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ISSN 1541-308X, Physics of Wave Phenomena, 2011, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 112123. c Allerton Press, Inc., 2011.

ELECTRODYNAMICS
OF PULSED FIELDS
New Method for Calculating Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields
from Traveling Current Waves in Complex Wire Structures
A. A. Potapov
1*
, S. A. Podosenov
2
, J. Foukzon
3
, and E. R. Menkova
2
1
Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Mokhovaya 11/7, Moscow, 125009 Russia
2
All-Russian Research Institute for Opto-Physical Measurements, ul. Ozernaya 46, Moscow, 119361 Russia
3
Israel Institute of Technologies, Technion City, Haifa, 32000 Israel
Received January 26, 2011
AbstractA simple method for calculating time dependencies of electromagnetic elds for both current
pulses and monochromatic waves traveling on thin wires with bends is proposed. The new calculation
method takes into account the current redistribution in the wires due to the radiation energy loss in bends.
The criterion of the best transmission of pulsed currents by two-wire lines is presented. The reection
and transmission coecients of current pulses from transmission line bends and the dependencies of these
coecients on the parameters of pulses and their transmission times through bends are obtained.
DOI: 10.3103/S1541308X11020075
1. INTRODUCTION
In view of the extensive development of computer
technologies, the problems dealing with transmission
of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) through sections of
printed circuit board conductors (two-wire lines with
bends) and their distortions are of great importance.
As has been shown in [14], line bends are sec-
ondary sources of anisotropic TEM waves. It is clear
that the energy radiation loss changes the amplitude
and shape of signals passing through transmission
line bends. These changes are especially large in
complex wire systems.
First, similar problems (for two-wire lines) were
approximately described in [5, 6] using the spectral
approach on the basis of the double variation method
by L. Vainshtein [7]. The solutions of similar problems
for the explicit time dependence of pulsed elds are
unknown.
The classic radiation theory is based on the cal-
culation of retarded potentials with subsequent eld
calculations. Calculation of retarded potentials in-
volves integration over the charge and current eld.
It is clear that for currents specied by arbitrary func-
tions the analytical integral is generally absent. How-
ever, it is the electric and magnetic eld strengths
(rather than potentials) that are important for prac-
tical purposes.
*
E-mail: potapov@cplire.ru
The method for direct determination of the eld
tensor froma traveling current wave of arbitrary shape
without preliminary calculation of retarded potentials
was considered in [14]. For example, an exact an-
alytical expression for the electromagnetic eld from
a section of linear and bent wire, taking into account
the radiation from the bend, was obtained. The appli-
cation of the method [1] was developed in [3, 4, 810].
The experimental and theoretical investigations [8, 9]
showed that the results obtained by the proposed
calculation method are in good agreement with the
experimental data. However, in all problems consid-
ered, the change in the current wave passed through
a bend was ignored, although this change aects the
amplitude and diusion of radiated wave fronts.
The purpose of this work is to develop the monopole
engineering method [1] for determining the eld from
traveling current waves taking into account reection
coecients at the wire bends and the resulting trans-
mission coecients.
2. MODIFICATION
OF THE SPECIFIED-CURRENT METHOD
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE BEND
REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS
The general formulas for determining electromag-
netic elds from traveling wave currents of arbitrary
shape propagating along thin curvilinear wires were
obtained in [1].
112
NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 113
Fig. 1. Geometry of the problem.
Figure 1 shows the symmetrical parts of antenna
elements with a small radius curvature. To simplify
calculation, the curvatures are replaced with bends
formed by intersection of two rectilinear parts. The
beginning of a rectilinear part is located at a distance
s
1
measured along the wire, the end is at a distance
s
2
, and the bend is at a distance s
0
from the antenna
excitation point.
The contribution to the electric and magnetic elds
from the selected antenna parts is determined by the
electromagnetic eld tensor calculated in [14] in
accordance with [11, 12]. Here, the modied expres-
sion for the eld tensor taking into account the bend
reections has the following form (the specic values
of the reection () and transmission () coecients
will be presented below):
F
kl
=

0
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
m
0[k
n
1l]
1 m
0
n
1

m
0[k
n
2l]
1 m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
m
0[k
n
1l]
1 m
0
n
1

m
0[k
n
1l]
1 + m
0
n
1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
m
2[k
n
2l]
1 m
2
n
2
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0[k
n

1l]
1 + m

0
n

0[k
n

2l]
1 + m

0
n

2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0[k
n

1l]
1 + m

0
n

1
+
m

0[k
n

1l]
1 m

0
n

1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR

2
/c)
R

2
m

2[k
n

2l]
1 + m

2
n

J(ts
1
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
m
1[k
n
1l]
1 m
1
n
1

J(ts
1
/cR

1
/c)
R

1
m

1[k
n

1l]
1 + m

1
n

1
_
, (1)
indexes in the brackets mean the alternation operation without the division by two or m
[k
n
l]
=m
k
n
l
m
l
n
k
,
F
4k
=

0
i
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
n
1k
m
0k
1 m
0
n
2

n
2k
m
0k
1 m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
n
1k
m
0k
1 m
0
n
1
+
n
1k
+m
0k
1 + m
0
n
1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
n
2k
m
2k
1 m
2
n
2
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0k
+n

1k
1 + m

0
n

0k
+n

2k
1 + m

0
n

2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0k
+n

1k
1 + m

0
n

0k
n

1k
1 m

0
n

1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR

2
/c)
R

2
n

2k
+m

2k
1 + m

2
n

J(ts
1
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
n
1k
m
1k
1 m
1
n
1

J(ts
1
/cR

1
/c)
R

1
n

1k
+m

1k
1 + m

1
n

1
_
. (2)
The current J is directed along the unit vector n
1
for the upper wire part and in the direction n

1
for the
symmetric part. All primed quantities are related to
the lower wire. The unit vector m
0
is directed from
the bend of the upper wire to the observation point and
the vectors m
1
and m
2
are directed, respectively, from
the beginning and end of the selected element of the
bent wire. It should be noted that the current is also
outside the bent wire fragment under consideration,
but it is only the eld from the bent wire section that
is calculated, whereas the elds from the currents
beyond the fragment are disregarded.
The spatial components F
kl
(k, l =1, 2, 3) of the
electromagnetic eld antisymmetric tensor contain
information about the magnetic eld of the radiation,
and the components F
4k
determine the electric eld of
the radiation. Formulas (1) and (2) are important for
the calculation of the eld of complex wire structures.
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
114 POTAPOV et al.
A transition from the eld tensor to electric eld
strength E
k
(where E
1
=E
x
, E
2
=E
y
, E
3
=E
z
are
the components of the electric eld vector) and
magnetic induction B
k
is carried out conventionally
[11, 12]:
F
4k
=
i
c
E
k
, F
12
= B
3
= B
z
,
F
13
= B
2
= B
y
, (3)
F
23
= B
1
= B
x
, i =

1.
Let us consider the vector B
t
(t =1, 2, 3), which
is dual to F
kl
, coincides with the vector of magnetic
induction, and is determined by the formula [11]
B
t
=
1
2
e
tkl
F
kl
, (4)
where e
tkl
is the unit antisymmetric tensor, with sum-
mation over repeated indices from unity up to three.
In view of the importance of formulas (1) and (2),
we rewrite them in the vector form using (3) and (4):
H=
1
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
m
0
n
1
1 m
0
n
1

m
0
n
2
1 + m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
m
0
n
1
1 m
0
n
1
+
m
0
n
1
1 + m
0
n
1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
m
2
n
2
1 m
2
n
2

J(ts
1
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
m
1
n
1
1 m
1
n
1
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0
n

1
1 + m

0
n

0
n

2
1 + m

0
n

2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0
n

1
1 + m

0
n

1
+
m

0
n

1
1 m

0
n

1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR

2
/c)
R

2
m

2
n

2
1 + m

2
n

J(ts
1
/cR

1
/c)
R

1
m

1
n

1
1 + m

1
n

1
_
, (5)
E =

0
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
n
1
m
0
1 m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1 m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
0
/c)
R
0
_
n
1
m
0
1 m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+ m
0
1 + m
0
n
1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
n
2
m
2
1 m
2
n
2

J(ts
1
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
n
1
m
1
1 m
1
n
1
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0
+ n

1
1 + m

0
n

0
+ n

2
1 + m

0
n

2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR

0
/c)
R

0
_
m

0
+ n

1
1 + m

0
n

1
+
m

0
n

1
1 m

0
n

1
_
+
J(ts
2
/cR

2
/c)
R

2
n

2
+ m

2
1 + m

2
n

J(ts
1
/cR

1
/c)
R

1
n

1
+ m

1
1 + m

1
n

1
_
, (6)
where
0
=
_

0
/
0
is the characteristic impedance of
vacuum.
Formulas (5) and (6) are basic ones for calculating
radiation elds with known bend reection and trans-
mission coecients.
Obviously, for =1 and =0, the obtained for-
mulas are transformed into those reported in [14].
3. ONE-WIRE THIN LINE
WITH AN ARBITRARY BEND
To calculate the radiation elds, one needs the
current distribution in the line. As was proved by
V. Smite [13] and, more rigorously, by A. Tikhonov
and A. Samarsky [14], the current in a thin wire with
innite conductivity satises the wave equation. We
showed in [1] that in the presence of an external
exciting eld a wave current with a source satises the
wave equation.
A rigorous electrodynamic theory of vibrators
with a nite radius in the frequency representa-
tion was developed by E. Hallen, M.A. Leontovich,
and M.L. Levin [15] (see also [1, 1618]). All these
methods are valid for long lines with a diameter
commensurable with the bend radius. However, for
our purposes the wave equations are sucient.
In [1] we found that a wire curvature can be re-
placed with a bend, which considerably simplies
calculations. We assume that, before and after the
bend, an electromagnetic wave propagates in vac-
uum with the speed of light c, while a current wave,
having reached the bend, partially reects from it and
partially passes through it. Our purpose is to nd
the relationship of the transmission () and reection
() coecients with the bend angles and the wire
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 115
Fig. 2. Integration domains.
geometry. To understand the problem we present the
calculation scheme below.
First we nd the radiation power from the bend
by integrating the Poynting vector on the surface
of some remote sphere centered at the bend point.
The power is used to nd the radiation resistance,
which depends on the reection and transmission
coecients and the bend angle. Having inserted this
radiation resistance as a point one at the center of a
one-wire straight line, we calculate the reected and
transmitted current waves. Thus, we obtain a nonlin-
ear equation with respect to the reection coecient;
it can easily be solved numerically. The obtained
coecients are inserted in the general formulas from
the previous section, and the elds from complex wire
structures are calculated.
Let us consider a plane wire with a bend, char-
acterized by an angle between the wire parts. Let
the wire be located in the plane =/2 of a spherical
coordinate system, and the bend be located at the
origin of coordinates. The part of the wire up to the
bend point is oriented along the x axis, and the current
wave propagates oppositely to the x axis. To simplify
analytical integration, the wires are presented in the
form of very thin pyramids with vertexes at the origin
of coordinates; their intersections with the spherical
surface form spherical squares with angular side
dimensions 2 (Fig. 2).
Such a presentation divides the integration do-
main into two spherical segments 0 /2 , /2 +
and spherical sectors ( ), ( +)
( ), ( +) (2 ). Here, singularities are
selected in 2 intervals, at the center of which the
integrand becomes innite. When integrating on a
spherical sector, the singularities are eliminated be-
cause of removal of intersection domain of sphere with
the nite thickness wires from the sphere.
The singularity of the sphere point with the coor-
dinates =, =/2 through which a virtual exten-
sion of the current wire passes is ctitious. It is related
to the method for calculating the eld from only the
bend, disregarding the oscillator radiation, as was
shown in [1, 4, 9]. (See, for example, formula (1.69) in
[4], according to which the magnetic eld at the axis
outside a linear antenna of nite length is zero.) Since
the oscillator wave is disregarded, this singularity is
treated like a real wire crossing the sphere at this
point. (In the theory of bound charges, developed by
one of the authors (S.A.P.), the eld divergences for
point particles and innitely thin wires are eliminated
[4, 19, 20, 22, 23]; however, this is beyond the scope of
this study.)
To obtain the radiation power from the wire bend
with allowance for the above remarks (related to the
singularities), one needs to calculate the surface inte-
gral of the function
dW
dt

=
_
S
|EH|
t
t

R
2
sin d d. (7)
The electric eld E and magnetic eld H vectors
are determined from general formulas (6) and (5) by
taking into account only the contribution from the
bend point; i.e., R
1
, R
2
. The distance from
the origin of coordinates to the observation point is
nite: R
0
=R. The elds fromthe symmetric wire part
(see Fig. 1) are disregarded. As a result, we obtain
E =

0
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR/c)
R
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR/c)
R
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+m
0
1+m
0
n
1
_
_
,
(8)
H=
1
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR/c)
R
_
m
0
n
1
1m
0
n
1

m
0
n
2
1m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR/c)
R
_
m
0
n
1
1m
0
n
1
+
m
0
n
1
1+m
0
n
1
_
_
. (9)
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
116 POTAPOV et al.
It follows from the analysis of (8) and (9) that
the radiation eld from the angles is described by
spherical TEM waves centered at the bends. The
energy density depends on the angular coordinates
of the vector m
0
. Thus, the bends act as secondary
radiation sources. Since the elds diminish as 1/R
away from the bend, the far-eld zone begins at the
bend beginning. Therefore, to calculate the radia-
tion power, one does not need to select the surface
for integrating the Poynting vector modulus at large
distances from the bend and can be restricted to the
distance R=l from the bend to the oscillator.
The multiplier t/t

in (7) appears because the


radiation power is determined by the energy lost by
the bend current wave for the time dt

, while the
Poynting vector determines the change in the power
ow for the time dt at a xed eld point (see [21]).
The value of the above-mentioned multiplier can
be determined applying the theory developed in [1, 4]
and the derivation for the LienardWiechert potential
in [11]. We use the equality
R(x
k
, x

k
(t

)) = c(t t

),
according to which
R
t

=
R
x

k
x

k
t

= m
k
n
k
c = c
_
t
t

1
_
. (10)
Thus, we have a general formula, which can be
used to describe the propagation of a current wave
through a curvilinear wire:
t
t

= 1 mn. (11)
In our case the vector n is not determined at the
bend point; therefore, we must use (11), depending
on the wave propagation channel. For the transmitted
wave n=n
2
, and for the reected one n=n
1
. At the
bend point, the vector m coincides with m
0
.
Aparticularization of the Poynting vector modulus
in integrand of (7) results in the correlation
|EH| =
0
cE
2
=

2
0
J
2
8
2
R
2
_
2
FP
+
u
FD

v
PD
_
,
(12)
with the designations
F = 1 m
0
n
1
, D = 1 m
0
n
2
,
P = 1 + m
0
n
1
, v = 1 + n
1
n
2
,
u = 1 n
1
n
2
.
When deriving [12] we used the condition of full
current continuity at the bend:
+ = 1. (13)
Thus, the integral of radiated power from the bend
is divided into three components:
dW
dt

=

0
J
2
8
2
_
S
_
2
FP
+
u
FD

v
PD
_
t
t

sin d d.
(14)
The F P channel corresponds to the propaga-
tion of the direct and reected current wave. For this
channel
t
t

=
1
2
(F +P). (15)
The F D channel corresponds to the wave
propagation along a bent line:
t
t

=
1
2
(F +D). (16)
The P D channel corresponds to the reected
wave and to the wave transmitted through the bend:
t
t

=
1
2
(P +D). (17)
Taking into account the above-said and omit-
ting simple but cumbersome calculations, we nally
obtain
dW
dt

0
J
2
2
_
ln
_
l
r
_
+
1.832

_
(2+uv)=J
2
R
i
.
(18)
Based on (18), we nd the radiation resistance
R
i
versus the reection coecients and the angle
between the virtual extension of the wire along vector
n
1
and the wire located along vector n
2
, which is
found from the equality cos =n
1
n
2
:
R
i
=

0
2
ln
_
l
r
+
1.832

_
(2 +u v). (19)
Here, l is the wire length (equal to the sphere radius)
and 2r is the transverse wire size. Obviously when the
bend is absent, u=0, =1, v =2; hence, it follows
from (19) that R
i
=0.
To obtain the radiated power from the wire bend
and the radiation resistance in an explicit form, it is
necessary to calculate the transmission and reection
coecients as functions of the angle . One equation
(13) relating the coecients is known. To nd the
second equation, we substitute the bend of one-wire
line by an inserted point resistance. A similar ap-
proach is applied in the antenna theory to analyze the
energy balance of a transmitting antenna by inserting
a radiation resistance in the circuit in series with the
heat-loss resistance.
In our case, heat losses are absent. Thus, an aux-
iliary problem of determining the reection and trans-
mission coecients of a current wave propagating
through an innite straight-line wire arises. The load
resistance, which is equal to the radiation resistance,
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 117
is concentrated at the center of the wire (at the origin
of coordinates).
Solution of wave equation, provided that the wave
propagates along the X axis from left to right, full
current on the load sides is continuous, and the po-
tential is equal to J
2
R
i
, results in the equalities
U
1
(x, t) = U
0
_
f(t x/c) +f(t +x/c)

,
J
1
(x, t) =
U
0
Z
_
f(t x/c) f(t +x/c)

, (20)
U
2
= U
0
f(t x/c), J
2
=
U
0
Z
f(t x/c),
=
1
1 +R
i
/2Z
, Z =

0
2
ln
_
l
r
_
.
Here, the voltage U
1
and the current J
1
are specied
on the left of the load, U
2
and J
2
are specied on the
right of the load, f is an arbitrary wave function, and
Z is the wire impedance.
It is easy to verify that the current is continuous at
the origin of coordinates:
U
1
(0, t) U
2
(0, t) = J
2
(0, t)R
i
= J
1
(0, t)R
i
. (21)
Based on (13), (20), and (21), we derive the equa-
tion for the transmission coecient :

3
2
2
+m() n() = 0, (22)
where
Z =

0
2
ln
_
l
r
_
, v() = 1 + cos ,
m() =
p
()
, n() =
p
()
,
() = Av(), p = 1 + 2A,
A =
1
2
_
1 +
1.832
ln(l/r)
_
.
Equation (22) permits a simple solution if =0.
In this case, the broken line transforms into a straight
one, for which =1. For intermediate angles , the
equation is easily solved numerically.
The dependencies of the transmission and re-
ection coecients on the angle between the wires
are presented in Fig. 3. For example, at l =1 m
and r =0.001 m, we have = =0.5 at =39

and
=0.62, =0.38 at =90

. At =0

and m, and
l =1 m, =0.48, and =0.52.
Equation (22) has also a solution in the complex
domain (two conjugate complex roots). However, for
example, at =90

, || =|| =1.736, which does not


have physical meaning. For other bend angles similar
situations take place.
Let us consider the value, which determines the
fraction of radiation power from the bend that is lost
by the wire [5, 6]:
Fig. 3. Transmission (), reection (), and radiation
power () coecients as functions of the angle between
the wires.
= 1
2

2
= 2 = 2(1) = 2(1).
(23)
The plot of as a function of the angle is
presented in Fig. 3. As follows from the graph, the
value remains almost constant (equal to 0.5) at angles
from zero to 70

, at =100

=0.45, and then it


falls to zero at 180

.
It should be noted that, although the total current
at the bend does not change, the energy losses in-
duced by the radiation from the bend can be consid-
erable, as follows from Fig. 3. This is easily explained:
the signal power passing through the bend is pro-
portional to
2
J
2
and the signal power reected from
the bend is proportional to
2
J
2
. The total power is
proportional to (
2
+
2
)J
2
. The signal power before
the bend can be written as
J
2
= ( +)
2
J
2
= (
2
+
2
)J
2
+ 2J
2
. (24)
The second term in (24) is proportional to the radia-
tion loss from the bend.
Thus, the obtained formulas for the transmission
and reection coecients can be used in general for-
mulas (5) and (6), which can easily be transformed
to calculate complex wire structures and improve the
solution of the problems described in [1, 810].
4. TWO-WIRE THIN LINE
WITH AN ARBITRARY BEND
Let us assume the geometry of a two-wire line with
a bend in the spherical coordinate system where two
thin wires are parallel to the X axis in the vertical
plane, each spaced by a distance h from this axis,
up to their intersection with the Z axis, where these
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
118 POTAPOV et al.
wires are bent, remaining parallel to the =/2 plane. One needs to nd the power radiated from the bend and
the reection and transmission coecients and . The geometry of the upper wire (wire 1) is similar to the
geometry of the single bent wire 2.
The bend radiation eld is determined by (8), with substitution of subscripts and corresponding redesigna-
tion of the distance from the bend to the observation point:
E
1
=

0
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
1
/c)
R
1
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+m
0
1+m
0
n
1
__
.
(25)
For the lower wire we use (6), assuming the wire ends to be at innity:
E
2
=

0
4
_

J(ts
0
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1m
0
n
2
_
+
J(ts
0
/cR
2
/c)
R
2
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+m
0
1+m
0
n
1
__
.
(26)
Here, R
1
and R
2
are the distances from the bends of the upper and lower wires, respectively, to the observation
point.
Field summation in the far-eld zone results in
E =

0
4R
0
_

_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1m
0
n
2
_
+
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+m
0
1+m
0
n
1
_
_
_
J
_
t
s
0
c

R
1
c
_
J
_
t
s
0
c

R
2
c
__
.
(27)
In the far-eld zone
R
1
= R
0
hcos , R
2
= R
0
+hcos , t
s
0
c
= t

, (28)
where R
0
is the distance fromthe beginning of the coordinates to the observation point and h is the half distance
d between the lines.
When deriving (27) for the far-eld zone, R
1
and R
2
in the denominator were substituted for R
0
, which
is valid for determining the eld at large distances [11]. To calculate the radiation from two-wire line bends,
sinusoidal and pulsed signals should be considered separately.
5. RADIATION OF HARMONIC SIGNALS
For harmonic signals, relation (27), taking into account (28), has the form
E =

0
J
0
2R
0
_

_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1

n
2
m
0
1m
0
n
2
_
+
_
n
1
m
0
1m
0
n
1
+
n
1
+m
0
1+m
0
n
1
_
_
cos(t) sin(hk cos ), (29)
where =t s
0
/c, k is the phase vector magnitude, is the circular frequency, and J
0
is the current amplitude.
The radiation power integral from the bend is divided into three as in the case of the one-wire line:
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
cos
2
(t)
2
2
_
S
_
2
FP
+
u
FD

v
PD
_
t

sin
2
(hk cos ) sin d d, (30)
where the integration channels are determined by the
corresponding formulas (15)(17).
Integration yields
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
A
0
cos
2
(t)

(2 +u v), (31)
A
0
2
hk
_
0
sin
2
x
x
dx.
Hence, the radiation resistance R
i
has the form
R
i
=

0
A
0

[2 +u v]. (32)
To dene the radiation power from two-wire line
bend and the radiation impedance (32) in an explicit
form, it is necessary to calculate the transmission
and reection coecients as functions of the angle
and nondimensional frequency s =2hk. The rst
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 119
equation, (13), relating the coecients, is known. To
dene the second equation we shall replace the bend
of the two-wire line with two point active loads R in
each line arm.
There arises an auxiliary problem of determin-
ing the reection and transmission coecients of a
current wave traveling through an innite two-wire
line, with two loads (whose sum 2R is equal to the
radiation resistance R
i
) at its center (at distances h
from the beginning of coordinates along the Z axis).
It should be noted that although the loads are located
in parallel line arms, and the wave propagates along
the axis in one direction, the current directions are
opposite; i.e., the loads are connected in series.
Solution of the wave equation, provided that the
wave is spread along the X axis from left to right,
the currents at both sides of the load are continuous,
and the potential dierence is equal to 2J
1
R=2J
2
R,
results in the equalities
U
1
(x, t) = U
0
_
f(t x/c) +f(t +x/c)

,
J
1
(x, t) =
U
0

_
f(t x/c) f(t +x/c)

,
(33)
U
2
= U
0
(t x/c), J
2
=
U
0

f(t x/c),
=
1
1 +R/
, = 120 ln
_
2h
r
_
.
In (33), the voltage U
1
and the current J
1
are
specied on the left from the load, U
2
and J
2
are
specied on the right, f is an arbitrary wave function,
and is the line impedance.
It is easy to verify that the current is continuous at
the beginning of coordinates,
U
1
(0, t) U
2
(0, t) = 2J
2
(0, t)R = 2J
1
(0, t)R.
Based on (13), (32), and the equality
R
i
= 2R, (34)
we nd the equation for the transmission coecient :

3
2
2
+m(, s) n(, s) = 0, (35)
where
m(, s) =
p(s)
(, s)
, n(, s) =
1
(, s)
,
(, s) = H(s) v(), v() = 1 + cos ,
p(s) = 1 + 2H(s), H(s) =
A
0
(s)
2 ln(2h/r)
.
Equation (35) has a simple solution if the angle
=0. In this case, the broken line is converted into a
straight one; therefore, =1. For intermediate angles
, the equation is easy solved numerically.
Fig. 4. Transmission coecients for dierent bend
angles.
Let us consider the (, s) value, which deter-
mines the fraction of radiation power from the bends
(loss in the line). This function depends on two
variables: the bend angle and the nondimensional
frequency s =2hk =dk:
(, s) = 1
2
(, s)
2
(, s)
= 2 = 2(1 ) = 2(1 ). (36)
Figure 4 shows the dependence of the transmis-
sion on the frequency s =dk at dierent bend angles
. The upper, middle, and lower curves correspond,
respectively, to =120, 90, and 60

. A comparison
with the approximate results [5, 6] obtained by means
of the double variation Vainshtein method showed
their good agreement.
The curve with a bend angle =60

has the best


correspondence. The middle and upper curves in
the Vainshtein theory for high frequencies (kd =20)
are closer to the lower curve as compared with our
consideration. Thus, our result for high frequencies is
more susceptible to the change in the angle in the
bend than that obtained in [5, 6]. For low frequencies
(kd 1) our results almost coincide with those of
[5, 6].
6. TRANSMISSION AND RADIATION
OF GAUSSIAN PULSE SIGNALS
Let us nd a rigorous solution for the Gaussian
bell-shaped signal, which is most often encountered
in practice. We write the Gaussian pulse in the form
J() = J
0
exp
_


2
2
2
0
_
, (37)
where
0
is the pulse duration.
The bend radiation power integral, as for a one-
wire line, decomposes into three integrals in accor-
dance with (30)
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
120 POTAPOV et al.
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
exp(T
2
)
2
2
_
S
_
2
FP
+
u
FD

v
PD
_
t

sinh
2
(T cos ) exp
_

2
cos
2

sin d d (38)
with the nondimensional variables introduced:
T =

0
, =
d
2
0
c
. (39)
Using formulas (15)(17) and integrating over ,
we nd
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
H
0
exp(T
2
)

[2 +u v],
(40)
H
0
2
T
_
0
sinh
2
x
x
exp
_

x
2
T
2
_
dx.
Hence, the radiation resistance R
i
is
R
i
=

0
H
0

[2 +u v]. (41)
Then, using the same argumentation as in the
derivation of (33)(35), we obtain the equation for
determining the transmission coecient :

3
2
2
+m(, T) n(, T) = 0, (42)
where
m(, T) =
p(s)
(, T)
, n(, T) =
1
(, T)
,
(, T) = H(T) v(), v() = 1 cos ,
p(T) = 1 + 2H(T), H(T) =
H
0
(T)
2 ln(2h/r)
.
Figure 5 shows for comparison a perfect undis-
torted single Gaussian pulse D(s) at the bend point
with the angle =/3 and two real pulses (trans-
mitted D
1
(s) and reected D
2
(s) from the bend) at
this point. As follows from Fig. 5, the pulse dis-
tortion after passing the bend depends strongly on
the nondimensional parameter =h/c. For exam-
ple, at =100 ps, speed of light c =0.3 mmps
1
,
h=15 mm, and =0.5, the amplitude of the trans-
mitted pulse is 0.7 of the original value. The pulse
shape is distorted too, and its symmetry with respect
to a vertical line passing through the maximum is
broken.
The trailing edge of the pulse becomes atter than
the leading edge, and the normalized radiation power
has a peak at 0.5 (is not shown in Fig. 5), which
corresponds to 400 ps. The reected pulse peaks at
0.4 and has a trailing edge steeper than the leading
edge. The transmission coecient
1s
drops from 1
to 0.1 during the pulse transmission through the
bend, whereas the reection coecient
1s
increases
from 0 to 0.9.
Thus, at the above parameters a two-wire line
cannot function properly. Apulse passing through the
bend is greatly distorted. When h decreases by a fac-
tor of 10, a dierent situation occurs. Then the pulse
passed through the bend almost does not change.
The radiation power factor is 0.032. It should be noted
that the pulse shape almost does not depend on the
angle for h=1.5 mm. At =1

the pulse param-


eters after the bend are also almost invariable. Only
the power factor slightly changes to 0.043. Thus, the
line with the parameter 0.1, 0.05 will be an ideal
transmitting two-wire line that barely changes the
pulse shape at any angles .
Obviously, all this is valid for both symmetric and
asymmetric strip lines. At the same time a value
approximately (because of the boundary eects) equal
to the root of permittivity is added to the parameter
in the numerator. This imposes strict requirements
on strip lines when transmitting pulses shorter than
100 ps.
Fig. 5. Comparison of pulses before and after the bend.
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 121
7. TRANSMISSION AND RADIATION
OF PULSE SIGNALS
FROM A CAPACITOR DISCHARGE
The typical source of a signal in a line of printed-
circuit boards is capacitor discharge. When a capaci-
tor discharges through a resistance, the signal has the
form
J() = J
0
exp
_


RC
_
, (43)
where is the time and RC is the circuit relaxation
time, which is equal to the product of the load resis-
tance R by the capacity C.
Having calculated the radiation power in analogy
to the Gaussian pulse, we obtain
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
exp(T
1
)
2
2
_
S
_
2
FP
+
u
FD

v
PD
_
t

sinh
2
(
1
cos ) sin d d, (44)
where T
1
=/RC and
1
=h/RCc.
The calculation of (44) yields
dW
d
=

0
J
2
0
H
1
exp(2T
1
)

(2 +u v),
(45)
H
1
2
T
1
_
0
sinh
2
x
x
dx.
Hence, the radiation resistance R
i
has the form
R
i
=

0
H
1

(2 +u v). (46)
Then, repeating the same considerations as for
a Gaussian pulse, we obtain an analogue of for-
mula (42) as an equation for determining the trans-
mission coecient , with the substitutions T T
1
,
H
0
H
1
,
1
. The time independence of H
1
is an
essential distinction of the pulse under consideration
from a Gaussian one.
Fig. 6. Comparison of the pulses before and after the
bend.
Such a situation results in invariability of the slope
of the leading edges of the transmitted and reected
pulses, aecting only the amplitudes. The time front
shift for the reected, transmitted, and incident pulses
is absent. Figure 6 presents the capacitor discharg-
ing pulse to a line with a relaxation time of 30 ps,
h=9 mm, and
1
=1. For this pulse at the bend angle
=60

the transmission coecient is 0.8 and the


reection coecient is 0.2. For real cases
1
1, the
pulse is almost insensitive to the bend.
8. CONCLUSIONS
The following results were obtained in this work:
(i) A new calculation method, referred to as the
method of monopole technique [24], was rst pro-
posed in [1] to solve the problems of electromagnetic
eld determination from traveling current waves. In
this work, the method was developed to calculate
losses of current wave radiation fromwire bends. This
results in a revision of many problems dealing with the
radiation electromagnetic elds from systems with
complex wire congurations.
(ii) It was shown that for one-wire lines with
bends, the shapes of transient and reected waves
remain almost the same and only their amplitudes
change. The radiation from the bends of single wires
is considerable and the coecient of the power lost by
the incident wave via radiation from the bend is 0.5 at
wire bend angles from0 to 50

. Then this coecient


monotonically decreases to 0 at 180

. The reection
and transmission coecients from a completely bent
wire to a straight one change from 0.52 and 0.48
to zero and unity, respectively. This results in an
essential overestimation of the eciency of many
radiating systems with bent wires as elements.
(iii) The radiation from the bends of two-wire lines
diers from that of one-wire lines because the cur-
rents in the line are in antiphase. Both monochro-
matic waves in the line and propagation of pulses were
PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011
122 POTAPOV et al.
considered. The results for monochromatic waves
were compared with the data of [5, 6]. Our results for
small kd are in complete agreement with [5, 6]. For
large kd there are distinctions.
The characteristics of the pulsed radiation from
the bends of a two-wire line strongly depend on the
parameter =d/2c. If it is on the order of 0.1 or
smaller, the pulse almost does not respond to the bend
magnitude and is transmitted without distortion. For
0.5 the pulse transmitted through the bend is
strongly distorted.
The results obtained are of fundamental signi-
cance for taking into account the distortions of ul-
trashort pulses by printed circuit board components.
Note that the numerical solution of the equation for
determining the transmission coecients takes few
tenths of a second.
The new analytical method for calculating the
electromagnetic elds from traveling current waves is
proposed to apply later to the analysis and synthesis
of various fractal frequency-selective structures and
fractal antennas [2534], which are based on the
HausdorBesicovitch fractal dimension.
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PHYSICS OF WAVE PHENOMENA Vol. 19 No. 2 2011