es duro
My nationality is ______.

Mi nacionalidad es...
What is your nationality?

Cul es tu nacionalidad?
I see the ______.

Yo veo el/la _____.


I have the ______.

Yo tengo el/la _____.


How do you spell ______?

Cmo se deletrea _____?

May I introduce ______.

Permteme presentarte a...


Good luck!

Buena suerte!
Congratulations!

Enhorabuena!
May I have a piece of paper ... please?

Me puedes prestar un pedazo de papel ... por favor?


May I borrow a pen ... please?

Me puedes prestar un bolgrafo ... por favor?


Tomorrow in the morning.

Maana por la maana.


Look at this.

Ve esto
How do you say ______?

Cmo se dice _____?


Organizaciones

Today.

Hoy.
Tomorrow.

Maana.
In the morning.

Por la maana.
At night.

Por la noche.
Do you have computer services?

Tienen servicio informtico?


Is there a wheelchair ramp?

Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas?

The ______ is broken.

El / la ______ est roto/rota.


I'm from ______.

Yo soy de ______.
I'm studying ______.

Estoy estudiando ______.


I go to the university of ______.

Voy a la universidad de ______.


I'm in the ______ form.

Estoy en ______ curso.


I want to learn ______.

Quiero aprender ______.


What time do the students go home?

La escuela termina a la/las ______.


Where's the library?

Dnde est la biblioteca?


Where's the students' common room?

Dnde se renen los estudiantes?


Where's the dining hall?

Dnde est la cafetera?


What are the hours?

A qu horas se puede visitar?


Is it allowed?

Est permitido?
Is it prohibited?

Est prohibido?
It's very beautiful here.

Esto es muy bonito.


Just a minute ... please.

Un momento ... por favor.


Look at the ______.

Mira el/la ______.


Help!

Socorro!
Where's the police station?

Dnde est la comisara?


I want to notify the consulate.

Quiero informar al consulado.


Please draw the curtains.

Por favor corre las cortinas.


What's your address?

Cul es tu direccin?
Who is in charge?

Quin est al mando?


My nationality is ______.

Mi nacionalidad es...
What is your nationality?

Cul es tu nacionalidad?
How do you spell ______?

Cmo se deletrea _____?


Where do you live?

Dnde vives?
May I have a piece of paper ... please?

Me puedes prestar un pedazo de papel ... por favor?


May I borrow a pen ... please?

Me puedes prestar un bolgrafo ... por favor?


Is this wheelchair accessible?

Se puede acceder en silla de ruedas?


Where do you go to school?

Dnde vas a la escuela?


What class are you in?

En qu curso ests?
What is your subject?

Cul es tu especialidad?
How long have you lived here?

Cunto tiempo llevas aqu?


What's your religion?

Cul es tu religin?
How do you say ______?

Cmo se dice _____?

Varios

Did you bring the ______?

Has trado el/la ______?


We need some equipment.

Necesitamos equipo.
Happy Birthday.

Feliz cumpleaos.
I'm sorry ... I don't understand.

No lo entiendo.
I see.

Lo entiendo.
Do you have computer services?

Tienen servicio informtico?


Is there a wheelchair ramp?

Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas?


______ is fun.

______ es divertido.

I need sun lotion.

Necesito crema solar.


I need ______.

Necesito ______.
The ______ is broken.

El / la ______ est roto/rota.


I'm from ______.

Yo soy de ______.
How old is it?

Cuntos aos tiene?


May I take a photograph?

Puedo tomar una foto?


Will you take a photograph of us?

Podra hacernos una foto?


Is it allowed?

Est permitido?
Is it prohibited?

Est prohibido?
I'm married.

Estoy casado/casada.
Do you have ______?

Tiene ______?
How much is this?

Cunto cuesta esto?


Can you show me how it works?

Me puede ensear cmo funciona?


What's it made of?

De qu est hecho?
Cheers!

Salud!

Is the clutch a manual or an automatic?

Tiene cambio de marchas automtico?


I have a ______.

Tengo un/una ______.


Look at the ______.

Mira el/la ______.


I'm sorry.

Lo siento.
Perhaps.

Quizs.
That's interesting!

Muy interesante!
Wonderful!

Maravilloso!
Put your head on my shoulder.

Apyate en mi hombro.
My ______ hurts.

Me duele ______.
Look at this.

Mira esto.
This is an emergency.

Esto es una emergencia.


What's the problem?

Cul es el problema?
Is it serious?

Es grave?
My car broke down.

Mi coche se ha estropeado.
Somebody stole my ______.

Alguien me ha robado ______.


I lost my ______.

He perdido mi ______.
Will you fax this for me?

Podras enviarme este fax?


I need to send an e-mail on the internet.

Necesito enviar un E-Mail por Internet.


May I invite you to dinner/lunch?

Puedo invitarte a comer/cenar?


May I buy you dinner?

Puedo invitarte a cenar?


You look very nice.

T te ves muy bien


Would you like to go out with me tonight?

Te gustara salir conmigo hoy?


What is your sign?

Cul es tu signo del zodiaco?


This is soft.

Esto es suave.
This is hard.

Esto es duro
This is uncomfortable.

Esto es incmodo
This is comfortable.

Esto es cmodo
I want to go to sleep.

Yo quiero ir a dormir.
I see the ______.

Yo veo el/la _____.


I have the ______.

Yo tengo el/la _____.


Do you want something from the ______?

Quieres algo del/de la...


What colour are your eyes?

De qu color son tus ojos?


What colour is your hair?

De qu color es tu cabello?
Good luck!

Buena suerte!
Congratulations!

Enhorabuena!
I am divorced.

Yo estoy divorciado
I need food.

Yo necesito comida.
Bedspread.

Colcha
This is a Central Processing Unit.

Esto es una Unidad central de procesamiento


This is a keyboard.

Esto es un teclado
This is a computer monitor.

Esto es un monitor de ordenador


When is ______?

Cundo es...?

Viajes

Where's the ______?

Dnde est el/la ______?

What time does it open?

A qu hora abre?
What time does it close?

A qu hora cierra?
Thanks for your help.

Gracias por tu ayuda.


Can you help me ... please?

Me puedes ayudar ... por favor?


May I have your attention ... please?

Atencin por favor.


Where's the men's/ladies' toilets?

Dnde est el lavabo?


I'm sorry ... I don't understand.

No lo entiendo.
I see.

Lo entiendo.
Where can I change money?

Dnde puedo cambiar dinero?


I'd like to exchange my money.

Querra cambiar dinero.


What's the exchange rate?

Cul es el tipo de cambio?


Can I make a reverse charge call ... please?

Podra hacer una llamada a cobro revertido?


Is there a wheelchair ramp?

Tiene acceso para silla de ruedas?


Please ... call the operator to make an overseas call.

Por favor ... Llame a la operadora para hacer una llamada internacional.
Where's the telephone box?

Dnde est el telfono?


Can I leave a message?

Podra dejar un mensaje?


I need to go to the bank.

Necesito ir al banco.
How old is it?

Cuntos aos tiene?


Do you have a guidebook in ______?

Tiene una gua en ______?


Do you speak ______?

Hablas ______?
May I take a photograph?

Puedo tomar una foto?


What time does the excursion start?

A qu hora empieza el viaje?


What time do we get back?

A qu hora volveremos?
Can we go inside?

Podemos ir dentro?
How much for an excursion to the ______?

Cunto cuesta el viaje a ______?


Will you take a photograph of us?

Podra hacernos una foto?


Shall we go to see the ______.

Vamos a ver el / la ______.


How much is it to get in?

Cunto cuesta la entrada?


The museum is closed today.

El museo est cerrado hoy.

What are the hours?

A qu horas se puede visitar?


Is it allowed?

Est permitido?
Is it prohibited?

Est prohibido?
How much is this?

Cunto cuesta esto?


Do you take credit cards?

Aceptan tarjetas de crdito?


Do you accept travelers checks?

Aceptan cheques de viaje?


Will you take ______ for this?

Coger ______ para esto?


It's too expensive.

Es muy caro.
What are these charges for?

De qu son estos cargos?


Is service included in the bill?

Est includa la propina?


Here's my passport.

Aqu est mi pasaporte.


I'll be staying at ______.

Me quedar en ______.
I don't speak ______.

No hablo ______.
I have nothing to declare.

No tengo nada que declarar.


I can't find my luggage.

No encuentro mi equipaje.

Which way is it to the ______?

Cmo puedo llegar a ______?


Where can I buy a ticket?

Dnde puedo comprar un billete?


Single fare.

Slo ida.
Return ticket.

Ida y vuelta.
Where's the taxi rank?

Dnde puedo coger un taxi?


Could you repeat that ... please?

Lo podra repetir por favor?


Where's the bus stop?

Dnde est la parada de autobs?


First class.

Primera clase.
Second class.

Segunda clase.
Please tell me when I have to get off?

Por favor dime dnde tengo que bajar?


Where's the station?

Dnde est la estacin de trenes?


Where can I hire a car?

Dnde puedo alquilar un coche?


Is the clutch a manual or an automatic?

Tiene cambio de marchas automtico?


Where's the petrol station?

Dnde est la gasolinera?


Yes.

S.

No.

No.
Thank you.

Gracias.
Look at this.

Mira esto.
I'm lost.

Me he perdido.
I want to notify the consulate.

Quiero informar al consulado.


My car broke down.

Mi coche se ha estropeado.
What's your address?

Cul es tu direccin?
Who is in charge?

Quin est al mando?


I am from ______.

Yo soy de....
My nationality is ______.

Mi nacionalidad es...
What is your nationality?

Cul es tu nacionalidad?
I am going to the ______.

Yo voy al/a la...


Please take me on the shortest route.

Por favor llvame por el camino ms corto


May I borrow a pen ... please?

Me puedes prestar un bolgrafo ... por favor?


Will you accept a tip?

Aceptars una propina por esto?


Does anyone here speak English?

Alguna persona habla ingls?


This is my credit card.

sta es mi tarjeta de crdito.


I like museums.

A m me gustan los museos.


Where can I buy sunblock?

Dnde puedo comprar crema protectora del sol?


I want to take the _____.

Yo quiero montar en el/la...