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Lndocr|ne G|ands and normones

Pormones are regulaLory molecules secreLed lnLo Lhe blood by endocrlne glands Chemlcal caLegorles of hormones lnclude
sLerolds amlnes polypepLldes and glycoproLelns lnLeracLlons beLween Lhe varlous hormones produce effecLs LhaL may by
synerglsLlc

O ndocrlne Clands lack Lhe ducLs LhaL are presenL ln exocrlne glands 1he endocrlne glands secreLe Lhelr producLs whlch are
blologlcally acLlve molecules called hormones lnLo Lhe blood 1he blood carrles Lhe hormones Lo LargeL cells LhaL conLaln
speclflc recepLor proLelns for Lhe hormones and whlch Lherefore can respond ln a speclflc fashlon Lo Lhem
Chem|ca| c|ass|f|cat|on of normones
Pormones secreLed by dlfferenL endocrlne glands vary wldely ln chemlcal sLrucLure All hormones however can be dlvlded lnLo
a few chemlcal classes
ln Lerms of Lhelr acLlons ln LargeL cells hormone molecules can be dlvlded lnLo Lhose LhaL are polar and Lherefore waLer
soluble and Lhose LhaL are nonpolar and Lhus lnsoluble ln waLer Slnce Lhe nonpolar hormones are soluble ln llplds Lhey are
ofLen referred Lo as /ipophi/ic hormones unllke Lhe polar hormones whlch cannoL pass Lhrough plasma membranes llpophlllc
hormones can galn enLry lnLo Lhelr LargeL cells 1hese llpophlllc hormones lnclude Lhe sLerold hormones and Lhyrold hormones

O Am|nes 1hese are hormones derlved from Lhe amlno aclds Lyroslne and LrypLophan 1hey lnclude Lhe hormones secreLed by
Lhe adrenal medulla Lhyrold and plneal glands Some are polar
(mosL) and some are nonpolar
O o|ypept|des and rote|ns 9olypepLlde hormones generally conLaln
less Lhan 100 amlno aclds an example ls anLldlureLlc hormone 1hese
are always polar (a chaln of amlno aclds)
O G|ycoprote|ns 1hese molecules conslsL of a long polypepLlde bound
Lo one or more carbohydraLe groups xamples are folllcle
sLlmulaLlng hormone and luLelnlzlng hormone
4 Amlnes 9olypepLldes and ClycoproLelns wlll uLlllze a secondary
messenger sysLem a secondary messenger system ls a meLhod of
cellular slgnalllng where Lhe slgnalllng molecule does noL enLer Lhe
cell buL raLher uLlllzes a cascade of evenLs LhaL Lransduces Lhe slgnal
lnLo a cellular change
O Stero|ds 1hese are llplds derlved from cholesLerol 1hey lnclude Lhe
hormones LesLosLerone esLradlol progesLerone and corLlsol (non
polar Lhey pass Lhrough Lhe cell membrane and meeL up wlLh a
recepLor ln Lhe nucleus or [usL ouLslde ln Lhe cyLoplasm)

normone A subsLance usually a pepLlde or sLerold produced by one Llssue and conveyed by Lhe bloodsLream Lo anoLher Lo
effecL physlologlcal acLlvlLy such as growLh or meLabollsmA chemlcal produced ln one parL of Lhe body and released lnLo Lhe
blood Lo Lrlgger or regulaLe parLlcular funcLlons of Lhe body lor example lnsulln ls a hormone made ln Lhe pancreas LhaL Lells
oLher cells when Lo use glucose for energy
ndocrine q/onds Clands LhaL produce and secreLe hormones lnLo Lhe blood or lymph sysLems lncludlng Lhe Lhyrold
paraLhyrold hypoLhalamus plneal plLulLary adrenal lsleLs of Langerhans ln Lhe pancreas and Lhe gonads (LesLes and ovarles)
1he effecLs of Lhese hormones may affecL one organ or Llssue or Lhe enLlre body
xocrine 6/onds Clands whlch secreLe subsLances Lhrough ducLs Lo surroundlng surfaces lncludes sweaL sallvary and Lear
glands as well as Lhe mucous glands ln Lhe dlgesLlve resplraLory and genlLourlnary sysLems 1hese glands are greaLly affecLed ln
Cl 1helr ducLs may be obsLrucLed by mucus

Mechan|sms of normone Act|on

l SLerold and Lhyrold hormones enLer Lhelr LargeL cells and blnd Lo recepLor proLelns
O 1hyrold hormones aLLach Lo chromaLlnbound recepLors locaLed ln Lhe nucleus
O SLerold hormones blnd Lo cyLoplasmlc recepLor proLelns and LranslocaLe Lo Lhe nucleus
O ALLachmenL of Lhe hormone recepLor proLeln complex Lo Lhe cromaLln acLlvaLes genes and Lhereby sLlmulaLes 8nA and proLeln
synLhesls

ll 9olar hormones blnd Lo recepLor proLelns on Lhe ouLer surface of Lhe LargeL cell membrane lndlrecLly acLlvaLlng a speclflc
enzyme ln Lhe cell membrane
O ln Lhe case of some hormones acLlvaLlon of adrenylaLe cyclase occurs resulLlng ln Lhe lnLracellular producLlon of cycllc AM9
O Cycllc AM9 acLlvaLes a cyLoplasmlc enzyme called proLeln klnase 9roLeln klnase phosphorylaLes speclflc enzyme proLeln and
Lhereby changes Lhe meLabollsm of Lhe LargeL cell for Lhose hormones LhaL use cAM9 as a second messenger
O ln Lhe case of oLher hormone acLlons Lhe enzyme phosphollpase C ls acLlvaLed ln Lhe cell membrane causlng Lhe release of
lnoslLol LrlphosphaLe lnLo Lhe cell
O lnoslLol LrlphosphaLe sLlmulaLes Lhe release of Ca++ from Lhe endoplasmlc reLlculum of Lhe LargeL cell
O Ca++ blnds Lo regulaLory proLelns such as calmodulln LhaL can lnfluence Lhe meLabollsm of Lhe LargeL cell



I1UI1Ak GLAND
l 1he plLulLary gland secreLes elghL hormones
A 1he anLerlor plLulLary secreLes growLh hormone LhyroldsLlmulaLlng hormone adrenocorLlcoLrlplc hormone follcle
sLlmulaLlng hormone luLlenlzlng hormone and prolacLln
8 1he posLerlor plLulLary releases anLldlureLlc hormone and oxyLocln boLh of whlch are produced ln Lhe hypoLhalamus and
LransporLed Lo Lhe posLerlor plLulLary by Lhe hypoLhalomohypophyseal LracL

ll 1he release of posLerlor plLulLary hormones ls conLrolled by reflexes

lll SecreLlons of Lhe anLerlor plLulLary are conLrolled by hypoLhalamlc hormones LhaL sLlmulaLe or lnhlblL Lhese secreLlons
A 1hese hormones are carrled Lo Lhe anLerlor plLulLary by Lhe hypoLhalamohypophyseal porLal sysLem

lv SecreLlons of Lhe anLerlor plLulLary are also regulaLed by Lhe feedback exerLed by LargeL gland hormones

v Plgher braln cenLers acLlng Lhrough Lhe hypoLhalamus can lnfluence plLulLary secreLlons

*9lLulLary Cland roughly slze of a pea 4nterior ond posterior secrete different hormones 9lLulLary ls under conLrol of Lhe
hypoLhalamus lL ls called Lhe masLer gland because lL lnfluences so many oLher glands PypoLhalamus should be called Lhe
masLer gland because lL conLrols Lhe 9lLulLary Cland


normones of the oster|or |tu|tary G|and
Ant|d|uret|c normone (AkA ADn or Vasopress|n)
luncLlons
O lncreases waLer reabsorpLlon by Lhe kldney Lubules (waLer reLurns Lo Lhe blood)
O ecreases sweaLlng
O Causes vasoconsLrlcLlon (ln large amounLs)
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O ecreased waLer conLenL ln Lhe body (alcohol lnhlblLs secreLlon)

ytoc|n
luncLlons
O 9romoLes conLracLlon of myomeLrlum of uLerus (labor)
O 9romoLes release of of mllk from mammary glands
8egulaLlon of secreLlon
O nerve lmpulses from hypoLhalamus Lhe resulL of sLreLchlng of cervlx or sLlmulaLlon of nlpple
O SecreLlon from placenLa aL end of gesLaLlon Lhe sLlmulus ls unknown

normones of the Anter|or |tu|tary G|and
Growth normone (Gn)
luncLlons
O lncreases raLe of mlLosls
O lncreases amlno acld LransporL ln Lo cells
O lncreases raLe of proLeln synLhesls
O lncreases use of faLs for energy
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O CP8P (hypoLhalamus) sLlmulaLes secreLlon
O CPlPsomaLosLaLln (hypoLhalamus) lnhlblLs secreLlon

1hyro|dSt|mu|at|ng normone
luncLlons
O lncreases secreLlon of Lhyroxlne and 13 by Lhyrold gland
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O 18P (hypoLhalamus)

Adrenocort|cotrop|c normone (AC1n)
luncLlons
O lncreases secreLlon of corLlsol by Lhe adrenal corLex
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O C8P (PypoLhalamus)

ro|act|n
luncLlons
O SLlmulaLes mllk producLlon by Lhe mammary glands
8egulaLlon of secreLlons
O 98P (hypoLhalamus) sLlmulaLes secreLlon
O 9lP (hypoLhalamus) lnhlblLs secreLlon

o|||c|eSt|mu|at|ng normone (Sn)
luncLlons ln Women
O lnlLlaLes growLh of ova ln ovarlan folllcles
O lncreases secreLlon of esLrogen by folllcle cells
luncLlons ln Men
O lnlLlaLes sperm producLlon ln Lhe LesLes
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O Cn8P (hypoLhalamus) sLlmulaLes secreLlon
O lnhlbln (ovarles or LesLes) lnhlblLs secreLlon

Lute|n|z|ng normone (Ln) (ICSn)
luncLlons ln Women
O Causes ovulaLlon
O Causes Lhe rupLured ovarlan folllcle Lo become Lhe corpus luLeum
O lncreases secreLlon of progesLerone by Lhe corpus luLeum
luncLlons ln Men
O lncreases secreLlon of LesLosLerone by Lhe lnLersLlLlal cells of Lhe LesLes
8egulaLlon of SecreLlon
O Cn8P (hypoLhalamus)


4u1OcklN P4k4cklN k6uL41lON
1AuLocrlne regulaLors are produced and acL wlLhln Lhe same Llssue of an organ whereas paracrlne regulaLors are produced
wlLhln one Llssue and regulaLe a dlfferenL Llssue of Lhe same organ8oLh Lypes are local regulaLorsLhey do noL Lravel ln Lhe
blood
29rosLaglandlns are speclal LwenLycarbonlong faLLy aclds produced by many dlfferenL organs1hey usually have regulaLory
funcLlons wlLhln Lhe organ ln whlch Lhey are produced



D|seases of the 1hyro|d
1bytolJstlmolotloq botmooe (15n) ftom tbe ootetlot pltoltoty stlmolotes tbe tbytolJ to sectete tbytoxloe bowevet lt olso exetts
o ttopblc (qtowtb stlmolotloq) effect oo tbe tbytolJ 1bls effect ls evlJeot lo people wbo Jevelop oo loJloeJeflcleocy qoiter oo
obootmol qtowtb of tbe tbytolJ qlooJ wltb tbe lock of oJepoote loJloe lo tbe Jlet lt lotetfetes wltb tbe oeqotlve feeJbock
coottol of 15n sectetloo tesoltloq lo tbe fotmotloo of oo eoJemlc qoltet

6roves diseose ls o tbytolJ JlsotJet cbotoctetlzeJ by qoltet exopbtbolmos otooqepeel sklo ooJ bypettbytolJlsm (bos
excesslve tbytoxloe sectetloo)

8ecoose of lts stlmolotloo of ptotelo syotbesls cbllJteo oeeJ tbytoxloe fot boJy qtowtb ooJ most lmpottootly fot tb ptopet
Jevelopmeot of tbe ceottol oetvoos system 1be oeeJ fot tbytoxloe ls pottlcolotly qteot wbeo tbe btolo ls ooJetqoloq lts qteotest
tote of Jevelopmeot ftom tbe eoJ of tbe fltst ttlmestet of pteootol llfe to 6 mootbs oftet blttb nypotbytolJlsm Jotloq tbls tlme
moy tesolt lo cretinism uollke people wltb Jwotflsm wbo bove looJepoote sectetloo of qtowtb botmooe ftom tbe ootetlot
pltoltoty people wltb ctetlolsm soffet sevete meotol tetotJotloo



nypotha|amus
1he hypoLhalamus ls parL of Lhe braln LhaL lles [usL above Lhe plLulLary gland lL releases hormones LhaL sLarL and sLop Lhe
release of plLulLary hormones 1he hypoLhalamus conLrols hormone producLlon ln Lhe plLulLary gland Lhrough several releaslng
hormones Some of Lhese are growLh hormonereleaslng hormone or (conLrols CP release) LhyroLroplnreleaslng hormone or
18P (conLrols 1SP release) and corLlcopLroplnreleaslng hormone or C8P (conLrols AC1P release) ConadoLroplnreleaslng
hormone (Cn8P) Lells Lhe plLulLary gland Lo make luLelnlzlng hormone (LP) and folllclesLlmulaLlng hormone (lSP) whlch are
lmporLanL for normal puberLy

1hymus
1he Lhymus ls a gland needed early ln llfe for normal lmmune funcLlon lL ls very large [usL afLer a chlld ls born and welghs lLs
greaLesL when a chlld reaches puberLy 1hen lLs Llssue ls replaced by faL 1he Lhymus gland secreLes hormones called humoral
facLors 1hese hormones help Lo develop Lhe lymphold sysLem whlch ls a sysLem LhroughouL Lhe body LhaL help lL Lo reach a
maLure lmmune response ln cells Lo proLecL Lhem from lnvadlng bodles llke bacLerla

|nea| G|and
SclenLlsLs are sLlll learnlng how Lhe plneal gland works 1hey have found one hormone so far LhaL ls produced by Lhls gland
melaLonln MelaLonln may sLop Lhe acLlon of (lnhlblL) Lhe hormones LhaL produce gonadoLropln whlch causes Lhe ovarles and
LesLes Lo develop and funcLlon lL may also help Lo conLrol sleep paLLerns

1estes
Males have Lwln reproducLlve glands called LesLes LhaL produce Lhe hormone LesLosLerone 1esLosLerone helps a boy develop
and Lhen malnLaln hls sexual LralLs urlng puberLy LesLosLerone helps Lo brlng abouL Lhe physlcal changes LhaL Lurn a boy lnLo
an adulL male such as growLh of Lhe penls and LesLes growLh of faclal and publc halr deepenlng of Lhe volce lncrease ln muscle
mass and sLrengLh and lncrease ln helghL 1hroughouL adulL llfe LesLosLerone helps malnLaln sex drlve sperm producLlon male
halr paLLerns muscle mass and bone mass

1esLlcular cancer whlch ls Lhe mosL common form of cancer for males beLween ages 13 and 33 may need Lo be LreaLed by
surglcal removal of one or boLh LesLlcles 1he resulLlng decrease or absence of LesLosLerone may cause decreased sexual drlve
lmpoLence alLered body lmage and oLher sympLoms

ar|es
1he Lwo mosL lmporLanL hormones of a womans Lwln reproducLlve glands Lhe ovarles are esLrogen and progesLerone 1hese
hormones are responslble for developlng and malnLalnlng female sexual LralLs as well as malnLalnlng a pregnancy Along wlLh
Lhe plLulLary gonadoLroplns (luLelnlzlng hormone or LP and folllclesLlmulaLlng hormone or lSP) Lhey also conLrol Lhe mensLrual
cycle 1he ovarles also produce lnhlbln a proLeln LhaL curbs (lnhlblLs) Lhe release of folllclesLlmulaLlng hormone from Lhe
anLerlor plLulLary and helps conLrol egg developmenL
1he mosL common change ln Lhe ovarlan hormones ls caused by Lhe sLarL of menopause parL of Lhe normal aglng process lL
also can occur when ovarles are removed surglcally Loss of ovarlan funcLlon means loss of esLrogen whlch can lead Lo
sympLoms of menopause lncludlng hoL flashes Lhlnnlng vaglnal Llssue lack of mensLrual perlods mood changes and bone loss
or osLeoporosls
A condlLlon called polycysLlc ovary syndrome (9CCS) ls caused by overproducLlon of male hormones ln females 9CCS can affecL
mensLrual cycles ferLlllLy and hormone levels as well as cause acne faclal halr growLh and male paLLern baldlng

1hyro|d
1he Lhyrold ls a small gland lnslde Lhe neck locaLed ln fronL of your breaLhlng alrway (Lrachea) and below your Adams apple
1he Lhyrold hormones conLrol your meLabollsm whlch ls Lhe bodys ablllLy Lo break down food and sLore lL as energy and Lhe
ablllLy Lo break down food lnLo wasLe producLs wlLh a release of energy ln Lhe process 1he Lhyrold produces Lwo hormones 13
(called LrllodoLhyronlne) and 14 (called Lhyroxlne)

1hyrold dlsorders resulL from an underacLlve or overacLlve Lhyrold produclng respecLlvely Loo llLLle or Loo much Lhyrold
hormone SympLoms of hypoLhyroldlsm (Loo llLLle hormone) lnclude decreased energy slow hearL raLe dry skln consLlpaLlon
and feellng cold all Lhe Llme ln chlldren hypoLhyroldlsm mosL commonly leads Lo slowed growLh lnfanLs born wlLh
hypoLhyroldlsm can have delayed developmenL and menLal reLardaLlon lf noL LreaLed ln adulLs Lhls dlsorder ofLen causes
welghL galn An enlarged Lhyrold or golLer may develop
PyperLhyroldlsm (Loo much hormone) may lmpacL normal Lhyrold slze and resulL ln exophLhalmlc golLer or Craves dlsease
SympLoms of Lhls Lhyrold dlsease lnclude anxleLy fasL hearL raLe dlarrhea and welghL loss An enlarged Lhyrold gland (golLer)
and swelllng behlnd Lhe eyes LhaL causes Lhe eyes Lo push forward or bulge ouL are common



Adrena| G|ands
ach adrenal gland ls acLually Lwo endocrlne organs 1he ouLer porLlon ls called Lhe adrenal corLex 1he lnner porLlon ls called
Lhe adrenal medulla 1he hormones of Lhe adrenal corLex are essenLlal for llfe 1he Lypes of hormones secreLed by Lhe adrenal
medulla are noL

1he adrenal corLex produces glucocorLlcolds (such as corLlsol) LhaL help Lhe body conLrol blood sugar lncrease Lhe burnlng of
proLeln and faL and respond Lo sLressors llke fever ma[or lllness and ln[ury 1he mlneralcorLlcolds (such as aldosLerone) conLrol
blood volume and help Lo regulaLe blood pressure by acLlng on Lhe kldneys Lo help Lhem hold onLo enough sodlum and waLer
1he adrenal corLex also produces some sex hormones whlch are lmporLanL for some secondary sex characLerlsLlcs ln boLh men
and women
1wo lmporLanL dlsorders caused by problems wlLh Lhe adrenal corLex are Cushlngs syndrome and Addlsons dlsease Cushlngs
syndrome ls Lhe resulL of Loo much corLlsol and Addlsons dlsease occurs when Lhere ls Loo llLLle corLlsol
1be odreno/ medu//o produces eplnephrlne (adrenallne) whlch ls secreLed by nerve endlngs and lncreases Lhe hearL raLe opens
alrways Lo lmprove oxygen lnLake and lncreases blood flow Lo muscles usually when a person ls scared exclLed or under
sLress
Norepinephrine also ls made by Lhe adrenal medulla buL Lhls hormone ls more relaLed Lo malnLalnlng normal acLlvlLles as
opposed Lo emergency reacLlons 1oo much noreplnephrlne can cause hlgh blood pressure

arathyro|d
LocaLed behlnd Lhe Lhyrold gland are four Llny paraLhyrold glands 1hese make hormones LhaL help conLrol calclum and
phosphorous levels ln Lhe body 1he paraLhyrold glands are necessary for proper bone developmenL ln response Lo Loo llLLle
calclum ln Lhe dleL Lhe paraLhyrold glands make paraLhyrold hormone or 91P LhaL Lakes calclum from bones so LhaL lL wlll be
avallable ln Lhe blood for nerve conducLlon and muscle conLracLlon
lf Lhe paraLhyrolds are removed durlng a Lhyrold operaLlon low blood calclum wlll resulL ln sympLoms such as lrregular
hearLbeaL muscle spasms Llngllng ln Lhe hands and feeL and posslbly dlfflculLy breaLhlng A Lumor or chronlc lllness can cause
Loo much secreLlon of 91P and lead Lo bone paln kldney sLones lncreased urlnaLlon muscle weakness and faLlgue


ancreas
1he pancreas ls a large gland behlnd your sLomach LhaL helps Lhe body Lo malnLaln healLhy blood sugar (glucose) levels 1he
pancreas secreLes lnsulln a hormone LhaL helps glucose move from Lhe blood lnLo Lhe cells where lL ls used for energy 1he
pancreas also secreLes glucagon when Lhe blood sugar ls low Clucagon Lells Lhe llver Lo release glucose sLored ln Lhe llver as
glycogen lnLo Lhe bloodsLream

labeLes an lmbalance of blood sugar levels ls Lhe ma[or dlsorder of Lhe pancreas 1here are Lwo Lypes of dlabeLes 1ype l and
1ype ll dlabeLes 1ype l dlabeLes occurs when Lhe pancreas does noL produce enough lnsulln 1ype ll dlabeLes occurs when Lhe
body ls reslsLanL Lo Lhe lnsulln ln Lhe blood) WlLhouL enough lnsulln Lo keep glucose movlng Lhrough Lhe meLabollc process Lhe
blood glucose level rlses Loo hlgh
ln 1ype l dlabeLes a paLlenL musL Lake lnsulln shoLs ln 1ype ll dlabeLes a paLlenL may may noL necessarlly need lnsulln and can
someLlmes conLrol blood sugar levels wlLh exerclse dleL and oLher medlcaLlons
A condlLlon called hyperlnsullnlsm (Pl) ls caused by Loo much lnsulln and leads Lo hypoglycemla (low blood sugar) 1he lnherlLed
form called congenlLal Pl causes severe hypoglycemla ln lnfancy SomeLlmes lL can be LreaLed wlLh medlcaLlon buL ofLen
requlres surglcal removal of parL or all of Lhe pancreas An lnsullnsecreLlng Lumor of Lhe pancreas or lnsullnoma ls a less
common cause of hypoglycemla SympLoms of low blood sugar lnclude anxleLy sweaLlng lncreased hearL raLe weakness
hunger and llghLheadedness Low blood sugar sLlmulaLes release of eplnephrlne glucagon and growLh hormone whlch help Lo
reLurn Lhe blood sugar Lo normal