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ELECTRODYNAMICS

OF PULSED FIELDS

New Method for Calculating Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

from Traveling Current Waves in Complex Wire Structures

A. A. Potapov

1*

, S. A. Podosenov

2

, J. Foukzon

3

, and E. R. Menkova

2

1

Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences,

ul. Mokhovaya 11/7, Moscow, 125009 Russia

2

All-Russian Research Institute for Opto-Physical Measurements, ul. Ozernaya 46, Moscow, 119361 Russia

3

Israel Institute of Technologies, Technion City, Haifa, 32000 Israel

Received January 26, 2011

AbstractA simple method for calculating time dependencies of electromagnetic elds for both current

pulses and monochromatic waves traveling on thin wires with bends is proposed. The new calculation

method takes into account the current redistribution in the wires due to the radiation energy loss in bends.

The criterion of the best transmission of pulsed currents by two-wire lines is presented. The reection

and transmission coecients of current pulses from transmission line bends and the dependencies of these

coecients on the parameters of pulses and their transmission times through bends are obtained.

DOI: 10.3103/S1541308X11020075

1. INTRODUCTION

In view of the extensive development of computer

technologies, the problems dealing with transmission

of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) through sections of

printed circuit board conductors (two-wire lines with

bends) and their distortions are of great importance.

As has been shown in [14], line bends are sec-

ondary sources of anisotropic TEM waves. It is clear

that the energy radiation loss changes the amplitude

and shape of signals passing through transmission

line bends. These changes are especially large in

complex wire systems.

First, similar problems (for two-wire lines) were

approximately described in [5, 6] using the spectral

approach on the basis of the double variation method

by L. Vainshtein [7]. The solutions of similar problems

for the explicit time dependence of pulsed elds are

unknown.

The classic radiation theory is based on the cal-

culation of retarded potentials with subsequent eld

calculations. Calculation of retarded potentials in-

volves integration over the charge and current eld.

It is clear that for currents specied by arbitrary func-

tions the analytical integral is generally absent. How-

ever, it is the electric and magnetic eld strengths

(rather than potentials) that are important for prac-

tical purposes.

*

E-mail: potapov@cplire.ru

The method for direct determination of the eld

tensor froma traveling current wave of arbitrary shape

without preliminary calculation of retarded potentials

was considered in [14]. For example, an exact an-

alytical expression for the electromagnetic eld from

a section of linear and bent wire, taking into account

the radiation from the bend, was obtained. The appli-

cation of the method [1] was developed in [3, 4, 810].

The experimental and theoretical investigations [8, 9]

showed that the results obtained by the proposed

calculation method are in good agreement with the

experimental data. However, in all problems consid-

ered, the change in the current wave passed through

a bend was ignored, although this change aects the

amplitude and diusion of radiated wave fronts.

The purpose of this work is to develop the monopole

engineering method [1] for determining the eld from

traveling current waves taking into account reection

coecients at the wire bends and the resulting trans-

mission coecients.

2. MODIFICATION

OF THE SPECIFIED-CURRENT METHOD

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE BEND

REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS

The general formulas for determining electromag-

netic elds from traveling wave currents of arbitrary

shape propagating along thin curvilinear wires were

obtained in [1].

112

NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 113

Fig. 1. Geometry of the problem.

Figure 1 shows the symmetrical parts of antenna

elements with a small radius curvature. To simplify

calculation, the curvatures are replaced with bends

formed by intersection of two rectilinear parts. The

beginning of a rectilinear part is located at a distance

s

1

measured along the wire, the end is at a distance

s

2

, and the bend is at a distance s

0

from the antenna

excitation point.

The contribution to the electric and magnetic elds

from the selected antenna parts is determined by the

electromagnetic eld tensor calculated in [14] in

accordance with [11, 12]. Here, the modied expres-

sion for the eld tensor taking into account the bend

reections has the following form (the specic values

of the reection () and transmission () coecients

will be presented below):

F

kl

=

0

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 m

0

n

1

m

0[k

n

2l]

1 m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 m

0

n

1

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 + m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

m

2[k

n

2l]

1 m

2

n

2

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 + m

0

n

0[k

n

2l]

1 + m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 + m

0

n

1

+

m

0[k

n

1l]

1 m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

m

2[k

n

2l]

1 + m

2

n

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

m

1[k

n

1l]

1 m

1

n

1

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

m

1[k

n

1l]

1 + m

1

n

1

_

, (1)

indexes in the brackets mean the alternation operation without the division by two or m

[k

n

l]

=m

k

n

l

m

l

n

k

,

F

4k

=

0

i

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

n

1k

m

0k

1 m

0

n

2

n

2k

m

0k

1 m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

n

1k

m

0k

1 m

0

n

1

+

n

1k

+m

0k

1 + m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

n

2k

m

2k

1 m

2

n

2

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0k

+n

1k

1 + m

0

n

0k

+n

2k

1 + m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0k

+n

1k

1 + m

0

n

0k

n

1k

1 m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

n

2k

+m

2k

1 + m

2

n

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

n

1k

m

1k

1 m

1

n

1

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

n

1k

+m

1k

1 + m

1

n

1

_

. (2)

The current J is directed along the unit vector n

1

for the upper wire part and in the direction n

1

for the

symmetric part. All primed quantities are related to

the lower wire. The unit vector m

0

is directed from

the bend of the upper wire to the observation point and

the vectors m

1

and m

2

are directed, respectively, from

the beginning and end of the selected element of the

bent wire. It should be noted that the current is also

outside the bent wire fragment under consideration,

but it is only the eld from the bent wire section that

is calculated, whereas the elds from the currents

beyond the fragment are disregarded.

The spatial components F

kl

(k, l =1, 2, 3) of the

electromagnetic eld antisymmetric tensor contain

information about the magnetic eld of the radiation,

and the components F

4k

determine the electric eld of

the radiation. Formulas (1) and (2) are important for

the calculation of the eld of complex wire structures.

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

114 POTAPOV et al.

A transition from the eld tensor to electric eld

strength E

k

(where E

1

=E

x

, E

2

=E

y

, E

3

=E

z

are

the components of the electric eld vector) and

magnetic induction B

k

is carried out conventionally

[11, 12]:

F

4k

=

i

c

E

k

, F

12

= B

3

= B

z

,

F

13

= B

2

= B

y

, (3)

F

23

= B

1

= B

x

, i =

1.

Let us consider the vector B

t

(t =1, 2, 3), which

is dual to F

kl

, coincides with the vector of magnetic

induction, and is determined by the formula [11]

B

t

=

1

2

e

tkl

F

kl

, (4)

where e

tkl

is the unit antisymmetric tensor, with sum-

mation over repeated indices from unity up to three.

In view of the importance of formulas (1) and (2),

we rewrite them in the vector form using (3) and (4):

H=

1

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

n

1

1 m

0

n

1

m

0

n

2

1 + m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

n

1

1 m

0

n

1

+

m

0

n

1

1 + m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

m

2

n

2

1 m

2

n

2

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

m

1

n

1

1 m

1

n

1

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

n

1

1 + m

0

n

0

n

2

1 + m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

n

1

1 + m

0

n

1

+

m

0

n

1

1 m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

m

2

n

2

1 + m

2

n

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

m

1

n

1

1 + m

1

n

1

_

, (5)

E =

0

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

n

1

m

0

1 m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1 m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

n

1

m

0

1 m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+ m

0

1 + m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

n

2

m

2

1 m

2

n

2

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

n

1

m

1

1 m

1

n

1

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

+ n

1

1 + m

0

n

0

+ n

2

1 + m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

0

/c)

R

0

_

m

0

+ n

1

1 + m

0

n

1

+

m

0

n

1

1 m

0

n

1

_

+

J(ts

2

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

n

2

+ m

2

1 + m

2

n

J(ts

1

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

n

1

+ m

1

1 + m

1

n

1

_

, (6)

where

0

=

_

0

/

0

is the characteristic impedance of

vacuum.

Formulas (5) and (6) are basic ones for calculating

radiation elds with known bend reection and trans-

mission coecients.

Obviously, for =1 and =0, the obtained for-

mulas are transformed into those reported in [14].

3. ONE-WIRE THIN LINE

WITH AN ARBITRARY BEND

To calculate the radiation elds, one needs the

current distribution in the line. As was proved by

V. Smite [13] and, more rigorously, by A. Tikhonov

and A. Samarsky [14], the current in a thin wire with

innite conductivity satises the wave equation. We

showed in [1] that in the presence of an external

exciting eld a wave current with a source satises the

wave equation.

A rigorous electrodynamic theory of vibrators

with a nite radius in the frequency representa-

tion was developed by E. Hallen, M.A. Leontovich,

and M.L. Levin [15] (see also [1, 1618]). All these

methods are valid for long lines with a diameter

commensurable with the bend radius. However, for

our purposes the wave equations are sucient.

In [1] we found that a wire curvature can be re-

placed with a bend, which considerably simplies

calculations. We assume that, before and after the

bend, an electromagnetic wave propagates in vac-

uum with the speed of light c, while a current wave,

having reached the bend, partially reects from it and

partially passes through it. Our purpose is to nd

the relationship of the transmission () and reection

() coecients with the bend angles and the wire

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 115

Fig. 2. Integration domains.

geometry. To understand the problem we present the

calculation scheme below.

First we nd the radiation power from the bend

by integrating the Poynting vector on the surface

of some remote sphere centered at the bend point.

The power is used to nd the radiation resistance,

which depends on the reection and transmission

coecients and the bend angle. Having inserted this

radiation resistance as a point one at the center of a

one-wire straight line, we calculate the reected and

transmitted current waves. Thus, we obtain a nonlin-

ear equation with respect to the reection coecient;

it can easily be solved numerically. The obtained

coecients are inserted in the general formulas from

the previous section, and the elds from complex wire

structures are calculated.

Let us consider a plane wire with a bend, char-

acterized by an angle between the wire parts. Let

the wire be located in the plane =/2 of a spherical

coordinate system, and the bend be located at the

origin of coordinates. The part of the wire up to the

bend point is oriented along the x axis, and the current

wave propagates oppositely to the x axis. To simplify

analytical integration, the wires are presented in the

form of very thin pyramids with vertexes at the origin

of coordinates; their intersections with the spherical

surface form spherical squares with angular side

dimensions 2 (Fig. 2).

Such a presentation divides the integration do-

main into two spherical segments 0 /2 , /2 +

and spherical sectors ( ), ( +)

( ), ( +) (2 ). Here, singularities are

selected in 2 intervals, at the center of which the

integrand becomes innite. When integrating on a

spherical sector, the singularities are eliminated be-

cause of removal of intersection domain of sphere with

the nite thickness wires from the sphere.

The singularity of the sphere point with the coor-

dinates =, =/2 through which a virtual exten-

sion of the current wire passes is ctitious. It is related

to the method for calculating the eld from only the

bend, disregarding the oscillator radiation, as was

shown in [1, 4, 9]. (See, for example, formula (1.69) in

[4], according to which the magnetic eld at the axis

outside a linear antenna of nite length is zero.) Since

the oscillator wave is disregarded, this singularity is

treated like a real wire crossing the sphere at this

point. (In the theory of bound charges, developed by

one of the authors (S.A.P.), the eld divergences for

point particles and innitely thin wires are eliminated

[4, 19, 20, 22, 23]; however, this is beyond the scope of

this study.)

To obtain the radiation power from the wire bend

with allowance for the above remarks (related to the

singularities), one needs to calculate the surface inte-

gral of the function

dW

dt

=

_

S

|EH|

t

t

R

2

sin d d. (7)

The electric eld E and magnetic eld H vectors

are determined from general formulas (6) and (5) by

taking into account only the contribution from the

bend point; i.e., R

1

, R

2

. The distance from

the origin of coordinates to the observation point is

nite: R

0

=R. The elds fromthe symmetric wire part

(see Fig. 1) are disregarded. As a result, we obtain

E =

0

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR/c)

R

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR/c)

R

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+m

0

1+m

0

n

1

_

_

,

(8)

H=

1

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR/c)

R

_

m

0

n

1

1m

0

n

1

m

0

n

2

1m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR/c)

R

_

m

0

n

1

1m

0

n

1

+

m

0

n

1

1+m

0

n

1

_

_

. (9)

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

116 POTAPOV et al.

It follows from the analysis of (8) and (9) that

the radiation eld from the angles is described by

spherical TEM waves centered at the bends. The

energy density depends on the angular coordinates

of the vector m

0

. Thus, the bends act as secondary

radiation sources. Since the elds diminish as 1/R

away from the bend, the far-eld zone begins at the

bend beginning. Therefore, to calculate the radia-

tion power, one does not need to select the surface

for integrating the Poynting vector modulus at large

distances from the bend and can be restricted to the

distance R=l from the bend to the oscillator.

The multiplier t/t

radiation power is determined by the energy lost by

the bend current wave for the time dt

, while the

Poynting vector determines the change in the power

ow for the time dt at a xed eld point (see [21]).

The value of the above-mentioned multiplier can

be determined applying the theory developed in [1, 4]

and the derivation for the LienardWiechert potential

in [11]. We use the equality

R(x

k

, x

k

(t

)) = c(t t

),

according to which

R

t

=

R

x

k

x

k

t

= m

k

n

k

c = c

_

t

t

1

_

. (10)

Thus, we have a general formula, which can be

used to describe the propagation of a current wave

through a curvilinear wire:

t

t

= 1 mn. (11)

In our case the vector n is not determined at the

bend point; therefore, we must use (11), depending

on the wave propagation channel. For the transmitted

wave n=n

2

, and for the reected one n=n

1

. At the

bend point, the vector m coincides with m

0

.

Aparticularization of the Poynting vector modulus

in integrand of (7) results in the correlation

|EH| =

0

cE

2

=

2

0

J

2

8

2

R

2

_

2

FP

+

u

FD

v

PD

_

,

(12)

with the designations

F = 1 m

0

n

1

, D = 1 m

0

n

2

,

P = 1 + m

0

n

1

, v = 1 + n

1

n

2

,

u = 1 n

1

n

2

.

When deriving [12] we used the condition of full

current continuity at the bend:

+ = 1. (13)

Thus, the integral of radiated power from the bend

is divided into three components:

dW

dt

=

0

J

2

8

2

_

S

_

2

FP

+

u

FD

v

PD

_

t

t

sin d d.

(14)

The F P channel corresponds to the propaga-

tion of the direct and reected current wave. For this

channel

t

t

=

1

2

(F +P). (15)

The F D channel corresponds to the wave

propagation along a bent line:

t

t

=

1

2

(F +D). (16)

The P D channel corresponds to the reected

wave and to the wave transmitted through the bend:

t

t

=

1

2

(P +D). (17)

Taking into account the above-said and omit-

ting simple but cumbersome calculations, we nally

obtain

dW

dt

0

J

2

2

_

ln

_

l

r

_

+

1.832

_

(2+uv)=J

2

R

i

.

(18)

Based on (18), we nd the radiation resistance

R

i

versus the reection coecients and the angle

between the virtual extension of the wire along vector

n

1

and the wire located along vector n

2

, which is

found from the equality cos =n

1

n

2

:

R

i

=

0

2

ln

_

l

r

+

1.832

_

(2 +u v). (19)

Here, l is the wire length (equal to the sphere radius)

and 2r is the transverse wire size. Obviously when the

bend is absent, u=0, =1, v =2; hence, it follows

from (19) that R

i

=0.

To obtain the radiated power from the wire bend

and the radiation resistance in an explicit form, it is

necessary to calculate the transmission and reection

coecients as functions of the angle . One equation

(13) relating the coecients is known. To nd the

second equation, we substitute the bend of one-wire

line by an inserted point resistance. A similar ap-

proach is applied in the antenna theory to analyze the

energy balance of a transmitting antenna by inserting

a radiation resistance in the circuit in series with the

heat-loss resistance.

In our case, heat losses are absent. Thus, an aux-

iliary problem of determining the reection and trans-

mission coecients of a current wave propagating

through an innite straight-line wire arises. The load

resistance, which is equal to the radiation resistance,

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 117

is concentrated at the center of the wire (at the origin

of coordinates).

Solution of wave equation, provided that the wave

propagates along the X axis from left to right, full

current on the load sides is continuous, and the po-

tential is equal to J

2

R

i

, results in the equalities

U

1

(x, t) = U

0

_

f(t x/c) +f(t +x/c)

,

J

1

(x, t) =

U

0

Z

_

f(t x/c) f(t +x/c)

, (20)

U

2

= U

0

f(t x/c), J

2

=

U

0

Z

f(t x/c),

=

1

1 +R

i

/2Z

, Z =

0

2

ln

_

l

r

_

.

Here, the voltage U

1

and the current J

1

are specied

on the left of the load, U

2

and J

2

are specied on the

right of the load, f is an arbitrary wave function, and

Z is the wire impedance.

It is easy to verify that the current is continuous at

the origin of coordinates:

U

1

(0, t) U

2

(0, t) = J

2

(0, t)R

i

= J

1

(0, t)R

i

. (21)

Based on (13), (20), and (21), we derive the equa-

tion for the transmission coecient :

3

2

2

+m() n() = 0, (22)

where

Z =

0

2

ln

_

l

r

_

, v() = 1 + cos ,

m() =

p

()

, n() =

p

()

,

() = Av(), p = 1 + 2A,

A =

1

2

_

1 +

1.832

ln(l/r)

_

.

Equation (22) permits a simple solution if =0.

In this case, the broken line transforms into a straight

one, for which =1. For intermediate angles , the

equation is easily solved numerically.

The dependencies of the transmission and re-

ection coecients on the angle between the wires

are presented in Fig. 3. For example, at l =1 m

and r =0.001 m, we have = =0.5 at =39

and

=0.62, =0.38 at =90

. At =0

and m, and

l =1 m, =0.48, and =0.52.

Equation (22) has also a solution in the complex

domain (two conjugate complex roots). However, for

example, at =90

have physical meaning. For other bend angles similar

situations take place.

Let us consider the value, which determines the

fraction of radiation power from the bend that is lost

by the wire [5, 6]:

Fig. 3. Transmission (), reection (), and radiation

power () coecients as functions of the angle between

the wires.

= 1

2

2

= 2 = 2(1) = 2(1).

(23)

The plot of as a function of the angle is

presented in Fig. 3. As follows from the graph, the

value remains almost constant (equal to 0.5) at angles

from zero to 70

, at =100

falls to zero at 180

.

It should be noted that, although the total current

at the bend does not change, the energy losses in-

duced by the radiation from the bend can be consid-

erable, as follows from Fig. 3. This is easily explained:

the signal power passing through the bend is pro-

portional to

2

J

2

and the signal power reected from

the bend is proportional to

2

J

2

. The total power is

proportional to (

2

+

2

)J

2

. The signal power before

the bend can be written as

J

2

= ( +)

2

J

2

= (

2

+

2

)J

2

+ 2J

2

. (24)

The second term in (24) is proportional to the radia-

tion loss from the bend.

Thus, the obtained formulas for the transmission

and reection coecients can be used in general for-

mulas (5) and (6), which can easily be transformed

to calculate complex wire structures and improve the

solution of the problems described in [1, 810].

4. TWO-WIRE THIN LINE

WITH AN ARBITRARY BEND

Let us assume the geometry of a two-wire line with

a bend in the spherical coordinate system where two

thin wires are parallel to the X axis in the vertical

plane, each spaced by a distance h from this axis,

up to their intersection with the Z axis, where these

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

118 POTAPOV et al.

wires are bent, remaining parallel to the =/2 plane. One needs to nd the power radiated from the bend and

the reection and transmission coecients and . The geometry of the upper wire (wire 1) is similar to the

geometry of the single bent wire 2.

The bend radiation eld is determined by (8), with substitution of subscripts and corresponding redesigna-

tion of the distance from the bend to the observation point:

E

1

=

0

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

1

/c)

R

1

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+m

0

1+m

0

n

1

__

.

(25)

For the lower wire we use (6), assuming the wire ends to be at innity:

E

2

=

0

4

_

J(ts

0

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1m

0

n

2

_

+

J(ts

0

/cR

2

/c)

R

2

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+m

0

1+m

0

n

1

__

.

(26)

Here, R

1

and R

2

are the distances from the bends of the upper and lower wires, respectively, to the observation

point.

Field summation in the far-eld zone results in

E =

0

4R

0

_

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1m

0

n

2

_

+

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+m

0

1+m

0

n

1

_

_

_

J

_

t

s

0

c

R

1

c

_

J

_

t

s

0

c

R

2

c

__

.

(27)

In the far-eld zone

R

1

= R

0

hcos , R

2

= R

0

+hcos , t

s

0

c

= t

, (28)

where R

0

is the distance fromthe beginning of the coordinates to the observation point and h is the half distance

d between the lines.

When deriving (27) for the far-eld zone, R

1

and R

2

in the denominator were substituted for R

0

, which

is valid for determining the eld at large distances [11]. To calculate the radiation from two-wire line bends,

sinusoidal and pulsed signals should be considered separately.

5. RADIATION OF HARMONIC SIGNALS

For harmonic signals, relation (27), taking into account (28), has the form

E =

0

J

0

2R

0

_

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

n

2

m

0

1m

0

n

2

_

+

_

n

1

m

0

1m

0

n

1

+

n

1

+m

0

1+m

0

n

1

_

_

cos(t) sin(hk cos ), (29)

where =t s

0

/c, k is the phase vector magnitude, is the circular frequency, and J

0

is the current amplitude.

The radiation power integral from the bend is divided into three as in the case of the one-wire line:

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

cos

2

(t)

2

2

_

S

_

2

FP

+

u

FD

v

PD

_

t

sin

2

(hk cos ) sin d d, (30)

where the integration channels are determined by the

corresponding formulas (15)(17).

Integration yields

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

A

0

cos

2

(t)

(2 +u v), (31)

A

0

2

hk

_

0

sin

2

x

x

dx.

Hence, the radiation resistance R

i

has the form

R

i

=

0

A

0

[2 +u v]. (32)

To dene the radiation power from two-wire line

bend and the radiation impedance (32) in an explicit

form, it is necessary to calculate the transmission

and reection coecients as functions of the angle

and nondimensional frequency s =2hk. The rst

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 119

equation, (13), relating the coecients, is known. To

dene the second equation we shall replace the bend

of the two-wire line with two point active loads R in

each line arm.

There arises an auxiliary problem of determin-

ing the reection and transmission coecients of a

current wave traveling through an innite two-wire

line, with two loads (whose sum 2R is equal to the

radiation resistance R

i

) at its center (at distances h

from the beginning of coordinates along the Z axis).

It should be noted that although the loads are located

in parallel line arms, and the wave propagates along

the axis in one direction, the current directions are

opposite; i.e., the loads are connected in series.

Solution of the wave equation, provided that the

wave is spread along the X axis from left to right,

the currents at both sides of the load are continuous,

and the potential dierence is equal to 2J

1

R=2J

2

R,

results in the equalities

U

1

(x, t) = U

0

_

f(t x/c) +f(t +x/c)

,

J

1

(x, t) =

U

0

_

f(t x/c) f(t +x/c)

,

(33)

U

2

= U

0

(t x/c), J

2

=

U

0

f(t x/c),

=

1

1 +R/

, = 120 ln

_

2h

r

_

.

In (33), the voltage U

1

and the current J

1

are

specied on the left from the load, U

2

and J

2

are

specied on the right, f is an arbitrary wave function,

and is the line impedance.

It is easy to verify that the current is continuous at

the beginning of coordinates,

U

1

(0, t) U

2

(0, t) = 2J

2

(0, t)R = 2J

1

(0, t)R.

Based on (13), (32), and the equality

R

i

= 2R, (34)

we nd the equation for the transmission coecient :

3

2

2

+m(, s) n(, s) = 0, (35)

where

m(, s) =

p(s)

(, s)

, n(, s) =

1

(, s)

,

(, s) = H(s) v(), v() = 1 + cos ,

p(s) = 1 + 2H(s), H(s) =

A

0

(s)

2 ln(2h/r)

.

Equation (35) has a simple solution if the angle

=0. In this case, the broken line is converted into a

straight one; therefore, =1. For intermediate angles

, the equation is easy solved numerically.

Fig. 4. Transmission coecients for dierent bend

angles.

Let us consider the (, s) value, which deter-

mines the fraction of radiation power from the bends

(loss in the line). This function depends on two

variables: the bend angle and the nondimensional

frequency s =2hk =dk:

(, s) = 1

2

(, s)

2

(, s)

= 2 = 2(1 ) = 2(1 ). (36)

Figure 4 shows the dependence of the transmis-

sion on the frequency s =dk at dierent bend angles

. The upper, middle, and lower curves correspond,

respectively, to =120, 90, and 60

. A comparison

with the approximate results [5, 6] obtained by means

of the double variation Vainshtein method showed

their good agreement.

The curve with a bend angle =60

correspondence. The middle and upper curves in

the Vainshtein theory for high frequencies (kd =20)

are closer to the lower curve as compared with our

consideration. Thus, our result for high frequencies is

more susceptible to the change in the angle in the

bend than that obtained in [5, 6]. For low frequencies

(kd 1) our results almost coincide with those of

[5, 6].

6. TRANSMISSION AND RADIATION

OF GAUSSIAN PULSE SIGNALS

Let us nd a rigorous solution for the Gaussian

bell-shaped signal, which is most often encountered

in practice. We write the Gaussian pulse in the form

J() = J

0

exp

_

2

2

2

0

_

, (37)

where

0

is the pulse duration.

The bend radiation power integral, as for a one-

wire line, decomposes into three integrals in accor-

dance with (30)

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

120 POTAPOV et al.

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

exp(T

2

)

2

2

_

S

_

2

FP

+

u

FD

v

PD

_

t

sinh

2

(T cos ) exp

_

2

cos

2

sin d d (38)

with the nondimensional variables introduced:

T =

0

, =

d

2

0

c

. (39)

Using formulas (15)(17) and integrating over ,

we nd

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

H

0

exp(T

2

)

[2 +u v],

(40)

H

0

2

T

_

0

sinh

2

x

x

exp

_

x

2

T

2

_

dx.

Hence, the radiation resistance R

i

is

R

i

=

0

H

0

[2 +u v]. (41)

Then, using the same argumentation as in the

derivation of (33)(35), we obtain the equation for

determining the transmission coecient :

3

2

2

+m(, T) n(, T) = 0, (42)

where

m(, T) =

p(s)

(, T)

, n(, T) =

1

(, T)

,

(, T) = H(T) v(), v() = 1 cos ,

p(T) = 1 + 2H(T), H(T) =

H

0

(T)

2 ln(2h/r)

.

Figure 5 shows for comparison a perfect undis-

torted single Gaussian pulse D(s) at the bend point

with the angle =/3 and two real pulses (trans-

mitted D

1

(s) and reected D

2

(s) from the bend) at

this point. As follows from Fig. 5, the pulse dis-

tortion after passing the bend depends strongly on

the nondimensional parameter =h/c. For exam-

ple, at =100 ps, speed of light c =0.3 mmps

1

,

h=15 mm, and =0.5, the amplitude of the trans-

mitted pulse is 0.7 of the original value. The pulse

shape is distorted too, and its symmetry with respect

to a vertical line passing through the maximum is

broken.

The trailing edge of the pulse becomes atter than

the leading edge, and the normalized radiation power

has a peak at 0.5 (is not shown in Fig. 5), which

corresponds to 400 ps. The reected pulse peaks at

0.4 and has a trailing edge steeper than the leading

edge. The transmission coecient

1s

drops from 1

to 0.1 during the pulse transmission through the

bend, whereas the reection coecient

1s

increases

from 0 to 0.9.

Thus, at the above parameters a two-wire line

cannot function properly. Apulse passing through the

bend is greatly distorted. When h decreases by a fac-

tor of 10, a dierent situation occurs. Then the pulse

passed through the bend almost does not change.

The radiation power factor is 0.032. It should be noted

that the pulse shape almost does not depend on the

angle for h=1.5 mm. At =1

eters after the bend are also almost invariable. Only

the power factor slightly changes to 0.043. Thus, the

line with the parameter 0.1, 0.05 will be an ideal

transmitting two-wire line that barely changes the

pulse shape at any angles .

Obviously, all this is valid for both symmetric and

asymmetric strip lines. At the same time a value

approximately (because of the boundary eects) equal

to the root of permittivity is added to the parameter

in the numerator. This imposes strict requirements

on strip lines when transmitting pulses shorter than

100 ps.

Fig. 5. Comparison of pulses before and after the bend.

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 121

7. TRANSMISSION AND RADIATION

OF PULSE SIGNALS

FROM A CAPACITOR DISCHARGE

The typical source of a signal in a line of printed-

circuit boards is capacitor discharge. When a capaci-

tor discharges through a resistance, the signal has the

form

J() = J

0

exp

_

RC

_

, (43)

where is the time and RC is the circuit relaxation

time, which is equal to the product of the load resis-

tance R by the capacity C.

Having calculated the radiation power in analogy

to the Gaussian pulse, we obtain

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

exp(T

1

)

2

2

_

S

_

2

FP

+

u

FD

v

PD

_

t

sinh

2

(

1

cos ) sin d d, (44)

where T

1

=/RC and

1

=h/RCc.

The calculation of (44) yields

dW

d

=

0

J

2

0

H

1

exp(2T

1

)

(2 +u v),

(45)

H

1

2

T

1

_

0

sinh

2

x

x

dx.

Hence, the radiation resistance R

i

has the form

R

i

=

0

H

1

(2 +u v). (46)

Then, repeating the same considerations as for

a Gaussian pulse, we obtain an analogue of for-

mula (42) as an equation for determining the trans-

mission coecient , with the substitutions T T

1

,

H

0

H

1

,

1

. The time independence of H

1

is an

essential distinction of the pulse under consideration

from a Gaussian one.

Fig. 6. Comparison of the pulses before and after the

bend.

Such a situation results in invariability of the slope

of the leading edges of the transmitted and reected

pulses, aecting only the amplitudes. The time front

shift for the reected, transmitted, and incident pulses

is absent. Figure 6 presents the capacitor discharg-

ing pulse to a line with a relaxation time of 30 ps,

h=9 mm, and

1

=1. For this pulse at the bend angle

=60

reection coecient is 0.2. For real cases

1

1, the

pulse is almost insensitive to the bend.

8. CONCLUSIONS

The following results were obtained in this work:

(i) A new calculation method, referred to as the

method of monopole technique [24], was rst pro-

posed in [1] to solve the problems of electromagnetic

eld determination from traveling current waves. In

this work, the method was developed to calculate

losses of current wave radiation fromwire bends. This

results in a revision of many problems dealing with the

radiation electromagnetic elds from systems with

complex wire congurations.

(ii) It was shown that for one-wire lines with

bends, the shapes of transient and reected waves

remain almost the same and only their amplitudes

change. The radiation from the bends of single wires

is considerable and the coecient of the power lost by

the incident wave via radiation from the bend is 0.5 at

wire bend angles from0 to 50

monotonically decreases to 0 at 180

. The reection

and transmission coecients from a completely bent

wire to a straight one change from 0.52 and 0.48

to zero and unity, respectively. This results in an

essential overestimation of the eciency of many

radiating systems with bent wires as elements.

(iii) The radiation from the bends of two-wire lines

diers from that of one-wire lines because the cur-

rents in the line are in antiphase. Both monochro-

matic waves in the line and propagation of pulses were

PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011

122 POTAPOV et al.

considered. The results for monochromatic waves

were compared with the data of [5, 6]. Our results for

small kd are in complete agreement with [5, 6]. For

large kd there are distinctions.

The characteristics of the pulsed radiation from

the bends of a two-wire line strongly depend on the

parameter =d/2c. If it is on the order of 0.1 or

smaller, the pulse almost does not respond to the bend

magnitude and is transmitted without distortion. For

0.5 the pulse transmitted through the bend is

strongly distorted.

The results obtained are of fundamental signi-

cance for taking into account the distortions of ul-

trashort pulses by printed circuit board components.

Note that the numerical solution of the equation for

determining the transmission coecients takes few

tenths of a second.

The new analytical method for calculating the

electromagnetic elds from traveling current waves is

proposed to apply later to the analysis and synthesis

of various fractal frequency-selective structures and

fractal antennas [2534], which are based on the

HausdorBesicovitch fractal dimension.

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